P. 1
Basic Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology

Basic Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology

|Views: 52|Likes:
Published by shailoy

More info:

Published by: shailoy on Sep 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Many observations indicate that hydrocarbons found in reservoir beds did not originate

1.Hydrocarbons form at depth through increased temperatures and pressures.
Since they accumulate at shallower depths compared to the source rock, they
must have moved away after formation.

2.Hydrocarbons are found in secondary porosity. They must have flowed in after
the porosity formed.

3.Hydrocarbons typically found in the highest portion of laterally continuous porous
and permeable beds. It implies upward and lateral migration

4.Oil, gas and water are stratified according to their densities. That implies they are
free to move laterally and vertically.

Very often oil and gas have a mind of their own. Due to their physical properties, they have
a tendency to move about from the source rock and away from it. This is called migration.

There 2 types of migration:

Primary Migration – It is the release of oil from kerogen and its movement in the
narrow pores and capillaries of the source rock to the reservoir rock.

Secondary Migration – It is the movement of hydrocarbons within the reservoir.
The buoyancy of the fluids drives it and the migration occurs when the
hydrocarbons are fluid.

Migration is a slow process, with oil and gas Traveling perhaps only a few kilometers over
millions of years.

Many things can trigger migration. It can be triggered both by:

Natural compaction: Most sediments accumulate as a mixture of mineral
particles and water. As they harden to become rock, some water is expelled and
dispersed. If the rocks contain oil or gas, this is also expelled.

Process of oil and gas formation: As hydrocarbon chains separate from the
kerogen during oil and gas generation, they take up more space and create

higher pressure in the source rock. This way, oil and gas ooze through minute
pores and cracks in the source rock and thence into rocks where the pressure is

Oil, gas and water migrate through permeable rocks. This means that liquids and gas can
freely move about cracks and pore spaces between the rock particles that are
interconnected, and are large enough to permit fluid movement. Fluid cannot flow through
rocks where these spaces are very small or are blocked by mineral growth; such rocks are
called impermeable. Oil and gas also migrate along large fractures and faults, which may
extend for great distances.

Oil and gas, being lighter than water, tend to rise toward the Earth's surface. If there's
nothing to stop them, they ultimately seep out through the surface, or solidify as bitumen

Much oil is dispersed in isolated blobs through large volumes of rock. However, when
large amounts become trapped in porous rocks, gas and oil displace water and settle out
in layers due to their low density. Water is always present below and within the oil and gas
layers. .


Oil and gas fields need to be trapped in permeable reservoir rocks, such as porous
sandstone or fractured limestone, and capped by a seal called a cap rock. Impermeable
rocks like clays, cemented sandstones or salt act as seals.

Cap rocks must be sufficiently impermeable to act as a barrier to further migration.
Extensive marine shales and dense evaporite beds are ideal regional cap rocks. For a
regional cap rock to be effective, it should not be strongly fractured. Evaporites are ideal
because they bend without breaking even at low temperatures and pressures. Probably
the world’s best regional cap rock is the Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of the Middle East.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->