Jupiter's Legacy

- A Quest for the Origin of Religion J. Richter

Fig. 1: Portrait of a flamen
public domain. image, ca 250-260 AD,by Jastrow (2006)

1 Introduction
Religion started as a series of bipolar elements, symbolizing the principle of fertility. Usually the bipolar religious symbols cover a range of popular human artefacts, such as: • • • Pillars and circles1 The antipodal letter symbols I and U2 The colours red & blue3

The cult culminated in several great gods named Iuppiter, IHVH, Tuisco, etcetera, which have been identified as bipolar symbols4. Colours have been playing a major role in Roman symbolism as well. Originally most of the cult's objects have been based on ceremonial sculptures or stones. The Roman cult required the ceremony of pouring water over the stone, wetting the crops, etcetera. In Rome the cuttings of the high priest's hair and nails must be preserved and buried beneath an arbor felix. No doubt these were all magic charms for fertility. The prerequisites for the Roman high priest (flamen dialis) and his relation to the sacred matrimony (confarreatio) with his assistant Flaminica dialis signify the high symbolic rank of matrimonial relationship in the original Roman religion. The assistance of the Flaminica dialis has played an essential role in Roman cults. Her dress consisted of a dyed robe and her hair was plaited up with a purple band in a conical form.
1: 2:

Both elements pillars and circles have been joined in cups Both elements may have been joined in the letters Δ, D and Ɵ 3: Both elements red and blue have been joined in purple 4: Dyaus' Legacy


The purple stripes at the noblest garments (the toga praetexta) may refer to Aaron's garments 5, which have been coloured in purple, red and blue. In Rome the cult image's face was painted red on festival days. This detail may also refer to the bi-faced sculpture Hermes of Roquepertuse, whose faces had been also be painted red. The Roman stones, the fringes at the garments and the colors indicate a fertility rite and its relations to the neighbouring rites, including IHVH's cult. In a Roman vocabulary the sky-god Jupiter obviously symbolizes eternity by chaining matrimonial couples under their self-chosen yoke, endlessly producing a new generation of youngsters. The fertile way of life is justified and needs to be supported by justice.


Dyaus' Legacy


2 Iuppiter's Etymology
Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case *Ious. Jove is a less common English formation based on Iov-, the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Linguistic studies identify the form *Iou-pater as deriving from the IndoEuropean vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr meaning "O Father Sky-god"). Older forms of the deity's name in Rome were Djeus-pater (“day/sky-father”), then Diéspiter. Djeus is the etymological equivalent of ancient Greece's Zeus and of the Teutonics' Ziu, gen. Ziewes. The Indo-European deity is thus the god from which Zeus and the Indo-Aryan Vedic Dyaus Pita are derived. The name of the god was adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter, and was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday now known in English as Thursday but originally called Iovis Dies in Latin, giving rise to Deus in Portuguese, jeudi in French, jueves in Spanish, joi in Romanian, giovedì in Italian, dijous in Catalan, Xoves in Galego, Joibe in Furlan. The divine names related to Jupiter seem to be related to the vocal pair I & U, which according to Dyaus' Legacy has been symbolizing a matrimonial couple. Numerous details in Roman tradition refer to matrimony, in which husband and spouse symbolize a fundamental bipolar couple. The first details may easily be recognized in the prerequisites for the Roman high priest (flamen dialis who had to be married to an assistant Flaminica dialis) and his relation to a sacred matrimony.


3 The sacred marriage (confarreatio)6
In ancient Rome, confarreatio was a traditional patrician form of marriage. The ceremony involved the bride and bridegroom sharing a cake of spelt, in Latin far or panis farreus, hence the rite's name. After the cake-ceremony the bride had to visit the Mutunus Tutunus to prepare herself for intercourse. The Flamen Dialis and Pontifex Maximus presided over the wedding, and ten witnesses had to be present. The woman passed directly from the hand (manus) of her father or head of household (the pater familias) to that of her new husband. Having parents who were married by confarreatio was a prerequisite for becoming a Vestal or the Flamen Dialis. Originally confarreatio seems to have been limited to those whose parents were also married by confarreatio, but later, perhaps with the rise of plebeian nobiles, this requirement must have been relaxed. Scipio Africanus presumably married his wife Aemilia Tertia by confarreatio, because their elder son was Flamen Dialis; yet Scipio's mother Pomponia was a plebeian. Likewise, Julius Caesar married Cornelia by confarreatio, although neither had patrician mothers, and Caesar's parents had not married by conferreatio. Divorce for confarreatio marriages, diffarreatio, was a difficult process and therefore rare. Not much is known about how diffarreatio was carried out except that there was a special type of sacrifice that caused the dissolution of the relationship between the man and woman. She would then pass back into the manus of her pater familias.

Info from Wkipedia's confarreatio and Mutunus Tutunus


4 Flamen Dialis
Originally, the confarreatio was indissoluble, and this remained true of the marriage of the Flamen Dialis. The other two major flamens, the Flamen Martialis and the Flamen Quirinalis, were also required to marry by confarreatio. The three major flamens were also required to marry virgins; further, if the wife of the Flamen Dialis died, he was immediately required to resign7. It is not clear if this was true of the other priests. The following prerequisites may now be listed for the Roman high priests (Flamen Dialis): • • • The Flamen Dialis had to born form parents who were married by confarreatio as a recursive ancester's legacy. The Flamen Dialis was also required to marry a virgin (his assistant, the Flaminica dialis) . The Flamen dialis had to me married by confarreatio which for the Flamen Dialis has always been indissoluble. If the spouse (and assistant) of the Flamen Dialis died, he was immediately required to resign8.

These prerequisites clearly demonstrate the fundamental aspect of matrimony and fertility for Roman religion. The Flamen Dialis has been allowed to always wear the Toga praetexta. Additionally (?) however he is said to have an official costume (apex and laena)..

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source: confarreatio source: confarreatio


5 Apex and laena
The official costume of a flamen, of great antiquity, was a hat called an apex and a heavy woollen cloak called a laena. The laena was a double-thick wool cloak with a fringed edge, and was worn over the flamen's toga with a clasp holding it around his throat. The apex was a leather skull-cap with a chin-strap and a point of olive wood on its top, like a spindle, with a little fluff of wool at the base of the spindle. The fluff of wool reminds me of the blue cords and the fringes in the borders of the Hebrew garments 9. In the German Bible these cords are violet. Numbers15:37-41 quotes: Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 38Speak to the children of Israel, and bid those who they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put on the fringe of each border a cord of blue: 39and it shall be to you for a fringe, that you may look on it, and remember all the commandments of Yahweh, and do them; and that you not follow after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you use to play the prostitute; 40that you may remember and do all my commandments, and be holy to your God. 41I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am Yahweh your God.


Flamen Dialis


The spindle and the fluff of wool may refer to the divine commands to use twined linen and the work of the embroiderer in Exodus 26:

shall make loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain from the edge in the coupling; and likewise shall you make in the edge of the curtain that is outmost in the second coupling.

shall make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the embroiderer.

Fig. 2: Portrait of a flamen. public domain. image, ca 250-260 AD,by Jastrow (2006)


6 Flaminica dialis
Flaminica was the name given to the wife of the dialis. He was required to wed a virgin according to the ceremonies of confarreati and he could not marry a second time. Hence, since her assistance was essential in the performance of certain ordinances, a divorce was not permitted, and if she died the dialis was obliged to resign. The restrictions imposed upon the flaminica were similar to those by which her husband was fettered. Her dress consisted of a dyed robe (venenato operitur); her hair was plaited up with a purple band in a conical form (tutulus); and she wore a small square cloak with a border (rica), to which was attached a slip cut from a felix arbor. It is difficult to determine what the rica really was; whether a short cloak, as appears most probable, or a napkin thrown over the head. She was prohibited from mounting a staircase consisting of more than three steps (the text of Aulus Gellius is uncertain, but the object must have been to prevent her ankles from being seen); and when she went to the argei she neither combed nor arranged her hair. On each of the nundinae a ram was sacrificed to Jupiter in the regia by the flaminica. Obviously the assistance of the Flaminica dialis has played an essential role in Roman cults. As a napkin the rica may be compared to Aaron's ephod.


7 The Toga praetexta
The Flamen Dialis also has been allowed to always wear the Toga praetexta10, which has been described as an ordinary white toga with a broad purple stripe on its border. It was worn by • Freeborn boys who had not yet come of age. • All curule magistrates. • Ex-curule magistrates and dictators, upon burial and apparently at festivals and other celebrations as well. • Some priests (e.g., the Flamen Dialis, Pontifices, Tresviri Epulones, the augurs, and the Arval brothers). • During the Empire, the right to wear it was sometimes bestowed as an honour independent of formal rank. • According to tradition, the Kings of Rome. Those with the right to wear a toga praetexta were sometimes termed laticlavius, "having a broad crimson11 stripe". It also gave its name to a literary form known as praetexta. Obviously the purple stripes symbolized male youth, the royals and high ranked personalities in ancient Rome. As a remarkable etymological effect the Latin word iuvenis (young man) also contains the letter combination “IU”. In a certain sense the purple- or crimson-striped toga praetexta may also be compared to Aaron's garments12, which have been coloured in purple, red and blue.
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Info from Wikipedia Toga Obviously the specified colour may vary between purple and red... 12: Dyaus' Legacy


The Temple of Jupiter
The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill. Here, Romans worshipped him alongside Juno and Minerva, forming the Capitoline Triad. Jupiter was also worshipped at Capitoline Hill in the form of a stone, known as Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone, which was sworn upon as an oath stone. Another, but similar stone may have been the rain-stone, which has been manipulated to produce rain after a long drought. Bailey (1907) states13 : We have, for instance, the sacred stone (silex) which was preserved in the temple of Iuppiter on the Capitol, and was brought out to play a prominent part in the ceremony of treaty-making. The fetial, who on that occasion represented the Roman people, at the solemn moment of the oath-taking, struck the sacrificial pig with the silex, saying as he did so, 'Do thou, Diespiter, strike the Roman people as I strike this pig here to-day, and strike them the more, as thou art greater and stronger.' Here no doubt the underlying notion is not merely symbolical, but in origin the stone is itself the god, an idea which later religion expressed in the culttitle specially used in this connection, Iuppiter Lapis. The cult image was also by the Etruscan artist Vulca of Veii 14 and made of terracotta material; its face was painted red on festival days 15.

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In Chapter Two: The 'Antecedents' of Roman Religion. in the 6th Century BCE 15: Ovid, Fasti, 1.201f


8 Sympathetic magic in Rome16
'sympathetic magic' is the attempt to influence the powers of nature by imitating the desired results... Of this we have a characteristic example in the ceremony of the aquaelicium, designed to produce rain after a long drought. In classical times the ceremony consisted in a procession headed by the pontifices, which bore the sacred rain-stone from its resting-place by the Porta Capena to the Capitol, where offerings were made to the sky-deity, Iuppiter, but from the analogy of other primitive cults and the sacred title of the stone (lapis manalis), it is practically certain that the original ritual was the purely imitative process of pouring water over the stone. A similar rain-charm may possibly be seen in the curious ritual of the argeorum sacra, when puppets of straw were thrown into the Tiber — a symbolic wetting of the crops to which many parallels may be found among other ancient peoples. A sympathetic charm of a rather different character seems to survive in the ceremony of the augurium canarium, at which a red dog was sacrificed for the prosperity of the crop — a symbolic killing of the red mildew (robigo); and again the slaughter of pregnant cows at the Fordicidia in the middle of April, before the sprouting of the corn, has a clearly sympathetic connection with the fertility of the earth.


The religion of ancient Rome by Cyril Bailey, m.a.


Another prominent survival — equally characteristic of primitive peoples — is the sacredness which attaches to the person of the priest-king, so that his every act or word may have a magic significance or effect. This is reflected generally in the Roman priesthood, but especially in the ceremonial surrounding the flamen Dialis, the priest of Iuppiter. He must appear always in festival garb, fire may never be taken from his hearth but for sacred purposes, no other person may ever sleep in his bed, the cuttings of his hair and nails must be preserved and buried beneath an arbor felix — no doubt a magic charm for fertility — he must not eat or even mention a goat or a bean, or other objects of an unlucky character.


9 Roman Etymology
A Roman vocabulary lists the following words starting with a sacred vocal-combination IU, which may be compared to the idea of an initial Iuþark-string at the alphabet. The words may have been chosen for their relation to Iuppiter, but they also may have been originated as pre-Roman, Indo-European words17. • • • • • • iubar = a radiant illumination → iubatus iubeo, iussi, iussum = to move iubilation = acclamation iucundus = nice, attractive → iucunditas = attractivity Iudea = Judea, Palestine, land of the IU (IHVH)-people iudex = judge → iudicatio, iudicalis, iudicium, iudico, etc. → ius = justice → iussio = command → iustificatio = justification → iustitia = justice → iustus = justified, right, correct iugalis = joined under a yoke, matrimonial → iugarius, iugatio → iugo = join under a yoke → iugum = yoke (→ matrimonial yoke) iugerum = ¼ of an hectare18 iugis = joined under a yoke, always, eternal19 iuglans = nut iugulae = (the 3-starred belt of) Orion iugulatio = the murder → iugulo = to murder → iugulum = throat

• • • • •


Yellow markers identify the deviations of these correlations in the overview. 18: probably the area to be plowed by a “yoke” within a day (?) 19: eternity has been explained as an endless chain of matrimonial couples.


• • • • • • • • • •

• •

Iugurtha = Numidan king Iuleus, Iulius = Roman family (gens) iunctus, iunctim = joined → iunctura = joining element → iungo, iunxi, iunctum = to join (by a yoke ?) Iuppiter = Jupiter, Iuno = Jupiters spouse → iuniperus = juniper Iura = Jura mountains iurgium = (aggressive) discussion, verbal battle → iurgo iuridicialis = juristic → iurisdictio = jurisdiction → iuro = swearing an oath → iurator = witness iurulentus = humid (indication for fertility ?) iustitium = strike iuvenalis, iuvenilis = younsgter → iuvencus, iuvenis = young → iuvenesco = to be young again → iuvenix = young cow → iuventa, iuventas = youth iuvo, iuvi, iutum = to help iuxta, iuxtim = near, in a similar way

Another set of similar words may be found by listing the vocabulary's “Diu”-words: • • • dius → divus , diva (god, divine) → divinus → deus divum → free sky (→ sky-god “divus”) diutinus = long-living → diuturnitas

In an overview we might describe these words as correlating to attractive youth and joined matrimonial couples, united under a yoke, which must be considered correct and justified – in a single word: justice. As a sky-god couple Jupiter and Juno may symbolize the married couple in its self-chosen yoke. 15

Especially the Roman word “iugis” combines eternity with a yoke, which may explain eternity as an endless chain of matrimonial couples, securing fertility for the people. Jupiter obviously symbolizes eternity by chaining matrimonial couples under their self-chosen yoke, endlessly producing a new generation of youngsters. The fertile way of life is justified and needs to be supported by justice.


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