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Introduction to SQL for Oracle

NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY

Introduction to SQL & SQL*PLUS

© Northern Arizona University Software, Web Applications, and Training Phone (520) 523-1511 • Fax (520) 523-7407

T able of Contents
INTRODUCTION

MODULE

1 1 3 4

MODUL E

5 33 37 38 38 39 41 42 42

Intro to SQL and SQL*Plus Running SQL and SQL*Plus in Oracle Getting Help

Creating Tables Dropping and Altering Tables Creating Tables from Subqueries Creating Demo Tables

MODULE

2 5 6 8

Creating Views Inserting, Updating & Deleting Records Committing Changes Indexing Tables

Running Simple Queries in SQL Datatypes and Metadata Structuring Queries

Saving Queries & Running Saved-Queries 10 Operators Comparison Operators Arithmetic Operators Common Aggregate Functions 11 11 13 15 MODULE 6 44 45 46 50 52

Creating Sequences Creating Triggers

MODULE

3 19

Using MS-Access as a Front End SQL Loader SQLPlus Worksheet

Working with Dates & Date Functions

MODULE

4 25 28 30 31

GROUP BY Clause ORDER BY Clause HAVING Clause Joining Tables

S O L U T I O N S T O E X E R C I S E S A R E I N T H E A P P E N D I X .

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edu/its This manual was created for you by the ITS Software. We will start from the beginning. & Training (SWAT) team works with the Solution Center to provide our customers the best service possible. Please feel free to contact us anytime with your computing or computer training questions. About the Solution Center and the Software. The mission of the Solution Center and the SWAT team is to maintain or increase the productivity of NAU staff and faculty by providing professional development and computing solutions from a central point of contact. SQL*PLUS is proprietary to Oracle. One of the goals of the SWAT team is to provide you with the training and training materials you need to improve your computing skills. II . This course has no prerequisites and you will soon discover that basic SQL is easy to learn and use. & Training Teams Phone: (520) 523-1511 Fax: (520) 523-9259 http://www. The Software. you should be able to perform simple operations using SQL.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Introduction Introduction T I T S S O L U T I O N C E N T E R his course is designed to help you quickly learn the basics of SQL and SQL*PLUS queries. assuming that you have no experience with SQL and take you through the steps. & Training team.nau. Personal Oracle8 was used as the point of reference in creating this manual. Web Applications. and acting as an advocate for our customers in obtaining NAU computing support services. so you need to have access to a computer running some version of Oracle8 or 9 to complete the exercises. By the end of this course. Web Applications. Web Applications.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S .

4. and SQL Plus Worksheet in Oracle-related tasks. 2. Use sequences and triggers to generate autonumbers. Identify SQL/SQL*PLUS statements. Use SQL command syntax to write simple queries. 3. . Explain basic SQL/SQL*PLUS terms and concepts. Perform simple table joins. students will be able to: 1. 7. SQL Loader. Effectively use MS-Access. Create and modify tables 6.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S ü 1 Course Objectives At the end of the course. 5.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S .

F. SQL92 defines four levels of compliance: Entry. Release 8. A conforming SQL implementation must support at least Entry SQL. SQL was developed by IBM to use Codd's model.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Intro to SQL and SQL*PLUS SQL and SQL*PLUS. Codd. Industry-accepted committees are the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). Oracle8. The paper. The latest SQL standard is often called SQL92 (and sometimes SQL2). SQL can be pronounced as “ess-cue-ell”. Transitional. Codd's model is now accepted as the definitive model for relational database management systems (RDBMS). fully supports Entry SQL and has many features that conform to Transitional. Oracle SQL complies with industry-accepted standards. but the standards are technically identical.0. SQL is accepted as the standard RDBMS language. In 1979. was published in June 1970. 1 . Oracle Corporation ensures future compliance with evolving SQL standards by actively involving key personnel in SQL standards committees. or Full SQL. but many people refer to it as “sequel”. Relational Software. 1 S QL is an acronym for “Structured Query Language”. which is affiliated with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). By the late 1980’s there were over seventy-five SQL or SQL-like database management systems. and Full. E. (now Oracle Corporation) introduced the first commercially available implementation of SQL." by Dr. Today. When a new SQL standard is simultaneously published by these organizations. Intermediate. "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Inc. Both ANSI and the ISO/IEC have accepted SQL as the standard language for relational databases. Intermediate. the names of the standards conform to conventions used by the organization.

change or remove database objects such as tables or users. so you can transfer all skills you have gained with SQL from one database to another. and dropping objects controlling access to the database and its objects guaranteeing database consistency and integrity SQL unifies all of the above tasks in one consistent language. all programs written in SQL are portable: they can often be moved from one database to another with very little modification. replacing. including: • • • • • querying data inserting. You use DML to capture. and delete data. and deleting rows in a table creating. altering. 2 . Examples of DML commands include: • • • • SELECT columns of data in a table INSERT rows of data in a table DELETE rows of data in a table UPDATE SQL*PLUS What is the difference between SQL and SQL*Plus? SQL is the standard database query language that all relational databases use to manipulate data. In addition. DDL and DML SQL statements fall into two main categories: Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML). All major relational database management systems support SQL.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL provides commands for a variety of tasks. SQL*Plus is a programming environment where you can use SQL. Examples of DDL commands include: • • • • • CREATE a database object such as a table DROP (delete) a database object ALTER a database object GRANT privileges on a database object REVOKE privileges on a database object DML allows you to manipulate the contents of a database. DDL commands create. insert. updating.

Leave the host string blank. and select SQL Plus 8. and lets you create polished.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL*Plus is usually thought of as a kind of interactive query tool and report writer. formatting of numbers. and much more. subtotals and totals. You should see the following information: You are now ready to begin entering SQL commands! 3 .0. Running SQL*PLUS in Oracle To start SQL*Plus in Personal Oracle8. column heading. well-formatted reports by giving you easy control over titles. At the log on prompt. dates. go to Start|Programs|Oracle for Windows NT (or Windows 95). type scott for username and tiger for the password. and text. It uses SQL to get information from the Oracle data structure.

Your Web browser should open to the following page: From here. The next time you log in.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To start SQL*Plus on a mainframe or network. go to your operating system command line and type: SQLPLUS username|password. The password and username are most likely your userid. you can access Help by typing “help” at the SQL prompt. Use the following SQL statement to change your password: SQL> alter user your_userid identified by new_password. and select Oracle Documentation. Changing Your Password in NAUDEV You can also log into NAUDEV with your own account if one has been created for you. You should get a “user altered” message. you should be able to find your answer. 4 . Getting Help To access help in Personal Oracle8. go to Start|Programs|Oracle for Windows NT (or Windows 95). you will have to enter the new password. Tip: In older versions of Oracle and in true client/server environments. To test it log in with the following: Username: your_userid Password: your_userid Host: NAUDEV You should change your password once you have logged in to something more secure.

2 O racle SQL*Plus comes with a demo database that contains several tables.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Running Simple Queries in SQL Now that you have SQL up and running. TABLE_NAME -----------------------------DUAL SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE_MAP TABLE_PRIVILEGE_MAP STMT_AUDIT_OPTION_MAP AUDIT_ACTIONS PSTUBTBL DEPT EMP BONUS SALGRADE USER_PROFILE LOCATION DEPARTMENT JOB EMPLOYEE SALARY_GRADE PRODUCT PRICE CUSTOMER SALES_ORDER ITEM 21 rows selected. To see which tables are available. SQL> select table_name from all_tables. We will use these tables for our exercises. Some of these tables already include data. type in the following at the SQL prompt: and hit “enter”. let’s look at how to structure queries. 5 . You should get this result: SQL> select table_name from all_tables.

--------.--------.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S An alternative SQL statement that displays all available tables as the previous example did is: SQL> select * from tab. emp.--------.--------.000 Description Text string with variable length. we will only use three: dept. Most 6 . Below is a list of all the tables that are available in the demo database. and salgrade. EMP Table EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 DEPT Table DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SALGRADE Table GRADE LOSAL HISAL --------. For this course.--------1 700 1200 2 1201 1400 3 1401 2000 4 2001 3000 5 3001 9999 Datatypes and Metadata The following datatypes can be used in Oracle: Datatype VARCHAR2(n) Parameters n=1 to 2.--------. however.

only one. It let’s us know how a table is structured. Therefore. as well as what types (datatypes) of information they contain. s = scale (number of digits to the right of the decimal place). SQL> describe emp Name Null? ------------------------------. MGR. use the DESCRIBE command. ENAME can be a maximum of ten letters. Maximum length is 2 gigabytes. RAW(n) LONGRAW CHAR(n) Metadata n=1 to 255 none n=1 to 255 Metadata is the data about the data.999. s=-84 to 127 or FLOAT none none commonly used datatype. Text string with variable length. Raw binary data of variable length. two must be behind a decimal point. 7 . It is also referred to as the data dictionary. Text string with fixed length. SAL must be a number. HIREDATE. EMPNO. To view the metadata of a table. p = precision (total number of Digits). like state abbreviations. SQL will round up or down. For example. Raw binary data of variable length. Valid date range from January 1. For files Like MS Word documents. JOB. We know this because of the NOT NULL listed next to it.2) NUMBER(7. 4712 BC to December 31. COMM. must have something entered into it. For graphics. Of those seven digits. For regular text. ENAME. This will let you know exactly what the names of your columns are. Let’s look at the metadata for the emp table.2) NUMBER(2) This information tells us that we have eight columns in the emp table called EMPNO. For short Codes. Seldom used. For dates and times. Of these columns.-------EMPNO NOT NULL ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO Type ---NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(9) NUMBER(4) DATE NUMBER(7.99. or symbols in any combination. If you enter more than two decimal places. 4712 AD. SAL. not to exceed seven digits.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S NUMBER(p. We can also see what type of information must be entered into each column. numbers. DEPTNO. Number. EMPNO must be a number not to exceed four digits.s) LONG DATE p=1 to 38. you could not enter a number above 99.

GROUP BY (optional): Tells how you want data grouped or summarized. HAVING. however. • 8 . In Oracle. each datatype can be set to allow either null or not null values. limits. a zero. it means that a value other than nothing has to be entered. all rows are chosen. A sample query might look like: select last_name. If you have more than one table. they are not null. and connections between tables here. separated with commas. WHERE (optional): Where some condition is true. A SQL query has five main parts (clauses): SELECT FROM WHERE (optional) GROUP BY (optional) ORDER BY (optional) A sixth clause. Null means nothing at all. When left out. can also be discussed here. blank space. Put comparisons. address. List them with either AND or OR between each set. List all the columns. You can do queries for all records that have null. the basic structure is always the same. Structuring Queries Although SQL queries can become complicated. salary from employees where salary > 20000 order by last_name • • • SELECT: Put the list of columns you want to see here. Separate them with commas. list them all here. When a datatype is set to “not null”. FROM: Put the table name here. or any cha racter is a value. even if they are from several tables.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Null and Not Null As you may have noticed by now. This is only needed for a query that summarizes data. Null is defined as nothing.

The following example shows how we would obtain all the information from the department table. enter an asterisk. Notice the difference between the two select statements: SQL> select deptno from emp. DEPTNO --------20 30 30 20 30 30 10 20 10 30 20 30 20 10 9 . HAVING (optional): Similar to WHERE. When left out. SQL> select deptno. we would have to select the specific columns. loc 2 from dept. If more than one table is listed. but with some important distinctions that we’ll look at later. SQL> select * from dept. column from table where clause group by clause order by clause having clause ORDER BY (optional): List columns to use for sort order here. • SELECT specifies which column(s) in a table you want to see. rows are returned in the order in which they are found in the table.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S • Basic Query select column . FROM specifies the names of the table or tables in which the columns listed in the SELECT clause are located. they should be separated by a comma. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON Eliminating Duplicate Rows Duplicate rows can be eliminated by using the DISTINCT keyword in the select clause. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON If we wanted to know just the department number and the location. If you want to see all the columns.

--------.--------. Now display just the name (ename). Using SQL. Saving and Running Queries Queries that will be run repeatedly can be saved as a file and then run later by typing in the name of the file. Show the structure (metadata) of the DEPT table.--------. display all the columns from the employee (emp) table. Most likely.--------. 3. 5.---------. Select all data from the DEPT table. EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. you will find it at C:/oracle8/BIN.sql. write the query and execute it: SQL> select * 2 from emp 3 where ename='JAMES'. To save a file. and hire date (hiredate) of the employees.1 1. DEPTNO --------- 10 20 30 3 Exercise 2.--------. 4.--------. There are two ways to run the saved query: SQL> start example EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------.--------. position (job). 2.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select DISTINCT deptno from emp. the file is saved to the oracle8/BIN directory. The default file extension is . Create a query to display unique (distinct ) jobs from the EMP table.--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 or 10 .--------.---------.--------.--------.--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 SQL> Then save it: SQL> save example Created file example SQL> In Personal Oracle 8.

--------7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 Either start or @ will run the saved query. you can replace the saved file by using the replace command with save: SQL> save example replace Operators The WHERE Clause The WHERE clause is the part of the SELECT clause that specifies the search conditions. The system will search for rows of data that meet the conditions (qualifications) you specified by the operators.--------. you can later append more information to it by using the following command: SQL> save example append Finally.--------. To set up these search conditions. “Manager” is not the same as “manager”. • Comparison operators = > < >= <= != <> equal to greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to not equal to not equal to SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION = 'Manager'.--------. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY >= 50000. we use operators.--------. These conditions determine which rows are retrieved.---------. Remember that operator parameters are case sensitive.--------. 11 .I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> @example EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. You can also edit the saved query by entering edit followed by the filename: SQL> edit example Once the file has been saved. Comparison Operators SQL provides a variety of operators and keywords for expressing search conditions.

OR. NOT) SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY < 40000 OR BENEFITS < 10000. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY > 40000 AND POSITION = 'Staff'. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY BETWEEN 30000 AND 50000. must be set off by single quotes. including dates. • • Unknown values (IS NULL and IS NOT NULL) example: where advance is null Character matches (LIKE and NOT LIKE) example: where phone not like ‘415%’ Let’s say you wanted to see all people whose last names started with "L" in the EMPLOYEES table: SELECT EMPLOYEEIDNO FROM EMPLOYEESTATISTICSTABLE WHERE LASTNAME LIKE 'L%'. Any character string. 'Staff'). • Lists (IN. NOT IN) If you wanted to list all managers and staff: SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION IN ('Manager'. 12 . while “50000” was not. SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE POSITION = 'Manager' AND (SALARY > 50000 OR BENEFIT > 10000). while numbers do not require this. • Combinations or logical negations of conditions (AND.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Notice that “Manager” is placed in single quotes in the where clause. • Ranges (BETWEEN and NOT BETWEEN) SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY NOT BETWEEN 30000 AND 50000.

Operator + * / Description Add Subtract Multiply Divide SQL> select ename. try '%L%'. or look at what-if scenarios. The character “_” can be used to match exactly one character. or punctuation) or set of characters that might appear after the "L". letter. or if you wanted the "L" in the middle of the word. sal. Arithmetic operators allow you to modify the way data is displayed. SQL> select ename. but not SMITHEY.--------. ename like ‘SMITH_’ Arithmetic Operators would return SMITHE. use '%L'. To find those people with LastName's ending in "L". Arithmetic Operator Precedence (* / + -) • • • Multiplication and division take priority over addition and subtraction. Operators of the same priority are evaluated from left to right Parentheses are used to force prioritized evaluation and to clarify statements 2 from emp. ENAME SAL SAL+500 ---------. sal+500 2 from emp. and SMITHS. The “%” is a wildcard that can represent any number of characters. 12*sal+200 13 . SMITHY. sal. Arithmetic operators can be used in any clause of a SQL statement except the FROM clause.--------SMITH 800 1300 ALLEN 1600 2100 WARD 1250 1750 JONES 2975 3475 MARTIN 1250 1750 BLAKE 2850 3350 CLARK 2450 2950 SCOTT 3000 3500 KING 5000 5500 TURNER 1500 2000 ADAMS 1100 1600 JAMES 950 1450 FORD 3000 3500 MILLER 1300 1800 14 rows selected.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The percent sign (%) is used to represent any possible character (number. perform calculations.

sal. that value is said to be null. Zero is a number. Save your SQL to statement to a file named q1. This can be done by using a column alias. sal. but NULL can be used as a qualifier. There are two ways to create an alias.2 1. 14 . In the first example we multiplied the monthly salary by twelve and then added a onetime bonus of $200. or to contain null.--------.---------7902 800 7698 1600 300 3 Exercise 2.--------.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S ENAME SAL 12*SAL+200 ---------. comm"Commission" 2 from emp.--------. NULL is absolutely nothing at all. MANAGER SAL COMM --------. A null value is not the same as zero or a space. Create a query to display the name and salary of employees earning more than $2850. MGR SAL Commission --------. sal.--------. SQL> select ename. Create a query to display the employee name and department number for employee number 7566. Using Column Aliases You may want to display the heading of a column as something other than “12*(SAL+100)”. In the following example. SQL> select mgr as manager.---------SMITH 800 9800 ALLEN 1600 19400 WARD 1250 15200 JONES 2975 35900 MARTIN 1250 15200 BLAKE 2850 34400 CLARK 2450 29600 SCOTT 3000 36200 KING 5000 60200 TURNER 1500 18200 ADAMS 1100 13400 JAMES 950 11600 FORD 3000 36200 MILLER 1300 15800 14 rows selected. comm 2 from emp. Null Values If a row lacks the data value for a particular column. The other way is to place the alias in quotation marks. One is to place the alias after “AS” in the select statement.sql. parentheses are used to raise the salary $100 per month and then multiply by twelve. and a space is a character.-----------SMITH 800 10800 ALLEN 1600 20400 WARD 1250 16200 JONES 2975 36900 MARTIN 1250 16200 BLAKE 2850 35400 CLARK 2450 30600 SCOTT 3000 37200 KING 5000 61200 TURNER 1500 19200 ADAMS 1100 14400 JAMES 950 12600 FORD 3000 37200 MILLER 1300 16800 14 rows selected. Run your query. ENAME SAL 12*(SAL+100) ---------. 2. 12*(sal+100) 2 from emp.--------7902 800 7698 1600 300 SQL> select mgr.

You apply aggregates to sets of rows: to all the rows in a table. List employees whose last names begin with “S”. The number of non-null values in the expression. or to groups of rows set up in the GROUP BY clause. Find out how much Turner will make annually if we give her a $75 dollar a month raise. No matter how you structure the sets. The lowest value in the expression.sql and run it. to just those rows specified by a WHERE clause. Resave the SQL statement as q2. AVG. In this course. This query provides the total amount of commissions: 15 . MAX.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S 3. (discussed in the next module). These functions are called aggregate functions and they include SUM. but cause the heading “ename” to be displayed as “Last Name”. and MIN. Common Aggregate Functions Oracle offers many functions for performing advanced and complicated manipulations with data. Modify q1. All group functions except COUNT(*) ignore nulls. you get a single value for each set of rows. The highest value in the expression. we will concentrate on some of the more common functions. The average of values in the numeric expression. Select all columns from the employee table. The number of selected rows.sql to display the name and salary for all employees whose salary is not in the range of $1500 and $2850. 6. 4. 5. COUNT. Aggregates are functions you can use to get summary values. Aggregate Function SUM(expression) AVG (expression) COUNT(expression) COUNT(*) MAX(expression) MIN(expression) SUM Result The total of values in the numberic expression.

with a different heading: SQL> select avg(comm) "Average Commission" 2 from emp. count(*) 2 from emp. Let’s look at how each behaves in the following examples: SQL> select count(comm). while COUNT(*) counts all rows. AVG(COMM)*12 -----------6600 COUNT What if we wanted to know how many employees worked in the accounting department (dept. COUNT takes an argument (a column or expression) and discovers all not-null occurrences of that argument. whether or not any particular column contains a null value. However. the two are really not the same. COUNT(DEPTNO) ------------3 SQL> 2 3 4 select count(deptno) "Accounting Employees" from emp where deptno=10. Average Commission -----------------550 Let’s say that the commissions paid this month were indicative of commissions paid each month and we wanted to know what the average yearly commission might be: SQL> select avg(comm)*12 2 from emp. Accounting Employees -------------------3 COUNT(*) The apparent similarity of COUNT and COUNT(*) can lead to confusion.--------4 14 16 . number 10): SQL> select count(deptno) 2 from emp 3 where deptno=10. COUNT(COMM) COUNT(*) ----------. SUM(COMM) --------2200 AVG Here we have the average of commissions paid.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select sum(comm) 2 from emp.

COUNT. MAX. You can use SUM and AVG with numeric columns only. For example we can use the following query to find out which employee has worked in the company the longest: SQL> select min(hiredate) 2 from emp. because “0” is a value. Note that the commission listed as “0” was counted by COUNT. I’ll point out that they exist and that one could have been used to obtain the same information in a single query using the following format: SQL> select ename. and therefore is not null. and COUNT(*) work with all types of data. MAX MAX provides the highest value in an expression. MAX and MIN can be used for things other than the lowest or highest amount.--------SMITH 17-DEC-80 Essentially. MIN(HIRED --------17-DEC-80 SQL> select ename. We can use max to find out who makes the highest salary: SQL> select max(sal) 2 from emp. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate='17-DEC-80'. SQL> select sum(sal) 2 from emp. a subquery is nothing more than a query within a query Using DISTINCT and ALL With Functions DISTINCT can be used with a function to elimina te duplicate values.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The results produced by the two functions are different because ten rows in the COMM column have null values.--------SMITH 17-DEC-80 While subqueries are beyond the scope of this course. Look at the different results when SUM is used with and without DISTINCT. SUM(SAL) 17 . ENAME HIREDATE ---------. MIN. MAX(SAL) --------5000 MIN MIN provides the lowest value in an expression. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate=(select min(hiredate) from emp).

Display the highest. and 3 is 2. lowest. and Average. Label the columns Maximum.3 1. the DISTINCT average of 1. and average salary of all employees. the ALL average is 1.5. This option causes a group function to consider all values. Include the heading “Number of Clerks”. sum. 1. Write a query to count the number of employees. including all duplicates. For example. DISTINCT ALL This option causes a group function to consider only distinct values the argument expression. 3. Determine the number of clerks without listing them. 3 Exercise 2. the default is ALL. Minimum. 1. 18 . Sum. SUM(DISTINCTSAL) ---------------24775 The difference in the two results comes from the fact that there are duplicate values of 1250 and 3000 in the SAL column. If neither option is specified.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S --------29025 SQL> select sum(distinct sal) 2 from emp. 2.

which is a small but useful Oracle table created for testing functions or doing quick calculations. Operation date + number date . SYSDATE SYSDATE uses the computer’s operating system for the current date and time. Try it. and seconds. You can list the SYSDATE by itself by using the DUAL table. year. Arithmetic with Dates You can perform calculations on dates using arithmetic operators. minutes. Valid Oracle dates are between January 1. It is used in calculations that need to compare past or future dates/times with the current date or time. hours. The default display and input format for any date is DD-MON-YY.number date – date Result date date number of days Description Adds a number of days to a date Subtracts a number of days from a date Subtracts one date from another Adds a number of hours to a date date + number/24 date 19 . SYSDATE can be thought of as a function whose result is always the current date and time. 4712 BC and December 31. SQL> select sysdate from dual. It can be regarded as a hidden column that is in e very table. representing the century. 9999 AD. month.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module 3 Working with Dates and Date Functions Oracle stores dates in an internal numeric format. day.

all date values were displayed in the DD-MON-YY format. hiredate) Tenure.’Friday’) last_day (date) last_day (‘01-sep-95’) round (date [. next_day (hiredate.25 to calculate the number of years that a worker has been employed. date2) months_between (‘01-sep-95’.--------. ‘char’) next_day (‘01-sep-95’. 20 .--------.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select ename.’month’) round (‘25-jul-95’. 'friday').561648 17.’11-jan-94’) add_months (date.120854 16. ‘fmt’]) round (‘25-jul-95’. ‘fmt’]) trunc (‘25-jul-95’. but I wanted to at least make you aware of them. add_months (hiredate. hiredate. (sysdate-hiredate)/365. HIREDATE TENURE REVIEW NEXT_DAY( --------. We will not deal with them in this course.6) next_day (date. Date Functions Here is a list of a few date functions.--------19-APR-87 140.937418 The preceding example displays the number of years that each employee in department 10 has worked. The to_char function allows you to convert a date from this default format to one specified by you.40068 19-OCT-87 24-APR-87 23-MAY-87 139. n) add_months (‘11-jan-94’. last_day (hiredate) from emp where months_between (sysdate.’year’) Description Number of months between two dates Add calendar months to date Next date of the day specified Last day of the month Round date Truncate date SQL> 2 3 4 5 select empno.’month’) trunc(‘25-jul-95’. ‘fmt’) Up to now. 6) Review. It subtracts the current date (SYSDATE) from the date on which the employee was hired and divides the result by 365. hiredate) <200.27164 23-NOV-87 29-MAY-87 LAST_DAY( --------30-APR-87 31-MAY-87 EMPNO --------7788 7876 TO_CHAR to_char (date.’year’) trunc (date [ .25 Years 2 from emp 3 where deptno = 10. months_between (sysdate. Function months_between (date1. ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER YEARS --------17.

EMPNO MONTH --------. 3-letter abbreviation 21 . S prefixes BC date with Last 3. two-digit value Full name of month Name of month. 'MM/YY') Month_Hired 2 from emp 3 where ename = 'KING'. S prefixes BC date with BC/AD indicator BC/AD indicator with periods Quarter of year Month.----7839 11/81 Here are some valid date formats: Element SCC or CC Years in dates YYYY or SYYYY YYY or YY or Y Y. S prefixes BC date with Year.C.YYY SYEAR or YEAR BC or AD B. or week Full name of day Name of day. month.D. or A. to_char (hiredate.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select empno. three-letter abbreviation Roman numeral month Week of year or month Day of year. Q MM MONTH MON RM WW or W DDD or DD or D DAY DY Description Century. 2. or 1 digit(s) of year Year with comma in this position Year spelled out.

M. or P. 'Ddspth "of" Month YYYY HH:MI:SSAM') 2 Hiredate 3 from emp. to_char (hiredate.M. dates can formatted further in the following ways: Element “of ” DD “of” MONTH TH SP SPTH or THSP De Quoted string is reproduce 23 of SEPTEMBER Ordinal number (DDTH for 4TH) Spelled-out number (DDSP for FOUR) Spelled-out ordinal numbers (DDSPTH for FOURTH) SQL> select ename. HH or HH12 or HH24 MI SS SSSSS Description Meridian indicator Meridian indicator with periods Hour of day or hour (1-12) or hour (0-23) Minute (0-59) Second (0-59) Seconds past midnight (0-86399) Finally.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S The time portion of dates can also be formatted: Element AM or PM A. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES HIREDATE ------------------------------------------Seventeenth of December 1980 12:00:00AM Twentieth of February 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Second of February 1981 12:00:00AM Second of April 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Eighth of September 1981 12:00:00AM First of May 1981 12:00:00AM Ninth of June 1981 12:00:00AM Nineteenth of April 1987 12:00:00AM Seventeenth of November 1981 12:00:00AM Eighth of September 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Third of May 1987 12:00:00AM Third of December 1981 12:00:00AM 22 .

500 TO_DATE and TO_NUMBER Functions These two functions can be used to convert a character string to either a number or a date.234 1234<1234> 1. MI PR EEEE V Numeric position (number determine display width) Display leading zeros Floating dollar sign Decimal point in position specified Comma in position specified Minux signs to right (negative values) Parenthesize negative numbers of Example 9s 99999 099999 $999999 9999999. '$99. To_char can be used with numbers in the same way.234E+03 123400 Scientific notation (format must specify 99. SALARY -------$1. 23 . to_char (number. It converts a number to a character datatype. of 9s after 9999V99 V) SQL> select to_char (sal. ‘fmt’) Element Description 9 0 $ .00 1.99 999.999EEEE four Es) Multiply by 10 n times (n = no. The format model you choose will be based on the previously demonstrated format elements.999') Salary 2 from emp 3 where ename = 'TURNER'.999 999999MI 999999PR Result 1234 001234 $1234 1234. .I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S FORD MILLER Third of December 1981 12:00:00AM Twenty-Third of January 1982 12:00:00AM 14 rows selected.

such as the “4th of July”. 3. Write a query to display the current date. ‘fmt’]) Example: Display the names and hire dates of all the employees who joined on February 22. SQL> select ename. 'Day') "Born on" from dual. Label the heading “Today’s Date”. Now write a query to display the current date in a different format. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. Display the name of every employee who was hired in 1982.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S to_number (char) to_date (char[ . 1981'. Substitute the date with your own birth date. 1981. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate = to_date ('February 22. 2.1 1. Be careful to type everything exactly. 24 .--------WARD 22-FEB-81 Birthday Trick Use the following query to see what day you were born on. 'Month dd. Born on --------Monday 3 Exercise 3. How many months has Turner been employed? 4. SQL> select to_char(to_date('23-sep-63'). YYYY'). Display it first as a numeral and then run a second query that spells it out.

4 T he GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses can be used to organize your query results. You can override this by using the ORDER BY clause 25 . The HAVING clause works in a manner similar to the WHERE clause. Until now. you can exclude rows before dividing them into groups. you cannot select individual results as well unless the individual column appears in the GROUP BY clause. rows are sorted by ascending order of the columns included in the GROUP BY list. • Using a WHERE clause. and HAVING clauses in this module. so that they display the data in a more meaningful way. GROUP BY The GROUP BY clause is usually used with an aggregate function such as SUM or AVG. At times. while aggregate functions produce summary values for each set. You can use the GROUP BY clause to divide the rows in a table into groups. Guidelines: • If you include a group function in a SELECT clause. • You must include the columns in the GROUP BY clause. but with some important differences. you need to divide the table of information into smaller groups. This can be done by using the GROUP BY clause. ORDER BY. You can then use the group functions to return summary information for each group. You will receive an error message if you fail to include the column list. • By default. all aggregate functions have treated the table as one large group of information. GROUP BY doesn’t really have much use without aggregate functions. • You cannot use a column alias in the GROUP BY clause. GROUP BY divides a table into sets.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Organizing & Grouping Data We’ll look at the GROUP BY. as well as how to query data from multiple tables.

6667 2175 2916. AVG(SAL) --------2916. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. The rows are being grouped by department number.6667 SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno.6667 When using the GROUP BY clause. The WHERE clause specifies the rows to be retrieved. AVG(SAL) --------1566. Since there is no WHERE clause. make sure that all columns in the SELECT list that are not in the group functions are included in the GROUP BY clause.6667 2175 1566. The GROUP BY clause specifies how the rows should by grouped.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select deptno. by default all rows are retrieved. Here is how the SELECT statement above.6667 2175 1566. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 AVG(SAL) --------2916. The above example displays the department number and the average salary for each department. • • • SQL> select avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 AVG(SAL) --------2916. avg(sal) from emp group by deptno order by avg(sal). so the AVG function that is being applied to the salary column will calculate the average salary for each department.6667 2175 1566. SQL> select deptno. • The SELECT clause specifies the columns to be retrieved: − Department number column in the EMP table − The average of all the salaries in the group you specified in the GROUP BY clause The FROM clause specifies the tables that the database must access: the EMP table.6667 DEPTNO --------30 20 10 26 .6667 You can also use the ORDER BY clause to rearrange the query results. containing a GROUP BY clause is evaluated.

within the department number groups. is evaluated: • The SELECT clause specifies the column to be retrieved: − Department number in the EMP table − Job title in the EMP table − The sum of all the salaries in the group you specified in the GROUP BY clause. You can return summary results for groups and subgroups by listing more than one GROUP BY column. 27 . job. The EMP table is grouped first by department number and then within that grouping it is grouped by job title. The table below shows a report that displays the total salary being paid to each job title. − Second. DEPTNO --------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 JOB SUM(SAL) --------. The FROM clause specifies the tables that the database must access: the EMP table. containing a GROUP BY clause. sum(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno.--------CLERK 1300 MANAGER 2450 PRESIDENT 5000 ANALYST 6000 CLERK 1900 MANAGER 2975 CLERK 950 MANAGER 2850 SALESMAN 5600 9 rows selected. • • So the SUM function is being applied to the salary column for all job titles within each department number group. within each department. SQL> select deptno. job. the rows are grouped by department number. the two clerks in department 20 are grouped together and a single result (total salary) is produced for all salesmen within the group. the rows are grouped by job title.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Grouping by More Than One Column Sometimes there is a need to see results for groups within a group. The GROUP BY clause specifies how you must group the rows: − First. You can determine the default sort order of the results by the order of the columns in the GROUP BY clause. Here is how the SELECT statement above. For example.

-----------10 3 20 5 30 6 You cannot use the WHERE clause to restrict groups.1 1. and average salary for each job type (analyst. salesman). manager. avg(sal) from emp group by deptno having avg(sal) > 2000. Exercise 4. DEPTNO AVG(SAL) --------. DEPTNO COUNT(ENAME) --------. If you want the list to be sorted in descending order. president. SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno. 28 . count(ename) 2 from emp 3 group by deptno. Display the minimum. The default order is ascending. where avg(sal) > 2000 * ERROR at line 3: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here You can correct the above error by using the HAVING clause to restrict groups. clerk. maximum. 2. Note the following error which results from a misuse of the WHERE clause SQL> select deptno. avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 where avg(sal) > 2000 4 group by deptno.--------10 2916. ORDER BY The ORDER BY clause arranges your query results by one or more columns.6667 20 2175 We’ll discuss the HAVING clause more in depth shortly. you have to use DESC in the ORDER BY clause.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Here is another example of the GROUP BY clause: SQL> select deptno. sum. Write a query to display the number of people with the same job.

ename 2 from emp 3 order by ename desc. sorts are nested ( that is. When you use more than one column in the ORDER BY clause. EMPNO --------7521 7844 7369 7788 7934 7654 7839 7566 7900 7902 7782 7698 7499 7876 ENAME ---------WARD TURNER SMITH SCOTT MILLER MARTIN KING JONES JAMES FORD CLARK BLAKE ALLEN ADAMS 14 rows selected. 1981. 1981. You can also sort by more than one column. SQL> select job. empno 2 from emp 3 order by job. Exercise 4. JOB --------ANALYST ANALYST CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN ENAME EMPNO ---------. Order the query in ascending order of start date.2 1.--------FORD 7902 SCOTT 7788 ADAMS 7876 JAMES 7900 MILLER 7934 SMITH 7369 BLAKE 7698 CLARK 7782 JONES 7566 KING 7839 ALLEN 7499 MARTIN 7654 TURNER 7844 WARD 7521 14 rows selected. Display the employee name. The following example sorts the query result first by job title and then by last name. ordered by job first and then by ename within each job category. ename.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> select empno. 14 rows selected. You could also add DESC to one or both of the columns in the ORDER BY clause to reverse sort the query result. 29 . You can have as many levels of sorts as you like. ename. job and start date of employees hired between February 20. EMPNO --------7876 7499 7698 7782 7902 7900 7566 7839 7654 7934 7788 7369 7844 7521 ENAME ---------ADAMS ALLEN BLAKE CLARK FORD JAMES JONES KING MARTIN MILLER SCOTT SMITH TURNER WARD SQL> select empno. and May 1. ename 2 from emp 3 order by ename.

while HAVING conditions apply to the query as a whole. When there are aggregates in the select list of a query. and commission for all employees who earn commissions. Sort the output in descending order of salary. Most of the time. sum(sal) payroll from emp where job not like 'SALES%' group by job having sum(sal)>5000 order by sum(sal).I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S 2. Exclude anyone where the manager id is not known. Sort data in descending order of salary and commissions. salary. you use HAVING with GROUP BY. 3. WHERE clause conditions apply to the aggregates. the HAVING clause is a WHERE clause for groups. DEPTNO --------10 20 The following example displays the job title and total monthly salary for each job title with a total payroll exceeding $5000. The HAVING Clause In its most common usage. HAVING limits groups. after you’ve calculated the aggregates and set up the groups. Display the name. SQL> 2 3 4 select deptno from emp group by deptno having max(sal) > 2900.3 1. Exclude any groups where the minimum salary is less than $1000. Just as WHERE limits rows. The example excludes salesmen and sorts the list by the total monthly salary.--------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275 Exercise 4. Display the manager number and the salary of the lowest paid employee for that manager. Display the employee name and department number of all employees in departments 10 and 30 in alphabetical order by name. 30 . SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 select job. JOB PAYROLL --------.

Let’s look at a join involving the EMP and DEPT tables. In most cases. The join operation lets you retrieve and manipulate data from more than one table in a single SELECT statement. usually as a primary key in one table and a foreign key in the other. When this happens. table2 table1. dept. table. emp.--------.------------SMITH 20 20 DALLAS ALLEN 30 30 CHICAGO WARD 30 30 CHICAGO JONES 20 20 DALLAS MARTIN 30 30 CHICAGO BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK SCOTT 20 20 DALLAS KING 10 10 NEW YORK TURNER 30 30 CHICAGO ADAMS 20 20 DALLAS JAMES 30 30 CHICAGO FORD 20 20 DALLAS MILLER 10 10 NEW YORK 14 rows selected.deptno. SQL> select emp. emp.ename. The format of a join statement looks like this: Select From Where table.column. 31 .column table1.column1=table2. you specify joins in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.--------.loc 2 from emp.deptno.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Joining Tables In a database that has been designed properly. one table may not give you all the information that you need.column2 To perform a simple or inner join.empno. dept.deptno=dept. you need to join the two tables together by using a column that is found in both tables.deptno. dept 3 where emp. you may need to query more than one table at the same time using a join operation. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ---------.

department name. Write a query to display the name.deptno=d.project_id from employee e.--------.manager. dept d 3 where e. Sometimes you may need to join more than one table.deptno. e. department number.4 1.deptno.loc 2 from emp e. department d.emp_id. e. and department name for all employees. SQL> select e. It will not work with your practice tables) SQL> 2 3 4 select e. Exercise 4.deptno. d.deptno. Write a query to display the employee name. job. A table alias is defined in the FROM clause after the actual table name.manager=p. 32 .deptno=d. p. List the results alphabetically by name. 2. d. d. and department name for all employees who work in Dallas.ename.deptno and d. d.--------. commission.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S You can cut down on the typing by using table aliases in the SELECT statement.name.manager. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ---------. Write a query to display the employee name. This is done in the following manner (This table is an example only.empno. and location of all employees who earn a commission. 3. department number. projects p where e. e.------------SMITH 20 20 DALLAS ALLEN 30 30 CHICAGO WARD 30 30 CHICAGO JONES 20 20 DALLAS MARTIN 30 30 CHICAGO BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK SCOTT 20 20 DALLAS KING 10 10 NEW YORK TURNER 30 30 CHICAGO ADAMS 20 20 DALLAS JAMES 30 30 CHICAGO FORD 20 20 DALLAS MILLER 10 10 NEW YORK 14 rows selected.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Creating and Working with Tables 5 N • • • • • ow that you know how to pull data out of tables that were created for you. drop (delete) them._. 0-9. If you want to force the user to enter data. you probably want to know how to create your own tables. and # Must not duplicate the name of another object owned by the same user Must not be Oracle Server reserved words To create a table. You may or may not want to allow this. Naming Conventions There are certain restrictions on names you give to tables and columns. you need to specify the name of the table and then specify its fields and the datatypes of those fields.$. Here is an example: SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4). a-z. Not null constraints One problem with the table is that users can leave fields blank if they want to. This module will give you the knowledge to create your own tables and fields and then alter or modify them after you have created them. Table and column names: Must begin with a letter Can be 1-30 characters long Must contain only A-Z. you can do this by using the words “not null” when creating the table as demonstrated by the following example: 33 . city varchar2(20)). and alter them as necessary. This will create a table called “table_name” with three fields: an ID field which can take up to four numbers and a name and a city field which can each hold up to twenty alphanumeric characters. name varchar2(20).

SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4) primary key. Without the ON DELETE CASCADE option. The unique constraint will allow more than one null value. Foreign Key Constraint A foreign key constraint is used to relate tables. however. 4. the dependent rows in any child tables will also be deleted. 3. The following constraints are available in Oracle: 1. city varchar2(20)). Primary Key Constraint A primary key constraint creates a primary key for the table. name varchar2(20). name varchar2(20) not null. The foreign key is defined in the child table. It would not prevent you from entering John Smith and JOHN SMITH. Not Null –specifies that a column may not contain a null value Unique – Specifies a column whose values must be unique for all rows Primary Key – Uniquely identifies each row of the table Foreign Key – Establishes and enforces a foreign key relationship between the column and a column of the referenced table 5. name varchar2(20) unique. city varchar2(20)). and the table containing the referenced column is the parent table. The primary key ensures that the value in each row is unique and prevents null values from being entered. No two rows of a table can have duplicate values. A not null constraint has now been placed on the “name” field. 34 . ON DELETE CASCADE indicates that when a row in the parent table is deleted.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4). city varchar2(20)). SQL> 2 3 4 create table table_name ( id number(4). This means that a record cannot be inserted without a value being placed in this field. Only one primary key can be created for each table. the row in the parent table cannot be deleted if it is referenced in the child table. because Oracle is case sensitive. Check – Specifies a condition that must be true Unique Key Constraint A unique key constraint requires that every value in a column be unique. The foreign key is created with a combination of the following keywords: FOREIGN KEY is used to define the column in the child table at the table constraint level. but it would prevent you from entering John Smith twice. 2. REFERENCES identifies the table and column in the parent table.

SQL> select * from child_table 35 . 'PHOENIX'). First drop (delete) the old constraint. SQL> alter table child_table 2 drop constraint CHILDTABLE_ID_FK. Now enter some information into your tables: SQL> insert into parent_table values (01. Now let’s create the child table and create a foreign key to reference the “id” column in the parent table. id number(2) not null. 'FLAGSTAFF'). name varchar2(20). 01). constraint childtable_id_fk FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES parent_table (id)). This enters data into your tables and relates the John Smith record to Flagstaff by virtue of the foreign key. SQL> insert into parent_table values (02. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 create table child_table ( child_id number(2) primary key. 3 city varchar2(20)). SQL> delete from parent_table where id=01. Check the child table and note that the dependent record has also been deleted. Now add a new constraint that contains the “ON DELETE CASCADE” clause to the child table: SQL> 2 3 4 alter table child_table add constraint childtable_id_fk Foreign key(id) references parent_table(id) ON DELETE CASCADE.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Let’s create the parent table first: SQL> create table parent_table ( 2 id number(2) primary key. Now try to delete the Flagstaff record from the parent table: SQL> delete from parent_table where id=01. What happened? Let’s do an alter table command to add “ON DELETE CASCADE” to the foreign key constraint. SQL> insert into child_table values (10. 'JOHN SMITH'. Try to drop the Flagstaff record now and see what happens now that we’ve added the ON DELETE CASCADE clause.

check (start_date < sysdate and (end_date > sysdate or end_date is null))). “tablename_id_ck”. which we will cover in the next module. You can check for all uppercase letters in the name column by using this constraint: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4). Of course another way to ensure that you only get capital letters would be to convert lowercase letters automatically when they are inserted.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Check Constraint Check constraints define a condition that each row must satisfy. 36 . name varchar2(20) not null constraint tablename_name_ck check (name between ‘A’ and ‘Z’). Note that you are actually creating a constraint with its own name. name varchar2(20) not null. but it will allow numbers and certain symbols. Substitute the name of the table you want to view for CHILD_TABLE and be sure to use uppercase letters. constraint_type. search_condition 2 FROM user_constraints 3 where table_name = ‘CHILD_TABLE’. city varchar2(20)). including sysdate. SQL> SELECT constraint_name. The previous statement will not allow nulls or lower case letters to be entered into the name column. Constraints can also be used on dates. A check constraint that makes sure that the id column does not contain four-digit numbers below 1000 or above 5000 can be created with the following statement: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4) constraint tablename_id_ck check (id between 999 and 5001). name varchar2(20) not null constraint tablename_name_ck check (name=upper(name)). check ((job = ‘SALESMAN’ and comm IS NOT NULL) or job != ‘SALESMAN’ and comm IS NULL)) Viewing Constraints on a Table Constraints set on a table can be viewed by executing the following statement. and can be used in simple logic statements. If you want to allow only capital letters: SQL> 2 3 4 5 create table table_name ( id number(4). city varchar2(20)). city varchar2(20)).

In our example. To demonstrate how to add a column. you may simply want to modify the structure of a table. 37 . 3 name varchar2(20). The alter table statement is used to add. and even to rename a table. SQL> 2 3 4 create table employees ( id number(2). 'JOHN SMITH').name) values (10. Now let’s add the city column using the alter table statement: SQL> alter table clients 2 ADD (city varchar2(20)). let’s say that most people who are entered into the table will most likely live in Flagstaff. You may likely want to use Flagstaff as a default value to save some typing. define a default value on a new column. This is very easy to and can be done with this simple statement: SQL> drop table table_name In other cases. name varchar2(20). This might be useful in a situation where a value to be entered is frequently the same. You should see that Flagstaff has automatically been entered in the city column.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Setting Default Values on a Column You can also set default values in a table when you create it. including the sysdate function. modify or delete columns. select * from clients. Dropping and Altering Tables There are times when you will want to drop (delete) tables that have been created. name varchar2(20). add or remove constraints as we saw above. Now try inserting data in the first two columns only and then select it: SQL> SQL> insert into clients (id. hiredate date default sysdate). This can be done with the Alter Table statement. You should be able to do the same thing with dates. let’s first create the new table: SQL> create table clients ( 2 id number(2). city varchar2(20) default ‘FLAGSTAFF’). SQL> 2 3 4 create table clients ( id number(2).

sql. 38 . You should recognize them as emp. Creating and Dropping Demo Tables Oracle has several practice tables that we have been using throughout this course. A feature that first showed up with Oracle8 is the ability to drop a column as well.sql if you just want to erase your changes and start with a fresh set of demo tables you only need to execute demobld. Let’s modify the name column to be thirty spaces instead of twenty. We’ll call it “employees”. dept. The following query will create a new table with selected columns from the “emp” table. Demobld. Demobld will drop and create the demo tables. size. SQL> create table employees 2 as 3 select * from emp. and dummy. The two scripts (files) are demobld. There are two scripts that are installed with the Oracle client that allows you to add and drop these tables repeatedly. You can create tables from very sophisticated queries and joins that provide only the data you need.sql and demodrop. and NOT NULL column constraint. You can change a column’s datatype.sql. which we will look at in module seven. The table can also be renamed by executing the following statement: SQL> rename clients to client_table Creating Tables from Subqueries An easy way to create new tables from exisiting data is to create one using a subquery.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S You can also use alter table to modify columns.sql can be located under the current Northern Arizona University install at c:\Oracle/ORA81/sqlplus/demo/demobld. salgrade. while demodrop simply drops them. default value. bonus. You do not need to drop the tables using demodrop. SQL> alter table clients 2 MODIFY (name varchar2(30)).sql and demodrop. This is useful if you want to play with the tables and change data. You can also do this with views. The statement to do this is: SQL> alter table clients 2 drop (name). but then be able to set everything back to how it was originally. This is a handy feature.

3 ename NAME. you can create a “view” of the table which only presents the data fields that you want to make available. Rather than create new tables with redundant data. you specify the name and then use a select statement: SQL> create view employeeVU 2 as select empno. job TITLE 4 from employees 5 where deptno=20. job 3 from employees 4 where deptno=20. To create the view. 39 . For example. A view can also be configured to control how data is manipulated in the table. Now check the view: SQL> select * from employeeVU.---------7369 7566 7788 7876 7902 SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD CLERK MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST To drop a view: SQL> drop view employeeVU. you may want to set it up so that users can only see the data and not be allowed to update it. View created. Creating Views You may create tables that contain data that you don’t want to be made available to certain people or groups. View created. A view is set up with certain privileges for users.sql and press the enter key.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To run this script from the SQL*Plus tool. You can rename the column names when you create your view in the following manner: SQL> create view employeeVU 2 as select empno ID. View dropped. ename. EMPNO ENAME JOB ---------. simply type in @c:\Oracle/ORA81/sqlplus/demo/demobld.

dname.sal) 5 from emp e.deptno 7 group by d. however. minsal.com or http://otn. dept d 6 where e. NAME MINSAL MAXSAL AVGSAL -------------. There are many rules and commands that you need to be aware of before using a view in a production environment.66667 RESEARCH 800 3000 2175 SALES 950 2850 1557. You cannot update data in this type of view.14286 This is just a superficial overview of views.sal).com.deptno=d. 4 max(e.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Now test it: SQL> select * from employeeVU. avgsal) 3 as select d. avg(e. Now test it: SQL> select * from emp_stats_vu. SQL> create view emp_stats_vu 2 (name.---------.dname. min(e. maxsal.oracle.oracle. View created.sal). For more information consult the comprehensive Oracle complete reference guide or an online resource such as http://www.---------. EMPNO ENAME JOB ---------.---------ACCOUNTING 1300 5000 2916. 40 .---------7369 7566 7788 7876 7902 SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD CLERK MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST Creating a view from multiple tables An especially handy feature of views is that you can create what looks and acts like a table from multiple tables and functions.

Updating Records To update a record.’ROBERTS’. It’s actually a pretty simple and straight-forward process. use the following statement: SQL> delete from employees 3 where ename=’SUTHERLAND’.’ACTRESS’. SQL> insert into employees (empno. If you only want to insert data in certain fields.’SUTHERLAND’).’01-FEB-02’.ename) 2 values (8888.hiredate=’01-FEB-02’.7839. then you must identify the fields by name.mgr=7839. while number datatypes do not. 41 . Deleting Records To delete a record.0.50).I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Inserting Records Now that you know how to create and manage tables and views. Remember that varchar2 and date datatypes need to be enclosed in quotes.deptno=50 3 where ename=’SUTHERLAND’. use the following statement:: SQL> update employees 2 set job=’ACTOR’. use the following statement: SQL> insert into employees 2 values (8888. let’s look at how to insert data into your tables and manage it once it’s there.10000.sal=10000. You can update as many or as few of the columns as you like. To insert a record.

17 rows deleted. Commit complete. SQL> rollback. Oracle will make them permanent if you exit from the SQL*Plus tool.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Make sure that you use a where clause with the delete statement. but you must do it before you commit. 42 . then you will probably want to create an index to speed query searches. It speeds up the retrieval of data by using a pointer and can reduce disk input/output by using a rapid path access method. An explicit constraint is created when you manually execute a create index statement as shown below. We will look at the commit function in the following section. you can use the rollback function to correct it. separate from the table it indexes. The changes appear to have been made in SQL*Plus. This becomes very important if you are designing dynamic web pages that present data from your Oracle tables. There are two types of indexes. Creating an Index If you have a large table in which only a small percentage of records are expected to be returned at any one time. you can also issue a rollback command and undo all of the changes up to the point where you last issued a commit command. SQL> commit. SQL> delete from employees. You probably do not want to use indexes on a table that is updated frequently as it may slow down inserts or updates. Since indexes are independent of the tables. An index is an independent object. you need to issue a “commit” command to make the changes permanent. they can be dropped at any time without affecting the data in the tables or the tables themselves. or you may delete the entire contents of the table! If you do this by accident. As we saw in the last section. but they will not show up in your web pages until you have issued a commit command. SQL> rollback. An implicit index is created automatically when you define a primary key or unique constraint on a table. Rollback complete. Committing Changes After making changes to records. Remember this and save yourself potentially hours of frustration if you present data on the web. but it is a good idea to get in the habit of committing after important changes. Rollback complete.

index_name 5 and ic.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S To create an index: SQL> create index employees_empno_idx 2 on employees(empno). 2 ic.uniqueness 3 from user_indexes ix.column_position col_pos.index_name = ix.column_name. ic. 43 . Index created. You can view the indexes you created by using the following: SQL> select ic. To drop the index: SQL> drop index employees_empno_idx.table_name = 'employees'.index_name. ix. user_ind_columns ic 4 where ic.

which automatically creates a new number each time a record is inserted into a table. The “start with” clause can also be left out if you want the sequence number to begin at one. We are going to create a sequence to generate an autonumber. Sequences are typically used to generate primary numbers. To create a sequence. which is the default. your sequence value will start at 21 the following day. We’ll also look at how to schedule jobs to make things happen to your data and tables at pre -determined times. If you didn’t specify “no cache” when you created the sequence. If your table only inserts three records the first day. it will assign the numbers 1. 2.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Module Other Tips 6 T he next step is to learn how to use sequences and triggers to allow for automatic numbering and to cause things to happen when an event occurs. and 3. follow this general syntax: create sequence sequence_name increment by n start with n no cache. which we will create in the next section. A sequence generator can be used to automatically assign unique numbers to a row. so one sequence can be used on multiple tables. a sequence can create the equivalent of an Access database autonumber. The “increment by” clause can be left out if you want it to increase by one number at a time. but it can be useful in a case where you need the sequence number to start at a value like 1000. Sequences Many tables need unique numbers to serve as primary key values. The sequence will also need a trigger. “No cache” is important if you are using the sequence to create sequential numbers and it’s important that you don’t have any missing values. Sequence numbers are independent of tables. Oracle tends to pre -allocate 20 values per day. To generate the sequence type: 44 . When combined with a trigger.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Create sequence autonumber start with 1 nocache. rather than an event trigger in the table. The trigger allows the sequence to fire internally when a record is inserted. 6 begin 7 select autonumber. 8 :new. This works like an autonumber in Access and allow access to be used as a front end to Oracle in situations where a primary key are similar automatically generated unique value is necessary. As mentioned. without relying on external code. ID is the name of the field where the autoincrement will be. In other cases where a front end such as Microsoft Access is being used to insert data. 10 / Trigger created. in this case employee is the tablename.Emp_ID := Emp_ID. 45 .nextval. “SMITH” is just data in the second column. This creates a trigger that will automatically place a sequential number in whichever column specified. To drop the sequence. ‘SMITH’) “Autonumber” is the name of the sequence and “nextval” tells the sequence to give you the next value available. You can do it this way: Insert into records_table values (autonumber. use “drop sequence sequence_name” If you are embedding an SQL insert statement in something like Active Server Pages. “number(5)” specifies the datatype and number of digits. a sequence combined with a trigger is probably the best situation. Triggers Here’s how the trigger is created. you can create an autonumber that will be initiated by the code itself. Give it the name of the owner. You should get a “Sequence created” message if it was successful.nextval into Emp_ID from dual. this works fine if you can count on a dynamic page or other code to trigger the sequence event. 9 END. such as Visual Basic in an Active Server Page. SQL> create or replace trigger triggername_bef_ins_row 2 before insert on employee referencing 3 OLD old NEW new for each row 4 declare 5 Emp_ID number(5).

In the “Link” dialog box that pops up. 46 . Click OK. This can be especially useful in situations where a department is storing data in one of ITS’s Oracle databases. but someone is responsible for maintaining the data who has no strong technical aptitude and wants to avoid SQL at all costs.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Using Miicrosoft Access as a Front End to Oracle Not everyone wants to learn SQL nor do they want to write a lengthy SQL statement just to insert a record. Microsoft Access provides a convenient. find “Files of Type: Microsoft Access” and scroll to the bottom to change “Microsoft Access” to “ODBC Databases”. Now go to the File menu and select Get External Data > Link Tables. first create your tables in Oracle using SQL*Plus and then follow these steps. To set up Access as a front end. Open a blank Access database. GUI-based front end for these users.

Select System Data Source and click the Next button.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Select the “Machine Data Source” tab and click on the “New” button. 47 .

Put your Oracle username in and then most likely NAUDEV or ITSDEV for the Server name. The Oracle ODBC Driver is not recommended because of some anomalies that have been noticed in the NAU env ironment. Click on the Next button and then click “Finish”. (Don’t forget to change this password shortly after they assign it.) See page ??? if you forgot how to do this.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Click on the “Microsoft ODBC for Oracle” driver and click the next button. Now fill in the box that should pop up. Click OK. depending on where your tables are located. it means that you probably used the “Oracle ODBC Driver” instead of the “Microsoft ODBC for Oracle” drive. You should now see this box: Find your username and the tables that are located in your space. A description can also be entered if useful. Simply click OK and then enter the Oracle password that the DBA’s assigned to you. Note that this is different from the “Oracle ODBC Driver” which may also be listed in your choices. Choose one or more tables and click OK. go back. If you can’t find any tables above a certain letter. The new ODBC name should now be highlighted. delete the ODBC connection and re -create it using Microsoft ODBC for Oracle. 48 . If so. “Naudev_tables” can be any name you want to give your ODBC connection.

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Access will probably prompt you for a Unique Record Identifier. This is only important for Access and does not change anything on the Oracle side. You should choose something however or you probably will not be able to enter any data through Access, only view it. Click the OK button.

Your link to the Oracle table is now complete. You will notice that the table icon is different than what is usually seen in Access. (It is a globe with an arrow.) This represents a linked table. The good news is that once you have this link, it can be treated as any other table in Access. Queries, forms, and modules can be written in Access that actually run against the Oracle tables. As mentioned above, this can be a very powerful tool, especially when non-technical personnel are expected to manage the data. Plus it gives you the security of having your data stored and backed up on ITS professionally-managed databases.

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Module Six – Lab
(Suggested solutions are in the back of the manual.) 1. Create a new table called lab_one and add several columns, including one called unique_id and make it a primary key with an identifiable name. 2. Using an SQL insert statement, enter one or two records into the new table. 3. Now create a sequence, named something like “autonumber”, which will be used to create an autonumber in the unique_id field. 4. Since we will use Access as a front end, you will also want to create a trigger to cause the sequence to insert a value when a new record is inserted. 5. Now create an Access front end to your new table. Once it is set up, try to insert a couple of records through the GUI interface. Which tool do you prefer, SQL*Plus or Access?

SQL Loader
So how do you get large numbers of records into your tables without having to enter each record by hand? There is a tool called SQL Loader that will let you enter data from a delimited text file. The hard part is setting up the control file, but once you have done this, the records can be loaded in a few seconds to a few minutes depending on the quantity of data. Whole books have been written on SQL Loader, most notably one by O’Reilly, which is devoted entirely to the intricacies of this command line tool. First of all, you need to do a search for the tool to make sure you have it. Look for “sqlldr.exe”. It should be in a path like c:\ORACLE\ora81\bin. SQL*Loader reads files and places the data from those files in an Oracle database based on the instructions it receives from a control file. The control file describes the data being loaded and tells Oracle where to place it. The SQL loader tool isn’t included in the NAU download install, so you need to get it form a complete install from the CD or ask your friendly neighborhood SWAT team member for it.

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1. First we need to create a table to hold the data: Create table class_info (idno number(4), course_no number(3), day_of_class varchar2(20), Building varchar2(50), Seats_remaining number(2), instructor varchar2(50)) storage (initial 1m next 100k pctincrease 0 maxextents unlimited); The last few lines dealing with “storage” are sometimes needed to avoid a “max extents” error that occurs sometimes depending on the amount of data you are trying to load. If you get a max extents error, you need to add this storage clause when creating the table. The DBA’s at NAU have se the default max extents to ten and the clause changes that to allow for loading of large amounts of data. 2. Now create the control file and store it as “class_info.ctl”. (Note the “replace” in the second line. This option wipes out existing data. Use “append” if you want to add to existing data.): load data infile class_info.txt replace into table class_info fields terminated by ‘,’ optionally enclosed by ‘”’ trailing nullcolls (idno, course_no, day_of_class, building, seats_remaining, instructor)

Chyfo at http://www.ispirer.com is a nice little tool which will creat all of the necessary files and scripts for you when migrating data from various database to Oracle. It is a command line tool and you still have to have a pretty good understanding of how things work to use it effectively, however. Don’t forget about the O’Reilly book, which is a great resource if you want to get serious about using SQL loader and tools like Chyfo. Your instructor will tell you where to get the data file, called “class_info.txt”. Place it in the same directory as the control file. I usually create a directory at the root, “C:\loaddata”, for example, to keep the path short and simple. Now open a command prompt and enter the following:

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The worksheet works pretty much the same way as the SQL*Plus tool. You will probably find it by going to the Start menu and going to Oracle > Database Administration > SQLPlus Worksheet 52 .ctl (You can set this up as a batch file. It’s worth taking a look at. It is usually dumped in c:\documents and settings/yourusername.) SQL Loader creates a log that explains how data was loaded and whether anything went wrong. SQL*Plus Worksheet Another tool that you can install from the ITS dba website is the SQL*Plus Worksheet.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Sqlldr username/password@naudev control=c:\loaddata/class_info. but it provides a slightly more intuitive graphical interface for running queries and has two panes: one for the SQL queries and other commands and a second for the output.

EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------. 2.I N T R O D U C T I O N T O S Q L A N D S Q L * P L U S Solutions Solutions to Exercises Exercise 2.--------.--------.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 14 rows selected. SQL> select * 2 from emp. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 19-APR-87 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 23-MAY-87 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 14 rows selected.--------. job.--------.1 1. SQL> select ename. hiredate 2 from emp. i .

SQL> select ename. SQL> select * 2 from dept. SQL> select distinct job 2 from emp. ii . ENAME DEPTNO ---------.--------JONES 2975 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 FORD 3000 2. deptno 2 from emp 3 where empno=7566. SQL> describe dept Name Null? ------------------------------. DEPTNO --------10 20 30 40 DNAME -------------ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS LOC ------------NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON 5. SQL> select ename. JOB --------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN Exercise 2.3. ENAME SAL ---------.--------JONES 20 3.2 1.-------DEPTNO NOT NULL DNAME LOC Type ---NUMBER(2) VARCHAR2(14) VARCHAR2(13) 4. sal 2 from emp 3 where sal > 2850.

ENAME SAL ---------.--------SMITH 800 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 10 rows selected.-------EMPNO NOT NULL ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO Type ---NUMBER(4) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(9) NUMBER(4) DATE NUMBER(7.SQL> select ename. 12*sal "Old Salary". iii .---------TURNER 18000 18900 6.---------. 12*(sal+75)"New Salary" 2 from emp 3 where ename='TURNER'. sal 2 from emp 3 where sal not between 1500 and 2850. ENAME Old Salary New Salary ---------. SQL> select ename.2) NUMBER(2) Then run the query on the following page.2) NUMBER(7. SQL> select ename 2 from emp 3 where ename like 'S%'. 4. (Do this query first to find out what columns are in the table) SQL> describe emp Name Null? ------------------------------. ENAME ---------SMITH SCOTT 5.

COUNT(EMPNO) -----------14 3. mgr.--------.SQL> select empno. 2 sum(sal) "Sum". deptno 3 from emp. min(sal) "Minimum".--------.2143 2. EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 Last Name ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO --------.--------. ename as "Last Name". Number of Clerks ---------------4 iv . SQL> select max(sal) "Maximum". Maximum Minimum Sum Average --------. job. Exercise 2. comm.3 1.--------CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 ANALYST 7566 19-APR-87 3000 20 PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 CLERK 7788 23-MAY-87 1100 20 CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 14 rows selected. 2 sal. SQL> select count(empno) 2 from emp.--------.--------.--------.--------5000 800 29025 2073. avg(sal) "Average" 3 from emp. hiredate. SQL> select count(job) "Number of Clerks" 2 from emp 3 where job='CLERK'.

Today's Date ----------------25th of January SQL> select to_char (sysdate.Exercise 3.56175 4. Today's Date --------------------------twenty-fifth of January 3. months_between (sysdate.HIREDATE) ---------. SQL> select ename. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate between '01-JAN-82' and '31-DEC-82'. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. 'ddth "of" Month') "Today's Date" 2 from dual. SYSDATE --------25-JAN-99 2. hiredate) 2 from emp 3 where ename='TURNER'. SQL> select to_char (sysdate. SQL> select ename.--------MILLER 23-JAN-82 or v . SQL> select sysdate 2 from dual.1 1.-------------------------------TURNER 208. 'ddspth "of" Month') "Today's Date" 2 from dual. ENAME MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.

sum(sal).--------MILLER 23-JAN-82 Exercise 4. ENAME HIREDATE ---------. count(job) 2 from emp 3 group by job. hiredate from emp where hiredate between '20-FEB-81' and '01-MAY-81' order by hiredate.2 1.--------.--------.--------. job. JOB MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) --------. max(sal).---------ANALYST 2 CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 PRESIDENT 1 SALESMAN 4 Exercise 4. JOB COUNT(JOB) --------. hiredate 2 from emp 3 where hiredate like '%-%-82'. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename. JOB --------SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER HIREDATE --------20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 01-MAY-81 ENAME ---------ALLEN WARD JONES BLAKE vi . avg(sal) 2 from emp 3 group by job. SQL> select job. SQL> select job.1 1.SQL> select ename.3333 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1250 1600 5600 1400 2. min(sal).5 MANAGER 2450 2975 8275 2758.--------ANALYST 3000 3000 6000 3000 CLERK 800 1300 4150 1037.

ename.--------CLARK 10 KING 10 MILLER 10 ALLEN 30 BLAKE 30 JAMES 30 MARTIN 30 TURNER 30 WARD 30 3. d. comm desc. deptno from emp where deptno=10 or deptno=30 order by deptno. min(sal) from emp group by mgr having mgr is not null and min(sal) > 1000 order by min(sal) desc. sal.deptno. ENAME SAL COMM ---------.--------ALLEN 1600 300 TURNER 1500 0 MARTIN 1250 1400 WARD 1250 500 Exercise 4.2. comm from emp where comm is not null order by sal desc.deptno=dept. dept d 3 where e.deptno=d. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 select mgr.deptno. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename.dname 2 from emp e.3 1. SQL> 2 3 4 select emp.deptno order by ename. dept where emp.--------7566 3000 7839 2450 7782 1300 7788 1100 Exercise 4. emp. dept. ENAME DEPTNO ---------.dname from emp. MGR MIN(SAL) --------.ename. e.--------.deptno vii .4 1. SQL> 2 3 4 select ename.ename. or SQL> select e.

JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.--------.4 order by ename. e.loc from emp e. e. d. SQL> 2 3 4 select e.deptno=d.ename.ename.deptno=d.--------.-------------ADAMS 20 RESEARCH ALLEN 30 SALES BLAKE 30 SALES CLARK 10 ACCOUNTING FORD 20 RESEARCH JAMES 30 SALES JONES 20 RESEARCH KING 10 ACCOUNTING MARTIN 30 SALES MILLER 10 ACCOUNTING SCOTT 20 RESEARCH SMITH 20 RESEARCH TURNER 30 SALES WARD 30 SALES 2.job.deptno and loc='DALLAS'.deptno. ENAME DEPTNO COMM LOC ---------. d. dept d where e. SQL> 2 3 4 select e.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH MANAGER 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH ENAME ---------SMITH JONES SCOTT ADAMS FORD viii .dname from emp e. dept d where e.deptno and comm is not null. ENAME DEPTNO DNAME ---------. e. e.------------ALLEN 30 300 CHICAGO WARD 30 500 CHICAGO MARTIN 30 1400 CHICAGO TURNER 30 0 CHICAGO 3.--------.comm.--------.deptno.

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