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Feldstein Sandy Practical Theory Complete a Self-Instruction Music Theory Course 1982

Feldstein Sandy Practical Theory Complete a Self-Instruction Music Theory Course 1982

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A SELF-INSTRUCTION MUSIC THEORY COURSE

This combination textbook and workbook teaches music theory in a concise, practical manner.

Contains review worksheets and answers to guarantee proper learning, even without a teacher.

PRACTICAL THEORY is available in 3 individual volumes. It is also available in one complete spiralbound edition.

2280 Volume I

2281 Volume 2

2282 Volume 3

1998 Complete

PRACTICAL THEORY is also available for your microcomputer. The software developed by Electronic Courseware Systems, Inc. reinforces all of the material taught in the tests with interactions that guarantee all lessons are truly understood. The computer units include random drills plus aural reinforcement and correlate exactly with the PRACTICAL THEORY text/workbooks.

Volume I Volume 2 Volume 3 Complete
Bookl2 Diskettes Bookl2 Diskettes Bookl2 Diskettes Bookl6 Diskettes
IBM 3531 3532 3533 3535
(3.5") ISBN 0-7390-0411-5 ISBN 0-7390-0414-X ISBN 0-7390-0417-4 ISBN 0-88284-457-1 Apple! 240 I 2402 2403

Commodore ISBN 0·7390·0412·3 ISBN 0-7390-0415·8 ISBN 0·7390-0418-2

(3.5")

2404

ISBN 0-88284-459·8

Macintosh 3477 3479 3481

(3.5") ISBN 0·7390-0413-1 ISBN 0-7390·0416·6 ISBN 0-7390-0419-0

3483

ISBN 0·88284-46 I-X

Important

Computer Diskette Loading Instructions on Page 91

MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT SERIES

Also available for your microcomputer is ALFRED'S MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT SERIES, a three-disk test bank that correlates to the three volumes of PRACTICAL THEORY, All tests are randomized; thus the students are assured of new groups of questions each time the test is taken. The test records of up to 50 students can be stored on each disk, students can retake tests to improve their scores, and all records are available to the teacher for review and/or printout.

IBM (3.S) 7235 Macintosh (3.S) 3485

Copyright © MCMLXXXIl by Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.

---------------

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Staff. . . . . . . . .. . 3

The Treble Clef and Staff 4

The Bass Clef and Staff 5

Review of Lessons 1-3 6

Whole-Half-Quarter Notes 7

Measures-Bar Lines-Double Bar Lines 8

Time Signatures and Note Values 9

Review of Lessons 5-7 10

Lesson 9: The G rand Staff 11

Lesson 10: Leger Lines " 12

Lesson 11: Whole-Half-Quarter Rests 13

Lesson 12: Review of Lessons 9-11 .14

Lesson 13: Another Time Signature " 15

Lesson 14: Another Time Signature 16

Lesson 15: The Dotted Half Note 17

Lesson 16: Review of Lessons 13-15 18

Lesson 17: Ties and Slurs 19

Lesson 18: Repeat Signs " 20

Lesson 19: Fi rst and Second End ings 21

Lesson 20: Review of Lessons 17-19 22

Lesson 21: Eighth Notes. . . . . . . .. . " 23

Lesson 22: Eighth Rest 24

Lesson 23: Dotted Quarter Notes 25

Lesson 24: Review of Lessons 21-23 26

Lesson 25: Flat 27

Lesson 26: Sharp 28

Lesson 27: Natural 29

Lesson 28: Review of Lessons 25-27 " 30

Lesson 29: Whole and Half Steps " 31

Lesson 30: Chromatic Scale 32

Lesson 31: The Major Scale 33

Lesson 32: Review of Lessons 29-31 34

Lesson 33: More Major Scales (F&G) 35

Lesson 34: Other Major Scales (B~,E~,D,A) 36

Lesson 35: Key Signatures 37

Lesson 36: Review of Lessons 33-35 38

Lesson 37: Circle of Fifths (Major Sharp Keys) 39

Lesson 38: Circle of Fifths (Major Flat Keys) ......•.... 40

Lesson 39: Circle of Fifths (All Major Keys) 41

Lesson 40: Review of Lessons 37-39 42

Lesson 41: Dynamics 43

Lesson 42: D.C. and DS, Coda and Fine 44

Lesson 43: Tempo Markings and Other Musical Symbols 45

Lesson 1 :
Lesson 2:
Lesson 3:
Lesson 4:
Lesson 5:
Lesson 6:
Lesson 7:
Lesson 8: COMPUTER SOFTWARE Vol. 1, Disk 1 Vol. 1, Disk 2 Vol. 2, Disk 1 Vol. 2, Disk 2 Vol. 3, Disk 1 Vol. 3, Disk 2

Lesson 44. Review of Lessons 41-43 " ".""""""."."" .. 46

Lesson 45: Sixteenth Notes " "" "47

Lesson 46: Sixteenth Rests .. " . " " " " . " " . " 48

Lesson 47: Dotted Eighth Notes . " . " " " " " " " " 49

Lesson 48: Review of Lessons 45-47 " " " " " .. " 50

Lesson 49: Intervals" " " .. " "" 51

Lesson 50: Diaton ic Intervals 52

Lesson 51: Chromatic Intervals 53

Lesson 52: Review of Lessons 49-51 '.' 54

Lesson 53: More Time Signatures 55

Lesson 54: Another Way to Count 56

Lesson 55: Triplets, Syncopation 57

Lesson 56: Review of Lessons 53-55 .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ..58

Lesson 57: Major Chords-Major Triads 59

Lesson 58: Chords Related to a Key 60

Lesson 59: Chord Progressions 61

Lesson 60: Review of Lessons 57-59 62

Lesson 61: Dominant Seventh Chord 63

Lesson 62: I n versions . 64

Lesson 63: I nversions of the Dominant Seventh Chord .. 65

Lesson 64: Review of Lessons 61-63 66

Lesson 65: Transposition 67

Lesson 66: Other Triads-Minor 68

Lesson 67: Other Chords-Augmented and Diminished '.69

Lesson 68: Review of Lessons 65-67 70

Lesson 69: Another Chord Progression 71

Lesson 70: More on Inversions 72

Lesson 71: More Transposition . . . . . . . . . .. . 73

Lesson 72: Review of Lessons 69-71 74

Lesson 73: Relative Minor Key Signatures-Natural Minor. 75

Lesson 74: Harmonic Minor 76

Lesson 75: Melodic Minor 77

Lesson 76: Review of Lessons 73-75 78

Lesson 77: Harmonizing a Melody 79

Lesson 78: Passing Tones and Neighboring Tones 80

Lesson 79: Com posi ng a Melody 81

Lesson 80: Review of Lessons 77~79 82

Lesson 81: Chord Progressions in Minor Keys ..83

Lesson 82: Harmonizing a Melody in Minor 84

Lesson 83: Composing a Melody in Minor 85

Lesson 84: Review of Lessons 81-83 86

Manuscript Paper 87

Answers to Review Lessons 92

CORRELATES WITH

Units 1-4 (Lessons 1-16) Units 5-7 (Lessons 17-28) Units 8-11 (Lessons 29-44) Units 12-14 (Lessons 45-56) Units 15-18 (lessons 57-72) Units 19-21 (Lessons 73-84)

3

LESSON 1 THE STAFF

Music is written on a five line staff.

Line 5 ------------------------

Line 4 -----------------------Line 3 -----------------------Line 2 -----------------------Line 1 ------------------------

Between each line there is a space. There are four spaces on a staff.

Space4 _

Space 3 _

Space2 _

Space 1

Musical sounds (low or high) are 5 hown by the position of notes on the staff.

Notes on the higher lines and/or spaces are higher in pitch (sound) than those on the lower lines and/or spaces.

Sounds higher than

Sounds lower than

()

1. Draw a staff using the dots as your guide.

2. On the staff above, number the lines from low to high.

3. On the staff above, number the spaces from low to high.

4. By using an arrow, indicate whether the second note of each of the following sets sounds

higher ---- or lower __ in pitch than the first note.

o

o

o

i)

n

II

o

o

o

o

5. By using the letter H (high) and L (low) indicate whether the first note of each of the following sets sounds higher or lower in pitch than the second note.

(,

(')

I

o

o

o

o

II

o

L

4

LESSON 2

THE TREBLE CLEF AND S1 AFF

At the beginning of each staff there is a clef, The treble clef or G clef looks like this:

To d raw the treb Ie clef, first draw

the line add the add the Follow the
and tail top loop bottom loop. dotted lines. Try drawing five treble clefs.
~ ± I". ~
~


\ I
.~ .. ~ I The treble clef establishes the note G on the 2nd line of the treble staff.

Notes are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet (A through G).

, 0 e
() e
0 e
e 0 e
E F G A B C D E F In the beginning, to help you remember the I .. ines and spaces, you may wish to make up a saying that uses the letters of the lines and spaces. For example, to remember the treble clef lines: Every Good Boy Does Fine. The treble clef spaces: FACE.

1. Draw the treble clef at the beginning of the line and name the notes indicated.

e

o

o

II

o

()

o

o

o

II

A

2. Draw the treble clef at the beginning of the line and draw the notes indicated.

If the note can be drawn on more than one place on the staff, choose which one you want to write.

D

E

B

F

G

E

Ii'

c

B

3. Draw the treble clef at the beginning of the line and name the notes. Then using Hand L,indicate if the first note of each set sounds higher or lower than the second note.

o

u

II

o

eo

I"

()

Q

12._isJ:Lthan_a_ __

5

LESSON 3

THE BASS CLEF AND STAFF

The bass clef or F clef looks I ike this:

To draw the bass clef, first draw

a solid black

circle on the add

4th line the curve

add 2 dots

in the 3rd follow the

and 4th spaces dotted lines.

Try drawing five bass clefs .

.. '" . ~. I •

The bass clef establishes the note F on the 4th line of the bass staff.

Notes are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet (A through C).

!I 0 0
n 0
0 0
0 0 0
G A B C D E F G A In the beginning, to help you remember the lines and spaces, you may wish to make up a saying that uses the letters of the lines and spaces. For example, to remember the bass clef lines: Good Boys Do Fine Always. The bass clef spaces: All Cows Eat Crass.

1. Draw the bass clef at the beginning of the I ine and name the notes indicated.

o

o

o

()

o

o II

o

o

2. Draw the bass clef at the beginningof the I ine and draw the notes indicated.

If the note can be drawn on more than one place on the staff, choose which one you want to write.

D

G

B

G

A

E

A

c

E

3. Draw the bass clef at the beginning of the line arid name the notes .. Then using Hand L, indicate if the first note of each set sounds higher or lower than the second note.

I 0 I 0 I n 10 0 I II
Q 0 I)
0 <>
<> 0
- - ~.- - - - - - - - 6

LESSON 4 REVIEW OF LESSONS 1-3

1. Music is written on a I ine staff.

2. There are spaces on the staff.

3. Notes on higher lines and/or spaces sound than notes on lower lines and/or

spaces.

4. The treble clef establishes the note on the second _

5. The bass clef establishes the note on the line.

6. Notes are named after the first letters of the alphabet { through ---l.

7. Draw the treble clef and name the notes indicated.

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

II

o

o

8. Draw the bass clef and name the notes indicated.

o

o

II

o

o

o

()

9. Draw the treble clef and write the notes indicated.

E

A

D

c

G

B

E

F

F

10. Draw the bass clef and write the notes indicated.

F

E

G

D

G

A

c

B

A

11. Draw the treble. clef, name the notes and indicate if the first note sou nds higher (H) or lower (l) than the second note.

I I 0 <5 n II
II (' 0
<5 0
0 0 0
0
- ~ - - ~ - - - - - 12. Draw the bass clef, name the notes and indicate if the first note sounds higher (H) or lower (L) than the second note.

o

I"

o

o

o

o

l'

o

Q II

o

()

o

7

LESSON 5 WHOLE-HALF-QUARTER NOTES

The duration of musical sounds (long or short) is indicated by different types of notes.

WHOLE NOTE

HALF NOTE

o

d

QUARTER NOTE

J

One whole note equals two half notes.

0= d d

d = J J o = JJJ J

o / "-

d d

r >. / >:

J J J J

One half note equals two quarter notes.

One whole note equals four quarter notes.

The stems for half notes and quarter notes go up if the notes are below the third line.

Stems go down if notes are on or above the third line.

J j J j

rr F F

Stems going up are attached to the right side of the note head.

Stems going down are attached to the left side of the note head.

1. One whole note equals half notes.

2. One whole note equals four notes.

3. One half note equals quarter notes.

4. Four quarter notes equal one note.

5. Draw stems on the notes indicated.

o

Q

II

o

tJ

6. Draw the treble clef and draw the notes indicated, using half notes.

A

F

c

B

E

D

F

E

G

7. Draw the bass clef and draw the notes indicated, using quarter notes.

D

E

c

G

B

F

A

G

A

8

LESSON 6 MEASURES-BAR LINES-DOUBLE BAR LINES

Music is divided into equal parts called MEASURES. BAR LINES indicate the beginning and end of measures.

BAR LINE

BAR LINE

The distance between two bar lines is called a measure.

DOUBLE BAR LINES, one thin and one thick, show the end of a piece.

DOUBLE

BAR LINE BAR LINE BAR LINE

MEASURE$MEASURE=tI

1. Draw six bar lines on the staff below.

2. Divide the staff below into six measures and end it with a double bar line.

I II

3. Draw a treble clef, divide the staff into six measures, add a whole note in each measure, name the notes, end the staff with a double bar line.

4. Draw a bass clef, divide the staff into six measures, add two notes in each measure, name the notes, end the staff with a double bar line.

5. Draw a treble clef, divide the staff into six measures, add four quarter notes in each measure, name the notes, end the staff with a double bar line.

9

LESSON 7

TIME SIGNATURES AND NOTE VALUES

TIME SIGNATURES are placed at the beginning of a piece of music. They contain two numbers that show the number of beats (or counts) in each measure and the kind of note that receives one beat.

The top number shows the number of beats (or counts) in each measure, The bottom number shows what kind of note gets one beat.

means four beats in each measure. means a quarter note ( J ) gets one beat.

In l time, a whole note receives four beats. 114 0 II
4 1 2 3 4
A half note receives two beats. 114 d d II
4 1 2 3 4
A quarter note receives one beat. Iii J ~ J ~ II
1 2 3 4 1. First count the beats. You may wish to tap your foot on each beat. Then clap the rhythm of the notes while counting the beats.

J J J J

1 234

1 2 3 4

II

2. Write in the beats under the notes indicated - remember, there are four beats in each measure.

IIi J JJ J IJ J d I d J J I J J d IJ J J j 10 II

_--_- ---- --- ----.- --- ----- -. --- -
Iii d J J I d J J I d J J I J J cd I J J d I J j d II

----- _. ----- -_.
II! J j J J IQ I J J d 1° I J J J J 10 II

-- ,--- -.'- 3. Count the beats and clap the rhythm of all of the lines above.

4. Add the bar lines in the following example.

J J

o

J J d

d

d

II

5. Count the beats and clap the rhythm of the I ine above.

10

LESSON 8 REVIEW OF LESSONS 5-7

1. The duration of musical sound is indicated by different types of _

2. One whole note equals two notes.

3. Two half notes equal . whole note.

4. Four quarter notes equal half notes.

S. Two quarter notes equal one note.

6. Stems go up if notes are below the line.

7. Stems go down if the notes are on or above the . line.

8. Stems going up are attached to the side of the note head.

9. Stems going down are attached to the side of the note head.

10. Music is divided into separated by lines.

11. The end of a piece of music is indicated by a line.

12. The top number of a shows the number of beats in each

measure.

13. The bottom number of a time signature shows what kind of note gets beat.

14. In j time, there are beats in each measure and a note gets one beat.

15. Write the beats under the notes below.

II

16. Add the bar lines in the following example.

J

o

j J d

j J II

17. Fill in the missing beats with the correct note values. Write only one note in each measure.

jj~

J I

d

II

18. Count the beats and clap the rhythm of all the lines above.

11

LESSON 9 THE GRAND STAFF

The treble staff and the bass staff can be joined together by a BRACE which consists of a straight line and a curved line.

straight line

~

1
_I

.;
I .
. The combined staffs are called THE GRAND STAFF.

BRACE

A LEGER LINE is a small line which is added above or below either the treble or bass staffs.

t

curved line

The note M'IDDlE C is on the leger line that joins the treble and bass staffs.

THE GRAND STAFF

MIDDLE C e-

~ 0

GAB CD E F GAB C DE F GAB CD E F

1. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef and name the notes indicated .

.flo.
~
-9-
0
u ~~ 2. Now add the time signature.

3. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef, and draw the notes indicated. Use half notes on both staffs. If the note can be drawn on more than one place on the staff, choose which one you want to write.

A

D

c

B

F

D

C

E

A

E

B

G

4. Add the bar lines in their correct place. End the line with a double bar line.

12

LESSON 10 LEGER LINES

LEGER LINES extend either staff upward or downward.

, eo 0
C D o

GAB C

Here is a grand staff with leger lines, encompassing a very wide range of notes from low to high.

c..

\~:~~~~~~~~~~

eue~

C D E F GAB C D E F GAB C D E F GAB C D E F GAB C

1. On the staff below, name the notes indicated.

o

o

<J

II

o

o

o

2. On the staff below, name the notes indicated.

o

o

o

o

o

o

II

o

3. On the grand staff below, draw the notes indicated. fl

1.1\.

5- C's

4 - E's

4-A's

4 - B's

4 - G's

4-F's

4-D's

13

LESSON11 WHOLE-HALF- QUARTER RESTS

The duration of musical silence is indicated by different types of rests.

WHOLE REST

HALF REST

QUARTER REST

-

-

One whole rest equals two half rests. ._. = .-. .-.
._.
~ ~ /'" <,
One half rest equals two quarter rests. .-. = .-. --
r-, ("~
One whole rest equals four quarter rests. ~ ~ ~ ~
._. =
In 1 time, a whole rest receives four beats. Iii - II

1 2 3 4
A half rest receives two beats. Iii - - II
1 2 3 4
A quarter rest receives one beat. II~ ; ; f f II

1 2 3 4 The combination of notes and rests produces sound and silence within a musical composition.

1. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate rests. Use only one rest in each measure.

Some measures may already be complete.

IIi - I I I f I I - I f f ! I- f II
-
2. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate notes. Use only one note in each measure.
Some measures may already be complete.
Iii d J IJ J I 0 IJ d IJ J J Id J II
i 3. Fill in the missing beats with either notes or rests. Use as many as you wish.

II~

d

II

4. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef, and draw the notes indicated. If the pitch indicated can be drawn in more than one place on the staff, choose which one you want to write.

E B G D C FAD A F B GeE

L__Quarter notes__j LHaif notes_j ~~?~e LHaif notes.Ll L_Quarter notes__j ~~?~e

5 .. Now add the time signature (1 ) and draw the bar lines. End the line with a double bar line.

14

LESSON 12 REVIEW' OF LESSONS 9-11

1, The treble clef and bass clef can be joined together by a _

2. When the treble clef and bass clef are combined, they form the

3. A line is added above or below either staff.

4. The duration of musical silence is indicated by different types of _

5. One whole rest equals two rests.

6. Two half rests equal whole rest.

7. Four quarter rests equal half rests.

8. Two quarter rests equal one rest.

9. Name the notes indicated.

<>

o

o

II

o

10. Name the notes indicated.

o

<>

()

II

o

11. Draw the notes indicated. If one pitch can be drawn in more than one place on the staff, choose which one you wish to write. Add the bar lines and end the line with a double bar line.

A B

LHalf notesJ

E B G L.9uarte~ Half notes- note

C E D G F

LQuarter notes.Ll Whole note

D Half note

A C F

L?uarte~ Whole

- notes note

12. Using all of the notes and rests you know (whole, half, quarter) write your own rhythm solo.

II

13. Add the counting under each measure of your solo, then clap the rhythm.

15

LESSON 13 ANOTHER TIME SIGNATURE

a TIME

The top number shows the number of beats (or counts) in each measure. The bottom number shows what kind of note gets one beat.

means two beats in each measure. means quarter note gets one beat.

A quarter note or rest receives one beat.

d *
III - II
1 2 1 2
112 J J ~ ! II
4 1 2 1 2 I n a time, a half note or rest receives two beats.

1. Count the beats, then clap the rhythm of the notes and rests while counting the beats.

113 J J Id lJ J I d IJ f IJ f IJ J I d II

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2. Write the beats under the notes. Remember, there are two beats in each measure.
3. Count the beats and clap the rhythm.
112 J f IJ ! IJ J I d I ! J I f J IJ J IJ ! II
4 4. Fill in the missing beats with notes or rests, then clap the rhythm.

II

Iia J

II

5. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef and a 3 time signature, then name the notes and add the stems where needed .

• -

... *In actual music notation a whole rest is used to indicate a whole measure of rest regardless of the time signature.

16

LESSON 14 ANOTHER TIME SIGNATURE

~ TIME

The top number shows the number of beats (or counts) in each measure. The bottom number shows what kind of note gets one beat.

means three beats in each measure. means quarter note gets one beat.

d *
In 2 time, a half note or rest receives two beats. L'~ J - # II

1 2 3 1 2 3
A quarter note or rest equals one beat. ,,3 J J J # # # II
4 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. Count the beats, then clap the rhythm of the notes and rests.

II~ J J. J I J ! J I d

Id j IJJJ ,d

! II

2. Write the beats under the notes. Remember, there are three beats in each measure.

3. Count the beats and clap the rhythm.

I ~J J I J ! ! II

4. Fill in the missing beats with notes or rests, then clap the rhythm.

II~

j j

I J

J

5. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef and a 1 time signature. Then name the notes and add stems where needed.

• -

...

• *In actual music notation a whole rest is used to indicate a whole measure of rest regardless of the time signature.

17

LESSON 15

THE DOTTED HALF NOTE

A DOT placed after a note adds one half the value of the original note. In j time, a half note (J ) equals two counts.

A dot after a half note ( .) adds one count (half of the original value).

Therefore, a dotted half note (d.) equals 3 counts.

Count the beats and clap the rhythm.
Iii d - Id J f I d. J I d. ! II

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
II~ J J J I d ~ Id J I d. IJ J J I d. II

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. Write the beats under the notes. Count the beats and clap the rhythm.

II~ d

IJJJ IJ i i Id.

~ II

2. Fill in the missing beats with notes or rests, then write the beats and clap the rhythm.

II~ j

I ~

II

3. Draw the treble clef, name the indicated notes, add the bar lines and double bar line at the end of the line.

I ,. ~ • ! F F F J f r r J J J }
I I J
- - 4. Draw the bass clef, name the indicated notes, add the bar lines and double bar line at the end of the line.

~ J JJ J.

j

r

J

r r !

r

r

j.

5. Name the notes indicated, then draw the bar lines and clap the rhythm.

h •

fT'

18

LESSON 16 REVIEW OF LESSONS 13-15

1. In 3 time, there are __ beats in each measure. A quarter note receives beat.

2. In j time, there are __ beats In each measure. A note receives one beat.

3. A dot placed after a note adds the value of the original note.

4. Add the number of counts and write the sum under each line.

d J 3

J J

o

d

d d.

d.

o

J

o

5. Add the number of counts and write one note equal in value to the sum.

J J

J.

d d

J J

d . J

J d

J d.

6. On the following lines, draw the bar lines to complete each measure and write the
counting under each measure.
liZ J J J f d J f J f ~ J J J d II

112 J J J J. d . d E J ~ j J f J d J d. II

114 ~ J J f J J - d .~ ~ J J d II
4 7. Draw the brace, treble clef, bass clef, and name the notes indicated. Then add the bar lines and clap the rhythm.

8. Complete the following rhythmic I ine with notes and rests, then add the counting under each measure.

J

II

19

LESSON 17 TIES AND SLURS

A TIE is a curved line that connects two adjacent notes of the same pitch. The tone is held as though the two notes are one.

4a Fn II

1 234

1 2 3 4

A SLUR is a curved line that connects notes of different pitch.

A slur indicates that the music is to be sung or played as smoothly as possible. There should not be any space between the notes within the slur.

II

I II

1. Write the number of beats that each pair of tied notes would receive.
d~J = _L beats o~d = beats
J ___ J = beats J~J == beats
d.' J beats o d. = beats
'---" ...___.,
0 J beats J d. = beats
"-' ~ 2. Write the note that equals the number of beats that each pair of tied notes would receive.

o

==

3. Mark the places where you would take a breath if you were singing or playing this music.

II

4. Add the bar lines in the following examples, then count and clap the rhythms.
II~ J d d. J f J d ~ J ~ J f J ~ d .J d. II
III J ~ J ~ J J J f J ! J J j d II
20

LESSON 18 REPEAT SIGNS

Two dots placed before a double bar line j means go back to the beginning and plav again.

II~ J J J d . I J I J I d I :11 ~~ck

~- ,

---------------------------

Sometimes, you repeat back to another repeat sign.

II~ J J

f II: J f I J f I J J I J J I d I J I :11 ~~ck

~-

-------------------------------

1. On the blank staff below, write the indicated piece of music as it would appear without using a repeat sign. (Some notes are indicated as a guide.)

Ir

I r F

II

2. On the blank staff below, write the indicated piece of music as it would appear without using the repeat signs. (Some notes are indicated as a gulde.)

7J ~ r J II: r r I J Jig

:11

~

71: a f J IF; F I

IF r

II

3. On the blank staff below, rewrite this piece of music using a repeat sign.

II:

:11

21

LESSON 19

FIRST AND SECOND ENDINGS

The repeat sign tells you to go back to the beginning. On the repeat, skip the first ending and play the second ending,

FIRST TIME ONLY

PLAY THIS ENDING SECOND TIME ONLY

_-----------11. --___ 12.

II~ y-r -I J J I did _ I J f I f ~ - ':11) J I d II

-----------

SECONDTIME

1. On the blank staff, write this piece of music as it would app.ear without the first and second endings.

L

J I roar

I 2.

! :11 j. I j ! ! II

II

2. On the blank staff, rewrite this piece of music using a first and second ending.

711 J j J j I J J J I r r J ~ I J j j

2: J J J j I J J j I r F J J I J j J II 1. 2.

:11 II

22

LESSON 20 REVIEW OF LESSONS 17-19

1. A tie is a curved line that connects two notes of the pitch.

2. The tone is held as though the two notes were _

3. A slur is a curved I ine that connects two notes of pitch.

4. A slur indicates that the music is to be sung or played as as possible.

5. Two dots placed before a double bar is a sign.

6. A repeat sign means go back to the and play again,

7. Sometimes, you repeat back to another sign.

8. If a piece has a first and second ending, you play the first ending the time

only. On the repeat you the first ending and play the endin-g.

9. Add the number of counts and write the sums.

10. Subtract the number of counts and write the remainder.
J~J J =;L -o J
J. J J~ J J . =
-o J d. d =
J~J J <> d J=
.__J 11. Write the word tie or slur, describing the curved line in each measure.

I fJ J I rF=]11

12. Each measure has one mistake. Make changes or additions so each measure is correct.

,J r ,..-....
r I r • I • I • ! I r
r Q 23

LESSON 21 EIGHTH NOTES

An EIGHTH NOTE looks like a quarter note with a flag added to its stem.

To draw an eighth note first draw a quarter note.

Then add a flag.

Try making these quarter notes into eighth notes ..

F

j

Two or more eighth notes are joined together by a beam.

Try drawing two pairs of beamed eighth notes (1 pair stems up -1 down).

r r j J

Four eighth notes equal one half note. Eight eighth notes equal one whole note.

J J JJ J J J J J J J J

=0

Two eighth notes equal one quarter note.

I n ~ time, an eighth note receives 1;2 of a beat.

1&2&3&4&

1. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate notes. Use only quarter and/or eighth notes.
112 J r IJ I f IT r J II
4
J J JJ jF n J nJ J J J d
Iii J II 2. Add the number of counts and write the sum under each line.

} n d 0 } J n l'
} J n J 0 l' 0 J
1
3. Add the number of counts and write one note equal in value to the sum.
} n d n d n J
) J n d. d d .:
--
J 24

LESSON 22 EIGHTH REST

An E IG HTH REST looks like this.

Try drawing 5 eighth rests.

f ._.
Two eighth rests equal one quarter rest. ~ ~ = /' <,
--. ~
/ -, / -,
Four eighth rests equal one half rest. ~ "I "I ~ = ~ f f f f
I \ / \ / \ I \
Eight eighth rests equal one whole rest. "I "I "I "I ~ "I "I ~ = -- "I "I "I -{ "I ~ ~ "I I n ~ time, one eighth rest equals 1;2 of a beat.

Ilj -t -t -t -t '/ '/ '/ '/ II

1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &

1. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate rests. Use only quarter and/or eighth rests.

II

2. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate notes or rests. Use any or as many as you wish.

II~ n n l I J.

J

II

3. The first measure in each of the lines below is complete. Add the correct time signature and complete the remaining measures. Write in the counting. Then count the beats and clap the rhythm.

II n }-j I J If I d In I ~ II

II J JJJ Id IJ I }-j ~ d. II

n J-j J J IJJJJ-t
II IJ d II
25

LESSON 23 DOTTED QUARTER NOTES

We already know that a dot adds one half the value of the original note.

In i, 2, 3' times, a quarter note equals one count. J = one count (n )

A dot after the quarter note adds '/2 count (lh of the original value).

A dotted half note equals 1lh counts.

= V2 cou nt ( ) )

J. = .1lh counts (m)

n

(2) & 1

2

2 &

1 (2) &. 1

2

II

II~ J

} J.

2

3

4

II

1

2 & 3 (4) & 1 (2) & 3 (4) & 1

(2) & 3

(4) & 1

1 .. Add the bar lines in the following examples, then count the beats and clap the rhythm.

/13 J . )J d. J J -j} J ! n J . 1'~ J . )J nJ J d. II
4
liZ J ! 'f }j nn n i'1 J. J J. l' nJ j ! !I

}j J J J J J j. }J
Iii J. j J in j '1 J E II

2. Add the bar lines and name the pitches.
fl
r-
~ -
1*- . -
I I
-_. _ _ _ __ - -- - 3. Add the bar lines and draw the pitches indicated. If the pitch indicated can be drawn in more than one place on the staff, choose which one you want to write. Use the rhythm indicated.

I 1 1 / ).

t1 .. _

1 •

~ 1 •

. )

F GAG A

G CDC

A G

F

C F

C D E F F F

4. Count the beats and clap the rhythm of the lines above.

26

LESSON 24 REVIEW OF LESSONS 21-23

1, An eighth note looks like a quarter note with a added to its stem,

2, Two or more eighth notes are joined together by a _

3, Two eighth notes equal __ quarter note,

4, Four eighth notes equal __ quarter notes,

5, One whole note equals half notes, or quarter notes, or eighth notes.

6, A dotted note receives 1lh counts.

7, Answer each problem with only one note.
~ + } = n + ) =
J.+ } = n + J
d + J = J. +Jl =
J.. J = J + n =
8. Answer each problem with only one note,
d J. 0 .J . d . d. d
-f -J -n -1' - J. -n -n 9, Write the correct time signature for each of the following measures,
II J . } II II ~ J. } II II ~.oll II J. II
II JmJ ~. II II J. J\J II II ~}J II II JJ~fJ II
I 10. Write the following rhythm on the blank staff using any notes you wish.

r.
e)
.
.
q 27

LESSON 25 FLAT

A FLAT SIGN (b) lowers the pitch of a note a half step.

If we look at a piano keyboard, we see that the black key to the left of a white key is a half step lower.

D

d I Ab I Db

c

F

G

c

E

A

B

When saying a flatted note's name, we say the letter name first and the flat next - B flat. When we write it on the music, the flat sign comes first.

To draw a flat, first draw the vertical line.

Then add a curve.

Try drawing 5 flats.

1. Write the names of the notes indicated.

I,u

&0

II

2. Draw the notes indicated.

Db

Eb

Db

Ab

3. Draw the brace and clefs, then name the notes and draw the bar lines. End the line with a double bar.

o

28

LESSON 26 SHARP

A SHARP sign (#) raises the pitch of a note a half step.

If we look at a piano keyboard, we see that the black key to the right of a white key is a half step higher.

c

F

G

c

D

E

A

B

When saying a sharp note's name, we say the letter name first and the sharp next - C sharp. When we write it on the music, the sharp sign comes first.

To draw a sharp, first draw the two vertical lines.

Then add the slanted lines.

Try drawing 5 sharps.

1. Draw the notes indicated.

A~

D~

c~

G~

c~

2. Write the names of the notes indicated.

II

3. Draw the brace and the clefs, then name the notes and draw the bar lines. End the line with a double bar.

r

'F F

29

LESSON 27 NATURAL

To draw a natural, first draw an L .

Then add another 1 upside down.

ANA TURAL sign (q) cancels the effect of a flat or sharp.

Try drawing 5 naturals.

A natural is centered on the line or space it affects.

Flats, sharps and naturals are called ACCIDENTAL signs.

When they are placed before a note, they affect every note on the same line or space for an entire measure .

A natural sign cancels the flat or sharp within the same measure.

.If Also

c~ c#

I#r F r r II

c# cq

I ~ r r r q r II

A bar line also cancels an accidental.

Also Bf, BD

'i ~F F F:

Also

B~ Bq

IFF d

II

Also Also

c# c# c~ cq

'i B ~ r ~ ~ I r J r~ II

When a note is tied across the bar line, it's accidental carries across also.

Also Also c# Also Also
'I BD BD BD 'i c# c#
~r r r = tr II #r r r r7tr IT II
- 1. Write the names of the notes indicated.

II

2. Write the names of the notes indicated.

I ro =tu I I J j

• I J #

J. II

30

LESSON 28

REVI EW OF LESSONS 25-27

1 .. A Hat sign (b) the pitch of a note one half step. .

2, A sharp sign (#) the pitch of a note one half step ..

3, A natural sign (q) cancels the effect of a __ ~ or _

4. Flats, sharps and naturals are called

-----

5., Answer the following four questions true or false,

___ A flat or sharp affects every note on the same I ine or space for an entire measure.

___ A natural sign cancels a sharp or flat within the same measure.

___ A bar line does not cancel an accidental.

___ When a note is tied across the bar line, its accidental is cancelled.

6. On the blank staffs below, write the following piece, using three repeat signs and 1 st and 2nd endings, Then name the notes,

CULMINATION COMPOSITION

~r p' £1 ~ F

l~rF rr I r

Fl I~r r r r I r

r F I d

CULMINATION COMPOSITION WITH REPEATS

1.

12.

:11

II:

:11

II

31

LESSON 29 WHOLE AND HALF STEPS

Tones of the scale are separated by whole and half steps which are easily seen on a piano keyboard,

CDEFGABC

'-./ V whole half

step step

Adjacent piano keys are a half step apart; therefore, E to F is a half step while C to 0, which includes C# (two keys or two half steps), is a whole step. You will notice that the black keys get their names from the white keys. Each black key has two names. When going up the keyboard, the black keys are a half step higher than the white keys and are called by their sharp names-C, C#, 0, 0#, etc. When going down the keyboard the black keys are a half step lower than the white keys and are called by their flat names-B, B~, AI A~, etc. Although the black keys have two names, they have only one sound. Two notes that sound the same but are written differently are called ENHARMONIC notes.

1 .. Name the notes and indicate if the distance between the first and second notes is a whole step (w) or a half step (1;2).

u 0

o

()

() 0

II

<) 0

2. Name the notes and indicate the distance between them.

,t

o

o

II

<>

<>

Q

o

3. Indicate the distance between the notes.

"

()

o

o

o

o

o

()

------------- ----------------------------- ---------------

32

LESSON 30 CHROMATIC SCALE

The chromatic scale is made up of all of the notes on the keyboard. Therefore, every note of the scale is a half step apart. When going up the scale, we use the sharp name for the black keys. When coming down the scale, we use the flat names.

4 #0 n#n 9 ~ 0 ~e 1,0· O~O II
#0 () #0 0 I) Q ~O &0
e.~.& 0 0 0 0
e
C C# 0 D# E F F# G G# A A# B c B BD A AD G GD F E E~ D Db c Going up the scale is called ascending. Going down the scale is called descending.

1. Write the ascending version of the chromatic scale starting on the note C, then name the notes.

II

2. Write the descending version of the chromatic scale starting on the note C, then name the notes.

3. Fill in the missing notes in this chromatic scale.

o

II

o

000

o

33

LESSON 31 THE MAJOR SCALE

8 C

The major scale is comprised of eight consecutive tones in alphabetical order, from "do"

to lido" one octave higher.

do

If we start at C and go up the keyboard playing the white notes, we see that all of the tones in the C scale are separated by a whole step with the exception of E to F and B to C, which are half steps.

half step -<:

CD E F GAB

1 2 34 5 6 7

<>">:»: "-.../~~

whole whole whole whole whole

step step step step step

half step ~ C

B

If we divide the eight notes into two groups of four, we see the pattern of whole and half steps is the same for each group (whole step, whole step, half step).

half step

»<.

half step

»<.

C 0 E <:»>:> whole whole step step

F GAB

---_ 'I _-~~

---_ t ----

""_- - .

whole whole step step

C

tetrachord

whole step

tetrachord

This group of fOIJr notes is called a TETRACHORD. When two tetrachords are joined together by a whole step, they make up a major scale. I n the C scale, the C tetrachord and the G tetrachord are joined by the whole step between F & G.

1. Write a tetrachord beginning on C.

Write a tetrachord beginning on C.

II

o

II

2. Write a C scale and indicate the whole (W) or half (1f2) steps between each note.

4 ~

u

II

3. Write a C scale in the bass clef.

. __ ---~ __ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

34

LESSON 32 REVIEW OF lESSONS 29-31

1. Tones of the scale are separated by or steps.

2. Each black key has __ names.

3. The black keys get their names from the keys.

4. When going up the keyboard, the black key names are a half step by

using the symbol_for sharp.

5. When going down the keyboard, the black key names are a half step

by using the symbol_for flat.

6. When two notes sound the same but have different letter names, they are called

7. In the chromatic scale, each note is a step apart.

8. The major scale is comprised of consecutive tones.

9. The major scale is comprised of tetrachords.

10. The formula of whole and half steps for a major scale is:

11. Indicate whether the distance between each group of notes is a half step (1;2) or a whole step (W).

o (I

o ()

u 0

o 0

II

o 0

o u

12. Write an ascending chromatic scale beginning on the note C.

II

13. Write a descending chromatic scale beginning on the note C. e

14. Write a C major scale in the two octaves that are indicated by the starting and ending notes .

....

I '-

t..l

:~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

35

LESSON 33 MORE MAJOR SCALES (F&G)

The pattern of whole and half steps that we saw in the key of C is the same for any major scale, no matter which note we start on. If, for example, we started on the note G, the scale would look like this:

half step

»<. »<.

GAB C D E F# C

1 2 34 5 6 7 8

<:»>:> <:»>:»>:>

whole step

You can see that the note F has been changed to F#. If it were F~, the second tetrachord

would have been:

D

»<.

E F

G

Since the formula is whole step, whole step, half step - the F had to be raised to F#.

»<.

D E F# C

5 6 7 8

<:»>:>

5 6 <:>

7 8 ~

Applying the same formula to a scale beginning on F results in the F major scale. Notice that the B has been lowered (~) to B~.

~ ~

F C A B~ C D E F

1 2 34 5 6 7 8

<:»>:> '-...../~"-../

1. Draw eight notes on the staff from C to C. Check the whole and half step formula and add any necessary accidentals to make these eight notes a C major scale.

II

2. Draw eight notes on the staff from F to F. Check the whole and half step formula and add any necessary accidentals to make these eight notes a F major scale.

II

3. Write a G major scale ascending and descending.

4. Write an F major scale ascending and descending.

36

LESSON 34 OTHER MAJOR SCALES (B~-E~-D-A)

If we use the pattern of whole and half steps, we can construct scales beginning on any note. Remember, a major scale is made up of eight consecutive tones. Think of two tetrachords separated by a whole step.

half step

~

1

whole step

tetrachord

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

CDEFGABC

1. Start on the note B~. Draw eight consecutive notes. Add the necessary accidentals to make it a B~ scale. Then, indicate the whole and half steps. You may use the keyboard to check your scales.

II

2. Write a major scale beginning on E~. I ndicate the whole and half steps.

II

3. Write a major scale beginning on D. Indicate the whole and half steps.

II

4. Write a major scale beginning on A. Indicate the whole and half steps.

,

II

37

LESSON 35 KEY SIGNATURES

When constructing the scales, we wrote the sharps and flats before each note in the music. To make the writing process easier, we can indicate the flats or sharps to be used in a composition at the beginning of the piece. This is called a KEY SIGNATURE and tells the performer that the accidentals indicated are in effect throughout the piece.

For example, the F# in this key signature, which appears on the top ~

line of the staff immediately following the cJef, indicates that all of the .. ....

F's in this composition are to be played F"". .

The key signatures of the scales we already know are:

The key of C - no sharps or flats.

The key of G -1 sharp

The key of D - 2 sharps

The key of F -1 flat

The key of B~ - 2 flats

1. Write the key signatures for each key.

The key of C

The key of F

2. Write the key signatures in bass clef.

The key of G

The key of D

The key of B~

The keys of: C

G

II

D

F

B~

38

LESSON 36 REVIEW OF LESSONS 33-35

True or false

1. The formula of whole and half steps is the same for all major scales.

2. The key of F contains 1 sharp.

3. The key of Bb contains 2 flats.

4. The key of D contains 2 flats.

5. The key of Eb contains 3 flats.

6. The key signature is placed at the beginning of a composition, immediately following the clef.

7. The amount of sharps and/or flats in the treble clef signature is different from the amount for the same key in the bass clef.

8. Write the following scales: first write the key signature, then name the notes.

sb major scale

II

D major scale

II

F major scale

II

G major scale

Eb major scale

II

LESSON 37 CIRCLE OF FIFTHS MAJOR SHARP KEYS

39

Keys are related by fifths. If we start on C (whose key signature has no sharps or flats) and go up the scale five notes, we come to the note G (whose key signature has 1 sharp). If we go five notes up the G scale, we come to 0 (whose key signature has 2 sharps). This pattern continues throughout all of the sharp keys.

no sharps

c#

-

7 sharps (F#. C#.

G#. D~. A~, E#. B~l

B

~

5 sharps (F#.

C#. C#. D#. A# l

1. A fifth above C is the key of which contains sharp.
2. A fifth above G is the key of which contains sharps.
3. A fifth above 0 is the key of which contains sharps.
4. A fifth above A is the key of which contains sharps.
5. A fifth above E is the key of which contains sharps.
6. A fifth above B is the key of which contains sharps.
7. A fifth above F# is the key of which contains sharps. 8. Write the sharps in the order they are added to the key signatures.

p·tf ~

2 sharps (F#,C#l

~

D

3 sharps

(F#. C#. C#l

Here is a helpful hint for naming sharp keys: THE NAME OF THE KEY IS ONE LETTER NAME HIGHER THAN THE LAST SHARP IN THE KEY SIGNATURE.

40

LESSON 38 CIRCLE OF FIFTHS MAJOR FLAT KEYS

If we start on C and go down the scale five notes, we come to the note F (whose key signature has 1 flat). If we go five notes down the F scale, we come to B~ (whose key signature has 2 flats). This pattern continues throughout all of the flat keys.

F

~

1 flat(a~)

ab

~

2 flats (ap, EP)

~~ 3 flats

E ~(a~,E~,A~)

4 flats

(al1. ED, A~, D~)

~

AD 5 flats [a~,

E~, A~, D~, CD'

~ 6flats(BD,ED,

~ Ab,DP,CP,CV)

Db ~

cb

7 flats [aD, EP, AP, DP, CD, cl1, F~)

~

1. A fifth below C is the; key of which contains flat.
2. A fifth below F is the key of which contains flats.
3. A fifth below BO is the key of which contains flats.
4. A fifth below E~ is the key of which contains flats.
5. A fifth below A~ is the key of which contains flats.
6 .. A fifth below D~ is the key of which contains flats.
7. A fifth below Go is the key of which contains flats. 8. Write the flats in the order that they are added to the key signatures.

13l? Eb

Here is a helpful hint for naming flat keys: THE KEY OF F MAJOR HAS ONE FLAT. KEYS WITH MORE THAN ONE FLAT ARE NAMED BY THE NEXT TO THE LAST FLAT IN THE KEY SIGNATURE.

41

LESSON 39 CIRCLE OF FIFTHS ALL MAJOR KEYS

If we put the sharp keys and the flat keys together, the circle would look like this:

no sharps

1 sharp (F#)

~

--""'c

F

~

1 flat (BP)

2 sharps (F#,C~l

~

o

2 flats (BP, EP)

3 sharps

(F#,C#, C#l

P~ 3 flats

E ~(BP,fJ:"A")

4 flats

(B~, EP, AP, OPI

~

Ab 5 flats (B',

EP, Ab, OP, d)

~ 6flats(B~,Eb,

~ Ab,DP,cb,cpl

DP ~

~. ~

~ F#

7 sharps (F#, C#, ~

C#' D#, A#, E#, B#J ~

6 sharps (F~, C#. C#, 0#, A#, f#J

7 flats (B~. EP, Ab, Db. C~, cb, Fp)

~

B

~

5 sha rps (F#.

C#. C#, 0#. A#)

E ~~I:~."

(F#. C#, C#. 0#1

The following keys are enharmonic equivalents: D~ & C#, G~ & F#, C~ & B. They sound the same but are spelled differently.

1. Write the names of the keys in the circle of 5ths under the staff. Then write the key signatures of all of the keys.

Sharp Keys

,~

n I

II

Flat Keys

'p

I

II

42

LESSON 40 REVIEW OF LESSONS 37-39

1. are related by fifths.

2. The key of E has sharps.

3. The key of has 3 sharps.

4. The key of A~ has flats.

5. The key of has 5 flats.

6. Name the keys indicated by the following key signatures:

$~b&~ I- I ~p I·~#· I ~b&~~ I#b# I ~P&~~& II 7. Write the following key signatures:

II

G

D~

E

B

D

F

II

D

Bb

F

c

E~

G

A

8. Write the order of sharps.

9. Write the order of flats.

43

LESSON 41 DYNAMICS

Dynamic signs indicate how loudly or softly music should be played.

The symbol pp pianissimo means: very soft
The symbol p piano means: soft
The symbol mp mezzo plano means: moderately soft
The symbol mf mezzo forte means: moderately loud
The symbol f forte means; loud
The symbol ff fortissimo means: very loud A crescendo -===== A decrescendo =====-

means: gradually get louder means: gradually get softer

1. Write the dynamic symbols for the following volume indications:

soft

very loud moderately soft

gradually louder _

loud very soft

moderately loud _

gradually softer

2. Define the following dynamic markings:

=- ~
mf
pp
f --- =
mp
ff
p 3. Clap or tap the following I ines, carefully observing the dynamic markings.

112 J J

4p

pp~======= ff

II ~ J # .J I j ~ J I n J J I jJ J J I.J! J I J ! J I n J J I Jj ~ II

~ pp ff ~ ff

I J J J J I nIJ J # II

mp f p f

ff pp

44

LESSON 42

D.C. AND D.S., CODA AND FINE

The following symbols and terms are often used in music

D.C. = Da Capo - means: go back to the beginning D.S. = Dal Segno - means: go back to the sign ($Sl Fine ;;;;; the end

I f we put them together, we get

D.C. al fine = Go back to the beginning and play to the end, indicated by Fine. DS al fine = Co back to the sign (~) and play to the end, indicated by Fine.

Sometimes a composition ends with a separate closing section. This is called a Coda and is indicated by a Coda sign (~).

If we combine Coda with D.C. and DS, we get:

D.C. al Coda = Co back to the beginning and play to the Coda sign (.), then skip to the Coda to end the piece.

D.S. al Coda = Co back to the sign (~) and play to the Coda sign (~), then skip to the Coda to end the piece.

1. On the blank lines below, write the first line as it would be played.

Fine D.C. at Fine
113 j J IJ J IJ # I d II J J I # J I ! J IJ # II
II z I I

II II
2. On the blank lines below, write the first line as it would be played.

~ Fine

II i J J ! J I! J J I I J J nJ I J ~ I J II J J

D.S. al Fine

J J I! J J! ~

~----~----~----~-----l

II II

3. On the blank lines below, write the first line as it would be played.

$- D. C. al Coda -$- Coda

II ~ d. I d. I ~ J ~ I ~ # i II II n~ ~ I j J ~ II

II ~ I II

45

LESSON 43 TEMPO MARKINGS AND OTHER MUSICAL SYMBOLS

Tempo markings tell how slow or fast to play the music.

Largo == very slow - broadly Allegro > fast

Adagio == slow Presto == very fast

Moderato == moderate Accelerando == gradually get faster

Ritardando == gradually get slower

Other musical symbols guide the performer in interpeting the composer's wishes. means: hold the note longer than its normal value means: play the note a I ittle louder

means: play the note short

means: hold the note for its full value

t:'\ == Fermata -
;::0- == Accent
== Staccato -
== Tenuto 1. Write the tempo markings for the following speeds:

fast _

very slow _

very fast _

gradually getting faster _

moderate _

slow ....:....__

gradually getting slower _

2. Draw the symbol that means:

hold the note longer than its normal value hold the note for its full value

play the note short

play the note a little louder

3. Sing the following lines on the syllable "Tah" carefully observing the tempo markings, dynamics, and other musical symbols.

Adagio

'II ~ J.

p

I J. I J J J I J. I ~ J t J J' J J I J . II
- I
f
I~ ~ Inn IJ ! Iltd lnJ j~~ I~ J II
;::0-
ff pp ff Allegro

III ~ ~

mf Moderato

114 d d

4 mp

accelerando and crescendo - - - - - - - - - - - - f

II

46

LESSON 44 REVIEW OF LESSONS 41-43

Define the following symbols:

1. ff

2. f

3. m.t

4. mp

5. P

6. pp

7. ~=== _

8. =====- _

Define the following terms:

1. D.C.

2. D.S.

3. Fine

4. D.C. al Fine

5. OS al Fine

6. Coda

7. D.C. al Coda

8. D.S. al Coda

9. Presto

10. Allegro

11. Moderato

12. Adagio

13. Largo

14. Ritardando

15. Accelerando

Define the following symbols:

>-----

r;-.. _

On the blank lines below, write this rhythmic composition as it would be played.

~ ~

II ~ J J I f J I f n I J J I J J I ~~ I J J I d II

D.S. al Coda

$- Coda

II J nl J J I J J I J f II

II

II

47

LESSON 45 SIXTEENTH NOTES

A sixteenth note looks like an eighth note with a second flag added to its stem.

To draw a sixteenth note, then add a Try making these eighth

first draw an eighth note, second flag. notes into sixteenth notes .

..

l

Two or more sixteenth notes are joined together by two beams.

Try drawing two pairs of beamed sixteenth notes (1 pair stems up, 1 down).

[J

J j

Two sixteenth notes equal one eighth note.

Four sixteenth notes equal one quarter note.

Eight sixteenth notes equal one half note.

Sixteen sixteenth notes equal one whole note.

} 0
= d---- <; d
= J J/ 'J i/ 'J
d /\ r >. /\ /\
= J J J J J J J J
jJjJ~Jffljffi
=0 ~ jffl

Jmjffl jffl jffl Jffl jffl

Iii Jj n n jj n jj J jJ JII

le&a2e&a3e&a4e&a

In j time, a sixteenth note receives 1;4 of a beat.

1. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate notes. Use only quarter, eighth, and
sixteenth notes.
Ilj JJJJT l' "f JJ Jln n J:J IJ J J j ) II

J J J IJ n IJJ J!J I j. J d
II~ "f II

2. Add the number of counts and write the sum under each line.
n J. Jffl d. lffl J Jffl
) ~ J lffl } n d 3. Add the number of counts and write one note equal in value to the sum.

48

LESSON 46 SIXTEENTH RESTS

A sixteenth rest looks like this.

Try drawing five sixteenth rests.

Two sixteenth rests equal one eighth rest.

Four sixteenth rests equal one quarter rest.

Eight sixteenth rests equal one half rest.

Sixteen sixteenth rests equal one whole rest.

:;:; ~ -t :;:;:;:; ~ ~

:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:; .. ~ :;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:; =: --

I n ~ ti me, 0 ne s ixtee n th res t eq u a I 5 114 of a bea t. -H11f-!ii!'--------!1~1-1~:;~1__:!1'1-. ....;.1--.T-1 ~:;~:;---::j7-. ~:j-=r-:; ~:;t--=J-:;---::t1--tl11 le&a2e&a3e&a4e&a

1. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate rests, using only quarter, eighth, and sixteenth rests.

Innn I)

II

n I J.

2. Fill in the missing beats with the appropriate notes or rests. Use any or as many as you wish.

114 n

4

J II

3. The first measure in each of the lines below is complete. Add the correct time signatures and complete the remaining measures. Write in the counting. Then count the beats and clap the rhythm.

II

J.

J I J

II

II

II

J

II

II

ImO I~ I~

49

LESSON 47 DOTTED EIGHTH NOTES

We already know that a dot adds one half the value of the original note.

In 1, ~, a times, an eighth note equals 1h count.

A dot after the eighth note adds

1;4 count (112 of the original value).

A dotted eighth note equals Y4 count.

)1 ;;;; 1h count en)

• ;;;; 1;4 count ())

)1. ;;;; Y4 count (m)

1 (&) a 2

2

I J. j J II
1 (&)a 2
I II
d
(2) 3 (4) 1 & a 2

1. Add the bar lines in the following examples, then count the beats and clap the rhythm.

113 lffln ¥ l ["]OJ

II

II

114 DID no ID lmn.J

II

4

2. Subtract the number of counts and write the answer under each line.

). _J

J. _J

I -

_ J.

d -ll

J -n

3. Subtract the number of counts and write one note equal in value to the answer.

J _).

f. _~

J. -f

50

LESSON 48 REVIEW OF LESSONS 45-47

1. A sixteenth note looks like an eighth note with a second added to its stem.

2. Two or more sixteenth notes are joined together by two _

3. Four sixteenth notes equal eighth notes.

4. Eight sixteenth notes equal one note.

5. One whole note equals sixteenth notes.

6. A dotted note equals y.. of a count.

7. Answer each problem with only one note.

JjJJ + n J. } + n = J n + in =

8. Answer each problem with only one note.
J.+)+Jjjj In + J. +)
=
j. + J + J d. + n +.!' =
d + J + J n = }. + d +) 9. Write the correct time signatures for each of the following measures.

II

.on II

II

DllOJ. )1 II

II

10. Write the D & G scales using eighth, dotted eighth, and sixteenth notes. First write the key signature, then the ~ time signature.

& D scale £= G scale

~ II~

II

11. Write a B~ scale using eighth, dotted eighth, and sixteenth notes. First write the key signature, then the Z time signature.

~ II

51

LESSON 49 INTERVALS

In music the term I NTERVAL refers to the distance between two notes. Intervals are always counted from the lower note to the higher one, the lower note being counted as one. For example, the interval from C to D is a second (C is 1-to D is 2).

4 e oIe't II
() e II
0 0
-eo e e e e e e e &
1 1 1 2 1 (2) 3 1 (23) 4 1 (234) 5 1 (2345) 6 1 (23456) 7 1 (234567) 8
Called: prime second third fourth fifth sixth seventh octave If the two notes are sounded simu Itaneously, they are called HARMON IC. If the two notes are sounded in succession, they are called MELODIC.

Harmonic

41: II

Melodic

~ 3 ~ j II

!I

v 1. Count the distance from the lower to the higher note and name the interval.

o

e

o

n

o

Q 0

o 0

o

!l ,I

2. Write the note that completes the melodic interval above the indicated note.

o

o

o

o

o

II

.I

Prime

3rd

&

6th

2nd

Octave

& 4th

-e 7th

5th

)

3. Indicate whether each interval is harmonic (H) or melodic (M).

I j

I

::

8

:

Ij

F II

52

LESSON 50 DIATONIC INTERVALS

If the upper note of an interval is found in the major scale built on the lower note, it is a DIATONIC INTERVAL.

If a prime, fourth, fifth, or octave are diatonic (both notes appear in the same scale), they are called PERFECT INTERVALS.

, ~ II
0 0
-e -e -e -e -e-
Perfect Perfect Perfect Perfect
Prime Fourth Fifth Octave In a major scale, if a 2nd, 3rd, 6th, or 7th are diatonic, they are called major intervals.

, 0 II
u
-e 0 -e 0 -e -e
Major Major Major Major
2nd 3rd 6th 7th 1. Name the intervals indicated: Use P for perfect, M for major.

o

II

o 0

o

00

o

o 0

()

o

2. Write the note that completes the interval above the indicated note.

, II
0 0 () 0
e e e e
P Prime P 4th M 2nd P octave M6th M3rd P 5th M 7th 3. Name the intervals indicated.

00

8

:

:

.11

J J

53

LESSON 51 CHROMATIC INTERVALS

If the upper note of an interval is not found in the major scale built on the lower note, it is called a CHROMATIC INTERVAL.

If the upper note is '12 step lower than a major interval, it is called a MINOR INTERVAL.

, &,. 6 ~6 II
&:eP i 93 u
:eo -e -e -e -e
Major 2nd minor 2nd Major 3rd minor 3rd Major 6th minor 6th Major 7th minor 7th If the upper note is '12 step lower than a minor or perfect interval, it is called a DIMINISHED INTERVAL.

, ~o ~u f,&" ~e ~~6 II ~u II
&:eo ~~:eo 93 ~93 <) &0 6
-e- e- e- -e -e <9- e e -e e
m2 dim2 m3 dim3 P4 dim4 P5 dim5 m6 dim6 m7 dim7 P8 dim8
(octave) (octave) If the upper note is liz step higher than a major or perfect interval, it is called an AUGMENTED INTERVAL.

, #u #6 U #u 9 #0 ~ #u II
#3 0 6
e--e -e#e eO ~~ :S e- -e e- -e -& -e -e e- -e -e
PP aug P M2 aug 2 M3 aug 3 P4 aug4 P5 aug5 M6 aug 6 M7 aug 7 P8 aug8
(octave) (octave) 1. Name the intervals indicated.

, Po ~: #u #~ p&o #:
-& -e- :

II

2. Write the note that completes the interval above the indicated note.
, II
0 6 0 6 U
-e -e
dim4 augS dim2 aug6 augP dim3 dim P
3. Name the intervals indicated.
, ~.o.
('# (' ~~o 9 #:; #0 &g II
&0
e- -e -e 54

LESSON 52 REVIEW OF LESSONS 49~51

1. The term refers to the distance between two notes.

2. Intervals are counted from the note to the higher one.

3. If two notes are sounded simultaneously, they are called _

4. If two notes are sounded in succession, they are called _

5. If the upper note of an interval is found in the major scale built on the lower note, it

is called a interval.

6. If the upper note of an interval is not found in the major scale built on the lower note,

it is called a interval.

7. Name the intervals indicated.

I'

00

o

II

8. Write the intervals indicated.

:I II
0 0 0 ()
0 0 0 -e-
PP dim2 dim4 maj2 augB dimS min3 oug5 9. Name the intervals indicated.

B

:

:

II

10. Write the intervals indicated.

~ 0
Q
-e-
maj3 min3 aug4 Q

o

o

II

-edim6

PS

min2

dim2

dimB

55

LESSON 53 MORE TIME SIGNATURES

The top number shows the number of beats (or counts) in each measure. The bottom number shows what kind of note gets one beat.

means three beats in each measure. means an eighth note gets one beat.

A dotted quarter note or rest receives three beats.

II § ~ ~ ~I !f » !f II
2 1 2 3
II§ J. I ~. II
1 2 312 3 In g time, an eighth note or rest receives one beat.

means six beats in each measure. means an eighth note gets one beat.

A dotted quarter note or rest receives three beats.

II § J ~ ~ !f !f !f II
1 2 3 4 5 6
U6 J. r II
8
1 2 3 4 5 6 In § time, an eighth note or rest receives one beat.

1. Count the beats, then clap the rhythm of the notes and rests while counting the beats.

123

J . I J !f J I J "f

1 (2 3) 1 2 3 1 (2) 3

123 123

1 (2 3)

123

J. II

2. Write the beats under the notes. Remember, there are six beats in each measure.

Count the beats and clap the rhythm.

II

3. Fillin the missing beats with notes or rests, then clap the rhythm.
II ~ J ml) J. j!f J ) 1m I j )J I j. II
11M J I) I j. l!f I ) 'I 1° 'I II
56

LESSON 54 ANOTHER WAY TO COUNT

When g time is played at a fast tempo, it is usually counted "in 1 ".

II§ J J JI mil

l&a l&a

When ~ time is played at a fast tempo, it is usually counted "in 2".

II~ n J n ~ II

1&a2&a

Sometimes j time is indicated with the letter C which stands for COMMON TIME. It is just another way of saying i time. ~ and ~ mean exactly the same thing.

If the C is cut in half (¢) it is called CUT TIME or ALLA BREVE. It means the i is cut in half to ~. The music would sound the same but it is counted "in two".

Iii J J JJJJ II

1 2 3 & 4 &

lit J J nn II

1 & 2e&a

Write the counting under the following lines. Then count the beats and clap the rhythm.
Slowly "in 3"
1. "§ J J J J. IJ lin ~ I ~ j I ¥ J IJ J J I J. II

Fast "in 1"
2. "§ J J J J. jJ Jln ¥ I ¥ J I -t J IJ J J I J. II

Slowly "in 6"
3. II§ J J J J ) I J )J } I J -t J J ~ I j j J. II

Fast "in 2"
4. II § J J J j ~ I J fJ ) ! j -t j J } I j J J. II

Slowly "in 4"
5. lie J J J J J J Id J J IJ nJ n InJ J ! II

Fast "in 2"
6. II ¢ J J JJ J J Id J J IJ nJ n InJ j J II
------
u
-"
..I
-"
../
../
J
-'
,../
../
,../
..!
./
J
J
-I
./
-'
-'
.-'
-I 57

LESSON 55 TRIPLETS

A TRI PLETis a group of three notes that are performed in the space normally allotted for two of the same kind of note .

1 & 2 &

II~ RjRr II

3 3

1 tri-plet 2 tri-plet

1 tri-plet 2 tri-plet 3 tri-plet 4 tri-plet

3 3 3 3

111 BJ BJ BJ BJ II

1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &

1 &

1 &

2 &

2

1 tri-plet 2

.0

.;'
-'
)
,-
)
-'
-'
J
.I
)
)
)
.I
.I
I
/
I
-'
-'
I 1 .
I SYNCOPATION

I n jazz, rock, and pop, as well as in classical music, the accents sometimes come on the normally weak divisions of the beat, adding new excitement to the music. This is called syncopation.

J I ..b ~ ..b J II

II i i d- J l..b d · J II

1 & (2) 3 1 & (2) 3

1 & (2) & 3

4 1 & (2) & 3 4

Add the bar lines in the following lines and write the counting under each measure. Then count the beats and clap the rhythms.

3 :>

114JJmJ }j)Jj

11

4

:> 3 :> ">
2. II ~ DJ J }J )J J mJ )J. j )j )j )J }J J. J. II

3. Iii -t r:;J -t fJ JnDJlJJ Jm.D Jr. mJMJ ~ II
4. IlrJ

:>

JJ

:> :> 3 3

} J J fJ ) fJ Jill m

r

II

58

LESSON 56 REVIEW OF LESSONS 53-55

1. In g time, an note receives one beat.

2. In g time, there are beats in each measure.

3. In~· time, there are six beats in each _

4. In ~ time, an eighth note receives. count.

5. When g time is played fast, it is counted "in "

6. When ~ is played fast, it is counted "in fI

7. __ is the symbol for common time.

8. ¢ is the symbol for __ time.

9. Cut time is also called Breve.

10. A triplet is a group of notes.

11. When accents are placed on weak beats, it is called _

Add the bar lines and write the counting under each measure .. Then count the beats and clap the rhythm.

Fast' 'in 1"

12. II ~ J J J

J.

J

"f II

Fast "in 2"

13. II § } J

) J

J J J } J

J J J n "f II

14'llj }j

)J

3

mJ

3

lljj[J mJ

)J

J

n

3

J J J

II

16. Write an Eb scale, using a syncopated rhythm pattern. First write the key signature, then the ~ time signature.

II

59

LESSON 57

MAJOR CHORDS - MAJOR TRIADS

A chord is a combination of three or more tones sounded simultaneously.

A triad is a 3-note chord.

A major triad can be constructed by thinking of the 1 st, 3rd and 5th notes of a major scale. It gets its name from the root note.

C Major Scale C Major Triad
~ II ~i
0 9 II
&oJ a
-e (> a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A major triad can also be constructed by thinking of intervals. The major triad is a major 3rd plus a minor 3rd.

Major 3rd

Minor 3rd

plus

equals

Major Triad ~perfect

~fifth

1. Name the following major triads.

o

II

2. Build a major triad above the following notes.

9

o

II

The triad built on 0 is the only one in the above example that uses an accidental (F#). If you did not write an F~, you either did not think about the D scale or about the major 3rd and minor 3rd.

3. Write a D scale.

4. Write a 0 major triad.

II

II

60

LESSON 58 CHORDS RELATED TO A KEY

A chord's relationship to a key and to other chords within that key is indicated by numbering the chords from 1 to 8. The numbers are shown with Roman numerals.

C F G C
4 II § 0 § II
I <I
(5 0
I IV V VIII or I This example shows that the chord built on the 1 st degree of the C scale is the C chord, which is the I chord in the key of C. The chord built on the 4th degree of the scale is the F chord, which is the IV chord in the key of C, and the chord built on the 5th degree of the scale is the G chord, which is the V chord in the key of C.

1. Write the chords indicated.

.J

c

F

G

3. Give the letter name of each of the following chords.

II

5. Give the letter names of each of the following chords.

§

II

2. Write the chords indicated in the key of C.

II

I

IV

V

4. Write the chords indicated in the key of F.

II

I

IV

V

6. Write the chords indicated in the key of G.

9:#

II

I

IV

V

61

LESSON 59 CHORD PROGRESSIONS

The movement from one chord to another is called a chord progression.

One of the most popular chord progressions used in all styles of music, including pop, folk, rock and jazz as well as classical, is the I IV V I progression.

We have already written this progression in the keys of C, F and G.

Key of C Key of F Key of G
, II 'p § § II ,$ § ! II
§ § § § Ii §

! !

I IV V I I IV V I I IV V I
C F G C F B~ C F G C 0 G J :J

1. Write the B~ scale.

2. Write the I IV V I progression in the key of B~. Then give the letter name of each chord.

3. Write the 0 scale.

)

,)

) ,)

5. Write the E~ scale.

7. Write the A scale.

4. Write the I IV V I progression in the key of D. Then give the letter name of each chord.

II

II

6. Write the I IV V I progression in the key of E~. Then give the letter name of each chord.

II

II

8. Write the I IV V I progression in the key of A. Then give the letter name of each chord.

II

II

---_ ---- -------------------_-------

62

LESSON 60 REVIEW OF LESSONS 57-59

1. A chord is a combination of or more tones sounded simultaneously.

2. A triad is a note chord.

3. A major triad is made up of a root, and fifth.

4. A major triad gets its name from the note.

5. The natural movement from one chord to another is called a _

6. Write the chords indicated.

c

o

A

E~

7. Write the chords indicated.

II

A~

E

G

D~

F

8. Write the ,I IV V .1 progression in the following keys. Write the Roman numerals below the staff and the letter names of the chords above the staff.

II

II

I

IV

V

I

II

II

II

II

63

LESSON 61 DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORD

The term dominant chord is another name for the V chord.

The term tonic chord is another name for a I chord.

In the key of C, the C chord is the I chord or tonic chord, and the G chord is the V chord or dominant chord.

* C G
! §
I V
Tonic Dominant Up till now, we have only learned triads or 3-note chords. Now, we are going to learn a 4-note chord.

The dominant 7th chord is a 4-note chord that gets its name from its place in the key (built on the 5th note = V chord = dominant chord), and from the interval from its root to its top note (a

seventh).

A dominant 7th chord in the key of C is

built on the note G.

G7

~ interval of

~ a 7th

V7

Dominant

You can also construct a dominant 7th chord by interval. Just add another minor 3rd to a major chord.

G major

G dominant 7th

plus another minor 3rd

equals

1. Write the following chords:

G7

C7

D7

Check your intervals. Both the (7 and 07 chords have an accidental. Besides thinking of the interval, remember that C7 is built on the 5th tone of the F scale, which has a B~ in its key signature; and the 07 is built on the 5th tone of the G scale which has an F# in its key signature.

2. Write the chord progression indicated, and write the letter name of each chord above the staff.

*p II *~ II
I IV V7 I I IV V7 I ~~~~-~-~~~~~~~~-----------------------------~ ----

64

LESSON 62 INVERSIONS

When playing chords it is impractical and dull 'to play all triads and seventh chords in root position. To make chord progressions easier to play at the keyboard or on fretted instruments, and to make them sound smoother, we can rearrange the order of the notes. The rearranged chords are called INVERSIONS.

If we move the bottom note to the top of the chord, we get the

C ~tth ~3rd

1 st inversion. The 3rd is on the bottom.

If we "move the bottom note to the top again, we get the

2nd inversion. The 5th is on the bottom.

1. Write the chords indicated in the root position.

II

c

F

G

D

2. Write the chords indicated in the 1 st inversion.

D

G

F

c

3. Write the chords indicated in the 2nd inversion.

II

c

G

D

F

4. Write the chords indicated.

"4

G

1 st inversion

D

2nd inversion

B~

root position

F

1 st inversion

C

2nd inversion

65

LESSON 63

INVERSIONS OF THE DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORD

The dominant seventh chord has one more inversion than a triad.

Root Position 1 st inversion 2nd inversion 3rd inversion
~ ~ ~ ~
3rd on the bottom 5th on the bottom 7th on the bottom By using inversions, we can make the notes of different chords within a chord progression move smoothly from one to another. This is called smooth voice leading.

Chord Progression Chord Progression
all in root position using inversions
, C F G7 C 4 c F G7* C
II B
! ! ~===!
I IV V7 I I IV V7 I
2nd 1 st
inversion inversion *When played or sung by 3 instruments or vocalists, the 5th (D) would be omitted.

1. Write the I, IV, V7, I progression in the key of F, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

I

root position

2. Write the I, IV, V7, I progression in the key of G, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

3. Write the I, IV, V7, I progression in the key of Bb, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

66

LESSON 64 REVIEW OF LESSONS 61-63

1. Write the following dominant 7th chords.

II

G7

07

F7

A7

C7

E7

2. Write the 1 st inversions of the following chords.

II

C

F

G

n

3. Write the 2nd inversions of the following chords.

0 G AP F EP BP C
4. Write the 3rd inversions of the following chords.
~ .. II

E7 C7 A7 F7 BP7 D7 G7 5. Write the I,IV, V7 progression in the key of 0, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

6. Write the I, IV, V7 progression in the key of EP, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

7. Write the I, IV, V7 progression in the key of At using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

67

LESSON 65 TRANSPOSITION

Transposition is the rewriting of music from its original key to another. You may wish to transpose a song to make it easier to sing. You may also wish to transpose it for another instrument. We already know how to transpose harmony or a chord progression. All we have to do is use the Roman numeral names and move the progression to a new key. The same concept can be done with melodies. You may assign the melody the numbers of the scale (1-8) or the scale syllables (do, re. mi. etc.) and just begin on the new beginning note. You may also think of intervals between notes.

Melody in C

Same Melody transposed to F

F II

En 11

numbers: syllables: intervals:

1 2 3 5

do re mi sol 2nd 2nd 3rd

6 8 la do 2nd 3rd

1 2 3 5

do re mi sol 2nd 2nd 3rd

6 8 la do 2nd 3rd

1. Transpose the following melody to the key of G,

F

J

r

j

I J

fJ J

F

II

I

II

2. Transpose the following melody and harmony to the key of F.

~ I -
1. .':-1 ~ ...
I tJ I I -e-
t ~
~~
\ ~ c

F

G7

c

I

IV

2nd inversion

V7

1 st inversion

I

f'l
I
,tJ
J
I .
.
\ 68

LESSON 66 OTHER TRIADS MINOR

Any major triad can be made minor by lowering the third degree 1!2 step.

C Major Triad

C Minor Triad

You can also construct minor triads by interval.

C Minor Triad ~majOr3rd ~minor3rd

1. Write the following major triads. Then adjust each to make them minor.

II

o

c

G

A

F

2. Write the following minor traids.

II

c

Bb

minor

o minor

Ab

minor

F minor

A minor

Eb

minor

G mmor

minor

3. Write the following chords. (Small Roman numerals are used for minor chords.)

The i chord in the key of C minor ..

Thei chord in the key of G minor.

The i chord in the key of F minor.

J

69 (

LESSON 67

OTHER CHORDS AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED

Any major triad can be made augmented by raising the fifth degree Y2 step.

C Major Triad

C Augmented Triad

C Augmented Triad

~ also c~~~t:~~~ . ~ major 3rd

~ augmented triads ~ major 3rd by interval.

C + = C augmented

+

augmented

J

Any minor triad can .be made diminished by lowering the fifth degree Y2 step.

C Minor Triad

C Diminished Triad

C Diminished Triad

You can also construct diminished triads by interval.

Co = C diminished

~minor3rd ~minor3rd

o = diminished

1. Write the following augmented triads.

.I

II

.I

c+

D+

F+

A+

G+

)

2. Write the following diminished triads.

)

II

I

3. Write the following triads.

I

G+

C+

70

LESSON 68 REVIEW OF LESSONS 65-67

1. Transpose the following melodies to the indicated keys.

()

II

transpose to

II

transpose to

II

transpose to

II

2. Write the following chord progression.

3. Write the same chord progression with smooth voice leading. Indicate the inversions used.

II

Cmin

Frnin

G7

Cmin

4. Write the following chords.

II

C+

BPmin

Dmin

F+

E~min

G+

D+

Abmin

Cmin

A+

II

Gmin

Amin

Fmin

71

LESSON 69 ANOTHER CHORD PROGRESSION

Another chord progression that is very popular in all styles of music combines major and

L minor chords. The progression is I vi ii V7 I.

L [;

~ ~ L

L L L L

~

~

~

~

~ 1. Write the following chords.

In the key of C, this progression would be:
C Amin Dmin G7 C
, § I II
§ § !
I vi ii Y7 I II

Gmin

Dmin

Emin

Amin

Cmin

Bmin

2. Write the I vi ii V7 I progression in the key of F.

II

3. Write the I vi ii V7 I progression in the key of G.

II

4. Write the I vi ii V7 I progression in the key of C.

72

LESSON 70 MORE ON INVERSIONS

The movement from one chord to the next in the I vi ii V7 I progression can be made to sound smoother by using inversions.

~ C Amin Dmin G7 C
! it § If ! II
I VI II V7 I
1st inversion 1 st inversion When Roman numerals are used, the first inversion is indicated with the number 6, the second inversion with the numbers ~. (Ex: I chord in 1 st and 2nd inverslons=-L, 16)

4

When chord symbols are used, the first inversion is indicated with the letter name of the chord first, followed by a diagonal line and the letter name of the bass note. (Ex: G chord in 1 st inversion-G/B)

The first inversion of the dominant seventh chord is indicated as a V6. 5

1. Write the I, vi, iii V71 I progression in the key of F, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

2. Write the II vi, ii, V7, .1 progression in the key of G, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

3. Write the I, vi, ii, V7, I progression in the key of BO, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

4. Write the I, vi, ii, V7, I progression in the key of D, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

73

LESSON 71 MORE TRANSPOSITION

) ) ) ) )

By using the Roman numerals, we can transpose the two progressions we know to any key. By using numbers, syllables, or intervals, we can transpose any melody to any other key. If something new occurs, like a sharp or flat within the melody, or an augmented or diminished chord within the harmony, they would be treated the same way.

)

) )

Melody in C

Melody transposed to the key of F

)

II

) )

)

In the melody in C, the F in bar 3 is raised Y2 step to F#.

In the key of F, the sf:, would have to be raised Y2 step to Bq.

j

j

j

In the example below, look at each chord and think the Roman numerals. Then think the letter names.

) )

Harmony in C Harmony transposed to the key of F.
~ C C+ F G7 C ,~ F+ B~ C7 F
II! I I I II I#§ I ! I Wi § II
! n If !
-&
I 1+ IV6 V6 I I 1+ IV6 V6 I
4 5 4 5 ) )

,I

) )

,I

)

J

1. Transpose this melody and harmony to the key of sf:, .

.I

) )

1J ~ I I I I
1,11 ,..
.
,tJ I I •
) 8-: ~-a- : r?: -6~H g.:
I · . . • . .
· I'"
\ L.f ,)

)

I

J+

I

,I

)

)

I'l I
I
I e)
1
j
I ·
·
\ ,I

.I , ,I

)

(

74

LESSON 72 REVIEW OF LESSONS 69-71

1. Write the I vi ii V7 I progression in the key of Eb, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

2. Write the I vi ii V7 I progression in the key of C, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

II

3. Transpose the following melody to the key of A.

~~~ J J I r F 1~E1 E1 I J J I J F I E!r E1 I r II

II

4. Transpose the following melody and harmony to the key of F.

r. • . .
I
1 U I I I
j
r.
-.' q 1['" 1['1>
\ ~ I

ii

I

fl
J
1 tJ
)
.
.
\ 75

LESSON 73

RELATIVE MINOR KEY SIGNATURES NATURAL MINOR

All major keys have a relative minor key which uses the same key signature. The key tone of the minor key is a minor third, or 3 half steps, below the key tone of its relative major.

J

C Major

down a minor 3rd from C is A

A Minor

A minor and C major both have the same key signature.

.J

)

The natural minor scale uses the key signature of the relative major scale.

.J

4 0 Q e
A natural minor I' 0 Il II
() 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 )

.J

)

l. Write the name, key signature, and key tone of the relative minor of the following major keys.

Major Key

Minor Key

Key Tone

F

D

J

c

j

G

.J

.J 2. Write the A natural minor scale.

II

3. Write the 0 natural minor scale .

./ 4. Write the E natural minor scale.

,II

76

LESSON 74 HARMONIC MINOR

The harmonic minor is the most commonly used minor scale in Western music. It is based on the natural minor, but the 7th scale degree is raised 1/2 step.

A Natural Minor A Harmonic Minor
, 0 -e , 0 ~o -e
II 0 II II II
n 0 II a
0 a n a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Write the following harmonic minor scales. First write the relative major key signature. Then write the natural minor scale. Then raise the 7th scale degree 112 step.

1. D Harmonic Minor

2. E Harmonic Minor

3. G Harmonic Minor

II

4. C Harmon ic Mi nor

77

LESSON 75 MELODIC MINOR

The melodic minor scale is different ascending and descending. Ascending, the 6th and 7th degrees of the natural minor scale are raised % step; descending, the natural form of the minor is used (both accidentals are cancelled).

A Melodic Minor
, .0 #0 -e qQ ~o
6> 'I 0 0 II
() oL~
(' 6> 6> 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Write the ascending and descending form of the following melodic minor scales. First write the relative major key signature. Then write the natural minor scale ascending and descending. Then raise the 6th and 7th scale degrees ascending and return them to their original form descending.

1. 0 Melodic Minor

2. G Melodic Minor

II

3. C Melodic Minor

4. E Melodic Minor

I

78

LESSON 76 REVIEW OF LESSONS 73-75

1. The key tone of a relative minor scale is a minor below the key tone of

-----

its relative major scale.

2. The minor scale uses the key signature of the relative major

scale without any accidentals.

3. The harmonic minor scale raises the scale degree of a natural

minor scale step.

4. The minor is different ascending and descending.

5. The ascending version of the melodic minor scale raises the _

and scale degrees step.

6. The descending version of the minor scale is the same as the

_________ minor.

Write the following scales:

7. A Melodic Minor (Ascending and Descending)

II

8. C Natural Minor

9. F# Harmonic Minor

II

10. B Melodic Minor (Ascending and Descending)

79

,)

)

LESSON 77 HARMONIZING A MELODY

It is relatively easy to harmonize a melody. Since you know the notes in the chords, you can analyze the melody to see if the notes outline a chord you know. Usually chords change in each measure.

./

'2 j J j I J J I J J J J I j J II
c E G A F D F G F E C In measure 1 the notes C, E, G are all found in the C chord. In measure 2 the notes A & F are all found in the F chord.

In measure 3 the notes D, F, G are all found in the G7 chord. In measure 4 the notes E & C are all found in the C chord. The chord progression of the melody is C F G7 C or I IV V7 I.

1. Harmonize the following melody. First analyze the notes in each measure. After you have decided the name of the chord, write it above the top staff, and write the notes of the chord on the bottom staff. Then write the Roman numeral to show the chord's function within the key. The first measure is done for you.

F

f'l - _
I _Ii - _-
~y ..... • •
) ~ ., I I ~
I ~
·
•• ... ~
\ " ... I

2. Harmonize the following melody in the same manner as you did above.

.J

fl. .. r: _ n •

I .
-
t ·
·
\ .J

3. On the staff below, rewrite the harmony with smooth voice leading and name the inversions of the chords used.

II

80

LESSON 78

PASSING TONES AND NEIGHBORING TONES

Melodies often contain notes that are not contained in the chord. Sometimes, these notes pass from one chord tone to another and are called passing tones.

C G7 C
~j ~ I E ~ E II
~ ~ F 0
I V7 r I
Passing Passing
Tone Tone Sometimes notes are above or below a chord tone. They immediately return to the chord tone and are called upper neighbors and lower neighbors, or simply neighboring tones or auxiliary tones.

~j C G7 C
I~ J II
F ~ F r II
I
t I t
I V7 I
Upper Lower
Neighbor Neighbor 1. Circle the upper neighbors and passing tones.

F BO F

~ pi r r F: I r r ~ I fJ r

I IV I

C7 F
E • I Err tJ l~ J II
I d 0
V7 I 2. Circle the lower neighbors and passing tones.

G

~-2 J

J WI F F

I E Err r rJ2J[r

j.

II

I

I

IV

v

I

V7

I

3. Harmonize the following melody, circling any passing tones and neighboring tones.

Indicate the chord names above the top staff and write the notes of the chord, with smooth voice leading, on the bottom staff. Write the Roman numerals to show the chord's function within the key and indicate the inversions used.

f'l I • - !""""'I
» rJ .I'l ..
, ~ i..--' """""'01 - I -d
( .
.
\ . v q 81

LESSON 79 COMPOSING A MELODY

In the past lessons, we have added harmony to an existing melody. It is also possible to compose a melody over an existing harmony. The process is the same: first think of the notes in the chord, then add passing tones and/or neighboring tones to make the melody more interesting.

c

F

G7

c

f'l _ • ,-_
1 ~ ·
,y ...
, ~
I . · · ·
. · · ·
\ · . · ·
. ~ .
c.. • - I I

IV

V7

I

1. Compose a melody over the existing harmony.

r...
~
I ~
t 0
,.
\ 0
0 0 I

IV

V7

I

2. Compose a melody over the existing harmony.

1 f1 flo
L' t;.
I -,
~
) ri'
( Q
.
~
\
~ I

vi

ii

V7

I

3. On the staff below, rewrite the harmony with smooth voice leading and name the inversions of the chords used.

II

(

82

LESSON 80 REVIEW OF LESSONS 77-79

1. Notes that pass from one chord to another are called tones.

2. Notes that are above and immediately return to a chord tone are called upper _

3. Notes that are below and immediately return to a chord tone are called lower _

4. Circle the passing tones in the following melody.

D Bruin Emin A7 D A7 D
'$ti~ ~1 J I fJ J I jJ J I ~ J I J jJ I r F r r II
J 5. Ci rcle the neighboring tones in the following melody.
EO AO B07 EO B07 EO
, pp·2 r J r I J F J I r r r' I r r r r r I r· II 6. Harmonize the following melody, circling any passing tones and neighboring tones.

Indicate the chord names above the top staff and write the notes of the chord, with smooth voice leading, on the bottom staff. Write the Roman numerals to show the chord's function within the key and indicate the inversions used.

fl
_- I'" ,. -
I r"" " •
u Iooo",j
I ·
._._.
< .. 7. Compose a melody over the existing harmony.

fl ~ tt
,
I r:;
I iJ. -8
·
·
\ ~ I

IV

V7

I

83

LESSON 81

CHORD PROGRESSIONS IN MINOR KEYS

The i iv v v7 chord progression in a minor key is derived from the scale the same as it is in a major key.

~ Amin Dmin Emin7 Amin
II I II II
n 0
0
#
iv v7 The above is based on the natural minor scale. The most popular minor scale is the harmonic minor because the raised 7th makes the last two notes of the scale sound more final (ti, do). If we changed the above scale to harmonic minor, the G would become G# and the v r chord would become E7 (V7). This major five chord also gives the key a better sense of finality and is the one you will usually use.

~ Amin Dmin E7 Amin
0 ,I #0 H II
! ()
iv V7 1. Write the i iv V7 i chord progression in the key of A minor.

II

2. Write the i iv V7 i chord progression in the key of 0 minor.

3. Write the i iv V7 i chord progression in the key of E minor, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the inversions used.

II

4. Write the i iv V7 i chord progression in the key of G minor, using smooth voice leading.

Indicate the inversions used.

84

LESSON 82 HARMONIZING A MELODY IN MINOR

To harmonize a melody in a minor key, use the same procedure as you did for a major key. Analyze the melody to see if it outlines a chord you know. Look for passing tones and neighboring tones which are not members of the chord and are sometimes called nonchord tones.

4 i J j 1 j IJ J :J J Ij J ,j II
0
A B C E D F G F E F G# A
t. t t
passing upper passing
tone neighbor tone In measure 1 the notes A, C, E are all found in the A minor chord, the B is a passing tone. In measure 2, the notes 0 & F are all found in the Q minor chord, the G is an upper neighbor.

In measure 3 the notes E & G~ are all found in the E7 chord, the F is a passing tone. In measure 4 the note A is found in the A minor chord.

The chord progression of the melody is A minor, 0 minor, E7, A minor; or i iv V7 i in A rrunor.

1. Harmonize the following melody. First analyze the notes in each measure, circling all nonchord tones. After you have discovered the name of the chord, write it above the top staff and write the notes of the chord on the bottom staff. Then write the Roman numeral to show the chord's function within the key.

fl I .~- . ~ ... -
I tJ I - T' I
( ·
·
\ J ~. 2. Harmonize the following melody in the same manner as you did above, but write the harmony with smooth voice leading. Name the inversions used.

f1 L I -
1'1- • ~ .
I t.J -e- ..._.. --&0
<
( ·
\ 85

LESSON 83 COMPOSING A MELODY IN MINOR

In the past lessons, we have added harmony to an existing melody. It is also possible to compose a melody over an existing harmony. The process is the same: first think of the notes in the chord, then add passing tones and/or neighboring tones to make the melody more i nteresti ng.

Amin

DOOn

E7

Amin

f'I -
, tJ I
<
j
.
. x ~
\ ~ 0
i'I' i

iV6 4

i

.J

~ 1. Compose a melody over the existing harmony .

.J

f'I
tJ
I ~ n
· x
·
\ ... ~ iV6

2. Compose a melody over the existing harmony .

.J

;) J

fl. I
tJ
I · · ·
· · · ·
· . ~ . ·
\ . ·
G • ~ 1

iv

V7

i

3. On the staff below, rewrite the harmony in smooth voice leading and name the inversions of the chords.

II

86

LESSON 84

REVIEW OF LESSONS 81-83 COMPOSING A COMPLETE SONG

You now have the knowledge to compose many songs in many keys. You can begin by writing a melody and harmonizing it, or by writing a harmonic progression and adding a melody over it. The only thing we still need is a lyric or the words to the song. Some composers write the lyric first and others write the music first. You should try both ways until you see what is the best for you. A fun way to begin is to take a poem you like and set that to music before you try to create your own lyric.

The following is a suggested plan for you to use:

1. Pick a lyric you like (either an existing poem or a lyric you created).

2. Say it aloud many times until you feel its rhythmic flow.

3. Decide on the time signature that fits the lyric's flow.

4. Underline the strong beats of the lyric-these words should fallon the strong beats of the measure.

5. Sketch the rhythm of the melody.

At this point, you have to decide whether you want to write the melody first, or the harmony first.

Melody First

6. Pick a key and decide whether your song will be in major or minor.

7. Create your melody, remembering the feeling of the lyric and the mood you are tryi ng to depict.

8. Analyze the melody to see what harmony will sound the best.

9. Write the harmony in smooth voice leading.

10. Go back and adjust the melody, chords, and lyric until it is just the way you want it.

11. Add a title to your song; sing it and play it.

Harmony First

6. Pick a key and decide whether your song will be in major or minor.

7. Create your harmonic progression with smooth voice leading.

8. Create your melody based on the harmonic progression, remembering the feeling of the lyric and the mood you are trying to depict.

9. Go back and adjust the melody, chords, and lyric until it is just the way you want it.

10. Add a title to your song; sing it and play it.

~
L
~
~ 87
~
II
~
L
~
L
~
L
~
V
~
~ 88

89

90

91

USING THE COMPUTER DISKETTE

Floppy Disk: After installing DOS on your system, insert the ALFRED disk, type ALFRED and press ENTER.

Hard Drive: Copy each Alfred program disk to its own subdirectory on hard drive. At prompt, type ALFRED and press ENTER.

Insert the ALFRED disk. Double click on the ALFRED icon to run the program. To copy to the hard disk drive: Make a new folder on the hard drive. Insert the first ALFRED disk, select the SELECT ALL Option from the edit menu, and drag the files into the new folder on the hard disk. Make a new folder and repeat this process for each disk.

This is a "flippy" (APPLE/COMMODORE) disk. Insert the disk in the disk drive of your computer (Apple side up) and turn the computer on. The disk wi II boot automatically.

"

SPECIAL TIPS FOR APPLE IIGS USERS: Enter the Control Panel by holding down the Ctrl, Open-Apple and Esc keys simultaneously. Set SLOT 2 to YOUR CARD (vs. Modem) in the Control Panel. Your MIDI interface card must be in slot 2. Set SYSTEM SPEED to NORMAL (vs. Fast). This program will not function with an external MIDI device attached to the external port on the back of the Apple IIGS.

COMMODORE This is a "flippy" (APPLE/COMMODORE) disk. Turn the computer on, insert the disk (Commodore side up) and type: LOAD "Start," 8, 1 then press RETURN. The disk will boot automatically.

)

I

!

For your convenience, the Alfred computer program disks are not copy protected. As the owner of this program diskette, you are encouraged to make a back-up copy for your personal use. You may also install the program on your hard disk. Remember: Store your original disk in a safe place.

/

I

r ;i

Alfred computer software is protected by the copyright laws pertaining to computer software. Copying the program diskette, except for back-up purposes, is illegal.

/

Alfred Publishing appreciates your cooperation in this matter. It will ensure our ability to continue to provide high-quality educational software.

)

,I

I

Alfred Publishing Co., Inc. guarantees the original purchaser of this Alfred product that the medium on which this computer program is recorded is free from defect of materials and workmanship for a period of 90 days from the date of original purchase. This Alfred software program is sold "as is," without express or implied warranty of any kind and Alfred is not libel for any losses or damages of any kind resulting from using the program, This warranty is not applicable to normal wear and tear. This warranty shall not be applicable and shall be void if the defect in this software product has arisen through abuse, unreasonable use, mistreatment or neglect. This warranty supersedes any implied warranties whether verbal or written.

)

)

92

ANSWERS TO REVIEW LESSONS

10

LESSON 4 REVIEW OF LESSONS 1-3

1. Music is written on a__£____ line st .. ff

2. There are~.s.paces on the staff.

3. N otes on higher I Ines e ndror spaces 50und_~ tha n notes On lower I i nes li ndjo,

4. rhetreblc clef establishes the note --'L__ On the second L:.. s...-' .

5. The bess clef establlshes thenote~on the~ line

G. N ate) are named after' the f rst __2_ letters of the al phabet {~ through ....fr._ 1.

7. Draw the treble clef and name the notes indicated

L

8. Draw the- bass clef and name the notes indicated

£

:

:

E A U C

G

10. Draw the bass clef and write the notes indicated.

:

:

: II

:

G

D

G

A

c

11 Draw the treble, clef, name the notes and indicate if the first note sounds higher (H) or ~Dw£'r(LJ than the second note

12 Draw the bass clef, name the notes and indicate if the fir .. t. note sounds higher (H) or lower (L) than the second note

I" Ii! I" I

: . : U ..,.._

II

LESSON 8 REVIEW OF LESSONS 5-7

l The durettcn of musical sound is indicated bv dlffetent types of~ 2: One whole note equals- two~ notes.

3 Two ha lf ncres eQU al_L.__ whole note.

4 Four quarter notes equaL_~ __ half notes,

Two quarter notes eque I one ~ note

6. Sterns go u p if notes are below the.:1.l.id..L_ line.

7 Stems go dcwn if the notes are on Or above the ~Iine

-6 Sterns going up are ettachec to the ~ side of the note' head, 9. Stems going down are attached to the ~ side of the note head. lO Mu.s.ic::: is divided into~.s.€'parated by~llnes.

11. The end of a piece of musk is indicated bya~ ~tine.

l2. The top number of a ~ iJlp,;/j.M( shows the number of beats in each measure

13. The bottom number of a time signature shows what Kind of note get.s._L_ beat.

14. l n 2 time. there Me ____!:f__ beats in €3ch measure a nd a /1'1= note gets one beat

15- Write the beats under the notes below

16. Add the bar lines. in the following example

II~ j d

J J J

J J d

J J II

J

17. Ftll ln the missing beats with the correct note values wnte onlv one note in aach measure

d

II~

II

18. Count the beats and c lap the rhythm of all the line s above

14

18

LESSON 12 REVIEW OF LESSONS 9-11

1 The treble clef and bass clef can be joined together by a~

2. When the treble clef and bass clet are combined. they form the ~ ~.

3. A~ line is added above or below either staff.

4. The duration of musical silence is ind icatec by d itferent types of~.

5. One whole rest eqva Is r.wu.....2..:k._ rests b. Two half rests equal_.1___ whole rest.

7. Four Quarter rests equal---...k:._ half rests 8, Two Quarter rests equal of'le~ rest

9. Name the notes indicated

o

fr

10. Name the notes indicated

<>

l1. Draw the notes indicated. I f one pitch ca n be drawn in more the none p!a C€" On the staff. choose which one you wish to write. Add the bar lines and end the line with a double bar line.

A

LHaif -cies.J

g B G

C IDe

D Hall note

A C

L.9n~~~:~

F Whohe note

12. Using a II 01 the notes and rests you know Iwbole, half, quarter) write your awn thvthm solo.

(MI:!I'& rhJII Il.vli~'_' ~."bti""'iYooti

13 Add the COIJI"1tinS under each measure of your solo, then clap the thythm.

fin Ih~ ""'''.inifltl ~",,_~;,,"r.r, ...,oilltmr11"f r1UKrO()olIM_t~NtN ~Qrr«I, gmr-"" ... ,bhi~~"liIm .... I1w "I"...,.!

II

II

LESSON 16 REVI.EW OF LESSONS 13-15

1. In ~ time. there are_____&__beats in each measure. A quarter note rece-ives _L_beat

2. Iii i time, there are_J__beats in each measure. A {/.;.. note receives one beat.

3. A dot placed after a note adds 1/2,t the ve I LJe of the original note.

4. Add the number of counts and write the sum under each line.

J j_

3

J J. 5"

J. J 't

o-

_1_

<>

'7

"

j_

s:

Add the number 01 COUrlt:S. and write one note equal in value to the sum.

J J T

d. l_

J d 7

o

o

6. On the following lines, draw the bar line:s- to complete each measure and write the counting under each measure

I 1

J

J

J

II~

I ~,

J J J

t ,I d.

J J

. ( ,

J J

, o\_ )

~ J

J II

II~

, L,

. ,

, 1 j

J J

J J

j

J.

d

II

7. Draw the brace, treble clef. bass clef. arid name the notes indicated. Then add the bar I ines and clap the rhythm.

I ~ I

. ,]

J II

.. l

e.

8 Complete the following rhythmic line with notes and rests, then add the counting under each measure.

J

j

J I

.. ~

j

II

Q

LESSON 20 REVIEW OF LESSONS 17-19

1 A tie is a curved line that connects two notes of the~pitch.

2. The tone is hel d (I s though the two notes were ~,

3. A slur is a,curved IIIW that connects two notes 01 ~Pitch

4, A slur indicates that the music is to be sung or played as Mfta--ti'j as possible 5 Twodol5~laced before a double bar IS a~sigl1.

6 A repear stgn me~mgob;:),c.ktothE.&~n~ and play again.

Sometimes, you repeat back to 3nother~si~n

8. If a piece has a first and second ending, you play ,the first ending the -.&Uw.i; lime

only. On the repeat you~the lirst ending and play the 4.L'A"lt-d... ending.

9. Add the number of counts and write the sums

o + LJ " 5 L ,Ld. 7
J , d_ • '"' 't: • 'f
+ LJ • j, .d- o 1
Ld. . s d + J~J . 5' 10. Subtract the number of counts and write the remainder,

LJ- -;1.. - J · 3
J. - ,. "l.- J~Ld. • 0
- J - :;, J. - d · I
J~J - J ~ I - d_ ... 11. Write the word ne or iiu(, describing the curved line in each measure

;:>:9 I' r I (Tr I [e)

It;)JI(»1l

W=r I &l

12. Each measure has one mistake. Make changes or additions 50 eecb measure is. correct.

r

IF

Or

1F1

93

26

LESSON 24 REVIEW OF LESSONS 21-23

1 An eighth note looks like a quarter note with a ~iJdded to its stem. 2 Two or more eighth notes are Joined together by a ~

3. Two eighth notes equal_L_quarter note.

4, Four eighth notes eQlJal.....d:.L_quarter notes.

5. One whole note eQuals""'&'_half notes, or _L_quartE;-i notes, or _____i____eighth notes.

fl. A dotted '/ If note receives 11fl counts.

7. Answer each problem with only one note.

J • 1'. J J.+~~.J J + J - J. J.. J • 0

n + l' " J.
ri. J J
J. + n· 0
J . .n. J. Answer each problem with only one note,

J -} T

oJ -J.

-J-.

J -} T

d. -JJ

-J-

d -JJ

-1-

-n

-J-.

9. Write the correct time signature for each of the following measures

II~ J J\ II II~ J J }II II~ ,.011 1Iq. d. II
1140 flTIJ ~ II Iii J. }j II II; y}.1 II II~ n,J II
'f 't 10 Write the following rhythm Oil the blank staff using any notes you wish.

III .I. • I.J n I ' Q I oJ

30

LESSON 28 REVIEW OF LESSONS 25-27

1 A flat slgn (bJ~the pitch of" note one hall step.

2. A sharpsign(#l 1!4MI.1t

the pitch of a note one- half stc-p.

3. A naturalsign (~) cancels the effect of a Moop' Of 61d

4. Flats, sharps and naturals are called La:lnnhJ

S Answer the following four qcevuorrs Hue or false

~A flat or sharp .,.He(;IS everv nOI on the same line or space for an entire measure ~ A natural Sign cancels a sharp or flat within (he same measure

~A bar line does not cancel an accidental

~ When a note IS ued across the bar line. its accidental is cancelled.

6. On the blank staffs below, write the following piece, usmg three repeat signs and ls.t and 2nd endings T hen name the nores

CULMINATION COMPOSITION

H r I J r-r-I

1;0 F r : i f I

F m-Eftfr

1('·

r r

~ ,I

r F Iff F r Fir

r 7 I j

CULMINATION COMPOSITION WITH REPEATS

1 M2-.--------

J,M f ~ 1 i I j if) Ill! I ! pi cal III W! f liE

34

LESSON 32 REVIEW OF LESSONS 29-31

1. Tones of the scale are separated bv~or4~teps Each black key has....b..._ names

3 The black key s gel their names from the ~ keys.

4. when going up the keyboard, the black key name) are a 4&rluL a hail step by using the 5ymbol1t for sharp.

5_ When going down the keyboard. the black key names are D&y-IA.Lf,/_ a half ste-p by using the.svmbol.fl_for flat

6. When fWD notes sound the same but have different letter names, they are <ailed

~01!"7'l'4l!/c.!

7. In the chromatic scale, each note is a ~s.tep apart. 8_ T he major scale is comprised of ____s__ consecutive tones. 9_ Th€' major scale ts comprised of ....&_tetrachords.

10. The formula of whole and half steps for a major scale is:

11. Indicate whether the distance between each group of notes. is a half step ('1zi or a whole step (W)

~ 0:::1) II <> '! ~II
e D D
-e 0
u: kL tJ.;" 'h- I.L W' '.& I.J 12. Write an ascending chromatic scale beginning on the note C

~ .. '1\+ Q '0 d' a'"

"

.,

II

1), Write a descending chromatic scale beginning on the note C .. "~,,

9:

VQ

..

l4. Write a C major- scale in the two octaves that are indicated by the starting ann ending notes.

~ ,-2 . ... ..., J
II
... 94

se

LESSON 36 REVIEW OF lESSONS 33-35

True or false

1 ~ The formula of whole and half steps is the same tor all major scales 2. ~ The key of F comams 1 sharp.

3~ ThE' kevof BtJ contains z Hats

4.~ The-key-of p ccr-tatos z Hats

S. ~ The-key of Eb contains 3 flats

6. ~ The key 5lgn-1llure is placed at the beginning 01 a composrtlon, rmmedratelv following the clef

7. ~ The amount of sharps and/or Ilatsin the treble clef ~ ... gnature is different from the amount lor the '5-~Hnf' key III the bass clef

8. write the following scales first write the key ~ignaILlre. then name the nOI.€5

o~ major scale
+t --~:. - --:--"<= -¥TIl
... ., ~ ----==0=: -
x_ c, JL li L -"'- A V
D rnejcr see le
~ ~ ~ II
" .,.
Jl_ _f._ I! --": .s, A c: .JL
F major scale
""'I 0- ---q--- ----------'--0 H "3
.. -=p
L fi_ .s, d _c,_ ,J>_ L_ E_
G major scale
;1"* a.:. -- --= ft1
'" n <>= ---
_Go s. .a. .c, .JL .E.. £1 s;, Eb -naior scale
f ".:: - -= .,. SS±J
'g d --
_E__ _G: 1l!' ;O_ c, J!_ 51 42

LESSON 40 REVIEW OF LESSONS 37-39

, ~'arerelat€Jbyfrf~hs

2 The key of f ha.s._____!t__.s.harps 3 The ke~' ol____.8___ has .) aha rps .. Th€ key 01 Ab- has ___!£_ flats S ThE'key~f~hEl~5flilts

6. Name IhE' kevs indicated by the following key signatures

7 Wr-ite the Following key signQture~·

o.

so

!Hj

D

8, write the order of sharps.
___£_ ____C_ _s.L :if ___pt___ L _J5!__
9. Wr~le the order yt flats
J:L £_? L _J)~ .d. __d__ _f!__ 46

LESSON 44 REVIEW OF LESSONS 41-43

Define (he following symbols:

1_ II ';<"1 e..w. d..

2 I (1,&", IL

} m/"",~.['I'1 &.u..L 4 mp~ ary !J4.-ft

Define the- following terms

, D.C. 9" b ,,J t$' d.L. J",-'jk"";"'~

2_ D.S Y .t...cJ. /'" ,J,< J& ~-'

3. Fine u..... taL . _ ..

4. D.C..I Fine r' b.du,iy tk u,;,,_,,;,.. u"ff1t-ilL u.l (~)

5 D_S_,lfln. ,., hrf' t~ r.L.. q'rJ(I"J"-d;il"1 tiJ4 u.d(P)

~: ~T:; ~::: fl!f!:J!;7i:z;;1l!'Jf:/:;::~J;tf::=<-a_ cA~

Presto J~ I-MI

10 AIIE",gro

11. Moderato 12 Adagio

13 LMgO

14 Ritardando 15. Accelere .. do

On the blank lines below, write this rhythmic composition as it would be played.

% •

II! J J I $ J I $ n I J J I J J I JJJJ I J J I d II

D.S. ul Cod"

"l I t P °1 1 I J In .rJ1 p
ID n I ~ n II 50

LESSON 48 REVIEW OF LESSONS 45-47

1 A sixteenth note looks like an eighth note with e second~add@d to its stem

Two or more sixteenth notes are [oi ned together by two ~ 3 Four sixteenth notes equa1~eighth notes

4 E i,!jhl sixteenth notes equal bne~notE'.

5 One whale note equals sixteenth notes.

o. A dotted__it..L__ note equals V. of a count

., Answer' each probl e m with on I II one note

fL} J.+JJ.J

J1. 11

fffi n I
. 0
J }I n 6.
rn if: ~
m J. .}I J
J n~ a
..
» + J +~ J Answer each problem with only one note

LJI.iffl ),-. J • )

J+.J+.n=5

I

• 0-

J

o

9, Write the correct time signatures fOr each of the following tneesures

lfflOJ,

~i""j

• 4-11

~! on II

10, w-ne the D & C scales usjng eighth, dotted t>ighlh; and sixteenth notes. first write the kev slgnarure. then the 1 time 5ign~l..,re

J!N. D:O>l. rf8 ~

~!_ F ~ CJdl~~

11. Writf' a Bb sc ale usir'lg eighth, dotted eighth. and visteenth notes First write the key s-gnetute. then the i rime signature

~r~ ~ 4=-- 1 l:=]

E3

f71

II

I

54

LESSON 52 REVIEW OF LESSONS 49-51

1. The term ~ refers to the distance between two notes.

2. lntervats aee counted from th~~ note to the higher one

3. If two note) are sounded simultaneously. they are called l&A..nun..l&r 4, II two notes are sounded in succession. thev are caIJed~itd;r

5. If [he upper note of an interval is found in the major scale built on the lower note. it is called a dla..l:tnU." interval.

6. If the upper note of an interval i!i not found in the major .. cale built on the lower note. it i~ called a. dAq1rtW·Ci interval.

7. Name the Intervals indicated.

:

'U'

. 8. Write the Intervals lndlcated.

pp

fro. dim2

B

...

.. (lugS

dimS

dim4

minJ

aug8

9. Name the intervals indicated.

':

:

:

OIl'

10. write the intervals indicated

~II

~ oj

* .. aug4

P5

rnin2

dim2

dimS

mal).

min3

dim6

11

II

II

95

58

LESSON 56 REVIEW OF LESSONS 53-55

1. In g tlme. an~not~ receives one beat.

2. In g time. there are~beats in each measure

3. In g time, there are six beats in each mt'# AM .....

4. I n A time, an eighth note receives___.1__co'-1nt

5. When ij time is played test. it is counted "in__}__"

6. When ~ is played fast, il is cocrued "in~" 7 _c,_ is the symbol for common time

8. e i5the:s.ymbolfor~lime.

9. Cut nme is also cil.lled~Breve.

10. Po triplet is a group of___j__,notes.

II. When accents are placed on weak beats, it is called 1I.'f""u:p4,i;""";

Add the bar lines and write the counting under each measure Then Count the beats and clap the rhythm

Fut'lin 1"

12.II~m

I ~ 3

II

Fut "in 2"

m}j I

r L I If r"

13. II g l' J

, • l

rn

,

II ill

J

m~

Jffln J t II

, ,,_ ~ I , T

J

I.

n

f ".

II

16. Write an E' scale, using a svoccoatec rhythm pattern FIrst write the key signature, then the ~ time signature

!,

II

61

LESSON 60 REVIEW OF LESSONS 57-59

A chord rs ~ combination of _ _,,3.,__or more tones sounded Simultaneously.

2. A tnad is a _-""- not€' chord.

A major triad is made up or <I root. ilM d(

and fifth.

4 A major triad gets ir~ name from lhe ~ note

The natural movement from one chord to anal her is ca ued a c1.tv, d

b. Write the chords indicated.

:r g

c

o

A

7. Write the chords indicated.

I

G

Write the IIV V I progression in the following keys. Writ~ the Roman numerals below the staff and 11..· letter names of the chords above the ';'Iaff.

e

Ii

IV

v

~b 'hi' !

f .. I

r

:£il ~& i

LESSON 64 REVIEW OF LESSONS 61-63

1 Write the follo ..... lng dominant 7!h chords.

it

d

Pi

C1

£1

8.7

,1

A7

G1

D1

2. Write the tst inversions of the following chords.

,II

EO

G

D

c

J. Write the 2nd inversions of the following chords,

'}l "! ! ~~! t

o

G

c

4. WritE' the 3rd Inversions of the following chords.

,JI

J

yO

D7

G7

C1

A7

F7

5. Wr_tE' the I, IV, V-' progression in the' ke'Y of D. using smooth voice leadlng.

Indicate the chord names and the i"\lers;,on~ used,

t ~,

6. Write the I, IV, V1 progression in the k.ey of ebo, using smooth voice leading.

I ndicate the chord names a nd the in.v~tljions used.

E* if· eI-" /..

a 1 '\ i

:r

7. Wri.te IhE' I. IV. V7 progression in the key of A, IJsing smooth voicE" leadins.

Indicate the chord names and the inversions used. •

~ p ~1 A

Q !

~.it

H

96

70

LESSON 68 REView OF LESSONS 65-67

1. Transpose the followlng melodies to the indicated keys.

II

transpose to

r

transpose to

rrltTf1

tHt tI r r IF

transpose !O

<lid 0 0 I r

]

2. Write I h-e follcwi I'lS chord progression

3. Writ€' the same chord progression with smooth voice leading. Indicate the inversions used.

~$~~I~.~~i*~~I~~,t~II~$~rJ~~P!~~~~~,~~

Cmln C~. -f~.~ ,(,1 t. .... ~

2'!l... ,14""",

Cmin

G1

Fmsn

4, Write the follo w ing chords.

Dmin

E~mln

G+

t §

erni"

Gmlm

Amin

Fmin

- -- --_ .. _------- --------------------------

74

LESSON 72 REVIEW OF LESSONS 69-71

1. Write' the ~ v i ii V7 I progression in the- key of E~, using smoot h voice leading Indicate the chord names and the inversions used.

$..' .c~ 'f' .... .!

2. Write the I vi ii V-' I progression in the key 01 C. using smooth voice leading Indicate the chord names {l:nd the inversions used.

1

-r

3. Transpose the following melody 10 1 he key of A

t

I'D [! II

II

II

4. Transpose the following melody and harmony to the key of F.

78

LESSON 76 REVIEW OF LESSONS 73-75

1. The key lone or a relative mi nor scale is a mi nor tLd d below the key tune of its relative major scale.

2. The .m.A..1llA a.L minor scale uses the key Signature of the relative major

scale without My 'accidentals.

3. The harmonic minor scale raises the __ 7.L<.otL""-----scale degree of a natural minor scale ~ step.

mi nor is different ascending and descending.

Write- the following scales:

7_ A Melodic Mil10r (Ascending and Descending)

q

"

B. C Natural Minor

!fo

9, F~ Harmonic Minor

; ..

;ttl i B

.L_I

e

10. 8 Melodic Minor (Ascending and De-scending)

o

»" .,J Ao

8

I

LESSON 80 REVIEW OF LESSONS 77-79

"I. Notes that pass from one chord 10 a nether arp ceuec ,014 d,t. .... !

tones.

2. Notes that are above and immediately return to a chord tone are called upper a~IIJ'fP141 3, Notes that are below and immediately return to a chord tor-e are called lower .... _I;_y~)

4 Circle tn€ passing tones in the foll-owing melody.

o

A7

I J J

o

WJ Ej.

I _ F

Bmin

Ia@J

Emin

I J@J

I J

IT

II

5. Circle the- neighboring IO(Je~ in the rollowing melody.

II

6. Harmonize the following melody, clrcfing any passing tones and neighboring tones.

Indicate the chord names above the top staff and write the note; 01 the chord, with smooth voice leading. On the bottom staff. Write the Roman numerals 10 show the tho:rj:j'-s function within the k~y and indicete the inversions used.

F

1=

i:

7. Compose a melody o v er the exlsri ng harmony

IV

1

II

4 \\\ \1\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\",\\\\\1\\,,\ \ \\1\1

08828422&0

Pr.otloll Theory Complete: A ~

I. It -Instruatlon MUllc TlleOry ,

Courae I

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