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Introduction to SQL for Oracle

NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY

Introduction to SQL & SQL*PLUS

© Northern Arizona University Software, Web Applications, and Training Phone (520) 523-1511 • Fax (520) 523-7407

T able of Contents
INTRODUCTION

MODULE

1 1 3 4

MODUL E

5 33 37 38 38 39 41 42 42

Intro to SQL and SQL*Plus Running SQL and SQL*Plus in Oracle Getting Help

Creating Tables Dropping and Altering Tables Creating Tables from Subqueries Creating Demo Tables

MODULE

2 5 6 8

Creating Views Inserting, Updating & Deleting Records Committing Changes Indexing Tables

Running Simple Queries in SQL Datatypes and Metadata Structuring Queries

Saving Queries & Running Saved-Queries 10 Operators Comparison Operators Arithmetic Operators Common Aggregate Functions 11 11 13 15 MODULE 6 44 45 46 50 52

Creating Sequences Creating Triggers

MODULE

3 19

Using MS-Access as a Front End SQL Loader SQLPlus Worksheet

Working with Dates & Date Functions

MODULE

4 25 28 30 31

GROUP BY Clause ORDER BY Clause HAVING Clause Joining Tables

S O L U T I O N S T O E X E R C I S E S A R E I N T H E A P P E N D I X .

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We will start from the beginning. you should be able to perform simple operations using SQL. This course has no prerequisites and you will soon discover that basic SQL is easy to learn and use. SQL*PLUS is proprietary to Oracle. & Training team. & Training (SWAT) team works with the Solution Center to provide our customers the best service possible. Please feel free to contact us anytime with your computing or computer training questions. Personal Oracle8 was used as the point of reference in creating this manual. One of the goals of the SWAT team is to provide you with the training and training materials you need to improve your computing skills. so you need to have access to a computer running some version of Oracle8 or 9 to complete the exercises.edu/its This manual was created for you by the ITS Software.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Introduction Introduction T I T S S O L U T I O N C E N T E R his course is designed to help you quickly learn the basics of SQL and SQL*PLUS queries. and acting as an advocate for our customers in obtaining NAU computing support services. Web Applications. II . About the Solution Center and the Software. assuming that you have no experience with SQL and take you through the steps.nau. The Software. By the end of this course. Web Applications. & Training Teams Phone: (520) 523-1511 Fax: (520) 523-9259 http://www. Web Applications. The mission of the Solution Center and the SWAT team is to maintain or increase the productivity of NAU staff and faculty by providing professional development and computing solutions from a central point of contact.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S .

and SQL Plus Worksheet in Oracle-related tasks. Effectively use MS-Access. Identify SQL/SQL*PLUS statements. 3. 5. students will be able to: 1. Perform simple table joins. 4. 7.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S ü 1 Course Objectives At the end of the course. Create and modify tables 6. SQL Loader. Explain basic SQL/SQL*PLUS terms and concepts. Use SQL command syntax to write simple queries. 2. . Use sequences and triggers to generate autonumbers.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S .

Both ANSI and the ISO/IEC have accepted SQL as the standard language for relational databases. Relational Software. "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. 1 . but many people refer to it as “sequel”. Today. Release 8. and Full. E. which is affiliated with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 1 S QL is an acronym for “Structured Query Language”. Inc. When a new SQL standard is simultaneously published by these organizations. A conforming SQL implementation must support at least Entry SQL. Codd's model is now accepted as the definitive model for relational database management systems (RDBMS)." by Dr. Industry-accepted committees are the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). SQL can be pronounced as “ess-cue-ell”. fully supports Entry SQL and has many features that conform to Transitional. Codd. Transitional. By the late 1980’s there were over seventy-five SQL or SQL-like database management systems. Intermediate. The latest SQL standard is often called SQL92 (and sometimes SQL2). the names of the standards conform to conventions used by the organization. but the standards are technically identical. Oracle SQL complies with industry-accepted standards.0. Oracle Corporation ensures future compliance with evolving SQL standards by actively involving key personnel in SQL standards committees. SQL was developed by IBM to use Codd's model.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Intro to SQL and SQL*PLUS SQL and SQL*PLUS. or Full SQL. In 1979. F. Intermediate. The paper. SQL92 defines four levels of compliance: Entry. was published in June 1970. (now Oracle Corporation) introduced the first commercially available implementation of SQL. SQL is accepted as the standard RDBMS language. Oracle8.

Examples of DDL commands include: • • • • • CREATE a database object such as a table DROP (delete) a database object ALTER a database object GRANT privileges on a database object REVOKE privileges on a database object DML allows you to manipulate the contents of a database. Examples of DML commands include: • • • • SELECT columns of data in a table INSERT rows of data in a table DELETE rows of data in a table UPDATE SQL*PLUS What is the difference between SQL and SQL*Plus? SQL is the standard database query language that all relational databases use to manipulate data. replacing. altering. and deleting rows in a table creating. including: • • • • • querying data inserting. DDL commands create. In addition. SQL*Plus is a programming environment where you can use SQL. and dropping objects controlling access to the database and its objects guaranteeing database consistency and integrity SQL unifies all of the above tasks in one consistent language. insert. and delete data. change or remove database objects such as tables or users. DDL and DML SQL statements fall into two main categories: Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML). 2 . updating. You use DML to capture. all programs written in SQL are portable: they can often be moved from one database to another with very little modification. All major relational database management systems support SQL. so you can transfer all skills you have gained with SQL from one database to another.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL provides commands for a variety of tasks.

and lets you create polished. go to Start|Programs|Oracle for Windows NT (or Windows 95). At the log on prompt. subtotals and totals. and text. Running SQL*PLUS in Oracle To start SQL*Plus in Personal Oracle8. and select SQL Plus 8.0. type scott for username and tiger for the password. Leave the host string blank. It uses SQL to get information from the Oracle data structure. formatting of numbers. You should see the following information: You are now ready to begin entering SQL commands! 3 . and much more. column heading.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL*Plus is usually thought of as a kind of interactive query tool and report writer. dates. well-formatted reports by giving you easy control over titles.

go to Start|Programs|Oracle for Windows NT (or Windows 95). Your Web browser should open to the following page: From here. and select Oracle Documentation. you can access Help by typing “help” at the SQL prompt.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To start SQL*Plus on a mainframe or network. The password and username are most likely your userid. 4 . The next time you log in. Tip: In older versions of Oracle and in true client/server environments. Changing Your Password in NAUDEV You can also log into NAUDEV with your own account if one has been created for you. Getting Help To access help in Personal Oracle8. you should be able to find your answer. Use the following SQL statement to change your password: SQL> alter user your_userid identified by new_password. go to your operating system command line and type: SQLPLUS username|password. To test it log in with the following: Username: your_userid Password: your_userid Host: NAUDEV You should change your password once you have logged in to something more secure. you will have to enter the new password. You should get a “user altered” message.

Some of these tables already include data. We will use these tables for our exercises. SQL> select table_name from all_tables. type in the following at the SQL prompt: and hit “enter”. 5 . TABLE_NAME -----------------------------DUAL SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE_MAP TABLE_PRIVILEGE_MAP STMT_AUDIT_OPTION_MAP AUDIT_ACTIONS PSTUBTBL DEPT EMP BONUS SALGRADE USER_PROFILE LOCATION DEPARTMENT JOB EMPLOYEE SALARY_GRADE PRODUCT PRICE CUSTOMER SALES_ORDER ITEM 21 rows selected. You should get this result: SQL> select table_name from all_tables. To see which tables are available. let’s look at how to structure queries. 2 O racle SQL*Plus comes with a demo database that contains several tables.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Running Simple Queries in SQL Now that you have SQL up and running.

Below is a list of all the tables that are available in the demo database.000 Description Text string with variable length. emp. and salgrade.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 DEPT Table DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SALGRADE Table GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. EMP Table EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------.--------. Most 6 .--------. we will only use three: dept.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Datatypes and Metadata The following datatypes can be used in Oracle: Datatype VARCHAR2(n) Parameters n=1 to 2.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S An alternative SQL statement that displays all available tables as the previous example did is: SQL> select * from tab. however.--------.--------. For this course.--------.

Raw binary data of variable length. or symbols in any combination. For example. It is also referred to as the data dictionary. This will let you know exactly what the names of your columns are. Of those seven digits. only one. SAL. SQL will round up or down. s = scale (number of digits to the right of the decimal place).999.2) NUMBER(7. s=-84 to 127 or FLOAT none none commonly used datatype.s) LONG DATE p=1 to 38. To view the metadata of a table. Maximum length is 2 gigabytes.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S NUMBER(p. MGR. For dates and times.-------EMPNO NOT NULL ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO Type ---NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(9) NUMBER(4) DATE NUMBER(7. ENAME can be a maximum of ten letters. Of these columns. ENAME. We can also see what type of information must be entered into each column. as well as what types (datatypes) of information they contain. JOB. For files Like MS Word documents. For short Codes. Let’s look at the metadata for the emp table. not to exceed seven digits.99. SQL> describe emp Name Null? ------------------------------. Text string with variable length. Number. Text string with fixed length. It let’s us know how a table is structured. If you enter more than two decimal places. EMPNO must be a number not to exceed four digits. must have something entered into it. numbers.2) NUMBER(2) This information tells us that we have eight columns in the emp table called EMPNO. COMM. Seldom used. p = precision (total number of Digits). 4712 BC to December 31. Therefore. use the DESCRIBE command. two must be behind a decimal point. For graphics. For regular text. you could not enter a number above 99. HIREDATE. EMPNO. Valid date range from January 1. We know this because of the NOT NULL listed next to it. like state abbreviations. 4712 AD. Raw binary data of variable length. SAL must be a number. 7 . RAW(n) LONGRAW CHAR(n) Metadata n=1 to 255 none n=1 to 255 Metadata is the data about the data. DEPTNO.

WHERE (optional): Where some condition is true. When left out. A SQL query has five main parts (clauses): SELECT FROM WHERE (optional) GROUP BY (optional) ORDER BY (optional) A sixth clause. or any cha racter is a value. even if they are from several tables. list them all here. FROM: Put the table name here. all rows are chosen. limits. Structuring Queries Although SQL queries can become complicated. salary from employees where salary > 20000 order by last_name • • • SELECT: Put the list of columns you want to see here. If you have more than one table. each datatype can be set to allow either null or not null values. a zero. This is only needed for a query that summarizes data.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Null and Not Null As you may have noticed by now. and connections between tables here. List them with either AND or OR between each set. can also be discussed here. List all the columns. they are not null. GROUP BY (optional): Tells how you want data grouped or summarized. Null is defined as nothing. blank space. You can do queries for all records that have null. When a datatype is set to “not null”. A sample query might look like: select last_name. HAVING. address. it means that a value other than nothing has to be entered. separated with commas. however. In Oracle. Put comparisons. • 8 . the basic structure is always the same. Separate them with commas. Null means nothing at all.

SQL> select * from dept. When left out. If more than one table is listed. but with some important distinctions that we’ll look at later. DEPTNO --------20 30 30 20 30 30 10 20 10 30 20 30 20 10 9 . they should be separated by a comma. Notice the difference between the two select statements: SQL> select deptno from emp. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON If we wanted to know just the department number and the location.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S • Basic Query select column . DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON Eliminating Duplicate Rows Duplicate rows can be eliminated by using the DISTINCT keyword in the select clause. column from table where clause group by clause order by clause having clause ORDER BY (optional): List columns to use for sort order here. If you want to see all the columns. • SELECT specifies which column(s) in a table you want to see. FROM specifies the names of the table or tables in which the columns listed in the SELECT clause are located. loc 2 from dept. we would have to select the specific columns. SQL> select deptno. HAVING (optional): Similar to WHERE. enter an asterisk. The following example shows how we would obtain all the information from the department table. rows are returned in the order in which they are found in the table.

--------. To save a file.--------.--------. DEPTNO --------- 10 20 30 3 Exercise 2. Create a query to display unique (distinct ) jobs from the EMP table. the file is saved to the oracle8/BIN directory. you will find it at C:/oracle8/BIN.--------. Now display just the name (ename).--------. 5.--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 SQL> Then save it: SQL> save example Created file example SQL> In Personal Oracle 8. EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. The default file extension is .I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select DISTINCT deptno from emp.---------.--------. 3.---------. 4.--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 or 10 .sql. position (job). There are two ways to run the saved query: SQL> start example EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. display all the columns from the employee (emp) table. 2. Saving and Running Queries Queries that will be run repeatedly can be saved as a file and then run later by typing in the name of the file.--------. Show the structure (metadata) of the DEPT table. Select all data from the DEPT table.--------. and hire date (hiredate) of the employees. Most likely.--------. write the query and execute it: SQL> select * 2 from emp 3 where ename='JAMES'.--------.1 1. Using SQL.

you can replace the saved file by using the replace command with save: SQL> save example replace Operators The WHERE Clause The WHERE clause is the part of the SELECT clause that specifies the search conditions.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> @example EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------.--------. These conditions determine which rows are retrieved. Remember that operator parameters are case sensitive. we use operators. • Comparison operators = > < >= <= != <> equal to greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to not equal to not equal to SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION = 'Manager'. you can later append more information to it by using the following command: SQL> save example append Finally. 11 .---------. To set up these search conditions.--------.--------.--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 Either start or @ will run the saved query. Comparison Operators SQL provides a variety of operators and keywords for expressing search conditions. “Manager” is not the same as “manager”. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY >= 50000. The system will search for rows of data that meet the conditions (qualifications) you specified by the operators.--------. You can also edit the saved query by entering edit followed by the filename: SQL> edit example Once the file has been saved.--------.

• • Unknown values (IS NULL and IS NOT NULL) example: where advance is null Character matches (LIKE and NOT LIKE) example: where phone not like ‘415%’ Let’s say you wanted to see all people whose last names started with "L" in the EMPLOYEES table: SELECT EMPLOYEEIDNO FROM EMPLOYEESTATISTICSTABLE WHERE LASTNAME LIKE 'L%'. 'Staff'). SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY BETWEEN 30000 AND 50000. Any character string. while numbers do not require this. 12 . including dates. while “50000” was not. • Lists (IN. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION = 'Manager' AND (SALARY > 50000 OR BENEFIT > 10000). • Combinations or logical negations of conditions (AND. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY > 40000 AND POSITION = 'Staff'.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Notice that “Manager” is placed in single quotes in the where clause. NOT) SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY < 40000 OR BENEFITS < 10000. NOT IN) If you wanted to list all managers and staff: SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION IN ('Manager'. • Ranges (BETWEEN and NOT BETWEEN) SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY NOT BETWEEN 30000 AND 50000. must be set off by single quotes. OR.

Arithmetic operators allow you to modify the way data is displayed. sal. The “%” is a wildcard that can represent any number of characters. 12*sal+200 13 . Arithmetic Operator Precedence (* / + -) • • • Multiplication and division take priority over addition and subtraction. or punctuation) or set of characters that might appear after the "L". Arithmetic operators can be used in any clause of a SQL statement except the FROM clause. sal+500 2 from emp. sal. or if you wanted the "L" in the middle of the word. or look at what-if scenarios.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The percent sign (%) is used to represent any possible character (number. SMITHY.--------SMITH 800 1300 ALLEN 1600 2100 WARD 1250 1750 JONES 2975 3475 MARTIN 1250 1750 BLAKE 2850 3350 CLARK 2450 2950 SCOTT 3000 3500 KING 5000 5500 TURNER 1500 2000 ADAMS 1100 1600 JAMES 950 1450 FORD 3000 3500 MILLER 1300 1800 14 rows selected. ename like ‘SMITH_’ Arithmetic Operators would return SMITHE. SQL> select ename.--------. ENAME SAL SAL+500 ---------. perform calculations. letter. Operators of the same priority are evaluated from left to right Parentheses are used to force prioritized evaluation and to clarify statements 2 from emp. try '%L%'. The character “_” can be used to match exactly one character. and SMITHS. Operator + * / Description Add Subtract Multiply Divide SQL> select ename. use '%L'. To find those people with LastName's ending in "L". but not SMITHEY.

SQL> select ename. MGR SAL Commission --------. but NULL can be used as a qualifier. In the first example we multiplied the monthly salary by twelve and then added a onetime bonus of $200.--------7902 800 7698 1600 300 SQL> select mgr. ENAME SAL 12*(SAL+100) ---------.--------.--------. sal.--------. NULL is absolutely nothing at all.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S ENAME SAL 12*SAL+200 ---------.2 1.sql.--------. Run your query. In the following example. 2. sal. comm 2 from emp.-----------SMITH 800 10800 ALLEN 1600 20400 WARD 1250 16200 JONES 2975 36900 MARTIN 1250 16200 BLAKE 2850 35400 CLARK 2450 30600 SCOTT 3000 37200 KING 5000 61200 TURNER 1500 19200 ADAMS 1100 14400 JAMES 950 12600 FORD 3000 37200 MILLER 1300 16800 14 rows selected. SQL> select mgr as manager. comm"Commission" 2 from emp. Using Column Aliases You may want to display the heading of a column as something other than “12*(SAL+100)”. parentheses are used to raise the salary $100 per month and then multiply by twelve. This can be done by using a column alias. One is to place the alias after “AS” in the select statement. or to contain null. that value is said to be null.---------7902 800 7698 1600 300 3 Exercise 2. Create a query to display the employee name and department number for employee number 7566. The other way is to place the alias in quotation marks. sal. There are two ways to create an alias. Save your SQL to statement to a file named q1. Null Values If a row lacks the data value for a particular column. MANAGER SAL COMM --------.---------SMITH 800 9800 ALLEN 1600 19400 WARD 1250 15200 JONES 2975 35900 MARTIN 1250 15200 BLAKE 2850 34400 CLARK 2450 29600 SCOTT 3000 36200 KING 5000 60200 TURNER 1500 18200 ADAMS 1100 13400 JAMES 950 11600 FORD 3000 36200 MILLER 1300 15800 14 rows selected. Zero is a number. Create a query to display the name and salary of employees earning more than $2850. 12*(sal+100) 2 from emp. and a space is a character. 14 . A null value is not the same as zero or a space.

Resave the SQL statement as q2. 5. (discussed in the next module). Find out how much Turner will make annually if we give her a $75 dollar a month raise. but cause the heading “ename” to be displayed as “Last Name”. MAX. Modify q1. COUNT. The number of non-null values in the expression. and MIN. Select all columns from the employee table. You apply aggregates to sets of rows: to all the rows in a table. This query provides the total amount of commissions: 15 . These functions are called aggregate functions and they include SUM. The highest value in the expression. 6.sql and run it. Aggregate Function SUM(expression) AVG (expression) COUNT(expression) COUNT(*) MAX(expression) MIN(expression) SUM Result The total of values in the numberic expression. List employees whose last names begin with “S”. or to groups of rows set up in the GROUP BY clause. we will concentrate on some of the more common functions. The average of values in the numeric expression. Aggregates are functions you can use to get summary values. The lowest value in the expression. AVG.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S 3. The number of selected rows. In this course. you get a single value for each set of rows. 4.sql to display the name and salary for all employees whose salary is not in the range of $1500 and $2850. All group functions except COUNT(*) ignore nulls. to just those rows specified by a WHERE clause. Common Aggregate Functions Oracle offers many functions for performing advanced and complicated manipulations with data. No matter how you structure the sets.

--------4 14 16 . COUNT takes an argument (a column or expression) and discovers all not-null occurrences of that argument. AVG(COMM)*12 -----------6600 COUNT What if we wanted to know how many employees worked in the accounting department (dept. SUM(COMM) --------2200 AVG Here we have the average of commissions paid. COUNT(COMM) COUNT(*) ----------. COUNT(DEPTNO) ------------3 SQL> 2 3 4 select count(deptno) "Accounting Employees" from emp where deptno=10.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select sum(comm) 2 from emp. the two are really not the same. Let’s look at how each behaves in the following examples: SQL> select count(comm). However. number 10): SQL> select count(deptno) 2 from emp 3 where deptno=10. Accounting Employees -------------------3 COUNT(*) The apparent similarity of COUNT and COUNT(*) can lead to confusion. while COUNT(*) counts all rows. with a different heading: SQL> select avg(comm) "Average Commission" 2 from emp. whether or not any particular column contains a null value. count(*) 2 from emp. Average Commission -----------------550 Let’s say that the commissions paid this month were indicative of commissions paid each month and we wanted to know what the average yearly commission might be: SQL> select avg(comm)*12 2 from emp.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The results produced by the two functions are different because ten rows in the COMM column have null values. COUNT. and therefore is not null. SQL> select sum(sal) 2 from emp. ENAME HIREDATE ---------.--------SMITH 17-DEC-80 Essentially. I’ll point out that they exist and that one could have been used to obtain the same information in a single query using the following format: SQL> select ename. MIN(HIRED --------17-DEC-80 SQL> select ename. For example we can use the following query to find out which employee has worked in the company the longest: SQL> select min(hiredate) 2 from emp. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate='17-DEC-80'. because “0” is a value. MAX(SAL) --------5000 MIN MIN provides the lowest value in an expression. MAX. Look at the different results when SUM is used with and without DISTINCT. and COUNT(*) work with all types of data. Note that the commission listed as “0” was counted by COUNT. We can use max to find out who makes the highest salary: SQL> select max(sal) 2 from emp. a subquery is nothing more than a query within a query Using DISTINCT and ALL With Functions DISTINCT can be used with a function to elimina te duplicate values. MAX and MIN can be used for things other than the lowest or highest amount. MAX MAX provides the highest value in an expression. MIN. SUM(SAL) 17 . hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate=(select min(hiredate) from emp). You can use SUM and AVG with numeric columns only. ENAME HIREDATE ---------.--------SMITH 17-DEC-80 While subqueries are beyond the scope of this course.

If neither option is specified. the default is ALL. Minimum. lowest. the DISTINCT average of 1. Write a query to count the number of employees.3 1. 2. Label the columns Maximum. the ALL average is 1. Sum.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S --------29025 SQL> select sum(distinct sal) 2 from emp. and Average. and 3 is 2.5. This option causes a group function to consider all values. sum. Determine the number of clerks without listing them. 1. Display the highest. 3. DISTINCT ALL This option causes a group function to consider only distinct values the argument expression. and average salary of all employees. Include the heading “Number of Clerks”. 3 Exercise 2. SUM(DISTINCTSAL) ---------------24775 The difference in the two results comes from the fact that there are duplicate values of 1250 and 3000 in the SAL column. 1. For example. 18 . including all duplicates.

minutes.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module 3 Working with Dates and Date Functions Oracle stores dates in an internal numeric format. 9999 AD. SYSDATE can be thought of as a function whose result is always the current date and time.number date – date Result date date number of days Description Adds a number of days to a date Subtracts a number of days from a date Subtracts one date from another Adds a number of hours to a date date + number/24 date 19 . Operation date + number date . SYSDATE SYSDATE uses the computer’s operating system for the current date and time. and seconds. which is a small but useful Oracle table created for testing functions or doing quick calculations. It is used in calculations that need to compare past or future dates/times with the current date or time. month. year. 4712 BC and December 31. Arithmetic with Dates You can perform calculations on dates using arithmetic operators. SQL> select sysdate from dual. representing the century. The default display and input format for any date is DD-MON-YY. Valid Oracle dates are between January 1. It can be regarded as a hidden column that is in e very table. Try it. hours. day. You can list the SYSDATE by itself by using the DUAL table.

n) add_months (‘11-jan-94’. ‘fmt’]) round (‘25-jul-95’. hiredate. 'friday').25 Years 2 from emp 3 where deptno = 10.937418 The preceding example displays the number of years that each employee in department 10 has worked. all date values were displayed in the DD-MON-YY format. next_day (hiredate. last_day (hiredate) from emp where months_between (sysdate.’11-jan-94’) add_months (date. ‘fmt’]) trunc (‘25-jul-95’.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select ename.40068 19-OCT-87 24-APR-87 23-MAY-87 139. 6) Review. ‘fmt’) Up to now. 20 .’Friday’) last_day (date) last_day (‘01-sep-95’) round (date [.27164 23-NOV-87 29-MAY-87 LAST_DAY( --------30-APR-87 31-MAY-87 EMPNO --------7788 7876 TO_CHAR to_char (date. hiredate) Tenure. date2) months_between (‘01-sep-95’. hiredate) <200. We will not deal with them in this course.25 to calculate the number of years that a worker has been employed. months_between (sysdate. (sysdate-hiredate)/365. but I wanted to at least make you aware of them.--------.’year’) trunc (date [ .6) next_day (date. add_months (hiredate.--------. Function months_between (date1. HIREDATE TENURE REVIEW NEXT_DAY( --------. It subtracts the current date (SYSDATE) from the date on which the employee was hired and divides the result by 365. Date Functions Here is a list of a few date functions. The to_char function allows you to convert a date from this default format to one specified by you.’month’) round (‘25-jul-95’. ‘char’) next_day (‘01-sep-95’. ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER YEARS --------17.’month’) trunc(‘25-jul-95’.’year’) Description Number of months between two dates Add calendar months to date Next date of the day specified Last day of the month Round date Truncate date SQL> 2 3 4 5 select empno.--------19-APR-87 140.120854 16.561648 17.

Q MM MONTH MON RM WW or W DDD or DD or D DAY DY Description Century. 3-letter abbreviation 21 . or 1 digit(s) of year Year with comma in this position Year spelled out. two-digit value Full name of month Name of month. 2.----7839 11/81 Here are some valid date formats: Element SCC or CC Years in dates YYYY or SYYYY YYY or YY or Y Y. three-letter abbreviation Roman numeral month Week of year or month Day of year. EMPNO MONTH --------. or A.C. or week Full name of day Name of day.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select empno. month. S prefixes BC date with Last 3.D. S prefixes BC date with BC/AD indicator BC/AD indicator with periods Quarter of year Month. 'MM/YY') Month_Hired 2 from emp 3 where ename = 'KING'. to_char (hiredate.YYY SYEAR or YEAR BC or AD B. S prefixes BC date with Year.

dates can formatted further in the following ways: Element “of ” DD “of” MONTH TH SP SPTH or THSP De Quoted string is reproduce 23 of SEPTEMBER Ordinal number (DDTH for 4TH) Spelled-out number (DDSP for FOUR) Spelled-out ordinal numbers (DDSPTH for FOURTH) SQL> select ename. or P.M. to_char (hiredate.M. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES HIREDATE ------------------------------------------Seventeenth of December 1980 12:00:00AM Twentieth of February 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Second of February 1981 12:00:00AM Second of April 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Eighth of September 1981 12:00:00AM First of May 1981 12:00:00AM Ninth of June 1981 12:00:00AM Nineteenth of April 1987 12:00:00AM Seventeenth of November 1981 12:00:00AM Eighth of September 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Third of May 1987 12:00:00AM Third of December 1981 12:00:00AM 22 . 'Ddspth "of" Month YYYY HH:MI:SSAM') 2 Hiredate 3 from emp.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The time portion of dates can also be formatted: Element AM or PM A. HH or HH12 or HH24 MI SS SSSSS Description Meridian indicator Meridian indicator with periods Hour of day or hour (1-12) or hour (0-23) Minute (0-59) Second (0-59) Seconds past midnight (0-86399) Finally.

23 .99 999. To_char can be used with numbers in the same way. The format model you choose will be based on the previously demonstrated format elements.234 1234<1234> 1.999EEEE four Es) Multiply by 10 n times (n = no. .234E+03 123400 Scientific notation (format must specify 99. ‘fmt’) Element Description 9 0 $ . It converts a number to a character datatype. '$99.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S FORD MILLER Third of December 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Third of January 1982 12:00:00AM 14 rows selected. MI PR EEEE V Numeric position (number determine display width) Display leading zeros Floating dollar sign Decimal point in position specified Comma in position specified Minux signs to right (negative values) Parenthesize negative numbers of Example 9s 99999 099999 $999999 9999999. of 9s after 9999V99 V) SQL> select to_char (sal. to_char (number.999') Salary 2 from emp 3 where ename = 'TURNER'.500 TO_DATE and TO_NUMBER Functions These two functions can be used to convert a character string to either a number or a date.00 1. SALARY -------$1.999 999999MI 999999PR Result 1234 001234 $1234 1234.

YYYY'). 24 . Display the name of every employee who was hired in 1982. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate = to_date ('February 22. SQL> select to_char(to_date('23-sep-63').--------WARD 22-FEB-81 Birthday Trick Use the following query to see what day you were born on. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. Be careful to type everything exactly. 2. ‘fmt’]) Example: Display the names and hire dates of all the employees who joined on February 22. SQL> select ename. Display it first as a numeral and then run a second query that spells it out. How many months has Turner been employed? 4. 'Day') "Born on" from dual. Label the heading “Today’s Date”. 3. Substitute the date with your own birth date. such as the “4th of July”.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S to_number (char) to_date (char[ . 1981'. Now write a query to display the current date in a different format. 'Month dd.1 1. Write a query to display the current date. 1981. Born on --------Monday 3 Exercise 3.

At times. as well as how to query data from multiple tables. ORDER BY. • You cannot use a column alias in the GROUP BY clause. but with some important differences. you cannot select individual results as well unless the individual column appears in the GROUP BY clause. while aggregate functions produce summary values for each set. so that they display the data in a more meaningful way. you can exclude rows before dividing them into groups. Guidelines: • If you include a group function in a SELECT clause. • By default. • You must include the columns in the GROUP BY clause. You will receive an error message if you fail to include the column list. Until now. all aggregate functions have treated the table as one large group of information. You can use the GROUP BY clause to divide the rows in a table into groups. 4 T he GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses can be used to organize your query results. This can be done by using the GROUP BY clause. you need to divide the table of information into smaller groups. rows are sorted by ascending order of the columns included in the GROUP BY list.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Organizing & Grouping Data We’ll look at the GROUP BY. You can then use the group functions to return summary information for each group. and HAVING clauses in this module. GROUP BY The GROUP BY clause is usually used with an aggregate function such as SUM or AVG. The HAVING clause works in a manner similar to the WHERE clause. You can override this by using the ORDER BY clause 25 . GROUP BY doesn’t really have much use without aggregate functions. • Using a WHERE clause. GROUP BY divides a table into sets.

SQL> select deptno. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. • The SELECT clause specifies the columns to be retrieved: − Department number column in the EMP table − The average of all the salaries in the group you specified in the GROUP BY clause The FROM clause specifies the tables that the database must access: the EMP table. The rows are being grouped by department number. • • • SQL> select avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. AVG(SAL) --------2916.6667 DEPTNO --------30 20 10 26 . so the AVG function that is being applied to the salary column will calculate the average salary for each department.6667 2175 2916. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 AVG(SAL) --------2916. The GROUP BY clause specifies how the rows should by grouped. make sure that all columns in the SELECT list that are not in the group functions are included in the GROUP BY clause.6667 When using the GROUP BY clause. AVG(SAL) --------1566.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select deptno.6667 2175 1566.6667 SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 AVG(SAL) --------2916. The above example displays the department number and the average salary for each department. Here is how the SELECT statement above.6667 You can also use the ORDER BY clause to rearrange the query results.6667 2175 1566. containing a GROUP BY clause is evaluated.6667 2175 1566. The WHERE clause specifies the rows to be retrieved. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. Since there is no WHERE clause. by default all rows are retrieved. avg(sal) from emp group by deptno order by avg(sal).

is evaluated: • The SELECT clause specifies the column to be retrieved: − Department number in the EMP table − Job title in the EMP table − The sum of all the salaries in the group you specified in the GROUP BY clause. containing a GROUP BY clause. You can return summary results for groups and subgroups by listing more than one GROUP BY column. Here is how the SELECT statement above. The EMP table is grouped first by department number and then within that grouping it is grouped by job title. the two clerks in department 20 are grouped together and a single result (total salary) is produced for all salesmen within the group. For example. the rows are grouped by job title. − Second.--------CLERK 1300 MANAGER 2450 PRESIDENT 5000 ANALYST 6000 CLERK 1900 MANAGER 2975 CLERK 950 MANAGER 2850 SALESMAN 5600 9 rows selected. • • So the SUM function is being applied to the salary column for all job titles within each department number group. job. You can determine the default sort order of the results by the order of the columns in the GROUP BY clause. job.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Grouping by More Than One Column Sometimes there is a need to see results for groups within a group. within the department number groups. SQL> select deptno. 27 . sum(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. The FROM clause specifies the tables that the database must access: the EMP table. the rows are grouped by department number. The GROUP BY clause specifies how you must group the rows: − First. within each department. DEPTNO --------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 JOB SUM(SAL) --------. The table below shows a report that displays the total salary being paid to each job title.

and average salary for each job type (analyst. clerk. SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno. Display the minimum. manager.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Here is another example of the GROUP BY clause: SQL> select deptno. sum. you have to use DESC in the ORDER BY clause. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 where avg(sal) > 2000 4 group by deptno. president. DEPTNO COUNT(ENAME) --------. Exercise 4. where avg(sal) > 2000 * ERROR at line 3: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here You can correct the above error by using the HAVING clause to restrict groups. DEPTNO AVG(SAL) --------. 2. salesman).1 1. If you want the list to be sorted in descending order. The default order is ascending. maximum.6667 20 2175 We’ll discuss the HAVING clause more in depth shortly. avg(sal) from emp group by deptno having avg(sal) > 2000.-----------10 3 20 5 30 6 You cannot use the WHERE clause to restrict groups. ORDER BY The ORDER BY clause arranges your query results by one or more columns. Write a query to display the number of people with the same job.--------10 2916. 28 . Note the following error which results from a misuse of the WHERE clause SQL> select deptno. count(ename) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno.

The following example sorts the query result first by job title and then by last name. Exercise 4. EMPNO --------7521 7844 7369 7788 7934 7654 7839 7566 7900 7902 7782 7698 7499 7876 ENAME ---------WARD TURNER SMITH SCOTT MILLER MARTIN KING JONES JAMES FORD CLARK BLAKE ALLEN ADAMS 14 rows selected. JOB --------ANALYST ANALYST CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN ENAME EMPNO ---------. 1981. 29 . When you use more than one column in the ORDER BY clause. You can have as many levels of sorts as you like. ename.--------FORD 7902 SCOTT 7788 ADAMS 7876 JAMES 7900 MILLER 7934 SMITH 7369 BLAKE 7698 CLARK 7782 JONES 7566 KING 7839 ALLEN 7499 MARTIN 7654 TURNER 7844 WARD 7521 14 rows selected. ename.2 1. Display the employee name. EMPNO --------7876 7499 7698 7782 7902 7900 7566 7839 7654 7934 7788 7369 7844 7521 ENAME ---------ADAMS ALLEN BLAKE CLARK FORD JAMES JONES KING MARTIN MILLER SCOTT SMITH TURNER WARD SQL> select empno. ename 2 from emp 3 order by ename desc. and May 1. You could also add DESC to one or both of the columns in the ORDER BY clause to reverse sort the query result. empno 2 from emp 3 order by job. 1981. SQL> select job. ename 2 from emp 3 order by ename. ordered by job first and then by ename within each job category. sorts are nested ( that is. job and start date of employees hired between February 20.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select empno. You can also sort by more than one column. Order the query in ascending order of start date. 14 rows selected.

while HAVING conditions apply to the query as a whole.3 1. sum(sal) payroll from emp where job not like 'SALES%' group by job having sum(sal)>5000 order by sum(sal). Sort data in descending order of salary and commissions. Sort the output in descending order of salary. 30 . Most of the time. the HAVING clause is a WHERE clause for groups. Exclude anyone where the manager id is not known. Display the employee name and department number of all employees in departments 10 and 30 in alphabetical order by name. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 select job. HAVING limits groups. WHERE clause conditions apply to the aggregates. salary. JOB PAYROLL --------.--------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275 Exercise 4. 3. and commission for all employees who earn commissions. you use HAVING with GROUP BY. The example excludes salesmen and sorts the list by the total monthly salary. When there are aggregates in the select list of a query. Just as WHERE limits rows. SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno from emp group by deptno having max(sal) > 2900. Exclude any groups where the minimum salary is less than $1000. Display the name. The HAVING Clause In its most common usage. Display the manager number and the salary of the lowest paid employee for that manager. DEPTNO --------10 20 The following example displays the job title and total monthly salary for each job title with a total payroll exceeding $5000.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S 2. after you’ve calculated the aggregates and set up the groups.

loc 2 from emp.deptno. table. The join operation lets you retrieve and manipulate data from more than one table in a single SELECT statement. When this happens.deptno. you need to join the two tables together by using a column that is found in both tables. you specify joins in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.--------. The format of a join statement looks like this: Select From Where table. emp.column table1. table2 table1. dept. emp. you may need to query more than one table at the same time using a join operation.column1=table2.column.------------SMITH 20 20 DALLAS ALLEN 30 30 CHICAGO WARD 30 30 CHICAGO JONES 20 20 DALLAS MARTIN 30 30 CHICAGO BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK SCOTT 20 20 DALLAS KING 10 10 NEW YORK TURNER 30 30 CHICAGO ADAMS 20 20 DALLAS JAMES 30 30 CHICAGO FORD 20 20 DALLAS MILLER 10 10 NEW YORK 14 rows selected. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ---------. dept 3 where emp.deptno.ename. SQL> select emp. In most cases. one table may not give you all the information that you need.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Joining Tables In a database that has been designed properly. dept.deptno=dept.column2 To perform a simple or inner join.--------. Let’s look at a join involving the EMP and DEPT tables. 31 . usually as a primary key in one table and a foreign key in the other.empno.

32 .manager=p. Write a query to display the employee name. d.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S You can cut down on the typing by using table aliases in the SELECT statement. dept d 3 where e. This is done in the following manner (This table is an example only.project_id from employee e.deptno. department name. Write a query to display the name. e. 2.------------SMITH 20 20 DALLAS ALLEN 30 30 CHICAGO WARD 30 30 CHICAGO JONES 20 20 DALLAS MARTIN 30 30 CHICAGO BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK SCOTT 20 20 DALLAS KING 10 10 NEW YORK TURNER 30 30 CHICAGO ADAMS 20 20 DALLAS JAMES 30 30 CHICAGO FORD 20 20 DALLAS MILLER 10 10 NEW YORK 14 rows selected.deptno. and department name for all employees who work in Dallas. 3. e.empno. projects p where e. and location of all employees who earn a commission. commission. List the results alphabetically by name. A table alias is defined in the FROM clause after the actual table name.ename. and department name for all employees. It will not work with your practice tables) SQL> 2 3 4 select e. department number.manager. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ---------. e.emp_id.deptno.name.--------. d. Sometimes you may need to join more than one table.deptno.manager. p. Exercise 4. SQL> select e.--------. department d.deptno=d. department number.loc 2 from emp e. d. job.deptno=d.deptno and d.4 1. d. Write a query to display the employee name.

If you want to force the user to enter data. Table and column names: Must begin with a letter Can be 1-30 characters long Must contain only A-Z. This module will give you the knowledge to create your own tables and fields and then alter or modify them after you have created them. drop (delete) them._.$. city varchar2(20)). Not null constraints One problem with the table is that users can leave fields blank if they want to. Here is an example: SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4). you probably want to know how to create your own tables. This will create a table called “table_name” with three fields: an ID field which can take up to four numbers and a name and a city field which can each hold up to twenty alphanumeric characters. and alter them as necessary. and # Must not duplicate the name of another object owned by the same user Must not be Oracle Server reserved words To create a table. 0-9. Naming Conventions There are certain restrictions on names you give to tables and columns. you can do this by using the words “not null” when creating the table as demonstrated by the following example: 33 .I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Creating and Working with Tables 5 N • • • • • ow that you know how to pull data out of tables that were created for you. a-z. you need to specify the name of the table and then specify its fields and the datatypes of those fields. You may or may not want to allow this. name varchar2(20).

SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4) primary key. Foreign Key Constraint A foreign key constraint is used to relate tables. This means that a record cannot be inserted without a value being placed in this field. A not null constraint has now been placed on the “name” field. 34 . city varchar2(20)). The foreign key is created with a combination of the following keywords: FOREIGN KEY is used to define the column in the child table at the table constraint level. Not Null –specifies that a column may not contain a null value Unique – Specifies a column whose values must be unique for all rows Primary Key – Uniquely identifies each row of the table Foreign Key – Establishes and enforces a foreign key relationship between the column and a column of the referenced table 5. The unique constraint will allow more than one null value. Without the ON DELETE CASCADE option. The foreign key is defined in the child table. The following constraints are available in Oracle: 1. the dependent rows in any child tables will also be deleted. REFERENCES identifies the table and column in the parent table. name varchar2(20) not null. 2. 4. Check – Specifies a condition that must be true Unique Key Constraint A unique key constraint requires that every value in a column be unique. and the table containing the referenced column is the parent table. It would not prevent you from entering John Smith and JOHN SMITH. because Oracle is case sensitive. city varchar2(20)). name varchar2(20) unique. SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4).I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4). however. but it would prevent you from entering John Smith twice. name varchar2(20). No two rows of a table can have duplicate values. ON DELETE CASCADE indicates that when a row in the parent table is deleted. 3. Primary Key Constraint A primary key constraint creates a primary key for the table. Only one primary key can be created for each table. city varchar2(20)). The primary key ensures that the value in each row is unique and prevents null values from being entered. the row in the parent table cannot be deleted if it is referenced in the child table.

Now enter some information into your tables: SQL> insert into parent_table values (01. Check the child table and note that the dependent record has also been deleted. Try to drop the Flagstaff record now and see what happens now that we’ve added the ON DELETE CASCADE clause. SQL> delete from parent_table where id=01. id number(2) not null. 'JOHN SMITH'. Now try to delete the Flagstaff record from the parent table: SQL> delete from parent_table where id=01. 'FLAGSTAFF'). Now let’s create the child table and create a foreign key to reference the “id” column in the parent table. SQL> select * from child_table 35 . First drop (delete) the old constraint. constraint childtable_id_fk FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES parent_table (id)). 'PHOENIX'). SQL> insert into child_table values (10. This enters data into your tables and relates the John Smith record to Flagstaff by virtue of the foreign key. name varchar2(20). SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 create table child_table ( child_id number(2) primary key. 3 city varchar2(20)). Now add a new constraint that contains the “ON DELETE CASCADE” clause to the child table: SQL> 2 3 4 alter table child_table add constraint childtable_id_fk Foreign key(id) references parent_table(id) ON DELETE CASCADE. SQL> insert into parent_table values (02. SQL> alter table child_table 2 drop constraint CHILDTABLE_ID_FK. 01).I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Let’s create the parent table first: SQL> create table parent_table ( 2 id number(2) primary key. What happened? Let’s do an alter table command to add “ON DELETE CASCADE” to the foreign key constraint.

search_condition 2 FROM user_constraints 3 where table_name = ‘CHILD_TABLE’. check ((job = ‘SALESMAN’ and comm IS NOT NULL) or job != ‘SALESMAN’ and comm IS NULL)) Viewing Constraints on a Table Constraints set on a table can be viewed by executing the following statement. Of course another way to ensure that you only get capital letters would be to convert lowercase letters automatically when they are inserted. A check constraint that makes sure that the id column does not contain four-digit numbers below 1000 or above 5000 can be created with the following statement: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4) constraint tablename_id_ck check (id between 999 and 5001). constraint_type. name varchar2(20) not null constraint tablename_name_ck check (name between ‘A’ and ‘Z’).I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Check Constraint Check constraints define a condition that each row must satisfy. but it will allow numbers and certain symbols. which we will cover in the next module. If you want to allow only capital letters: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4). Substitute the name of the table you want to view for CHILD_TABLE and be sure to use uppercase letters. including sysdate. city varchar2(20)). You can check for all uppercase letters in the name column by using this constraint: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4). and can be used in simple logic statements. Constraints can also be used on dates. name varchar2(20) not null. 36 . city varchar2(20)). check (start_date < sysdate and (end_date > sysdate or end_date is null))). “tablename_id_ck”. city varchar2(20)). Note that you are actually creating a constraint with its own name. The previous statement will not allow nulls or lower case letters to be entered into the name column. name varchar2(20) not null constraint tablename_name_ck check (name=upper(name)). SQL> SELECT constraint_name.

name varchar2(20). 3 name varchar2(20). SQL> 2 3 4 create table employees ( id number(2). and even to rename a table. hiredate date default sysdate). modify or delete columns. The alter table statement is used to add. define a default value on a new column. select * from clients. let’s say that most people who are entered into the table will most likely live in Flagstaff. You should see that Flagstaff has automatically been entered in the city column. This might be useful in a situation where a value to be entered is frequently the same. name varchar2(20). 37 . To demonstrate how to add a column.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Setting Default Values on a Column You can also set default values in a table when you create it.name) values (10. You may likely want to use Flagstaff as a default value to save some typing. city varchar2(20) default ‘FLAGSTAFF’). Dropping and Altering Tables There are times when you will want to drop (delete) tables that have been created. 'JOHN SMITH'). Now let’s add the city column using the alter table statement: SQL> alter table clients 2 ADD (city varchar2(20)). SQL> 2 3 4 create table clients ( id number(2). let’s first create the new table: SQL> create table clients ( 2 id number(2). including the sysdate function. You should be able to do the same thing with dates. you may simply want to modify the structure of a table. This can be done with the Alter Table statement. This is very easy to and can be done with this simple statement: SQL> drop table table_name In other cases. add or remove constraints as we saw above. Now try inserting data in the first two columns only and then select it: SQL> SQL> insert into clients (id. In our example.

sql and demodrop. We’ll call it “employees”. Demobld will drop and create the demo tables.sql can be located under the current Northern Arizona University install at c:\Oracle/ORA81/sqlplus/demo/demobld. salgrade. 38 . The following query will create a new table with selected columns from the “emp” table.sql if you just want to erase your changes and start with a fresh set of demo tables you only need to execute demobld. This is useful if you want to play with the tables and change data. SQL> create table employees 2 as 3 select * from emp. The table can also be renamed by executing the following statement: SQL> rename clients to client_table Creating Tables from Subqueries An easy way to create new tables from exisiting data is to create one using a subquery. while demodrop simply drops them. A feature that first showed up with Oracle8 is the ability to drop a column as well. which we will look at in module seven. dept. Creating and Dropping Demo Tables Oracle has several practice tables that we have been using throughout this course. but then be able to set everything back to how it was originally.sql.sql and demodrop. This is a handy feature. You can also do this with views. You can change a column’s datatype. size. You do not need to drop the tables using demodrop. SQL> alter table clients 2 MODIFY (name varchar2(30)). and dummy. Demobld. and NOT NULL column constraint. There are two scripts that are installed with the Oracle client that allows you to add and drop these tables repeatedly. The statement to do this is: SQL> alter table clients 2 drop (name). The two scripts (files) are demobld. Let’s modify the name column to be thirty spaces instead of twenty.sql. You can create tables from very sophisticated queries and joins that provide only the data you need.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S You can also use alter table to modify columns. bonus. You should recognize them as emp. default value.

Creating Views You may create tables that contain data that you don’t want to be made available to certain people or groups. 39 . You can rename the column names when you create your view in the following manner: SQL> create view employeeVU 2 as select empno ID. View created. Now check the view: SQL> select * from employeeVU.---------7369 7566 7788 7876 7902 SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD CLERK MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST To drop a view: SQL> drop view employeeVU. To create the view. job TITLE 4 from employees 5 where deptno=20. you specify the name and then use a select statement: SQL> create view employeeVU 2 as select empno.sql and press the enter key. A view can also be configured to control how data is manipulated in the table. A view is set up with certain privileges for users. job 3 from employees 4 where deptno=20. Rather than create new tables with redundant data. ename. 3 ename NAME. View created. View dropped. simply type in @c:\Oracle/ORA81/sqlplus/demo/demobld. you may want to set it up so that users can only see the data and not be allowed to update it. For example. EMPNO ENAME JOB ---------.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To run this script from the SQL*Plus tool. you can create a “view” of the table which only presents the data fields that you want to make available.

com.---------.deptno=d.---------ACCOUNTING 1300 5000 2916. SQL> create view emp_stats_vu 2 (name. There are many rules and commands that you need to be aware of before using a view in a production environment. You cannot update data in this type of view.sal). View created.14286 This is just a superficial overview of views.sal) 5 from emp e. dept d 6 where e. avgsal) 3 as select d.66667 RESEARCH 800 3000 2175 SALES 950 2850 1557.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Now test it: SQL> select * from employeeVU. 4 max(e.---------.dname. min(e.sal).oracle.deptno 7 group by d. minsal. avg(e. Now test it: SQL> select * from emp_stats_vu.dname. NAME MINSAL MAXSAL AVGSAL -------------.com or http://otn. EMPNO ENAME JOB ---------.oracle. however. maxsal. 40 .---------7369 7566 7788 7876 7902 SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD CLERK MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST Creating a view from multiple tables An especially handy feature of views is that you can create what looks and acts like a table from multiple tables and functions. For more information consult the comprehensive Oracle complete reference guide or an online resource such as http://www.

use the following statement:: SQL> update employees 2 set job=’ACTOR’. while number datatypes do not.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Inserting Records Now that you know how to create and manage tables and views.hiredate=’01-FEB-02’. then you must identify the fields by name. let’s look at how to insert data into your tables and manage it once it’s there. Remember that varchar2 and date datatypes need to be enclosed in quotes.7839.mgr=7839. Updating Records To update a record. If you only want to insert data in certain fields. use the following statement: SQL> delete from employees 3 where ename=’SUTHERLAND’.’ROBERTS’. SQL> insert into employees (empno.50). 41 .’ACTRESS’.’SUTHERLAND’). Deleting Records To delete a record.10000.deptno=50 3 where ename=’SUTHERLAND’. It’s actually a pretty simple and straight-forward process.ename) 2 values (8888. To insert a record.’01-FEB-02’.0.sal=10000. use the following statement: SQL> insert into employees 2 values (8888. You can update as many or as few of the columns as you like.

Oracle will make them permanent if you exit from the SQL*Plus tool. Committing Changes After making changes to records. Creating an Index If you have a large table in which only a small percentage of records are expected to be returned at any one time. An index is an independent object. This becomes very important if you are designing dynamic web pages that present data from your Oracle tables. The changes appear to have been made in SQL*Plus. We will look at the commit function in the following section. Commit complete. but they will not show up in your web pages until you have issued a commit command. or you may delete the entire contents of the table! If you do this by accident. then you will probably want to create an index to speed query searches. Rollback complete. but you must do it before you commit. separate from the table it indexes. You probably do not want to use indexes on a table that is updated frequently as it may slow down inserts or updates. they can be dropped at any time without affecting the data in the tables or the tables themselves. As we saw in the last section. There are two types of indexes. you can use the rollback function to correct it. but it is a good idea to get in the habit of committing after important changes. SQL> commit. An implicit index is created automatically when you define a primary key or unique constraint on a table. It speeds up the retrieval of data by using a pointer and can reduce disk input/output by using a rapid path access method. you can also issue a rollback command and undo all of the changes up to the point where you last issued a commit command. you need to issue a “commit” command to make the changes permanent. An explicit constraint is created when you manually execute a create index statement as shown below. SQL> delete from employees. SQL> rollback. Rollback complete. SQL> rollback. Since indexes are independent of the tables. 17 rows deleted.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Make sure that you use a where clause with the delete statement. Remember this and save yourself potentially hours of frustration if you present data on the web. 42 .

index_name. 43 . ix. To drop the index: SQL> drop index employees_empno_idx.uniqueness 3 from user_indexes ix.index_name = ix. Index created. 2 ic.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To create an index: SQL> create index employees_empno_idx 2 on employees(empno). user_ind_columns ic 4 where ic.table_name = 'employees'.column_position col_pos. ic.index_name 5 and ic. You can view the indexes you created by using the following: SQL> select ic.column_name.

Sequence numbers are independent of tables. which we will create in the next section. so one sequence can be used on multiple tables. To create a sequence. We’ll also look at how to schedule jobs to make things happen to your data and tables at pre -determined times. which automatically creates a new number each time a record is inserted into a table. Oracle tends to pre -allocate 20 values per day. If you didn’t specify “no cache” when you created the sequence. The “start with” clause can also be left out if you want the sequence number to begin at one.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Other Tips 6 T he next step is to learn how to use sequences and triggers to allow for automatic numbering and to cause things to happen when an event occurs. your sequence value will start at 21 the following day. and 3. The “increment by” clause can be left out if you want it to increase by one number at a time. follow this general syntax: create sequence sequence_name increment by n start with n no cache. “No cache” is important if you are using the sequence to create sequential numbers and it’s important that you don’t have any missing values. If your table only inserts three records the first day. but it can be useful in a case where you need the sequence number to start at a value like 1000. it will assign the numbers 1. When combined with a trigger. which is the default. 2. A sequence generator can be used to automatically assign unique numbers to a row. Sequences Many tables need unique numbers to serve as primary key values. a sequence can create the equivalent of an Access database autonumber. We are going to create a sequence to generate an autonumber. To generate the sequence type: 44 . Sequences are typically used to generate primary numbers. The sequence will also need a trigger.

nextval into Emp_ID from dual. This works like an autonumber in Access and allow access to be used as a front end to Oracle in situations where a primary key are similar automatically generated unique value is necessary. In other cases where a front end such as Microsoft Access is being used to insert data. use “drop sequence sequence_name” If you are embedding an SQL insert statement in something like Active Server Pages. You should get a “Sequence created” message if it was successful. such as Visual Basic in an Active Server Page.nextval. The trigger allows the sequence to fire internally when a record is inserted. 8 :new. 6 begin 7 select autonumber. ID is the name of the field where the autoincrement will be. rather than an event trigger in the table. this works fine if you can count on a dynamic page or other code to trigger the sequence event.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Create sequence autonumber start with 1 nocache. 10 / Trigger created. without relying on external code. you can create an autonumber that will be initiated by the code itself. Give it the name of the owner. This creates a trigger that will automatically place a sequential number in whichever column specified. Triggers Here’s how the trigger is created. As mentioned. ‘SMITH’) “Autonumber” is the name of the sequence and “nextval” tells the sequence to give you the next value available. a sequence combined with a trigger is probably the best situation. 45 . 9 END. To drop the sequence.Emp_ID := Emp_ID. SQL> create or replace trigger triggername_bef_ins_row 2 before insert on employee referencing 3 OLD old NEW new for each row 4 declare 5 Emp_ID number(5). in this case employee is the tablename. You can do it this way: Insert into records_table values (autonumber. “number(5)” specifies the datatype and number of digits. “SMITH” is just data in the second column.

In the “Link” dialog box that pops up. first create your tables in Oracle using SQL*Plus and then follow these steps.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Using Miicrosoft Access as a Front End to Oracle Not everyone wants to learn SQL nor do they want to write a lengthy SQL statement just to insert a record. To set up Access as a front end. Open a blank Access database. find “Files of Type: Microsoft Access” and scroll to the bottom to change “Microsoft Access” to “ODBC Databases”. 46 . Click OK. Microsoft Access provides a convenient. GUI-based front end for these users. Now go to the File menu and select Get External Data > Link Tables. but someone is responsible for maintaining the data who has no strong technical aptitude and wants to avoid SQL at all costs. This can be especially useful in situations where a department is storing data in one of ITS’s Oracle databases.

Select System Data Source and click the Next button. 47 .I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Select the “Machine Data Source” tab and click on the “New” button.

depending on where your tables are located. 48 . The Oracle ODBC Driver is not recommended because of some anomalies that have been noticed in the NAU env ironment. “Naudev_tables” can be any name you want to give your ODBC connection. Put your Oracle username in and then most likely NAUDEV or ITSDEV for the Server name.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Click on the “Microsoft ODBC for Oracle” driver and click the next button. You should now see this box: Find your username and the tables that are located in your space. (Don’t forget to change this password shortly after they assign it. Click on the Next button and then click “Finish”. Simply click OK and then enter the Oracle password that the DBA’s assigned to you. go back. If you can’t find any tables above a certain letter. Note that this is different from the “Oracle ODBC Driver” which may also be listed in your choices. If so.) See page ??? if you forgot how to do this. Click OK. Choose one or more tables and click OK. The new ODBC name should now be highlighted. Now fill in the box that should pop up. delete the ODBC connection and re -create it using Microsoft ODBC for Oracle. it means that you probably used the “Oracle ODBC Driver” instead of the “Microsoft ODBC for Oracle” drive. A description can also be entered if useful.

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Access will probably prompt you for a Unique Record Identifier. This is only important for Access and does not change anything on the Oracle side. You should choose something however or you probably will not be able to enter any data through Access, only view it. Click the OK button.

Your link to the Oracle table is now complete. You will notice that the table icon is different than what is usually seen in Access. (It is a globe with an arrow.) This represents a linked table. The good news is that once you have this link, it can be treated as any other table in Access. Queries, forms, and modules can be written in Access that actually run against the Oracle tables. As mentioned above, this can be a very powerful tool, especially when non-technical personnel are expected to manage the data. Plus it gives you the security of having your data stored and backed up on ITS professionally-managed databases.

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Module Six – Lab
(Suggested solutions are in the back of the manual.) 1. Create a new table called lab_one and add several columns, including one called unique_id and make it a primary key with an identifiable name. 2. Using an SQL insert statement, enter one or two records into the new table. 3. Now create a sequence, named something like “autonumber”, which will be used to create an autonumber in the unique_id field. 4. Since we will use Access as a front end, you will also want to create a trigger to cause the sequence to insert a value when a new record is inserted. 5. Now create an Access front end to your new table. Once it is set up, try to insert a couple of records through the GUI interface. Which tool do you prefer, SQL*Plus or Access?

SQL Loader
So how do you get large numbers of records into your tables without having to enter each record by hand? There is a tool called SQL Loader that will let you enter data from a delimited text file. The hard part is setting up the control file, but once you have done this, the records can be loaded in a few seconds to a few minutes depending on the quantity of data. Whole books have been written on SQL Loader, most notably one by O’Reilly, which is devoted entirely to the intricacies of this command line tool. First of all, you need to do a search for the tool to make sure you have it. Look for “sqlldr.exe”. It should be in a path like c:\ORACLE\ora81\bin. SQL*Loader reads files and places the data from those files in an Oracle database based on the instructions it receives from a control file. The control file describes the data being loaded and tells Oracle where to place it. The SQL loader tool isn’t included in the NAU download install, so you need to get it form a complete install from the CD or ask your friendly neighborhood SWAT team member for it.

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1. First we need to create a table to hold the data: Create table class_info (idno number(4), course_no number(3), day_of_class varchar2(20), Building varchar2(50), Seats_remaining number(2), instructor varchar2(50)) storage (initial 1m next 100k pctincrease 0 maxextents unlimited); The last few lines dealing with “storage” are sometimes needed to avoid a “max extents” error that occurs sometimes depending on the amount of data you are trying to load. If you get a max extents error, you need to add this storage clause when creating the table. The DBA’s at NAU have se the default max extents to ten and the clause changes that to allow for loading of large amounts of data. 2. Now create the control file and store it as “class_info.ctl”. (Note the “replace” in the second line. This option wipes out existing data. Use “append” if you want to add to existing data.): load data infile class_info.txt replace into table class_info fields terminated by ‘,’ optionally enclosed by ‘”’ trailing nullcolls (idno, course_no, day_of_class, building, seats_remaining, instructor)

Chyfo at http://www.ispirer.com is a nice little tool which will creat all of the necessary files and scripts for you when migrating data from various database to Oracle. It is a command line tool and you still have to have a pretty good understanding of how things work to use it effectively, however. Don’t forget about the O’Reilly book, which is a great resource if you want to get serious about using SQL loader and tools like Chyfo. Your instructor will tell you where to get the data file, called “class_info.txt”. Place it in the same directory as the control file. I usually create a directory at the root, “C:\loaddata”, for example, to keep the path short and simple. Now open a command prompt and enter the following:

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The worksheet works pretty much the same way as the SQL*Plus tool. but it provides a slightly more intuitive graphical interface for running queries and has two panes: one for the SQL queries and other commands and a second for the output. You will probably find it by going to the Start menu and going to Oracle > Database Administration > SQLPlus Worksheet 52 .ctl (You can set this up as a batch file. It is usually dumped in c:\documents and settings/yourusername.) SQL Loader creates a log that explains how data was loaded and whether anything went wrong. SQL*Plus Worksheet Another tool that you can install from the ITS dba website is the SQL*Plus Worksheet. It’s worth taking a look at.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Sqlldr username/password@naudev control=c:\loaddata/class_info.

--------.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Solutions Solutions to Exercises Exercise 2.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 14 rows selected. i . SQL> select * 2 from emp.1 1. 2.--------.--------. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 19-APR-87 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 23-MAY-87 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 14 rows selected. hiredate 2 from emp.--------. SQL> select ename. job.

SQL> describe dept Name Null? ------------------------------.2 1. SQL> select ename. ENAME DEPTNO ---------. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON 5. ENAME SAL ---------. SQL> select * 2 from dept. ii .-------DEPTNO NOT NULL DNAME LOC Type ---NUMBER(2) VARCHAR2(14) VARCHAR2(13) 4.3. sal 2 from emp 3 where sal > 2850. deptno 2 from emp 3 where empno=7566. SQL> select distinct job 2 from emp. SQL> select ename.--------JONES 20 3. JOB --------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN Exercise 2.--------JONES 2975 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 FORD 3000 2.

iii .--------SMITH 800 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 10 rows selected. SQL> select ename 2 from emp 3 where ename like 'S%'. 12*sal "Old Salary". 4. (Do this query first to find out what columns are in the table) SQL> describe emp Name Null? ------------------------------.2) NUMBER(7.-------EMPNO NOT NULL ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO Type ---NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(9) NUMBER(4) DATE NUMBER(7.SQL> select ename. ENAME SAL ---------.2) NUMBER(2) Then run the query on the following page. 12*(sal+75)"New Salary" 2 from emp 3 where ename='TURNER'. ENAME Old Salary New Salary ---------. SQL> select ename.---------TURNER 18000 18900 6. ENAME ---------SMITH SCOTT 5. sal 2 from emp 3 where sal not between 1500 and 2850.---------.

comm. Maximum Minimum Sum Average --------. min(sal) "Minimum".2143 2. job. ename as "Last Name".--------. SQL> select count(job) "Number of Clerks" 2 from emp 3 where job='CLERK'.3 1.--------.--------. COUNT(EMPNO) -----------14 3. deptno 3 from emp. 2 sum(sal) "Sum". SQL> select count(empno) 2 from emp.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 14 rows selected.--------.--------. 2 sal. avg(sal) "Average" 3 from emp.--------.--------5000 800 29025 2073.SQL> select empno. hiredate. Exercise 2. mgr. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 Last Name ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. Number of Clerks ---------------4 iv . SQL> select max(sal) "Maximum".

1 1.56175 4. ENAME MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. SQL> select ename.Exercise 3. Today's Date --------------------------twenty-fifth of January 3. Today's Date ----------------25th of January SQL> select to_char (sysdate. hiredate) 2 from emp 3 where ename='TURNER'. 'ddspth "of" Month') "Today's Date" 2 from dual. SYSDATE --------25-JAN-99 2.HIREDATE) ---------. months_between (sysdate.--------MILLER 23-JAN-82 or v .-------------------------------TURNER 208. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate between '01-JAN-82' and '31-DEC-82'. SQL> select ename. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. 'ddth "of" Month') "Today's Date" 2 from dual. SQL> select sysdate 2 from dual. SQL> select to_char (sysdate.

--------MILLER 23-JAN-82 Exercise 4. JOB COUNT(JOB) --------.3333 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1250 1600 5600 1400 2. SQL> select job. sum(sal).---------ANALYST 2 CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 PRESIDENT 1 SALESMAN 4 Exercise 4.--------. SQL> select job. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename. ENAME HIREDATE ---------.--------. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate like '%-%-82'. job.1 1.SQL> select ename. JOB MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) --------.--------ANALYST 3000 3000 6000 3000 CLERK 800 1300 4150 1037. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by job. JOB --------SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER HIREDATE --------20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 01-MAY-81 ENAME ---------ALLEN WARD JONES BLAKE vi .--------.2 1. count(job) 2 from emp 3 group by job.5 MANAGER 2450 2975 8275 2758. hiredate from emp where hiredate between '20-FEB-81' and '01-MAY-81' order by hiredate. min(sal). max(sal).

SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 select mgr. or SQL> select e. d. e.dname from emp. dept where emp.--------ALLEN 1600 300 TURNER 1500 0 MARTIN 1250 1400 WARD 1250 500 Exercise 4.deptno.--------. dept d 3 where e. ENAME SAL COMM ---------.deptno=d. ENAME DEPTNO ---------. emp.ename. ename.deptno vii . MGR MIN(SAL) --------. deptno from emp where deptno=10 or deptno=30 order by deptno. SQL> 2 3 4 select emp. min(sal) from emp group by mgr having mgr is not null and min(sal) > 1000 order by min(sal) desc. comm desc.dname 2 from emp e. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename.4 1.deptno. sal.--------7566 3000 7839 2450 7782 1300 7788 1100 Exercise 4. comm from emp where comm is not null order by sal desc.3 1.deptno order by ename.deptno=dept.ename.--------CLARK 10 KING 10 MILLER 10 ALLEN 30 BLAKE 30 JAMES 30 MARTIN 30 TURNER 30 WARD 30 3.2. dept.

deptno. d.4 order by ename.--------.loc from emp e. dept d where e. ENAME DEPTNO COMM LOC ---------.--------.deptno=d.--------. SQL> 2 3 4 select e. dept d where e. ENAME DEPTNO DNAME ---------.-------------ADAMS 20 RESEARCH ALLEN 30 SALES BLAKE 30 SALES CLARK 10 ACCOUNTING FORD 20 RESEARCH JAMES 30 SALES JONES 20 RESEARCH KING 10 ACCOUNTING MARTIN 30 SALES MILLER 10 ACCOUNTING SCOTT 20 RESEARCH SMITH 20 RESEARCH TURNER 30 SALES WARD 30 SALES 2. e.dname from emp e. e. e.deptno and loc='DALLAS'.--------.deptno=d.deptno. d.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH MANAGER 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH ENAME ---------SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD viii . JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.comm.job.ename. SQL> 2 3 4 select e.ename.deptno and comm is not null. e.------------ALLEN 30 300 CHICAGO WARD 30 500 CHICAGO MARTIN 30 1400 CHICAGO TURNER 30 0 CHICAGO 3.