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The telecom network in India is the fifth largest network in the world meeting up with global standards. Presently, the Indian telecom industry is currently slated to an estimated contribution of nearly 1% to India’s GDP. The Indian Telecommunications network with 110.01 million connections is the fifth largest in the world and the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia.
Today, it is the fastest growing market in the world and represents unique opportunities for U.S. companies in the stagnant global scenario. The total subscriber base, which has grown by 40% in 2005, is expected to reach 250 million in 2007. According to Broadband Policy 2004, Government of India aims at 9 million broadband connections and 18 million internet connections by 2007. The wireless subscriber base has jumped from 33.69 million in 2004 to 62.57 million in FY2004- 2005. In the last 3 years, two out of every three new telephone subscribers were wireless subscribers. Consequently, wireless now accounts for 54.6% of the total telephone subscriber base, as compared to only 40% in 2003. Wireless subscriber growth is expected to bypass 2.5 million new subscribers per month by 2007. The wireless technologies currently in use are Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). There are primarily 9 GSM and 5 CDMA operators providing mobile services in 19 telecom circles and 4 metro cities, covering 2000 towns across the country.
1.2) Evolution of the Industry - Important Milestones: Year
1851 1881 1883 1923
First operational land lines were laid by the govt. near Calcutta(seat of British Power) Telephone Service introduced in India Merger with the postal system Formation of Indian Radio Telegraph Company (IRT)
Merger of ETC and IRT into the Indian Radio and Communication Company(IRCC) Nationalization of all foreign telecommunication companies to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph(PTT), a monopoly run by the government’s Ministry of Communication Department of Telecommunications (DOT) established, an exclusive provider of domestic and long-distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system) Conversion of DOT into two wholly government-owned companies: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India created Cellular Services are launched in India. New National Telecom Policy is adopted. DoT becomes a corporation, BSNL
1997 1999 2000
(Source: The Indian Telecom Industry by consulting club, IIM Calcutta)
"Telecommunications is the backbone of our future economy. International competitiveness increasingly depends on the development of a telecommunications infrastructure that is compatible with international standards" The cellular industry all over the world has been witnessing very high growth rates in subscriber base in recent years. For developing countries in particular, cellular services
are becoming a very significant proportion of the overall telecom infrastructure. The mechanics of competition within this market involve complex feedback effects between individual service providers and with their operating environment, and these forces play an important role in governing the growth of this industry. The Indian telecommunications sector has undergone a major process of transformation because of significant Government policy reforms during the recent years. The New Telecom Policy, 1999 focused on creating an ideal environment for investment, establishing communication infrastructure by leveraging on technological development and providing affordable telecom services to all. These objectives of the policies have resulted in rapid growth of subscribers and lower tariffs. We believe that with these major initiatives of the Government, the mobile market in India will have a promising future. In a country like India which is not yet telephone-saturated and the ongoing changes in related areas are resulting in a rapidly changing profile of users, providers and their respective needs, continuous revision of the telecom policy is imperative. Given the emerging new technologies and the integrating economies there must be fairness among competitors. The tele-density in India is about four per hundred people in respect of the fixed telephones and a little less than one in respect of the mobile telephony. The low densities are not because there is no need for a telephone but because of its high cost that many cannot afford that one. The situation here is nothing but holding true of the “law of demand”. Isn’t it?
The cost for the companies can come down if the revenue share imposed on them as a condition of license is abolished or drastically reduced. Today every telephone company is bound to pay a share out of its revenue to the exchequer. These costs are, however, not to be scheduled to take a step further in the development of the telecom. In addition when we go through the telephone bill there is a 5 to 8% service charge. This amount also does not go for the telecom development. If these external cost are removed there can be seen a spurt in demand of not less then 40% as expected. While taking the side of suppliers a lot of new companies are coming into the battlefield resulting in reduction of prices and hence a little less burdensome on to the customer. The cost of interconnection with the incumbent is proving to be contributory to the high cost of services provided by the competitors. The delay in the interconnection disregards the quality of service and high cost will detract from affordability. This is an area in which no consumer body can knowledgeably contribute unless it has the assistant of experts or economists who alone can discover all the relevant fact of all the contesting companies. It indicates the pre-eminent domain of TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India). As the driven down of the prices for long distance including international services reduces the amount available for subsidizing the local service, the rental for local services are being increased. Considering that about 90% of the long distance calls are made by less than 20% of customers, 80% of customers are having to pay higher rental this
depresses the demand for telephones and affordability. The urban business subscribers will be bearing the bond of the subsidies to be given to the rural private consumers.
History of Cellular Telephony in India:
The technology that gives a person the power to communicate anytime, anywhere - has spawned an entire industry in mobile telecommunication. Mobile telephones have become an integral part of the growth, success and efficiency of any business / economy. The most prevalent wireless standard in the world today, is GSM. The GSM Association (Global System for Mobile Communications) was instituted in 1987 to promote and expedite the adoption, development and deployment and evolution of the GSM standard for digital wireless communications. The GSM Association was formed as a result of a European Community agreement on the need to adopt common standards suitable for cross border European mobile communications. Starting off primarily as a European standard, the Groupe Speciale Mobile as it was then called, soon came to represent the Global System for Mobile Communications as it achieved the status of a world-wide standard. GSM is today, the world's leading digital standard accounting for 68.5% of the global digital wireless market. The Indian Government when considering the introduction of cellular services into the country, made a landmark decision to introduce the GSM standard, leapfrogging obsolescent technologies / standards. Although cellular licenses were made technology
neutral in September 1999, all the private operators are presently offering only GSM based mobile services. The new licensees for the 4th cellular licenses that were awarded in July 2001 too, have opted for GSM technology to offer their mobile services.
Cellular Industry in India
that the provision of a world-class
The Government of India recognizes
telecommunications infrastructure and information is the key to rapid economic and social development of the country. It is critical not only for the development of the Information Technology industry, but also has widespread ramifications on the entire economy of the country. It is also anticipated that going forward, a major part of the GDP of the country would be contributed by this sector. Accordingly, it is of vital importance to the country that there be a comprehensive and forward looking telecommunications policy which creates an enabling framework for development of this industry.
Cellular Market Structure in India
As in other countries, in India, the Cellular Mobile Service Providers (CMSPs) are licensed to operate in designated geographical operating areas. The service areas include four metro areas and 18 circles categorized as A, B and C. (The categorization is based on the revenue Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences).
The potential with category C circles in the lower end of the scale. For example the metros account for 40% of the subscriber population, with Category-A, B and C accounting for 33%, 23% and 4% respectively. The CMSPs had to pay an entry fee and subsequently annual license fee as a percentage of their revenue to the Department of Telecommunications. The entry and license fees varied according to the service area, highest for metros and lowest for Category-C circles. Some of the CMSPs could not fulfill their licensing obligations and their licenses were revoked leading to a monopoly situation in certain areas. Apart from these charges, each CMSP has to share the revenue with the long distance operators for carrying inter-service area calls. In profitable metros and circles, the competition is severe and the market is split between the two operators. In a price-cap regulated market, the operators use appropriate pricing strategy to win customers and win market share. In highly price-elastic markets, such as in India, as the service provider reduces the price, the subscriber base increases considerably, and so is the network traffic. The increased network traffic decreases the performance and the quality of service, inviting customers to switch. Being a new entrant in a metro area, the government operator reduced the airtime charges to such an extent that the subscriber base increased suddenly leading to poor network performance. The operator did not have enough network capacity to handle calls leading to blocking of calls, with frustrated customers switching over immediately to competitors. The operators also have to resort to non-pricing competition strategies to win customers. In India, CMSPs offer a variety of service plans as a means to attract new customers.
Different service plans include: pre-paid calling card schemes, discounted airtime rates for evening and night time calls, discounted roaming charges, no or minimum activation fees, and reduced mobile to mobile long distance call rates. The service providers incur additional advertising and infrastructure cost for implementing these plans. Short Message Service (SMS) and Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) service are fast catching up. For example, in India, about 500,000 SMS messages are being carried by a service provider in one metro area alone. When the sector moves over to an oligopoly market, the operators have to provide improved quality of service and value added services in order to survive and gain market share. Larger operators who have experience and infrastructure may be able to provide a higher quality of service and other value-added service at a lower price. They also have access to larger project financing for enlarging their networks and services. For example, a single large operator now has license to operate in 14 service areas in the country with the largest footprint to cover most of the areas of the country. Mergers and acquisitions are commonplace as the operators are consolidating their revenues to survive in the market places. Cellular subscribers and those with a propensity to go mobile in Delhi have never had it so good. They now have four service providers to choose from, each offering an array of both pre- and post-paid schemes. More importantly, average tariffs across plans have, by some reckoning, dropped by at least 50 per cent in the last six months. The entry of Vodafone saw a further drop in tariffs and the operators have come out with new schemes to retain their subscribers and attract fresh ones.
What does this mean for subscribers and for the cellular industry in Delhi? All the four operators Essar Mobile Services Ltd., Bharti Celluar Ltd, MTNL and Idea Cellular services are convinced that the market will only expand and the subscribers will benefit even more. Their reasoning is that cellular penetration in Delhi, which traditionally occupies the third position in other areas, is less than fifty per cent. Therefore, entry of new players will only increase awareness about the facility, the companies say. Moreover, the state-owned MTNL has also been playing with its cellular service for quite some time. that, with the imminent launch of limited mobility using CDMA (code division multiple access) technology by companies like Tata Tele Services will only add to the subscriber base, probably result in further reduction of tariffs, and an even greater widening of the cellular market, according to officials in four cellular companies now servicing Delhi. However, the companies also sound a note of caution — any further drop in tariffs will be harmful to the companies, points out one of the officials taking care of the — Sales & Marketing division of the, Essar Mobile Services Ltd, average tariffs in Delhi across different plans have fallen by 30 per cent since December with launching of the CDMA services. Besides the fall in tariffs, what has really happened with the entry of CDMA is a heightened awareness in the market. Mobile penetration in Delhi and its suburbs is estimated to be less than twenty-five percent of the population and the cellular operators believe that this number should definitely go up.
It is here that Vodafone decided to target the customers with what it believes are unique products and features. Its emphasis has been on value proposition and brand building. Mobility is not only about carrying voice, as per the reports from the marketing department and adds that the unified messaging system for the post-paid customers of (now Vodafone) is one such unique product. Accordingly, Vodafone signed in its subscribers in lakhs from the year onwards it has been launched in Delhi. Industry analysts say that a majority of them will be pre-paid customers, whose loyalty to a particular brand is always in doubt. However, pre-paid for the cellular is nothing but the engine for growth and there is always a possibility that most of them will shift to post-paid once they are convinced of the quality of service provided. On the other hand the entry of a new operator lends more visibility to the service and there is also increased trade activity — that is the number of dealers will increase and more people will be on the road trying to sell the service and product. There is also greater consumer awareness of what cellular service can deliver and expectations go up in terms of pricing or service standards or network availability.
The Churn in the Cellular Industry:
As like the other products Cellular industry has not been left untouched from the Churn (switching over). During the survey this fact comes to the fore. According to the cellular operators, there is a normal seven to eight percent churn in the customers, especially in
the pre-paid category. Among the post-paid customers, the Churn is much lower about two-three percent. They say that one significant change that has happened in the last few months, more so since lowering of the tariffs, is that the bias in favour of incoming calls as far as call charges are concerned — incoming calls has been set free while they are charging reasonably only for the outgoing ones — has changed. A tariff re-balancing has definitely taken place. This means that the cellular operators are encouraging their subscribers to not just receive calls, but also make calls — increasing the usage of the service. With falling tariffs, cellular operators are convinced that increasing usage is one way to ensure that average revenue per user (ARPU) does not fall very low. The industry figure for ARPU is believed to be about Rs.1,100 while it may vary from operator to operator. The operators are also concentrating on introducing more value added services to the customers. Valueadded services have not really taken off. Only the SMS (short messaging service) has really caught on, but operators like Bharti are bringing in services like music messaging and concierge facility for its subscribers.
MOBILE SUBSCRIBER STATISTICS
Recently, mobile phone connections in India have crossed the 400-million mark, which means over forty in 100 Indians have a phone. Adding on to this benevolent and happy information, telecom companies are anticipating the number will nearly treble in the next two years. According to a survey, by 2010, the cellular networks are expected to cover 4,50,000 (out of 6,07,000) villages, covering 550 million people.
Figure 1 Market Share of both mobile and wire line Service Providers in India
2.1 GSM Subscribers
The cumulative All India GSM subscriber base rose to 72.12 million in April 2006 from 69.19 million in March 2006 which is a growth of 4.23% for a month under review . Table I shows the subscribers growth rate for one month along with market share of each provider with coverage
2.2 CDMA Mobile Subscribers
The total cumulative all India CDMA subscriber base rose by 0.97 million from 23.25 million in March 2009 to 24.22 million in April 2009, representing a growth of 4.2% in the month under review. A summary picture of the company wise performance is given in Table II.
TELECOM IN RURAL INDIA
Table I. GSM Subscribers growth rate Company Bharti BSNL Vodafone IDEA Aircel Reliance Spice MTNL BPL Total No of Subscribers (in million) March 2009 April 2009 19.57 17.16 15.36 7.37 20.61 1.90 1.93 1.94 1.34 69.19 20.68 17.59 16.06 7.64 2.83 2.01 1.98 2.02 1.31 72.12 % Share 28.7% 24.4% 22.3% 10.6% 3.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.8% 1.8% 100% Market Service Areas 23 21 16 11 7 8 2. 2 1
India has an urban population of about 26.8% and rural population is about 73.2%. And there are over 600,000 villages in India. But a vast section of the rural sector is still cut off from the benefits of telecom services. The rural population of around 700 million is waiting for its share of economic growth. Initially the big telephone companies focused only on urban centres, which they felt were more profitable. However, this
mindset is gradually changing with the realisation that there is equal, if not bigger money in rural areas.
Table II. CDMA Subscribers growth rate Company (No.of Subscribers,per million) March April Reliance TATA HFCl Shyam Total 2009 18.307 4.851 0.062 0.027 69.19 2009 18.809 5.323 0.062 0.028 72.12 (% in Service
Market Areas Share)
77.65% 21.98% 0.26% 0.11% 100%
20 20 1 1
It is estimated that a one per cent increase in rural connectivity can generate 0.5 per cent economic growth. Thus a well-planned 10 per cent increase in rural connectivity can propel India into double-digit growth and unprecedented prosperity. Rural India possesses enormous potential in terms of economy and human resources. Recent experiments have confirmed that ICT (information and communication technology) helps improve the timeliness and efficiency of rural farm operations and enhance income through producer-oriented markets. Hence the communication ministry has requested the finance ministry for higher allocations from the USO Fund for executing rural telephony network. The finance ministry has made a budgetary allocation of 15 billion from the USO Fund. The rural telephony targets include, providing 50
million telephones by 2009(i.e. one phone per three rural households) and 80 million by 2012 (i.e. one phone per two rural households) and provisioning mobile access to all villages with population more that 5,000 by 2009 and more than 1,000 by 2010.The Government is confident that the Bharat Nirman Programme target of providing coverage to remaining 41,000 villages would be met by March 2010 which will be much earlier than a schedule of November 2010. India plans to establish 0.25 million, village knowledge centres. The ICT industry can establish rural call centres modelled on the Kisan Call Centre established by the Ministry of Agriculture to provide domain knowledge in the services, agriculture and manufacturing sectors. This spread will increase the volume of users and automatically bring down bandwidth cost, with a spiralling effect on efficiency and economy. Advanced telecom services are no longer considered a luxury but a necessity for all. Thus, providing telecom services to every individual in a country like India is a huge challenge, and at the same time holds immense opportunities for those in the telecom industry. 7
1.3) Major Players:
There are three types of players in telecom services: State owned companies (BSNL and MTNL) Private Indian owned companies (Reliance Infocomm, Tata Teleservices) Foreign invested companies (Vodafone-Essar, Bharti Tele-Ventures, Escotel, Idea Cellular, BPL Mobile, Spice Communications) India's mobile telecom sector is one of the fastest growing sectors. Unlike in the 1990s when the mobile phone was an elitist product, mobile operators now tap a mass market with mass marketing techniques. "Unified licensing" rules allow basic and mobile operators into each other’s territory, and have ushered in perhaps the final phase of
industry consolidation. It seems that only companies with deep pockets can effectively compete as primary operators mobile markets. Economies of scale, scope, and end-to-end presence in longdistance as well as local telecom, are desirable. There are, besides, new challenges. Operators have to find new growth drivers for the wire line business. There are problems of getting broadband to take off, of technology choice, of when to introduce new technologies, and of developing a viable business model in an era of convergence.
1.4) Growth of mobile technology:
India has the fastest growing mobile markets in the world. The mobile services were commercially launched in August 1995 in India. In the initial 5-6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.05 to 0.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10.5 millions. However, after the number of proactive initiatives taken by regulator and licensor, the monthly subscriber additions increased to around 2 million per month in the year 2003-04 and 2004-05. Although mobile telephones followed the New Telecom Policy 1994, growth was tardy in the early years because of the high price of hand sets as well as the high tariff structure of mobile telephones. The New Telecom Policy in 1999, the industry heralded several pro consumer initiatives. Mobile subscriber additions started picking up. The number of mobile phones added throughout the country in 2003 was 16 million, followed by 22
millions in 2004, 32 million in 2005 and 65 million in 2006. The only countries with more mobile phones than India with 156.31 million mobile phones are China – 408 million and USA – 170 million. India has opted for the use of both the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-division multiple access) technologies in the mobile sector. The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world. A new mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of US$ 5 only. In 2005 alone 32 million handsets were sold in India. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market.
1.5) Cellular Service Providers:
As on Apr 2007 India has 167 million mobile phone subscribers. Out of this 125 million are GSM users and 41 million CDMA users. BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Hutch, Idea, Aircel, Spice and MTNL are the main GSM providers in India. Reliance Communications and Tata Indicom are the main CDMA providers in India. Bharti Airtel Airtel is providing cellular services in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, UP and West Bengal. Airtel is the No.1 cellular service provider in India using GSM technology. Airtel has 23% market share in India with a total subscriber base of 38 million.
Reliance Communications Reliance has both CDMA and GSM networks and total subscriber base of 29 million or 17% market share. It has GSM network in Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kolkata, North East, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. Reliance has CDMA networks in other states and cities. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) BSNL is a state owned telecom company which has GSM presence in almost every cities and towns. BSNL has 27 million subscribers with a market share of 16%.
Vodafone Vodafone is another emerging GSM provider in India with coverage in Kerala, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Punjab with a total subscriber base of 27 million. Tata Indicom Tata Indicom is a main CDMA provider in India with 16 million subscribers all over India. Tata Indicom has presence in almost every state and cities in India.
Vodafone is a mobile network operator headquartered in Berkshire, England, UK. It is the largest mobile telecommunications network company in the world by turnover and has a market value of about £75 billion (August 2008). Vodafone currently has operations in 25 countries and partner networks in a further 42 countries. The name Vodafone comes from Voice data fone, chosen by the company to "reflect the provision of voice and data services over mobile phones." As of 2006 Vodafone had an estimated 260 million customers in 25 markets across 5 continents. On this measure, it is the second largest mobile telecom group in the world behind China Mobile. In the United States, Vodafone owns 45% of Verizon Wireless.
Vodafone is primarily a user of technology rather than a developer of it, and this fact is reflected in the emphasis of our work program on enabling new applications of mobile communications, using new technology for new services, research for improving operational efficiency and quality of our networks, and providing technology vision and leadership that can contribute directly to business decisions.
Our Vision is to be the world’s mobile communication leader – enriching customers’ lives, helping individuals, businesses and Communities be more connected in a mobile world.
In 1982 Racal Electronics plc's subsidiary Racal Strategic Radio Ltd. won one of two UK cellular telephone network licenses. The network, known as Racal Vodafone was 80% owned by Racal, with Millicom and the Hambros Technology Trust owning 15% and 5% respectively. Vodafone was launched on 1 January 1985. Racal Strategic Radio was renamed Racal Telecommunications Group Limited in 1985. On 29 December 1986 Racal Electronics bought out the minority shareholders of Vodafone for GB£110 million. In September 1988 the company was again renamed Racal Telecom and on 26 October 1988 Racal Electronics floated 20% of the company. The flotation valued Racal Telecom at GB£1.7 billion On 16 September 1991 Racal Telecom was demerged from Racal Electronics as Vodafone Group. In July 1996 Vodafone acquired the two thirds of Talkland it did not already own for £30.6 million. On 19 November 1996, in a defensive move, Vodafone purchased Peoples Phone for £77 million, a 181 store chain whose customers were overwhelmingly using Vodafone's network. In a similar move the company acquired the 80% of Astec Communications that it did not own, a service provider with 21 stores. In 1997 Vodafone introduced its Speech mark logo, as it is a quotation mark in a circle; the O's in the Vodafone logotype are opening and closing quotation marks, suggesting conversation. On 29 June 1999 Vodafone completed its purchase of AirTouch Communications, Inc. and changed its name to Vodafone Airtouch plc. Trading of the new company commenced on 30 June 1999. To approve the merger, Vodafone sold its 17.2% stake in E-Plus Mobilfunk. The acquisition gave Vodafone a 35% share of Mannesmann, owner of the largest German mobile network.
Vodafone’s original logo used until the introduction of the speech mark logo in 1998.
On 21 September 1999 Vodafone agreed to merge its U.S. wireless assets with those of Bell Atlantic Corp to form Verizon Wireless. The merger was completed on 4 April 2000. In November 1999 Vodafone made an unsolicited bid for Mannesmann, which was rejected. Vodafone's interest in Mannesmann had been increased by the latter's purchase of Orange, the UK mobile operator. Chris Gent would later say Mannesmann's move into the UK broke a "gentleman's agreement" not to compete in each other's home territory. The hostile takeover provoked strong protest in Germany and a "titanic struggle" which saw Mannesmann resists Vodafone's efforts. However, on 3 February 2000 the Mannesmann board agreed to an increased offer of £112bn, then the largest corporate merger ever. The EU approved the merger in April 2000. The conglomerate was subsequently broken up and all manufacturing related operations sold off. On 28 July 2000 the Company reverted to its former name, Vodafone Group Plc. In April 2001 the first 3G voice call was made on Vodafone United Kingdom's 3G network. In 2001 the Company took over Eircell, then part of eircom in Ireland, and rebranded it as Vodafone Ireland. It then went on to acquire Japan's third-largest mobile operator JPhone, which had introduced camera phones first in Japan. On 17 December 2001 Vodafone introduced the concept of "Partner Networks" by signing TDC Mobil of Denmark. The new concept involved the introduction of Vodafone international services to the local market, without the need of investment by Vodafone. The concept would be used to extend the Vodafone brand and services into markets where it does not have stakes in local operators. Vodafone services would be marketed under the dual-brand scheme, where the Vodafone brand is added at the end of the local brand. (i.e., TDC Mobil-Vodafone etc.)
In February 2002 Finland was added into the mobile community, as Radiolinja is signed as a Partner Network. Radiolinja later changed its named to Elisa. Later that year the Company rebranded Japan's J-sky mobile internet service as Vodafone live! and on 3 December 2002 the Vodafone brand was introduced in the Estonian market with signing of a Partner Network Agreement with Radiolinja (Eesti). Radiolinja (Eesti) later changed its name to Elisa. On 7 January 2003 the Company signed a group-wide Partner agreement with mobilkom Austria. As a result, Austria, Croatia, and Slovenia were added to the community. In April 2003 Og Vodafone was introduced in the Icelandic market and in May 2003 Vodafone Italy (Omnitel Pronto-Italia) was rebranded Vodafone Italy. On 21 July 2003 Lithuania was added to the community, with the signing of a Partner Network agreement with Bitė. In February 2004 Vodafone signed a Partner Network Agreement with Luxembourg's LuxGSM and a Partner Network Agreement with Cyta of Cyprus. Cyta agreed to rename its mobile phone operations to Cytamobile-Vodafone. In April 2004 the Company purchased Singlepoint airtime provider from John Caudwell (Caudwell Group) and approx 1.5million customers onto its base for £405million, adding sites in Stoke on Trent (England) to existing sites in Newbury (HQ), Birmingham, Warrington and Banbury. In November 2004 Vodafone introduced 3G services into Europe. In June 2005 the Company increased its participation in Romania's Connex to 99% and also bought the Czech mobile operator Oskar. On 1 July 2005 Oskar of the Czech Republic was rebranded as Oskar-Vodafone. Later that year on 17 October 2005 Vodafone Portugal launched a revised logo, using new text designed by Dalton Maag, and a 3D version of the Speech mark logo, but still retaining a red background and white writing (or vice versa). Also, various operating companies started to drop the use of the SIM card pattern in the company logo. (The rebranding of Oskar-Vodafone and ConnexVodafone also does not use the SIM card pattern.) A custom typeface by Dalton Maag (based on their font family InterFace) formed part of the new identity.
On 28 October 2005 Connex in Romania was rebranded as Connex-Vodafone and on 31 October 2005 the Company reached an agreement to sell Vodafone Sweden to Telenor for approximately €1 billion. After the sale, Vodafone Sweden became a Partner Network. In December 2005 Vodafone won an auction to buy Turkey's second-largest mobile phone company, Telsim, for $4.5 billion. In December 2005 Vodafone Spain became the second member of the group to adopt the revised logo: it was phased in over the following six months in other countries. In 2006 the Company rebranded its Stoke-on-Trent site as Stoke Premier Centre, a centre of expertise for the company dealing with Customer Care for its higher value customers, technical support, sales and credit control. All cancellations and upgrades started to be dealt with by this call centre. On 5 January 2006 Vodafone announced the completion of the sale of Vodafone Sweden to Telenor. On February 2006 the Company closed its Birmingham Call Centre. In 1 February 2006 Oskar Vodafone became Vodafone Czech Republic, adopting the revised logo and on 22 February 2006 the Company announced that it was extending its footprint to Bulgaria with the signing of Partner Network Agreement with Mobiltel, which is part of mobilkom Austria group. On 12 March 2006 former chief, Sir Christopher Gent, who was appointed the honorary post Chairman for Life in 2003, quits following rumours of boardroom rifts. In April 2006 the Company announced that it has signed an extension to its Partner Network Agreement with BITE Group, enabling its Latvian subsidiary "BITE Latvija" to become the latest member of Vodafone's global partner community. Also in April 2006 Vodafone Sweden changed its name to Telenor Sverige AB and Connex-Vodafone became Vodafone Romania, also adopting the new logo. On 30 May 2006 Vodafone announced the biggest loss in British corporate history (£14.9 billion) and plans to cut 400 jobs; it reported one-off costs of £23.5 billion due to the revaluation of its Mannesmann subsidiary. On 24 July 2006 the respected head of Vodafone Europe, Bill Morrow, quit unexpectedly and on 25 August 2006 the Company announced the sale of its 25% stake in Belgium's Proximus for €2 billion. After the deal, Proximus was still part of the community as a Partner Network. On 5 October 2006 Vodafone announced the first
single brand partnership with Og Vodafone which would operate under the name Vodafone Iceland and on 19 December 2006 the Company announced the sale of its 25% stake in Switzerland's Swisscom for CHF4.25 billion (£1.8 billion). After the deal, Swisscom would still be part of the community as a Partner Network. Finally in December 2006 the Company completed the acquisition of Aspective, an enterprise applications systems integrator in the UK, signaling Vodafone's intent to grow a significant presence and revenues in the ICT marketplace. Early in January 2007 Telsim in Turkey adopted Vodafone dual branding as Telsim Vodafone and on 1 April 2007 Telsim Vodafone Turkey dropped its original brand and became Vodafone Turkey. On 1 May 2007 Vodafone added Jersey and Guernsey to the community, as Airtel was signed as Partner Network in both crown dependencies. In June 2007 the Vodafone live! Mobile Internet portal in the UK was relaunched. Front page was now charged for and previously "bundled" data allowance was removed from existing contract terms. All users were given access to the "full" web rather than a Walled Garden and Vodafone became the first mobile network to focus an entire media campaign on its newly launched mobile Internet portal in the UK. On 1 August 2007 Vodafone Portugal launched Vodafone Messenger, a service with Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo! Messenger. On 17 April 2008 Vodafone extended its footprint to Serbia as VIP mobile was added to the community as a Partner Network and on 20 May 2008 the Company added VIP Operator as a Partner Network thereby extending the global footprint to Macedonia. In May 2008 Kall of the Faroe Islands rebranded as Vodafone Faroe Islands. On 30 October 2008, the company announced a strategic, non-equity partnership with MTS group of Russia. The agreement adds Russia, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan to the group footprint.
Today, in India, becomes Vodafone. Now, the pink color logo of Hutch is replaced by Vodafone Essar’s corporate red colored one. In 2005-06, the Orange brand in Mumbai was phased out to introduce (now Vodafone). The company also changed the colors of its logo from orange to pink and then red. After acquiring 67 per cent of stake (around Rs. 250 crores) in ison Essar from Hong Kong-based ison Whampoa, Vodafone Essar is expecting to touch over 35 million customers across 400,000 shops and thousands of ’s own employees along with employees of its business associates. Vice chairman, Ravi Ruia, Vodafone Essar, said “We’ve had a good innings as in India and today marks a new beginning for us, not as a departure from the fundamentals that created , but an acceleration into the future with Vodafone’s global expertise.” Vodafone CEO, Marten Pieters of the Vodafone Essar will be landing in India for the meeting that would discuss branding exercise, expansion plans, spectrum requirements for its expanding subscriber base and future plans. Vodafone offers a host of premier value added services (VAS) including national and international roaming in over 70 countries in over 160 networks, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), short message service, voice mail service, auto roam, fax and data, cricket updates, M-banking, general information, tarot line, etc. The company launched
WAP in Delhi in October 2000, much before its rival Bharti. It has 5000 WAP customers, as in December 2000. The company has been a prime mover in introducing these valueadded services in the Delhi circle. The values are stated simply. To be fair and transparent in what they do and how they do it. To provide the quality services with more customer friendly practices. To make one’s communications experience simple, pleasurable and fun. Where he doesn't simply get technology - but technology that is relevant. Where solutions are not just promised in the future - but delivered in the present.
CORE VALUES :
We shall uphold the dignity of the individual. We shall honor all commitments. We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every endeavor . We shall be responsible corporate citizens.
Accomplishments: Over the years, Vodafone Essar, under the Hutch brand, has been named the ‘Most Respected Telecom Company´, the ´Best Mobile Service in the country´ and the ´Most Creative and Most Effective Advertiser of the Year´. Vodafone is the world´s leading international mobile communications group with approximately 315 million proportionate customers as at 30 June 2009. Vodafone currently has equity interests in 31 countries across five continents and around 40 partner networks worldwide The Essar Group is a diversified business corporation with a balanced portfolio of assets in the manufacturing and services sectors of Steel, Energy, Power, Communications, Shipping Ports & Logistics, and Projects. Essar employs more than 50,000 people across offices in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas.
The company now has operations across the country with over 78.68 million customers.
Services: Staying connected becomes a lot easier with Vodafone. We have a wide range of services you can access right from your Vodafone phone. From cell banking to flight updates to call management services, get all that you want, instantly.
Prepaid services(latest): Vodafone Essar, one of India’s leading cellular service providers announced a
new Bonus Card 25 for its prepaid customers in Punjab. With this new bonus card, Vodafone customers can enjoy the benefit of unlimited national SMS at just 20paisa/SMS. The new bonus card comes with 30 days validity. Rajiv Kohli, Chief Executive Officer, Vodafone Essar - Punjab said, “We have always aimed to provide value offering to our customers. The new Bonus Card 25 facilitates Vodafone customers to stay connected with their loved ones across India at an economical rate.” Has introduced two new Bonus Cards. Bonus Card 17 and Bonus Card 27 come with one month validity and are priced at Rs 17 and Rs 27 respectively. All Vodafone prepaid customers including the lifelong customers in Kolkata and rest
of Bengal can enjoy the new Bonus Cards offer available across Stores and Ministores.
‘Lifelong Prepaid @Rs.46 plan’ for its prepaid customers in Kerala. This new prepaid offer comes with lifetime validity and a talk time of Rs.5. Vodafone customers can make local calls to all Vodafone numbers, other mobiles and landlines at Re 1 per minute and all STD calls are at Rs1.50 per minute. Customers need to recharge with Rs 200 cumulative in 180 days to stay connected.
- Vodafone Essar, one of India’s leading cellular services providers has launched
three new monthly rental plans - Budget 500, Budget 750 and Budget 1000 - for its postpaid customers in Kolkata and West Bengal. These Budget plans offer combinations of free minutes over local and STD calls along with free local SMS. This offer is valid for new and existing customers. Sridhar Rao, Chief Executive Officer, Vodafone Essar East Limited, said “These budget plans will specially appeal to customers with high usage who can now manage their mobile bills without compromising on talktime or SMS volume.”
- Announced a special offer for its customers in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Customers can now avail free VIP numbers with every new post paid connection.
The VIP numbers provide customers an option to choose a number of their preference from a range of special Golden numbers that usually comes with a huge price tag.
Value added services: Vodafone Essar, one of India’s leading cellular services providers, has announced a special offer for Zoozoo fans across India. Vodafone customers can now get special Zoozoo DVDs from a Vodafone Store and watch these adorable characters from Vodafone Essar’s recent television commercials as they live life’s little moments in their inimitable style. Vodafone Prepaid customers can get the DVD through a recharge of above Rs 300 at the Vodafone Store. Vodafone Postpaid customers can enroll for Direct Debit or activate Callertune or Vodafone Alerts at the Vodafone store to get the Zoozoo DVD.
Dial 600 to activate: To activate these values added services on your Vodafone phone simply dial 600 and access our Interactive Voice Response system.
SMS: Message your family and friends through Vodafone SMS Services. It's convenient and affordable. Communicate with cell phone users in over 100 countries and anywhere in India - by sending and receiving text msg. Pay just Rs. 1.50 per message for sending SMS anywhere across the country.
Now, you can chat on your Vodafone phone with as many people as you want. Its fun and as simple as sending an SMS. Your identity will remain anonymous as your phone number is never displayed during the chat. You can have your own profile and chat name. You can also create your own chat rooms or chat in the different rooms that already exist including: Teens, 20s, 30s, Office, Bollywood, Delhi. All you have to do is type in your messages and send them to 2428. You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free.
Vodafone Online: Get all the useful information you need directly on your Vodafone phone - with
Vodafone Online. Including cricket, finance, entertainment, weather, astrology and more. Simply go to the Vodafone Online menu on your Vodafone phone. If you do not see the Vodafone Online menu on your phone, send HELP to 123. We will send you the list of keywords. Scroll to the topic on which you need information. Select the information and key input as requested on the screen.
You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free.
With this facility you can get to know the address and telephone no. of MTNL users.you will be charged Rs.2 per outgoing message.
STD / ISD Codes:
You don't need to look up your diary or a phone directory to find out STD and ISD codes. You can find it directly through your Vodafone phone.
Ringtones & Logos:
Now you can change the ringtone on your Vodafone phone according to your moods. You can download logos as well. With the Vodafone and Yahoo! tieup you have hundreds of tunes and logos to choose from. For every ringtone downloaded, you will charged Rs. 7.00 (including the cost of SMS sent). For every logo/picture message downloaded, you will charged Rs. 3.00 (including the cost of SMS sent).
Flash & Blink
Vodafone now offers you two exciting ways to send messages. You can make your message flash directly on your recipient’s screen instead of the inbox. You can also highlight the important parts of your message through blinks. So your text messages become not only more visible, but more effective too. You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free.
Dial-in Services Vodafone brings you more conveniences at your fingertips. Use our Dial-in-Services to check cricket scores, horoscope, up-to-the minute news and other relevant information on services that touch your everyday life. All Dial-in-Services carry a flat charge of Rs 6 per minute (1 min pulse). Here's a shortlist of services you can access –
NDTV Online Info Line Dial-n-Deliver Cricket Online Tarot Line Cell Rashi Dial-a-Pizza Dial-a-Cab Voice Response Service
123 301 306 123 314 315 303 335 123
There are occasions when you may not want to take a call, or your Vodafone phone maybe busy or simply unreachable. By paying a nominal monthly access fee, you can now retrieve your messages at your convenience. Even if you are roaming, you can retrieve your messages from your voice mailbox through a fixed line, anywhere on earth.
Your Vodafone voicemail can Hold up over 17 messages at a time. Receive a message that lasts up to 90 seconds. Store a message for as long as you want. You can also record your voice signature and welcome message.
Calling Line Identification You can check your caller's telephone name and number on your phone screen whenever you receive a call. This gives you the flexibility to either accept or reject an incoming call. This service is also helpful in identifying your missed calls You can access this service by just paying Rs. 49 per month, if you are a postpaid customer. This service is absolutely free if you are a Vodafone Prepaid customer.
Itemized Billing As a Vodafone Postpaid customer, you can choose to receive an itemized bill at the end of each month. This is a detailed billing statement which helps you keep track of all your calls. Your itemized bill includes: Origin of the call Destination of the call Duration of the call Toll charges Airtime and total charge
Get your itemized bill. Via post: Pay a monthly rental of 49 only. Via e-mail: Pay just Rs. 19 per itemized bill.
Fax & Data Services
This service enables you to constantly keep in touch with your office, colleagues and information sources. You can send or receive faxes and transmit data using your Vodafone phone anytime, anywhere. Whether you are operating from home, Hotels and airport lobbies. At speeds of up to 9600 bps within the network or while roaming. You can even access the Internet. All you need is a handset compatible data card (PC Card) or a GSM Software, and a data chord cable with a PC to set up a mobile office.
You can also opt for either Vodafone Fax or Vodafone Data services independently. Your Vodafone fax number can help you differentiate between incoming voice calls and fax transmissions. You can also send and receive faxes anywhere on earth with your Vodafone phone By opting for the Vodafone Data Services you can access e-mail, databases and the Internet. All on your single incoming data number. Charges to activate the Vodafone Fax and Data service, you just need to pay a one-time activation fee of Rs 500. To access the Fax service, the fee is Rs. 250. The usage charges are nominal at Re 1 per minute.
Call Management Services There may be occasions when you need to conference with up to six people at a time or talk to just two. Or you are speaking to someone and want to forward an incoming call to
another phone. With your Vodafone phone, you can do this and more. Vodafonehelps you manage your calls effortlessly so that you stay in control of your conversations, always.
Voice Response Get your Vodafone phone to respond directly to your commands. Custom designed to recognize Indian voices and accents, the Voice Response service makes your life more convenient. You can get the latest updates on news, stocks, cricket and your horoscope. Airtime charges will be Rs.6 per minute (1 minute pulse).
Voice Messaging Voice Messaging has become even more affordable. You can now send voice messages to cellular phones as well as fixed telephone lines in USA or Canada for just Rs.3.95 per min* (as against Rs.4.95 per min earlier). Voice messages within India across select networks will cost you Rs. .95 per min only. Also, recipients of the cellular Voice Messaging service have the option of replying back to the messages, which get returned back as return Voice Mail messages, facilitating twoway (though not simultaneous) voice communication.
Yahoo! Messenger For SMS
You do not have to wait to get a PC to use the Yahoo! Messenger. With the exclusive Vodafone-Yahoo! tie-up, you can easily get connected through your Vodafone phone.This unique messenger comes with a lot of exciting features. You can connect with all Yahoo! Messenger users, send, receive and reply to instant messages, view and manage your friend list and also manage authorization requests. All this and more just by using SMS. You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free.
Cell Banking Vodafone now puts the bank in your pocket with Cell Banking. Access your bank account and transact directly on your Vodafone phone by sending text messages. The first of its kind in India, this service enables you to conduct your banking without having You can to do visit Cell the Banking bank from or over 90 making countries a call. worldwide.
You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free. Roaming Now you can always stay connected, no matter where you are. With the Vodafone Roaming facility, you can use your Vodafone phone in over 100 countries worldwide and over 1000 cities, towns and highways across India. Vodafone Roaming makes life easy and convenient for you.
- Vodafone Essar, one of India’s leading cellular services providers, today
announced significant reduction in international roaming rates for its Postpaid customers traveling to South Africa during the upcoming DLF Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket tournament. Vodafone Essar is the official partner to DLF IPL 2009 One number across the globe Your Vodafone phone number and PIN number remains the same whether you are in Delhi, Chandigarh, London, Paris or anywhere else in the world.
National and International Roaming on Vodafone Prepaid Roaming on Vodafone Prepaid gives you the most extensive coverage in over 1000 cities, towns and highways across India, and in over 100 countries around the world. Enjoy Roaming on your Vodafone Prepaid card and stay in touch wherever you go. Yahoo! Mail For SMS
You can now directly access your email account on Yahoo! Mail on your Vodafone phone. What’s more, you do not need a WAP enabled handset for
this service as it is based on SMS. So gain freedom from your PC and access your Yahoo! mails anytime, anywhere on your Vodafone phone. You will be charged Rs. 2 per outgoing message. Incoming messages are free.
WAP With WAP, you can have the Internet directly in your pocket. So if you are looking for quick and easy delivery of information and services, your Vodafone phone can show it all. Use it to check out news, finance, shopping, entertainment, travel, entertainment and city service information etc. To access this service all you need is a WAP enabled handset and WAP services activated on your Vodafone phone. This service comes to you at a nominal charge of Re. 1 per minute (1 min pulse). Group Messaging Party invitations, movie outings, festive greetings... whatever be the occasion, you can send your message to all your friends at one go! With Group Messaging from Vodafone, you can thus save yourself the bother of painstakingly sending your message to one person at a time whether you are on Vodafone Prepaid or Postpaid.
Vodafone4help Vodafone4help now lets you take advantage of a lot more services than before. You can connect to the nearest fire brigade or mechanic or florist or even order a pizza. If you are
stranded in the middle of the road, or if you you need immediate medical attention or if you are looking for a police station close by, Vodafone4help gives you instant access to your nearest source of help, anywhere in Delhi or the NCR. All the help services are charged@Rs.6/min. while for police and fire help only local airtime charge is applicable.
2.5) VODAFONE ESSAR
Vodafone Essar, previously Hutchison Essar is a cellular operator in India that covers 21 telecom circles in India. Despite the official name being Vodafone Essar, its products are simply branded Vodafone. It offers both prepaid and postpaid GSM cellular phone coverage throughout India and is especially strong in the major metros. Vodafone Essar provides 2G services based on 900 MHz and 1800 MHz digital GSM technology, offering voice and data services in 22 of the country's 23 licence areas.
Vodafone Essar is owned by Vodafone 52%, Essar Group 33%, and other Indian nationals, 15%. On February 11, 2007, Vodafone agreed to acquire the controlling interest of 67% held by Li Ka Shing Holdings in Hutch-Essar for US$11.1 billion, pipping Reliance Communications, Hinduja Group, and Essar Group, which is the owner of the remaining 33%. The whole company was valued at USD 18.8 billion. The transaction closed on May 8, 2007.
2.6) Previous brands:
In December 2006, Hutch Essar re-launched the "Hutch" brand nationwide, consolidating its services under a single identity. The Company entered into agreement with NTT DoCoMo to launch i-mode mobile Internet service in India during 2007. The company used to be named Hutchison Essar, reflecting the name of its previous owner, Hutchison. However, the brand was marketed as Hutch. After getting the necessary government approvals with regards to the acquisition of a majority by the Vodafone Group, the company was rebranded as Vodafone Essar. The marketing brand was officially changed to Vodafone on 20 September 2007. On September 20, 2007 Hutch becomes Vodafone in one of the biggest brand transition exercises in recent times. Vodafone Essar is spending somewhere in the region of Rs 250 crores on this highprofile transition being unveiled today. Along with the transition, cheap cell phones have been launched in the Indian market under the Vodafone brand. There are plans to launch co-branded handsets sourced from global vendors as well. A popular daily quoted a Vodafone Essar director as saying that "the objective is to leverage Vodafone Group's global scale in bringing millions of low-cost handsets from across-the-world into India." While there is no revealing the prices of the low-cost Vodafone handsets, the industry is abuzz that prices might start at Rs 666, undercutting Reliance Communications' muchhyped 'Rang Barse' with cheap handsets beginning at Rs 777. Meanwhile, Vodafone Essar sources said there would be no discounts or subsidized handset offers -- rather handset-bundled schemes for customers. Incidentally, China's ZTE, which is looking to set-up a manufacturing unit in the country, is expected to provide several Vodafone handsets in India. Earlier this year, Vodafone penned a global low-cost handset procurement deal with ZTE
Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four perspectives of a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. There is a substantial body of empirical literature that establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms.
3.2) Measuring customer satisfaction
Organizations are increasingly interested in retaining existing customers while targeting non-customers; measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products. Because satisfaction is basically a psychological state, care should be taken in the effort of quantitative measurement, although a large quantity of research in this area has recently been developed. Work done by Berry, Brodeur between 1990 and 1998 defined
ten 'Quality Values' which influence satisfaction behavior, further expanded by Berry in 2002 and known as the ten domains of satisfaction. These ten domains of satisfaction include: Quality, Value, Timeliness, Efficiency, Ease of Access, Environment, Interdepartmental Teamwork, Front line Service Behaviors, Commitment to the Customer and Innovation. These factors are emphasized for continuous improvement and organizational change measurement and are most often utilized to develop the architecture for satisfaction measurement as an integrated model. Work done by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry between 1985 and 1988 provides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction with a service by using the gap between the customer's expectation of performance and their perceived experience of performance. This provides the measurer with a satisfaction "gap" which is objective and quantitative in nature. Work done by Cronin and Taylor propose the "confirmation/disconfirmation" theory of combining the "gap" described by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry as two different measures (perception and expectation of performance) into a single measurement of performance according to expectation. According to Garbrand, customer satisfaction equals perception of performance divided by expectation of performance. The usual measures of customer satisfaction involve a survey with a set of statements using a Likert Technique or scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement and in term of their perception and expectation of performance of the organization being measured.
3.3) Vodafone had highest customer satisfaction index in 2007
Lisbon, 25 August 2008 - Vodafone obtained the highest customer satisfaction index in the telecommunications sector in 2007, according to annual results published by Anacom. Vodafone achieved a satisfaction index of 74.4 (on a scale of 0 to 100), the highest score of all the companies in the Portuguese telecommunications market and considerably above the sector average of 67.6.
In the report published by Anacom, Vodafone is ranked in first place in all the indicators included in the survey: Satisfaction with the operator, Image that customers have of the operator, Customer Expectations, Perceived Quality of the operator's network and services, Perceived Value for Money, Complaints received and their handling, and Loyalty of customers to their operator. In the Perceived Quality indicator, Vodafone obtained a score of 8.3 points for overall quality, way ahead of the scores of the other two operators (both obtained 7.7 points). Vodafone comes top in all the indicators for perceived quality of network and services: technical quality of the network (8.2 points); customer service and advice capability (7.6 points); quality (8.2 points), diversity (8.0 points) and reliability (7.9 points) of products and services offered; clarity and transparency of information supplied (7.8 points); network coverage (7.9 points) and clarity and transparency of price plans (7.9 points). Similarly, in the indicators measuring the Image of mobile operators, Vodafone comes top in the five categories analyzed (on a scale of 1 to 10): 'It is a reliable company in terms of what it says and what it does' (8.1 points); 'It is stable and well established in the market' (8.8 points); 'It contributes positively to society' (7.5 points); 'It cares about its customers' (7.6 points); and 'It is innovative and forward looking' (8.5 points). The methodology used in the ECSI Portugal 2007 survey (ECSI – European Customer Satisfaction Index) is similar to that used by the European Commission to survey customer satisfaction in 25 Member States, enabling comparisons to be made between the results obtained in each country. The ECSI Portugal 2007 Communications survey was carried out by the Higher Institute of Statistics and Information Management at Lisbon's New University in partnership with the Portuguese Quality Institute and the Portuguese Quality Association, with sponsorship from Anacom.
SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. The technique is credited to Albert Humphrey, who led a research project at Stanford University in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies.
Strengths Leadership Position Global Brand Strength
Weaknesses Centralized Control – Low Flexibility High Consumer churn rates Threats Increased Competition Market saturation in Europe Emergencies of Low cost Brands
High Geographical reach Opportunities Expanding marketing boundaries Growth through 3G
SWOT analysis of Vodafone
The main strength of Vodafone within the telecommunications market lies in its brand image and recognition. Vodafone, having established a global presence and having invested highly in marketing a differentiated image by promoting a Vodafone life style, currently enjoys a differentiating advantage that, if exploited properly, can offer a lead in competition. The presence of Vodafone in numerous countries within Europe as well as in all part of the world enhances this image. It allows customers to travel and enjoy easily the services of their home country operator. In the few countries that Vodafone is not physically present (e.g. Norway) it has well established strategic alliances which allow for a better service of mobile clients.
The expansion of Vodafone has been completed at the expense of direct control of its operations. The company grew through a process of acquisitions of national telecommunications companies (e.g. the acquisition of the third biggest Czech mobile phone operator, Cesky mobile) rather than organic growth. This increased its subscribers’ base quickly, offering direct market knowledge and immediate additions of customer bases at the expense of direct effective control of the subsidiaries. At the same time though, it implicitly imposed a centralized operational structure for the group, nominating the UK headquarters as the leading business unit running a much centralised marketing and handset procurement at group level. This has resulted in the neglect of local markets and local differences, allowing market share to be gained by smaller local competitors. Due to the highly saturated Western European market this has resulted in an increase in the price elasticity of demand, with consumers becoming continuously price oriented. This has resulted in high customer churn rates reaching the level of 32.8% in the UK compared to O2’s 24%.
The telecommunications market, even though highly saturated in some regions offers great potential due to the ageing population and the sophistication of the consumers. It offers great opportunities through a careful market segmentation and exploitation of particular profitable segments. Different strategies should be pursued – simple phones and simplified pricing plans to the ageing population and more updated, sophisticated solutions for younger generations. The expanding Boundaries of the market could provide further opportunities by allowing Vodafone to enter more aggressively into fixed‐line service and to better enjoy the benefits of its high investment in 3G technology. Moreover the company has undertaken its first steps in establishing strategic alliances to develop customized solutions for end‐users: Vodafone recently announced two new partnerships, one with supermarket group ASDA to launch an ASDA branded mobile service in the UK, and another with electrical retailer DSG International to provide mobile solutions to small businesses. This could further be enhanced to avoid being a late‐entrant in this new method of distribution which offers access to a wide potential customer base.
The European part of Vodafone’s market is characterized by existing high levels of competition. Major brands such as O2 and T‐Mobile are exploiting the price sensitivity of customers and in this way they are building a stronger image and presence in the market. Indirect competition is also increasing further, through the presence of Skype and other related (not only voice) Internet‐based services. This combined with the upcoming European legislative measures is expected to limit further the tariffs for the network providers imposing further need for price cuts which could harm the bottom line profitability of the company.
“Marketing research means the systematic gathering, recording, analyzing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services” Marketing research has proved an essential tool to make all the need of marketing management. Marketing research therefore is the scientific process of gathering and analyzing of marketing information to meet the needs of marketing management. But gathering of observation is must be systematic. The systematic conduct of research requires: Orderliness, in which the measurements are accurate. Impartiality in analysis and interpretation.
All of research can be categorized into basic and applied. 1. BASIC RESEARCH: - Basic Research is that intended to expand the body of knowledge for the use of others. 2. APPLIED RESEARCH: - Applied Research is one, which is carried out to find the solution for a particular problem or for guiding a specific decision. It is usually private in nature. My research on Vodafone is carried on for guiding specific decisions and its results are useful only to Vodafone for taking particular decision regarding product quality, staff and security. Hence the nature of my research study is “APPLIED RESEARCH “.
5.2) Objective of Study:
Following are the main objective to study about the customer satisfaction on Vodafone. To study telecommunication industry. To study the company profile of Vodafone. To study customer satisfaction of Vodafone. To study various Marketing activities provided by Vodafone. To study the various services provided by Vodafone. To know the expectation of Vodafone Customers.
5.3) Benefits of study:
There are many benefits related to take this study. Some of the benefits of taking this study are as follows: By analyzing this information, the company would be able to better design schemes & services & target right prospects’ needs & wants. More people will get aware about Vodafone that will increase profit level of Vodafone. This study helps to identify the behavior of consumer when there are no offers & schemes from Vodafone.
5.4) Process of Marketing Research:
The marketing research is done in systematic process. The Researcher has pursued the below process of marketing for my study at Vodafone:
Data Analysis & Interpretation
Research Report & Presentation
5.4.1) Problem Identification:
The first and the most important step of marketing research is properly defining the problem. In order to identify the research problem two categories of problem should be carefully noticed.
Here the researcher’s problems are: A number of customers are not satisfied with services, new schemes and offers. A number of customers are not satisfied with the network coverage. A number of customers are not satisfied with the current call rates of Vodafone. A number of customers are not satisfied with the Free SMS schemes. A number of customers are not satisfied with the service of customer care of Vodafone.
5.4.2) RESEARCH DESIGN:
Research design indicates the methods and procedure of conducting research study. Research design can be done in following three types:1 Exploratory Research:Exploratory research focuses on the discovery of new ideas and is generally based on secondary data. 2 Descriptive Research:Descriptive research is undertaken when the researcher want to know the characteristics of certain groups. 3 Causal or Experimental Researches:An experimental research is undertaken to identify causes and effect relationship between two variables. The Research Design is: Descriptive Research Design
5.4.3) Data Collection and Sampling: A) Sources of Data Collection:Basically there are two types of data i.e. secondary and primary: I) Primary Data Collection:-
Primary data collection contains the following four types of methods: 1 Observation Method: It contains Causal observation, Systematic observation, direct observation and contrived observation. 2 Survey Method: It contains Personal Interview, Telephone Interview and Mail Interview. 3 Experimental Method. 4 Panel Method.
II) Secondary Data Collection: It can be collected from internal as well as external sources 1 Internal Source: Various internal sources like employee, books, sales activity, stock availability, product cost, etc.
2 External Sources: Libraries, trade publications, literatures, etc are some important sources of external data. The Researcher has used primary data for the core purpose of the project and this primary data has been gathered by survey method. The researcher has also used secondary data
B) Data collection Tools:
To conduct a survey, the Researcher has selected a structured questionnaire as an instruction for gathering valuable information from the customers. Questionnaire, which is used for the survey, is consisting of questions and checklist questions to check the customer feedback.
C) Sampling Plan:
The researcher has design a sampling plan that is consist of five decisions. I) Sampling unit: Who is to be surveyed? The Researcher has selected youngsters, businessmen, and housewives, employees to conduct survey and to measure satisfaction level.
II) Sampling types: There are two types of sampling i.e. Probability Sampling and Non – probability Sampling. i) Probability Sampling : -
Probability sampling means each unit of the universe has equal chance of getting selected. The most frequently used probability sampling methods are as below: a) Simple Random Sampling. b) Stratified Random Sampling. c) Multi-stage Random Sampling. d) Cluster Sampling. e) Multi – phase Sampling. f) Replicated Sampling.
ii) Non – Probability Sampling:Non – Probability sampling contains following methods:a) Judgment Sampling. b) Convenience Sampling. c) Panel Sampling. d) Quota Sampling For this purpose the researcher has used non probability convenience sampling.
Sample size means limited numbers of respondents covered under the research study from a population and the researcher has taken a survey of 100 respondents to know the satisfaction level of customer.
Sampling Area: The researcher’s area for survey was: The S.P.B. College of Business Administration, Udhna. Vodafone Store, Ghod Dod Road. Outside Big Bazaar, Piplod.
Sampling Unit: Here the researcher has randomly selected the respondents of the Surat city.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
After all the above steps are completed now the important step is data analyzing and interpretation. For this there are various analytical and statistical tools. Some of these tools are Percentage, Average, Dispersion, Co-relation, Co-efficient, etc.
Q1) Do you have a mobile phone? Purpose:
The main purpose of this question is to know how many respondents use mobile phone.
Suggestions No. of respondents
Yes No 93 7
93% of the respondents are have a mobile phone while 7% of the respondents do not have a mobile phone.
Q2) Are you aware about telecommunications services? Purpose:
The main purpose behind this question is to know about the awareness of respondents regarding different telecommunications services and also to know about which telecommunication(operator’s) service they use.
Suggestions No. of respondents
Yes No 95 5 Interpretation:
95% respondents aware of the are about
telecommunications services while 5% are not aware.
Operator’s service name Vodafone Airtel Idea Reliance BSNL Tata Indicom
No. of respondents 87 29 17 21 5 3
service do you use?
Major respondents using mobile are enjoying Vodafone services. 16% of the respondents use Airtel, 6% respondents use Idea while 12%, 4% and 2% respondents use Reliance, BSNL and Tata Indicom respectively.
Q3) Are you aware about Vodafone? Purpose:
The purpose behind this question is to know about the awareness of Vodafone among all the respondents.
Suggestions No. of respondents
Yes No 87 0
Here 100% of respondents are aware about Vodafone Services.
Q4) From which source you came to know about Vodafone? Purpose:
The purpose behind this question is to know from which source the respondents came to know about Vodafone.
Sources Advertisements Hoardings Newspapers Mouth Publicity
No. of respondents 63 52 35 26
36% of the respondents are aware about Vodafone through Advertisements, 29% are aware because of Hoardings while 20% and 15% of the respondents are aware because of Newspapers and Mouth Publicity respectively.
Q5) Since how long you are using Vodafone Services? Purpose:
The purpose behind this question is to know about the usage time of Vodafone customers i.e. since how long they are using Vodafone services.
Time period Less than 1 month 2-6 months 6-12 months More than 1 year
No. of respondents 12 19 22 34
Major Respondents using Vodafone are old customers. 39% of the respondents use Vodafone services from past more than 1 year while the lowest is 14% respondents using Vodafone services less than 1 month.
Q6) Which of the following services do you use of Vodafone? Purpose:
The purpose behind this question is to know which services do the Vodafone customer use, Pre-Paid or Post-Paid.
Services Pre-Paid Post-paid
No. of respondents 73 14
84% of the respondents use pre-paid services while only 16% of the respondents use post-paid services.
Q7) Which services are more helpful to you while using Vodafone Services? Purpose:
The purpose behind this question is to know which services are more helpful to the respondent while using Vodafone.
Services Call Rates SMS Rates Network Value Added Services
No. of respondents 27 48 36 19
Here major Respondents are youngsters so they mainly use SMS services of Vodafone. 37% of the respondents use Vodafone for SMS services while only 14% of the respondents use Vodafone for Value Added Services.
Q8) Do you call at customer care?
The purpose of this question is to know how many times and how often the respondents call at customer care of Vodafone.
Suggestions No. of respondents
Yes No 76 11
87% of the respondent calls at customer care while 13% respondents do not call at customer care.
If yes, how often you call at customer care?
Time Period Daily Once a week Once a month Occasionally
No. of respondents 5 12 24 35
Major respondents here call customer care occasionally. 31% respondents respondents call customer care once a month while 16% and 7% of respondents call once a week and daily respectively.
Q9) For what reason you call at customer care?
The main purpose of this question is to know the reason of the respondents regarding calling at customer care.
Reasons Value Added Services Information regarding new schemes Complaining Other queries
No. of respondents 21 23 42 36
34% of respondents call at customer care for complaining purpose while 30%, 19% and 17% of respondents call customer care for other queries, information regarding new schemes and value added services respectively.
Q10) Rate the following on the basis of your satisfaction.
Services Network SMS Rates New
Excellent Very Good 31 6 29 19 14
Fairly Good Average Poor 17 35 27 7 24 33 3 3 10
and offers Customer Care Recharge Outlets Call Rates Value Services 2 20 24 43 29 19 19 3 6 6 12 32 28 29 31 15 14 5 2
The purpose of this analysis is to know the perspective of the customers of Vodafone regarding network service.
Very Good 29
Fairly Good 17
Average Poor 7 3
Here major respondents are satisfy with the network coverage. 36% of the respondents are rate the Vodafone’s network excellent, 33% rate it very good, 20% rate it farely good while 8% and 3% rate it average and poor.
SMS Rates: Purpose:
The purpose of this analysis is to know the perspective of the customers of vodafone regarding Rates of SMS.
Excellent Very Good 19
Fairly Good 35
Average Poor 24 3
SMS Rates 6
Here major respondents are not much satisfied with the SMS rates of Vodafone as major respondents are youngsters. 7% of respondents rate it excellent, 22% rate it very good, 40% rate it fairly good, 28% rate it average, 3% rate it poor.
New Schemes and Offers: Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to the respondent’s perspective related to the new schemes and offers provided by Vodafone.
Very Good 14
Fairly Good Average Poor 27 33 10
New schemes 3 and offers
Here major respondents are not much satisfied with new schemes and offers of Vodafone. 38% respondents rate new schemes and offers as average, 31% respondents rate it as fairly good, 16% rate it as very good while 12% and 3% rate it as poor and excellent respectively.
Customer Care: Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to know about the satisfaction of customer care service provided by Vodafone to their customers.
Very Good 32
Fairly Good Average Poor 29 15 5
Customer Care 6
Customer care service of Vodafone is better compared to some of the other services. 37% respondents rate it as very good, 33% rate it as fairly good, 17% rate it as average, and 6% and 7% rate it as poor and excellent respectively.
Recharge Outlets: Purpose:
The purpose behind this analysis is to know about the satisfaction of the Vodafone customers regarding recharge outlets.
Service Recharge Outlets
Very Good 28
Fairly Good Average Poor 31 14 2
Recharge outlets of Vodafone are majorly rated on fairly good and very good basis. 36% of the respondents rate it as fairly good, 32% rate it as very good, 16% rate it as average, 14% rate it excellent and 2% respondents rate it as poor.
Call Rates: Purpose:
The purpose behind this analysis is to know about the perception of vodafone customers regarding different call rates.
Service Call Rates
Very Good 20
Fairly Good Average Poor 43 19 3
Major percentage of respondents are not happy with the call rates of Vodafone. 49% of respondents rate call rates of vodafone as fairly good, 23% rate it as very good, 22% rate it as average while 4% and 2% respondent rate it as poor and excellent respectively.
Value Added Services: Purpose:
The purpose behind this analysis is to know about the perception of vodafone customers regarding Value Added Services.
Very Good 24
Fairly Good Average Poor 29 19 6
Value Added 9 Services
Value added services of Vodafone are quite feasible as compared to some of the other services. 33% respondents rate it as fairly good, 28% rate it as very good, 22% rate it as average while 10% and 7% rate it as excellent and poor respectively.
Q12) Why you are not using Vodafone Services? Purpose:
The purpose of this question is to know why other respondents do not use Vodafone services.
Reasons Lack of awareness High Prices Poor Services Poor Network
No. of respondents 2 6 3 2
6 don’t use Vodafone services because of high prices. 3 respondents don’t use Vodafone services because of poor services while 2 respondents each don’t use vodafone services because of lack of awareness and poor network.
Q13) Would you like to recommend Vodafone to others? Purpose:
The purpose of this question is to know the recommendations of the respondents towards Vodafone, whether they would like to recommend the Vodafone services to others or not.
Suggestions No. of respondents
Yes No 78 9
90% of the Vodafone customers would like to recommend Vodafone services to others while 10% of the Vodafone Customers won’t recommend to others.
Age analysis: Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to know how many respondents belong to a particular age of group.
Below 18 4
51 or above 6
Major respondents are youngsters i.e. 62% of the respondents belong to age group of 18-25, 26% respondents belong to age group of 26-50, 7% of respondents belong to 51 or above age group while only 5% of the respondents belong to age group of below 18 years.
Age wise analysis(NETWORK): Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to know the perception of different respondents of differnet age groups regarding network service.
Excellent Very good Fairly good Average Poor Below 18 1 2 0 1 0 18-25 19 18 10 5 2 26-50 9 7 6 1 0 51 or above 2 2 1 0 1 Total 31 29 17 7 3
Here major respondents rating network as excellent are youngsters that include the age group of 18-25, the same is the case with all the rating of this service.
Age wise analysis (SMS Rates): Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to know the perception of different respondents of differnet age groups regarding rates of SMS. Ratings Excellent Very good Fairly good Average Poor Total Below 18 0 1 1 2 0 4 18-25 1 12 27 11 3 54
26-50 3 5 5 10 0 23 51 or above 2 1 2 1 0 6 Total 6 19 35 24 3 87
Major respondents are youngsters and they are not much satisfied with the SMS rates of Vodafone.
Age wise analysis (Call Rates): Purpose:
The main purpose of this analysis is to know the perception of different respondents of differnet age groups regarding call rates. Ratings Excellent Very good Below 18 0 1 18-25 2 11
26-50 0 6 51 or above 0 2 Total 2 20
Fairly good Average Poor Total
2 1 0 4
26 13 2 54
12 4 1 23
3 1 0 6
43 19 3 87
Major respondents rate charges of calls as fairly good. 26 respondents falling in age group of 18-25 rate it as fairly good.
93% of the respondents are have a mobile phone while 7% of the respondents do not have a mobile phone. 100% of the respondents are aware about telecommunications services. 16% of the respondents use Airtel, 6% respondents use Idea while 12%, 4% and 2% respondents use Reliance, BSNL and Tata Indicom respectively. 100% of respondents are aware about Vodafone Services.
36% of the respondents are aware about Vodafone through Advertisements, 29% are aware because of Hoardings while 20% and 15% of the respondents are aware because of Newspapers and Mouth Publicity respectively. 39% of the respondents use Vodafone services from past more than 1 year while the lowest is 14% respondents using Vodafone services less than 1 month. 84% of the respondents use pre-paid services while only 16% of the respondents use post-paid services. 37% of the respondents use Vodafone for SMS services while only 14% of the respondents use Vodafone for Value Added Services. 87% of the respondent calls at customer care while 13% respondents do not call at customer care. 31% respondents respondents call customer care once a month while 16% and 7% of respondents call once a week and daily respectively. 34% of respondents call at customer care for complaining purpose while 30%, 19% and 17% of respondents call customer care for other queries, information regarding new schemes and value added services respectively 5 respondents among the total no. of respondents don’t use Vodafone services because of high prices. 3 respondents don’t use Vodafone services because of poor services while 2 respondents each don’t use vodafone services because of lack of awareness and poor network. 90% of the Vodafone customers would like to recommend Vodafone services to others while 10% of the Vodafone Customers won’t recommend to others.
Follwing are the conclusion that the researcher found after the survey.
From the above analysis the researcher concludes that major respondents are dissatisfied with some of the major services like call rates, SMS rates and new schemes & offers.
Major respondents from all respondents use services of Vodafone. Major customers of Vodafone are old customers so many of the respondents are satisfied with the services of Vodafone and thus they would like to recommend Vodafone to others.
Major respondents using Vodafone use pre-paid services compared to post-paid services.
Major respondents are youngsters so they need more SMS facilities and low call rates, but Vodafone dissatisfies these age group (18-25) as their call rates and SMS rates are much high.
Following are some of the suggestions given by the researcher so that Vodafone can serve people and its customers in an improved way: Vodafone should decrease call rates for local users.
Vodafone should provide more offers to Post-Paid customers so that the number of Post-Paid customers increase. Vodafone should bring introduce some new SMS schemes for the youngsters. Vodafone should introduce more schemes and offers. Vodafone should provide more schemes and offers to its old customers. Vodafone should decrease call rates of STD and ISD.
Marketing Management – Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller.
http://www.vodafone.com/start/media_relations/news/local_press_releases/po rtugal/portugal_press_release/vodafone_had_highest.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_satisfaction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hutch_(Indian_cellular_company) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodafone
http://bora.nhh.no/bitstream/2330/1919/1/Saplitsa%202008.pdf www.anacom.pt/render.jsp?contentId=606658 www.iimcal.ac.in/community/consclub/reports/telecom.pdf
Q1) Do you have a mobile phone? o Yes o No Q2) Are you aware about telecommunications service? o Yes o No If yes, then which operator’s Service do you use? o Vodafone o Airtel o Idea o Reliance o BSNL o Tata Indicom ( If not Vodafone then go to Q12 ) (Multi-choice)
Q3) Are you aware about Vodafone? o Yes o No (If No, then go to Q11 )
Q4) From which source you came to know about Vodafone? o Advertisement o Hoardings o Newspapers o Mouth Publicity Q5) Since how long you are using Vodafone services? o Less than 1 month o 2-6 months o 6-12 months o More than 1 year (Multi-choice)
Q6) Which of the following services do you use of Vodafone? o Pre-paid o Post-paid Q7) Which services are more helpful to you while using Vodafone services? o Call rates o SMS service o Network o Value Added Services Q8) Dou you call at customer care? o Yes o No (Multi-choice)
If yes, how often you call at customer care? o Daily o Once a week o Once a month o Occasionally Q9) For what reason you call at customer care? o Value added services o Information regarding new schemes o Other queries o Complaining (Multi-choice)
Q10) Rate the following services on the basis of your satisfaction. Services Network SMS rates New schemes and offers Customer Care Recharge outlets Call Rates Value Added Services Excellent Very Good Fairly good Average Poor
Q11) What makes you unaware about Vodafone?
o Less Advertisements o Less Publicity o Others (If others then mention ________________________) Q12) Why you are not using Vodafone services? o o o o Lack of awareness High Prices Poor Services Poor network (Multi-choice)
Q13) Would you like to recommend Vodafone to others? o Yes o No
Q14) Give your suggestions to help in serve you better. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___
Name: ________________ Age: ___ years Sex: Male/Female
Contact no.: ___________ Signature: __________
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