# Industrial Power Systems Handbook

D O N A L D BEEMAN, Editor
Manager, Industriaf P w e r Engineering Industrial Engineering Seclwn General Electric Company, Schenectady, New Yorlc

FIRST EDITION

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

1955

New York

Toronto

London

Ch.UPh?r 1

by Donald Beeman, Alan Graeme Darling,
and

R. H. Kaufmann

Short-circuit-current Calculating
Procedures
FUNDAMENTALS OF A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
The determination of short-circuit currents in power distribution systems is just as basic and important as the determination of load currents for the purpose of applying circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters. The magnitude of the shoncircuit current is often easier to determine than the magnitude of the load current. Calculating procedures have been so greatly simplified compared with the very complicated procedures previously used that now only simple arithmetic is required to determine the short-circuit currents in even the most complicated power systems.
SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS

If adequate protection is to he provided for a plant electric system, the size of the electric power system must also be considered to determine how much short-circuit current i t will deliver. This is done so that circuit breakers or fuses may he selected with adequate interrupting capacity (IC). This interrupting capacity should be high enough to open safely the maximum short-circuit current which the power system can cause to flow through a circuit breaker if a short circuit occurs in the feeder or equipment which it protects. The magnitude of the load current is determined by the amount Of work that is being done and hears little relation to the size of the system supplying the load. However, the magnitude of the short-circuit current is somewhat independent of the load and is directly related to the size or
I

2

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

capacity of t,he power source. The larger the apparatus which supplies electric power t o the system, the greater the short-circuit current will be. Take a simple case: A 440-volt three-phase lo-lip motor draws about 13 amp of current a t full load and will draw only this amount whether supplied by a 25-kva or a 2500-kva transformer bank. So, if only thc load currcnts arc considered when selecting motor branch circuit breakers, a 15- or 20-amp circnit, breaker wnuld he specified. However, the size of t,he power system back of the circuit breaker has a real bearing on the amount of the short,-circuit,current. which can flow as a result of a short circuit on the load side of the circuit breaker. Hence, a much larger circuit breaker would be required to handle the short-circuit current from a 2500-kva bank than from a 25-kva bank of transformers. A simple mathematical example is shown in Fig. 1.1. These numbers
MUST BE CAPABLE OF INTERRUPTING
1000 AMPERES

El

MOTOR
IOOV 100 A

~ ~ 1 0O. MS H1

CURRENT 5 AMP APPARENT IMPEDANCE 20 OHMS E ZT
:

SHORT

CIRCUIT CURRENT =

I00 - = 1000- AMPERES 0.1

MUST

BE CAPABLE OF INTERRUPTING 10,000 AMPERES

w MOTOR LOAD CURRENT 5 AMP

I000 A 2 1 = 0.01 OHMS

FIG. 1.1

Illustrotion showing that copocity of power source has more effect on rhortcircuit-current magnitude than load.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

3

SOURCES O SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS F

When determining the magnitude of short-circuit currents, it is extremely important that all sources of short-circuit current he considered and that the reactance characteristics of these sources be known. There are three basic sources of short-circuit current: 1. Generators 2. Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers 3. Induction motors

4

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

All these can feed shorecircuit current into a short circuit (Fig. 1.3). Generators are driven by turbines, diesel engines, water wheels, or other types of prime movers. When a short circuit occurs on the circuit fed by a generatar, the generator continues t o produce voltage because the field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives the generator at substantially normal speed. The generated voltage produces a shortcircuit current of a large magnitude which flows from the generator (or generators) to the short circuit. This flow of short-circuit current is limited only by the impedance of the generator and of the circuit between the generator and the short circuit. For a short circuit a t the terminals of the generator, the current from the generator is limited only by its own impedance.

FIG. 1.2

Normal load and short-circuit currents are analogous to the conditions shown in

the hydroelectric plant.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT ULCULATlNG PROCEDURES

5

SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENT FROM
INDUCTION MOTOR

FIG. 1.3
current.

Generators, synchronous motors, and induction motors all produce short-circuit

HOW SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS PRODUCE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

Synchronous motors are constructed substantially like generators; i.e., they have a field excited by direct current and a stator winding in which alternating current flows. Normally, synchronous motors draw a-c power from the line and convert electric energy to mechanical energy. However, the design of a synchronous motor is so much like that of a generator that electric energy can be produced just as in a generator, by driving the synchronous motor with a prime mover. Actually, during a system short circuit the synchronous motor acts like a generator and delivers shortcircuit current to the system instead of drawing load current from it (Fig. 1 4 . .) As soon as a short circuit is established, the voltage on the system is reduced to a very low value. Consequently, the motor stops delivering energy to the mechanical load and starts slowing down. However, the inertia of the load and motor rotor tends to prevent the motor from slowing down. In other words, the rotating energy of the load and rotor drives the synchronous motor just as the prime mover drives a generator.

6

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

The synchronous motor then becomes a generator and delivers shortcircuit current for many cycles after the short circuit occurs on the system. . Figure 1 5 shows an oscillogram of the current delivered by a synchronous motor during a system short circuit. The amount of current depends upon the horsepower, voltage rating, and reactance of the synchronous motor and the reactance of the system to the point of short circuit.

F G 1.4 I.
UlILITY SYSTEM

Normally motors draw load current from the source or utility system but produce rhortcircuit current when a short cirw i t occurs in the d a d .

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

-€t
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT FROM MOTOR

, -

\

. .-.. .
SYSTEM

SYNCMOYOUS

'

Yoroll
SHORT CIRCUIT

'.

-

I

FIG 1._ IBmlowl. l.r o c e o. 0s. . . 5 , .., . ... . . f . cillogrclm of short-circuit current produced by a synchronous motor

-.

__

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT DELIVERED BY A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR.

SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

7

HOW INDUCTION MOTORS PRODUCE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

The inertia of the load and rotor of an induction motor has exactly the same effect on an induction motor as on a synchronous motor; i.e., it drives the motor after the system short circuit occurs. There is one major difference. The induction motor has no d-c field winding, but there is a flux in the induction motor during normal operation. This flux acts like flux produced by the d-c field winding in the synchronous motor. The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the stator rather than from the d-c winding. The rotor flux remains normal as long as voltage is applied to the stator from an external source. However, if the external source of voltage is removed suddenly, as it is when a short circuit occurs on the system, the flux in the rotor cannot change instantly. Since the rotor flux cannot decay instantly and the inertia drives the induction motor, a voltage is generated in the stator winding causing a short-circuit current to flow to the short circuit until the rotor flux decays to zero. To illustrate the short-circuit current from an induction motor in a practical case, oscillograms were taken on a woundrotor induction motor rated 150 hp, 440 volts, 60 cycles, three phase, ten poles, 720 rpm. The external rotor resistance was short-circuited in each case, in order that the effect might he similar to that which would he obtained with a low-resistance squirrel-cage induction motor. Figure 1.6 shows the primary current when the machine is initially running light and a solid three-phase short circuit is applied a t a point in the circuit close to its input (stator) terminals a t time TI. The current shown is measured on the motor side of the short circuit; so the shortcircuit current contribution from the source of power does not appear, but only that contributed by the motor. Similar tests made with the machine initially running a t full load show that the short-circuit current produced

T.

FIG. 1.6

Tracer of oxillograms of short-circuit currents produced running a t light load.
,

by an induction motor

8

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

by the motor when short-circuited is substantially the same, regardless of initial loading on the motor. Note that the maximum current occurs in the lowest trace on the oscillogram and is about ten times rated full-load current. The current vanishes almost completely in four cycles, since there is no sustained field current in the rotor to provide flux, as in the case of a synchronous machine. The flux does last long enough to prodnce enough short-circuit current to affect the momentary duty on circuit breakers and the interrupting duty on devices which open within one or two cycles after a short circuit. Hence, the short-circuit current produced by induction motors must he considered in certain calculations. The magnitude of short-circuit current produced by the induction motor depends upon the horsepower, voltage rating, reactance of the motor, and the reactance of the system to the point of short c. "cuit. The machine impedance, effective a t the time of short circuit, cmesponds closely with the impedance a t standstill. Consequently, the i iitial symmetrical value of Short-circuit current is approximately equnl to the full-voltage starting current of the motor.
TRANSFORMERS

Transformers are often spoken of as a source of short-circuit current. Strictly speaking, this is not correct, for the transformer merely delivers the short-circuit current generated by generators or motors ahead of the transformer. Transformers merely change the system voltage and mag; nitude of current but generate neither. The short-circuit current delivered by a transformer is determined by its secondary voltage rating and reactance, the reactance of the generators and system to the terminals of the transformer, and the reactance of the circuit from the transformer to the short circuit.
ROTATING-MACHINE REACTANCE

The reactance of a rotating machine is not one simple value as it is for a transformer or a piece of cable, but is complex and variable with time. For example, if a short circuit is applied to the terminals of a generator, the short-circuit current behaves as shown i n Fig. 1.7. The current starts out a t a high value and decays to a steady state after some time has elapsed from the inception of the short cirroit. Since the field excitation voltage and speed have remained snbstantially constant within the short interval of time considered, a change of apparent react,ance of the machine may he assumed, to explain the change in the magnitude of short-circuit current with time. The expression of such variable reactance at any instant after the

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

9

occurrence of any short circuit requires a complicated formula involving time as one of the variables. For the sake of simplification in short-circuit calculating procedures for circuit-breaker and relay applications, three values of reactance are assigned to generators and motors, viz., subtransient reactance, transient reactance, and synrhronous reactance. The three reactances can be briefly described as follows: 1. Subtransient reactance X y is the apparent reactance of the stator winding at the instant short circuit occurs, and it determines the current Row during the first few cycles of a short circuit. 2. Transient reactance X i is the apparent initial reactance of the stator winding, if the effect of all amortisseur windings is ignored and only the field winding considered. This reactance determines the current following the period when subtransient reactance is the controlling value. Transient reactance is effective up to 45 see or longer, depending upon the design of the machine. 3. Synchronous reactance X d is the apparent reactance that determines the current flow when a steady-state condition is reached. It is not effective until several seconds after the short circuit occurs; consequently, it has no value in short-circuit calculations for the application of circuit breakers, fuses, and contactors but is useful for relay-setting studies. Figure 1.8 shows the variation of current with time and associates the various reactances mentioned above with the time and current scale. Previous loading has an effect on the total magnitude of short-circuit

CURRENT DETERMINED BY SYNCHRONOUS

OCCURS A T THIS TIME.

OF TOTAL OSCILLOGRAM

ONLY TWO ENDS SHOWN HERE. THIS REPRESENTS THE BREAK BETWEEN THE TWO PARTS.

FIG. 1.7 Trace of orcillograrn of hart-circuit current produced by a generator.

10

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES MAX, SUBTRANSIENT CURRENT- USE SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE X"d

/-

TM I E (8)

FIG 1.8

Variation of generotor short-circuit current wilh time.

current delivered by a generator. The value of X i or X y generally given by the machine designer is the lowest value obtainable. Hence, its use will show maximum short-circuit current. Certain characteristics of short-circuit currents must he understood before a system analysis can he made.
SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS

These terms are used to describe the symmetry of the a-c waves about the zero axis. If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called symmetrical current (Figs. 1.9 and 1.10). If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are not symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called asymmetrical
ENVEWPES OF PEAKS OF SINE WAVE ARE SYMMETRIGAL ABOUT THE ZERO AXIS. ZERO

AXIS

FIG. 1.9 Symmelrical a-c wove.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES THE ENVELOPES OF PEAKS ARE SVHHETRICAL ABOUT

11

ZERO AXIS

FIG, 1.10

Symmetrical

d t e r n a t i n g current f r o m a short-circuited generotor.

ENVELOPES OF PEAKS ARE NOT SYMMETRICAL ABOUT ZERO AXIS

AX1 S TOTALLY 0 F F SET PARTIALLY O F F S E l

FIG. 1.11 Asymmetrical (I-c waver. The conditions shown here ore theoreticol a n d ore for the purpose of illustration only. D-C component will r a p i d l y d e c a y to zero i n a c t u a l
circuits.

FIG. 1.12

Trace of o r c i l l o g r a m of a t y p i c a l short-circuit current

12

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

current (Fig. 1.11). The envelope is a line drawn through the peaks of the waves, as shown in Figs. 1.9 to 1.12. For the sake of explanation, many of the illustrations, such as Figs. 1.11, 1.15 to 1.19, show sine waves o current uniformly offset for several f cycles. It should be noted that in practical circuits the amount of asymmetry decreases rapidly after the occurrence of the short circuit in the system. This decrease of asymmetry is shown qualitatively in illustrations such as Figs. 1.12, 1.20, 1.23, and 1.24. Oscillograms show that short-circuit currents are nearly always asymmetrical during the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs. They also show that the asymmetry is maximum at the instant the short circuit occurs and that the current gradually becomes symmetrical a few cycles after the occurrence of the short circuit. The trace of an oscillogram of a typical short-circuit current is shown in Fig. 1.12.
WHY SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS ARE ASYMMETRICAL

In the usual industrial power systems the applied or generated voltages are of sine-wave form. When a short circuit occurs, substantially s i n e wave short-circuit currents result. For simplicity, the following discussion assumes sine-wave voltages and currents. In ordinary power circuits the resistance of the circuit is negligible compared with the reactance of the circuit. The short-circuit-current power factor is determined by the ratio of resistance and reactance of the circuit only (not of the load). Therefore the short-circuit current in most power circuits lags the internal generator voltage by approximately 90" (see Fig. 1.13). The internal generator voltage is the voltage generated in the stator coils by the field flux. If in a circuit mainly containing reactance a short circuit occurs at the peak of the voltage wave, the short-circuit current would start at zero and trace a sine wave which would be symmetrical ahout the zero axis (Fig. 1.14). This is known as a symmetrical short-circuit current. If in the same circuit (i.e., one containing a large ratio of reactance to resistance) a short circuit occurs at the zero point of the voltage wave, the current will start a t zero but cannot follow a sine wave symmetrically about the zero axis because such a current would be in phase with the voltage. The wave shape must be the same as that of voltage hut 90' behind. That can occur only if the current is displaced from the zero axis, as shown in Fig. 1.15. In this illustration the current is a sine wave and is displaced 90' from the voltage wave and also is displaced from the zero axis. The two cases shown in Figs. 1.14 and 1.15 are extremes. One shows a symmetrical current and the other a completely asymmetricd current.

WORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

13

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER INTERNAL VOLTAGE OF GENERATOR APPLIED HERE

ioxazx

ONE LINE IMPEDANCE

7 0.m x

REACTANCE, X = 19% RESISTANCE. R = 1.4%

RESISTANCE I S LESS THAN OF THE REACTANCE BE NEGLECTED WITHOUT AN APPRECIABLE ERROR

I

HENCE MAY

INTERNAL VOLTAGE OF GENERATOR

-

NEARLY 90'

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

DIAGRAM SHOWING SINE WAVES CORRESPONDING TO VECTOR DIAGRAM FOR ABOVE CIRCUIT

FIG. 1.13

Diagrams Illustrating the phase relations of voltage and short-circuit current.

14

SHORT-CIRCUll-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

GENERATED VOLTAGE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

ZERO AXIS

SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURRED AT THIS POINT

FIG. 1.14
cirwit.

Symmetric01 short-circuit current and generoted voltage for zero-power-factor

-SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

F G 1.15 I.
circuit.

Asymmetrical short-circuit current and generated voltage in zero-power-factor Condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

IS

If,in a circuit containing only reactance, the short circuit occurs a t any point except a t the peak of the voltage wave, there will be some offset of the current (Fig. 1.16). The amount of offset depends upon the point on the voltage wave at which the short circuit occurs. It may vary from zero (shown in Fig. 1.14) to a maximum (shown in Fig. 1.15). I n circuits containing both reactance and resistance, the s~,?&&,R&!~~ amount of offset of the shortCURRENT circuit current may vary between the same limits as for circuits containing only reactance. However, the point on the voltage wave a t which the short circuit must occur to produce maximum asymmetry dependsupon the ratioof reactance to resistance of the circuit. Maximum asymmetry is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t a time angle equal to 90" 0 (measured forward in degrees from the zero point of the voltage wave) where tangent 0 equals thereASYMMETRICAL actance-to-resistance ratio of FIG. 1.16 Short-circuit current and generated the circuit' The short-circuit voltage in zero-Dower-factor circuit. Short circurrent will be symmetrical cuit occurred between the when the fault occurs 90"from point and peak of the generated voltctge wove. that point onthe voltage wave. This condition i s theoretical and for illustration an example, assumeacir- purporer only. The short-circuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical cuit that has equal resistance CiTCUit., and reactance, i.e., the reactance-to-resistance ratio is 1. The tangent of 45" is I ; hence, maximum offset is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t 135' from the zero point of the voltage wave (Fig. 1.17).

+

D-C COMPONENT OF ASYMMETRICAL SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS

Asymmetrical alternating currents when treatedas a single current wave are difficult to interpret for circuit-breaker application and relay-setting purposes. Complicated formulas are also required to calculate their magnitude unless resolved into components. The asymmetrical alternating currents are, for circuit-breaker applications and relay-setting

16

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES

MAXIMUM OFFSET

FIG. 1.17 Short-circuit current and generated voltage in circuit with equal reactance and resistance. This condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only. The short-circuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical circuits.

purposes, arbitrarily divided into simple components, which makes it easy to calculate the short-circuit magnitude a t certain significant times after the short circuit occurs. The asymmetrical alternating current behaves exactly as if there were two component currents flowing simultaneously. One is a symmetrical a-c component and the other a d-c component. The sum of those two components a t any instant is equal t o the magnitude of the total asymmetrical a-c wave a t the same instant. The d-c component referred to here is generated within the a-c system with no external source of direct current being considered. I n some cases, particularly in the neighborhood of the d-c railways, direct current from the railways flows through neighboring a-c systems. This type of d-c current is not considered in this discussion or in the calculating procedures which follow. As an example of the resolution of asymmetrical alternating currents into components, refer to Fig. 1.15 which shows an asymmetrical shortcircuit current which is resolved into a symmetrical a-c and a d-c component in Fig. 1.18. If the instantaneous values of the two components (dashed lines) are added a t any instant, the resultant will be that of the asymmetrical current wave.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES F I N S T A N T AT WHICH SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS

17

ASYMMETRICAL

AC COMPONENT

FIG. 1.18
current.

Theoretical Ihort-circuit-cvrrent wove illustrating components of asymmetrical In practical circuits, d-c component would decay to zero in o few cycler.

INSTANT

OF SHORT CIRCUIT

TOTAL CURRENT

DC COMPONENT AC COMPONENT

ZERO A X I S

a = b = D C COMPONENT
FIG. 1.19 Components of asymmetrical short-circuit current in which short circuit occurred at some point between the zero point and p e a k of the generated voltage wave. This is a lhsoretical condition similar to that shown in Fig. 1.18.

I8

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

As mentioned previously, the examples shown in Figs. 1.13 and 1.18 are for purposes of illustration only. In practical circuits the d-c component decays very rapidly, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
INITIAL M A G N I T U D E OF D-C C O M P O N E N T

The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the iustant, the short circuit occurs and may vary from zero, as in Fig. 1.14, to a maximum initial value equal to the peak of the a-c symmetrical compoiieiit, as i n Figs. 1.15 and 1.18. When the short circuit occurs at any other point, such as shown in Fig. 1.19, the initial magnitude of the d-c componciit is equal to the value of the a-c symmct,riral component a t thc instant of short circuit. The above limit,s hold true for the initial magiiitudc of d-c eomporient in a system regardless of the reactance and resistance. Ilowever, the d-c componeut does not continue to flo~v t a constant value, as a shown i n Figs. 1.18 and 1.19, unless there is zero resistauce i i i the circuit.
DECREMENT

There is uo d-c voltage in the system t o sustaiu the flax of direct current; therefore the energy represeuted by the dirert. component of current will be dissipated as ZZR loss from the direct current flowiug through the resistance of the circuit. If the circuit had zero resistance, the direct current would flow at a constant value (Figs. 1.18 and 1.19)
TOTAL ASYMMETRICAL CURRENT
C

COMPONENT AC COMPONENT

FIG. 1.20 Trace of orcillogrom showing decay of d-c component and how orymmetricd short-circuit currenl gradually becomes symmetrical when d-c component diroppearr.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

19

until the circuit was interrupted. However, all practical circuits have some resistance; so the d-c romponent decays as shown in Fig. 1.20. The components gives combination of the decaying of d-c and symmetriral a-(* an asymmetrical wave that changes to a symmetriral wave whcti the d-c component has disappeared. The rate of decay of the currents is called the decrement.

X/R

RATIO

The X / R ratio is the ratio of the reactance to the resistance of the circuit. The decrement or rate of decay of the d-c component is proportional to the ratio of reactance to resistance of the complete circuit from generator to short circuit. The theory is the same as opening the circuit of a battery and an inductive coil. If the ratio of reactance to resistance is infinite (i.e., zero resistance), the d-c component never decays, as shown in Figs. 1.18 and 1.19. On the other hand, if the ratio is zero (all resistance, no reartance), it decays instantly. FOFany ratio of reactarice to resistance in between these limits, the d-c component takes a definite time to decrease to substantially zero, as shown in Fig. 1.20. ! I n generators the ratio of subtransient reactance to resistance may be as ?much as 7 0 : l ; so it takes several cycles for the d-c component to disappear. In circuits remote from generators, the ratio of reactance to resistance is lower, and the d-c component decays more rapidly. The higher the resistance in proportion to the reactance, the more IaRloss from the d-c c.omponent, and the energy of the direct current is dissipated sooner.
D-C TIME CONSTANT

Often it is said that generators, motors, or circuits have a certain d-c time constant. This refers again to the rate of decay of the d-c compoO C COMPONENT

a

= 37Y. OF b (APPROX

)

C -

TIME
OF D C COMPONENT

CONSTANT I N SECONDS
FIG. 1.21

Graphic illustration of time constant.

20

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

nent. The d-c time constant is the time, in seconds, required by the d-c component to reduce to about 37 per cent of its original value a t the instant of short circuit. I t is the ratio of the inductance in henrys to the resistance in ohms of the machine or circuit. This is merely a guide to how fast the d-c component decays. Stated in other terms, it is the time in seconds for the d-c component to reach zero if it continued t o decay a t the same rate it does initially (Fig. 1.21).
RMS VALUE INCLUDING D-C COMPONENT

The rms values of a-c waves are significant since circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters are rated in terms of rrns current or equivalent kva. The maximum rrns value of short-circuit current occurs at a time of about one cycle after short circuit, as shown in Fig. 1.20. If there were no decay in the d-c component, as in Fig. 1.18, the rrns value of the first cycle of current would be j.732 times the rrns value of the a-c component. I n practical circuits there is always some d-c decay during the first cycle. An approximate rrns value of one cycle of an offset wave whether it is partially or totally offset is expressed by the equation

where C

=

a b

= =

rrns value of offset or asymmetrical current wave over one cycle rrns value of a-c component value of d-c component at one-half cycle

MULTIPLYING FACTOR

Calculation of the precise rrns value of an asymmetrical current a t any time after the inception of a short circuit may be very involved. Accurate decrement factors to account for the d-c component a t any time are required, as well as accurate factors for the rate of change of the apparent reactance of the generators. This precise method may he used if desired, but simplified methods have been evolved whereby the d-c component is accounted for by simple multiplying factors. The multiplying factor converts the rrns value of the symmetrical a-c wave into rms amperes of the asymmetrical wave including a d-c component. The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the point on the voltage wave a t which the short circuit occurs. For protective-device application, only the maximum d-c component is considered, since the circuit breaker must be applied to handle the maximum short-circuit current that can occur in a system.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

21

In the general case for circuits rated above 600 volts, the multiplying factor to account for d-c component is 1.6 times the rms value of the a-c symmetrical component at the first half cycle. For circuits rated 5000 volts or less where there is no local generation, that is, where the supply t,o the bus is through transformers or long lines, the multiplying factor to ralculate the total current at the first half cycle may be reduced to 1.5. For circuits 600 volts and less, t,he multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle is 1.25 when the circuit breaker is applied on the average current in three phases. Where single-phase conditions must be considered in circuits GOO volts and less, then to account for the d-c component in one phase of a three-phase circuit a multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle of 1.5 is used. For some calculations, rms current evaluations a t longer time intervals than the first half cycle, such as three to eight cycles corresponding to the interrupting time of circuit breakers, are required. Multiplying factors for this purpose may be taken from the curve in Fig. 1.22. Table 1.2 gives the multiplying factors commonly used for applying

e

FIG. 1.22 Charts showing multiplying factors to account for decoy of d-c component for various X / R ratio of circuits.

22

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES

short-circuit protective devices. These factors range from 1 t o 1.6, depending upon whether the short-circuit calculation is being made t o determine the interrupting or momentary duty on the short-circuit protective device.
SHORT-CIRCUIT RATIO OF GENERATORS

This term is referred t o frequently in short-circuit discussions. With present AIEE procedures of short-rircuit ralrulations, it has become a n accessory with no practical significance from this standpoint. For the sake of completeness, a definition is given here. Short-circuit ratio field current t o produce rated voltage a t no load -~ field current t o produce rated current at sustained short circuit

No further mention will he made of short-circuit ratio.
TOTAL SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

The total symmetrical short-rirruit current is made up of currents from several sourves, Fig. 1.23. At the top of the figure is shown the shortcircuit current from the utility. This act,ually comes from ut,ility generators, but generally the industrial system is small and remote electrically from the utility generators so that the Symmetrical short-rircuit current is substant,ially constant,. If there are generators in the indust,rial plant, then they cont,ribute a symmet,rical short-circuit rurreiit which for all practical purposes is constant over the first few cycles. There is, however, a slight decrement, as indicated in Fig. 1.23. The other sources are synchronous motors which act something like plant generators, except that t,hey have a higher rate of decay of the symmetriral component, and induction motors whirh have a very rapid rate of dccay of the symmetrical component of current. When all these currents are added, the total symmetrical short-circuit rurrent is typical of that shown a t the bottom of Fig. 1.23. The magnitude of the first few cycles of the t,otal symmetrical shortcircuit, current is further increased by the presence of a d-c compouent, Fig. 1.24. The d-c component, offsets the a-c ware and, therefore, makes it asymmetrical. The d-c component decays t o zero within a few cycles in most indust,rial power systems. It is this total rms asymmetrical short-circuit current, as shown in Fig. 1.24, that must he determilied for short-circuit protective-derice appliration. The problem of doing this has been simplified by standardized procedures to a poiut xhere t o determine the rms asymmetriral current one need only divide t,he line-to-neutral roltage by the proper reactance

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

23

RG. 1.23 Tracer of orcillogramr of rymmetrical short-circuit currents from utility, panerator, synchronous motors, and induclion motors. The shape of the total combined currents is illurtmted by the bottom hace.

FIG. 1.24 Arymmelrical short-circuit current from dl sources illustrated in Fig. 1.23 plus d-c component.

24

SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT U L C U U l l N G PROCEDURES

or impedance and then multiply by the proper multiplying factor from Table 1.2.
BASIS OF RATING A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES

The background of the circuit-breaker rating structure as well as the basic characteristics of short-circuit currents must be understood to enable the engineer to select the proper rotating-machine reactances and multiplying factors for the d-c component to determine the sbort-circuitcurrent magnitude for checking the duty on a particular circuit breaker, such as momentary duty or interrupting duty. The rating structure of circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters is designed to tell the application engineer how circuit breakers, fuses, or motor starters will perform under conditions where the short-circuit current varies with time. In discussing these rating bases, and for the sake of clarity, they will be arbitrarily divided into two sections, i.e., the rating basis of high-voltage short-circuit protective devices above 600 volts and the rating basis of low-voltage Short-circuit protective devices 600 volts and below.
HIGH-VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES (ABOVE 600 VOLTS)

Power-circuit-breaker Rating Basis. The standard indoor oilless power circuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear will be used here t o explain power circuit-breaker ratings. The same fundamental principles apply to all other high-voltage power circuit breakers. The circuit-breaker rating structure is complicated because of the time of operation of the circuit breakers after a short circuit occurs. The few cycles needed for the power circuit breaker to open the circuit and stop the flow of short-circuit current consist of the time required for (1) the protective relays to close their contacts, (2) the circuit-breaker trip coil to move its plunger to release the breaker operating mechanism, (3) the circuit-breaker contacts to part, and (4)the circuit breaker to interrupt the short-circuit current in its arc chamber. During this time, the short-circuit current produces high mechanical stresses in the circuit breaker and in other parts of the circuit. These stresses are produced almost instantaneously in phase with the current and vary as the square of the current. Therefore, they are greatest when maximum current is flowing. The foregoing discussion showed that t,he short-circuit current is maximum during the first cycle or loop, because of the presence of the d-c component and because the motors contribute the most short-circuit current a t that time. Thus, the short-circuit stresses on the circuit breakers and other parts of the circuit are maximum during the first loop of short-circuit current. During the time from the inception of the short circuit until the circuitbreaker contacts part, the current decreases in magnitude because of the

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

25

decay of the d-c component and the change in motor reactance, as explained previously. Consequently, the current that the circuit breaker must interrupt, four or five cycles after the inception of t.he short circuit, is generally of less magnitude than the maximum value of the first loop. The fact that the current changes in magnitude with time has led to the establishment of two bases of short-circuit-current ratings on power circuit breakers: (1) the momentary rating or its ability to withstand mechanical stresses due to high short-circuit current and (2) the interrupting rating or its ability t,o interrupt the flow of short-circuit current within its interrupting element. What Comprises the Circuit-breaker-rating Structure. Circuitbreaker-rating structures are revised and changed from time to time. It is suggested that where specific problems require the latest information on circuit-breaker ratings the applicahlc American Standards Association (ASA), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (XEMA), or American Instituteof Elect,rical Engineers (AIEE) standards he referred to. To illustrate the various factors that comprise the circuit-breakerrating structure, an oilless power circuit breaker for metal-clad switchgear rated 4.16 kv 250 mva* has been chosen. The complete rating is shown on line 5, Table 1.1. The following will explain the meaning of the several columns of Table 1.1, starting at the left. The rircuit-breaker-type designation, column 1, varies among manufacturers. For the sake of completeness the General Electric Company nomenclature is used in this column. The remainder of the items are uniform throughout the industry.
1. Type of Circuit Breaker (AM-4.16-250) AM = magne-blast circuit breaker 4.16 = for 4.16-kv class of circuits (not applicable to 4800- and 4800volt circuits) 250 = interrupting rating in mva a t 4.16 kv

2-4. Voltage Rating 2. Rated kv (4.16): the nominal voltage class or classes in which the circuit breaker is rated. 3. Maximum design kv (4.76): the maximum voltage a t which the circuit breaker is designed to operate. The 4.16-kv circuit breakers, for example, are suitable for a 1330-volt system plus 10 per cent for voltage regulation or 4.76 kv. (Note: 4330 is 4% 2500.) Some utility syst.ems operate a t 1330 X volts near the substation. 4. Minimum operating kv a t rated mva (3.85) : the minimum voltage a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt its rated mva or in this case it is 3.85 kv. At any voltages below this value, the circuit breaker

* blegavalt-amperes
i.

(see Appendix).

t

16

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

I !

I

I (
a
/

t

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

27

is not designed to interrupt the rated mva but will interrupt some value less than rated mva. This is very significant in the rating of power circuit breakers for, as poiuted out later, the circuit hreaker will interrupt a maximum of only so many amperes regardless of voltage. At any voltage less than the minimum operating voltage the product of the maximum kiloampere interrupting rating times the kv times the square root of 3 is less than the mva interrupting rating of the circuit breaker. 5-6. Insulation Level (Withstand Test) 5 . Low-frequency rrns kv (19): the 60-cycle high-potential test. 6. Impulse crest kv (60) : a measure of its ability to withstand lightning and other surges. This is applied with an impulse generator as a design test.

7-9. Current Ratings in Amperes 7. Continuous 60 cycles (1200 or 2000): the amount of load current which the circuit breaker will carry continuously without exceeding the allowable temperature rise. 8-9. Short-time Rating 8. Momentary amperes (60,000) : the maximum rms asymmetrical current that a circuit breaker will withstand including short-circuit cnrrents from all sources and motors (induction and synchronous) and the d-c component. This rating is independent of operating voltage for a given circuit breaker. This is just as significant a limitation as mva interrupting rating. It defines the ability of the circuit breaker to withstand the mechanical stresses produced by the very large offset first cycle of the shortcircuit current. This rating is nnusually significant because the mechanical stresses in the circuit hreaker vary as the square of the current. It is the only rating that is affected by the square law, and therefore is one of the most critical in the application of the circuit breakers. The rating schedules of power circuit breakers are so proportioned that the momentary rating is about 1.6 times the maximum interrupting rating amperes. 9. Four-second (37,500): the maximum current that the circuit breaker will withstand in the closed position for a period of 4 sec to allow for relaying operating time. This value is the same as the maximum interrupting rating amperes.

10-13. Interrupting Ratings 10. Three-phase rated mva (250): the three-phase mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt over a range of voltages from the maximum design kv down t o the minimum operating kv. In this case the

28

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES

interrupting rating is 250 rnva between 4.76 and 3.85 kv. The mva to be interrupted is obtained by multiplying the kv a t which the circuit breaker operates times the symmetrical current in kiloamperes to be interrupted times the square root of 3. The product of these must not exceed the rnva interrupting rating a t any operating voltage. 11. Amperes a t rated voltage (35,000): the maximum total rms amperes which the circuit breaker will interrupt a t rated voltage, i.e., in the case of the example used above 35,000 at 4.16 kv (4.16 X 35.000 x fi = 250 mva). These figures are rounded. This figure is given for information only and does not have a limiting significance of particular interest to the application engineer. 12. Maximum amperes interrupting rating (37,500) : the maximum total rms amperes that the circuit breaker will interrupt regardless of how low the voltage is. In this example, this current is 37,500 amp. At minimum operating voltage, 3.85 kv, this corresponds to 250 mva, and, for example, a t a voltage of 2.3 kv this corresponds to 150mva. The circuit breaker will not interrupt this much current a t all voltages, i.e., i t will not interrupt this much current if the product of current, voltage, and the square root of 3 is greater than the mva interrupting rating. This current limit determines the minimum kv ) a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt rated mva (column 4. At any voltage lower than that given in column 4, this maximum rms total interrupting current determines how much the circuit breaker will interrupt in mva. Therefore, when the voltage goes below the limit of column 4, the mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt is lower than the rnva rating given in column 10 by an amount proportional to the reduction in operating voltage below the value of column 4. 13. Rated interrupting time (8 cycles on 60-cycle basis): the maximum total time of operation from the instant the trip coil is energized until the circuit breaker has cleared the short circuit.
What limits the Application of Power Circuit Breakers an on interrupting-and Momentary-duty Basis? In so far as applying power cir-

cuit breakers on an interrupting-duty basis is concerned i t can be seen from the foregoing that there are four limits, none of which should be exceeded. These must all be checked for any application. 1. Operating voltage should never at any time exceed the limit of column 3, Table 1.1, i.e., the maximum design kv. 2. Interrupting rnva should never be exceeded a t any voltage. This limit is sig’nificant only when the operating voltage is between the limits of columns 3 and 4, Table 1.1. It is not significant when the operating voltage is below the limit of column 4, Table 1.1, because maximum interrupting amperes limit the mva to values less than the rnva rating. 3. Maximum interrupting rating amperes should never be exceeded

SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES

29

even though the product of this current times the voltages times the square root of 3 is less than the interrupting rating in mva. This figure is the controlling one in so far as interrupting duty is involved when the voltage is below that of column 4, Table 1.1 (minimum operating voltage a t rated mva). 4 Momentary current should never be exceeded a t any operating . voltage. Modern power circuit breakers generally have a momeutary rating in rms amperes of 1.6 times the maximum interrupting rating in rms amperes. As a result, where there is no short-circuit-current contribution from motors, a check of the interrupting duty only is necessary. If this is within the circuit-breaker interrupting rating then the maximum Short-circuit current, including the d-c component, mill be within the momentary rating of the circuit breaker. Where there is short-circuit contribution from motors, the momentary rating of the circuit breaker may be exceeded, before the interrupting rating is exceeded in a given cirruit. Whenever there are motors to be considered in the short-circuit calculations, the momentary duty and the interrupting duty should both be checked. How to Check Momentary Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. Siuce the short-circuit current is maximum a t the first half cycle, the short-circuit current must be determined a t the first half cycle to determine the maximum momentary duty on a circuit breaker. To determine the short-circuit current a t the first half cycle, it is necessary to consider all sources of short-circuit current, that is, the generators, synchronous motors, induction motors, and utility connections. The subtransient reactances of generators, synchronous motors, and inductiou motors are employed in the reactance diagram. Since the d-r component is present a t this time, it is necessary to account for it by the use of a multiplying factor. This multiplying factor is either 1.5 or l.G, as outlined in Table 1.2. Typical circuits where the 1.5 multiplying factor can be used are shown in Fig. 1.25. The procedure is the same, regardless of the type of power circuit breaker involved. How to Check Interrupting Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. To check the interrupting duty on a power circuit breaker, the short-circuit current should be determined a t the time that the circuit-breaker contacts part. The time required for the circuit-breaker contacts to part will vary over a considerable range, because of variation in relay time and in circuitbreaker operating speed. The fewer cycles required for the circuitbreaker contacts to part, the greater will be the curreut to interrupt. Therefore, the maximum interrupting duty is imposed upon the circuit breaker when the tripping relays operate instantaneously. In all shortcircuit calculations, for the purpose of determining interrupting duties, the relays are assumed to operate instantaneously. To account for

SEPES-DIVEN SEN-RIO-EIELI', tCA
30

1
HIGH VOLTAGE INCOMING LINE

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

2400 4160 4800 VOLT INCOMING L I N E FROM UTILITY

\$

o,:4600 V BUS A6,0

(0)

T O P L A N T LOAD NO GENERATION IN THE P L A N T

TO P LANT L O AD NO GENERATION IN THE P L A N T

(b)

13.6 KV
U U

u.-L

USE 1.6 MULTIPLYING FACTOR NO GENERATION ON THIS BUS NO GENERATION

2400, 4160 OR

(C)

FIG. 1.25 One-line diogrom of carer where the multiplying factor 1.5 may be used on circuits rated less than 5 h.

c

,,

,..

.:

.. .
.

..
.

,

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

31

variation in the circuit-breaker operating speed, power circuit breakers have been grouped into classes, such as eight-cycle, five-cycle, three-cycle circuit breakers, etc. It is assumed for short-circuit-calculation purposes that circuit breakers of all manufacturers, in any one speed grouping, operate substantially the same with regard to contact parting time. Instead of specifying a time a t which the short-circuit current is to he calculated, it is determined by the simpler approach of specifying the generator and motor reactances and using multiplying factors. These factors are listed in Table 1.2. In industrial plants, eight-cycle circuit breakers are generally used. Normally, the induction-motor contribution has disappeared, and that of the synchronous motors has changed from the subtransient to the transient condition before the contacts of these circuit breakers part. Therefore, in calculating the interrupting duty on commonly used power circuit breakers, generator subtransient reactance and synchronous-motor transient reactance are used and induction motors are neglected. The elapsed time is so long that usually all the d-c component has disappeared. What d-c component is left is more than offset by the reduction in a-c component due to the increase in reactance of the generators. Hence, a multiplying factor of one (1) is used. In very large power systems, when symmetrical short-circuit interrupting duty is 500 mva or greater, there is an exception to this rule. In such large power systems, the ratio of reactance to resistance is usually so high that there may be considerable d-c component left when the contacts of the standard eight-cycle circuit breaker part. To account for this, the multiplying factor of 1.1is used in determining the total rms short-circuit mva that a circuit breaker may have to interrupt in these large systems. The multiplying factor of 1.1 is not applied until the symmetrical shortcircuit value reaches 500 mva. High-voltage Fuses. High-voltage fuses are either of the currentlimiting type, Fig. 1.26, which open the circuit before the first current peak, or of the non-current-limiting type, which open the circuit within one or two cycles after the inception of the short circuit. For the sake of standardization, all fuse-interrupting ratings are on the basis of maximum rms current that will flow in the first cycle after the short circuit occurs. This is the current that will flow if the fuse did not open the circuit previously, i.e., fuses are rated in terms of “available short-circuit current.” To determine the available short-circuit current a t the first cycle for the application of high-voltage fuses, use the subtransient reactances of all generators, induction motors, synchronous motors, and utility sources and allow for the maximum d-c component. The multiplying factor for allowing for d-c component is 1.6, the same as for allowing for d-c compo-

u w

TABLE 1.2

Condensed Table of Multiplying Factors and Rotating-machine Reactances

To Be Used for CaLdatina Swt-dreuit Cunanh for Circuit-breaker, Fuse, and Motor.rtartor Applicdons

1 Generators. 1

I
0

I
Eight cycle or slower (general case). Rva cycle..

I
Above 600 volt, Any ploee where symmetricmi short-circuit kva i s loss than 500 mva

1
I .O
1.1

frequency changers

I
Interrupting duty

w

a

C

2
i i

..............................

.......... Above 600 wlh

Subtransient Subtransient

Momentary duty

Generol GOSO.. Lr than 5 k.. a

........................... ..........................

s z

s

Above 600 volt) 601 to 5000 volh

Near generoting station Remote from generating dolion (X/R rotio l e u thon I1 0 High-voltaqe Fuses

1.6 1.5

Subtransient Subtransient

5
Three-phose I n o interrupting duly

All typos, including dl wrront-limiting fuses.

.... Above 600 wih
... Above 600 volt'

Anywhere in system

I .O

Subhqndent

1

Transient

1

Neglect

All types, including dl current-limiting fuses.. Non-current-limiting lypes only..

............. 601 to 15,000 wlh

1

I

Maximum rms ampere interrupting duty Anywhere in system Remote from generoting %to. tion ( X / R mtio leu lhm 41 1.6 1 .?

i

Subtronsient Svbtronrient Svbwmrient Subwoniiont Subhmrient Subtransient

i

i

All h e p o w e r ratings..

....................

2400 and 4i60Y
Wlh

Anywhere in system

1.0

All horsepower rotingr..

....................

2400 and 4160Y
Yolh

Anywhere in system

I .6

CIrmit breaker w conladm l y p e . .

...........

601 10 5000 volts

Cirwit b r w b r or contocto~ lype. Clrcvit b r e e b r or contartor type..

............ 601 to MOO volts ........... 601 lo 5000 volts

0
bywhere in system temote from gener.ting 1 . 1 lion lX/R ratio leis than 101

1.6 1.5

Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient Subtrmdent

Subtransient Subtransient

8
R 0
m

Apparatus. 600 Volts and Below Interrupting or momentary duty Air circuit breakers or breaker-contactor combino. lion motor stoners.. Low-voltacp furas or fused combination motor

z

.................... Slarte" ...............................

600 volts and below Anywhere in system
600 volt* and below Anywhere in system

I .25
1 .25

Subtransient Subtianrient

Svbtronrienl

Subtransient Subtransient Svbtraniient

34

SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

nent when determining the momentary duty on a power circuit breaker (see Table 1.2). The interrupting rating of fuses in amperes is exactly parallel, in so far as short-circuit+urent calculations are concerned, to the momentary rating of power circuit breakers. The ampere interrupting rating of high-voltage fuses is the only rating that has any physical significance. For the sake of simplicity of application in systems with power circuit breakers, some fuses are given interrupting ratings in three-phase mva. The three-phase mva interrupting rating has no physical significance, because fuses are single-phase devices, each fuse functioning only on the current which passes through it.
WAVE OF AVAILABLE

THE FUSE ELEMENTS MELT BEFORE PEAK VALUE OF AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT I S REACHED

1 FIG. 1.26 Grophic sxplonotion of the current-limiting action of current-limiting fuses. See Fig. 1.27 for method o determining available short-circuit current. f

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CAKULATING PROCEDURES

35

These three-phase mva ratings have been selected so they will line u p with power-circuit-breaker ratings. For example, a high-voltage fuse rated 150 mva and a power circuit breaker rated 150 mva can he applied on the basis of the same short-circuit-current calculations. Of course, the application voltage must he factored in each case. High-voltoge M o t o r Starters. High-voltage motor starters generally employ for short-circuit protection either current-limiting fuses or power circuit breakers. The short-circuit-current calculations for applying these motor starters are the same as those for high-voltage fuses and power circuit breakers, respectively.
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (600 VOLTS A N D BELOW)

low-voltage Air Circuit Breokers. The present designs of low-voltage air circuit breakers differ from those of high-voltage power circuit breakers because they are substantially instantaneous in operation a t currents near their interrupting rating. The contacts often begin to part during the first cycle of current. Therefore, low-voltage air circuit breakers are subject to interrupting the current a t the first cycle after short circuit and withstanding the mechanical forces of that rurrent. It is necessary to calculate the current a t only one time for the application of low-voltage air circuit breakers. The current determined should be that of the first halt cycle and should be determined on exactly the same hasis as for checking the momentary duty of high-voltage power circuit breakers, except for a change in the multiplying factor as discussed in the next paragraph. The suhtransient reactances of generators, induction motors, and synrhronous motors are used, and the d-c component is considered (see Table 1.2). The multiplying factor for the d-c component is not so high in lowvoltage circuits as in some high-voltage circuits. This is due to the generally lower level of reactance-to-resistance ( X I R ) ratio in low-voltage circLits, which causes the d-c component to decay faster than in some high-voltage circuits. In rating low-voltage air circuit breakers, the average d-c component of the three phases is used, which is somewhat lower than that for the maximum phase. The generally lower ( X / R ) ratio and the use of an average d-c component for the three phases result in a considerably lower multiplying factor in low-voltage circuits. The multiplying factor has been standardized at 1.25 for the average for the three phases. This is equivalent t o a multiplier of about 1.5 to account for the d-c component in the maximum phase. Application of High-voltage Oil Circuit Breokers to 600-volt Systems. In the 192Os, 5-kv oil circuit breakers were used extensively on 600-volt

36

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULAnNG PROCEDURES

systems. The procedure for determining short-circuit currents in systems of 600 volts and below is slightly modified for checking duty on oil breakers of the 5-kv class as compared with low-voltage air circuit breakers. Both the momentary duty and interrupting duty must be checked for the oil-circuit-breaker application. To check the momentary duty, use the same procedure as for low-voltage air circuit breakers, i.e., generators, utility sources, induction motors, and synchronous motors (subtransient reactance). However, a multiplying factor of 1.5 is used instead of 1.25 as for low-voltage air circuit breakers. Oil-circuit-breaker momentary ratings are based on the maximum current through any one pole, not on the average current in the three phases which is employed in the rating of low-voltage circuit breakers. To determine the interrupting duty, use the generator subtransient reactance and utility-source reactance plus the synchronous-motor transient reactance and a multiplying factor of 1.0. Low-voltage Fuses. Several low-voltage fuses with published a-c interrupting ratings are appearing on the market. There are no industry standards to follow, but most of these seem to be following air-circuitbreaker standards, i.e., using the same rating base and same method of determining short-circuit duty as is used for low-voltage air circuit breakers. Hence, the procedure will not be repeated here except to point out that the 1.25 multiplying factor is used (see Table 1.2). So-called National Electrical Code (NEC) plug and cartridge fuses have no established a-c interrupting ratings. Many tests have been made to determine their a-c interrupting ability, but to date the industry has not applied a-c interrupting ratings. Low-voltage M o t o r Starters. Low-voltage motor starters are of two types: those using fuses and those using air circuit breakers for shortcircuit protection. Those using air circuit breakers for short-circuit protection are applied 04 exactly the same basis as low-voltage air circuit breakers in so far as short-circuit currents are concerned. Motor starters using fuses for short-circuit protection are applied on exactly the same basisas fuses in so far as short-circuit current is concerned.
AVAILABLE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

In determining the short-circuit current, the impedance of the circuit protective device connected in the faulty feeder is neglected. The shortcircuit current is determined by’ assuming that the protective device is shorted out by a bar of zero impedance (Fig. 1.27). The short-circuit
/

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

37

current which flows in such a circuit is commonly called available shortcircuit cumat. The procedure for determining the available short-circuit current is based on setting up impedance or reactance diagrams. The impedance of the short-circuit protective device that is nearest the short circuit (electrically) is omitted from the impedance diagram. Practically all protective devices are so rated and tested for shortcircuit interrupting ability; hence this procedure may be followed in short-circuit calculations. This greatly simplifies the calculations and removes the effect of impedance variations between different types and makes of devices having the same interrupting rating. I t means that one set of short-circuit-current calculations for a given set of conditions is all that is needed for applying any type of protective device, regardless of the impedance of the devices themselves.

0
MOTORS

GENERATOR

TRANSFORMER

CABLE

SHORT ClRCUlTED 8 1 J UMPER OF Z E R O IMPEDANCE

CABLE SHORT

CIRCUIT

FIG. 1.27 Connections

for determining available short-circuit current for testing rhort-

circuit protective devices.

38

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

HOW TO MAKE A SHORT-CIRCUIT STUDY FOR DETERMINING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT
FORMULAS FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT STUDY'

1. Changing ohms to per cent ohms, etc.:

Per cent (%) ohms reactance Per-unit

= =

(90 ohms reactance

(ohms reactance) (kva.base) (1.1) (kvt)*(lO) (ohms reactance)(kva base) (kv)*(1000) (1.2)

[see Eq. (1.34)] Ohms reactance
=

( % reactance)(kv)2(10)
=

Per-unit ohms reactance

kva base per cent ohms reactance 100

(1.3) (1.4)

2. Changing per cent or per-unit ohms reactance from one kva base to another:

% ohms reactance on kva base 2 - kva base 2 X (% ohms reactance on base 1) (1.5) kva base 1 9f reactance on kva base 2 - kva base 2 X (% ohms reactance on kva base 1) (1.36) kva base 1
3. Converting utility-system reactance to per cent or per-unit ohms reactance on kva base being used in study: a. If given in per cent ohms reactance on a kva base different than that used in the study, convert according to Eq. (1.5). b. If given in short-circuit kva, convert to per-unit ohms thus:

kva base used in reactance diagram (1.6) short-circuit kva of utility system c. If given in short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical), convert t o perunit ohms thus:

9i reactance

=

Yi reactance =

kva base used in reactance diagram (short-circuit current) ( d \$ ) ( k v rating of system)

(1.7)

d. If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line breaker is known,
* See pp. 54 to 57 for more prr-unit formulas

1 kv

= line-to-line kilovolts.

SHORTT-CIRCUIT.CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES

39

9f ohms reactance
-

kva base used in reactance diagram kva interrupting rating of incoming line breaker The exact kva base of a motor
=

(1.8)

4. Determining kva base of motors:

EI 4 3

(1.9)

where E = name-plate voltage rating I = name-plate full-load current rating When motor full-load currents are not known, use the following kva bases: Induction motors: kva base = horsepower rating (1.10) 0.8-power factor synchronous motor: (1.11) kva base = 1.0 (horsepower rating) 1.0-power factor synchronous motors: (1.12) kva base = 0.80 (horsepower rating) 5. Changing voltage base when ohms are used: Ohms on basis of voltage 1
-

')* X (ohms on basis of voltage 2) (voltage 2)2

(1.13)

In Eqs. (1.1) to (1.4), ohms impedance or ohms resistance may be substituted for ohms reactance. The final product is then per-unit or per cent ohms impedance or resistance, respectively. 6 . Determining the symmetrical short-circuit kva: Symmetrical short-circuit kva
=
~

% X*

(kva base)

(1.14) (1.15)
(1.16)

- y? -~

'& base) (kva

(line-to-neutral voltage)2 ohms reactance X 1000 kv2 X lo00 ohms reactance 7. Determining the symmetrical short-circuit current: (100) (kva base) Symmetrical short-circuit current = (% X*)(v%(kvt) kva base (% X*)(&)(kvt) k v t X lo00 ( d ) ( o h m s reactance) * X = reactance or impedanoe. t kv = line-&line kilovolts.
= 3

(1.16a)

.

(1.17) (1.18) (1.19)

TABLE 1.3 Factor ( K ) to Convert Ohms to Per Cent or Per-unit Ohms for Three-phase Circuits*
Base kvo

0 L

loot
P r .

1 50
Per-""it Per cent
Per-""it

200
Per cant Por-un1t Per cent

300

- __
Per-""it Per cent

500
Per-""it
v)

c*nt

216Y/125 240 480

'14 73 43.4 27.7 1.73 0.56 0.435 0.210 0.193 0.0825 0.0755 0.0695 0.064 0.0574 0.0525 0.0187 0.00711 0.00471

2.14 1.73 0.434 0.277 0.0173 0.00576 0.00435 0.0021 0.001 93 0.000825 0.000755 0.000695 0.00064 0.000574 0.000525 0,000187 0.000071 I 0.0000471

321.5 260.4 65.21 4.166 2.604 0.808 0.651

3.215 2.604 0.6521 0.4166 0.02604 0.00808

128 147 86.8 55.5 3.47 1.15 0.868 0.42 0.386 0.165 0.151 0.138 0.127 0.114 0.105 0.0378 0.0142 0.00945 0.0042

4.28 3.47 0.868 0.555 0.0347 0.0115 0.00868 0.0042 0.00386 0.00165 0.00151 0.00138 0.00127 0.00114 0.00105 0.000378 0.000142 0.0000945 0.000042

t3 4

a1

30.2 83.3 5.21 1.72 1.302 0.63 0.579 0.247 0.226 0.208 0.192 0.172 0.157 0.0567 0.0213 0.0141 0.0063

6.43 5.21 1.302 0.833 0.0511 0.0172 0.01302 0.0063 0.00579 0.00247 0.00226 0.00208
0.001 92

071 868 217 I38 8.68 2.88

- 2 0.71
8.68 2.17 1.38 0.0868 0.0288 0.0217 0.0105 0.00965 0.00413 0.00377 0.00347 0.0032 0.00286 0.00262 0.00045 0.000355 0.000236 0.000105

I

600 2,400 41 60 .
4,800 6.900 7,200 l1,OOO 11.500 12,000 12,500 13.200 13,800 23,000 37.4M) 46,000
69,OCU

2 K E 2

0.315
0.289 0.123 0.113 0.104 0.096 0.086 0.0787 0.0283 0.0107 0.00708

0.00651 0.0031 5 0.00289
0.00123 0.00113 0.00104 0.00096 0.00086 0.000787 0.000283 0.000106 0.0000708

2.17
1.05 0.965 0.413 0.377 0.347 0.32 0.286 0.262 0.045 0.0355 0.0236 0.0105

B
f

I

n

2
5
0

0,00172 0.001 57 0.000547 0.00021 3 0.0001 41 0.000063

6 c

R v,

0.0021 2 - 0.0000212
=

-

0.0031 5

0.000031 5

* For per-unit, K

kva base , kva base For per cent, K = kv' X 1wO kv' X 10

kv = line-to-line kilovolts

t To determine multiplying factors far any other base use figures under 100-kvs base columns multiplied by new base in kva,
100

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

41

8. Determining the asymmetrical short-circuit current:
Asymmetrical short-circuit current = (symmetrical current) (multiplying factor) Asymmetrical short-circuit kva = (symmetrical kva) (multiplying factor)
DIAGRAMS

(1.20)

One-line Diagram. The first step in making a short-circuit study is to prepare a one-line diagram showing all sources of short-circuit current, i.e., utility ties, generators, synchronous motors, induction motors, synchronous condensers, rotary converters, etc., and all significant circuit elements, such as transformers, cables, circuit breakers, etc. (Fig. 1.28). M a k e an Impedance or Reactance Diagram. The second step is to make an impedance or reactance diagram showing all significant reactances and resistances (Pig. 1.29). In the following pages this will be
GENERATOR C

I

UTILITY SYSTEM TRANS

D

GENERATOR

CABLE E SHORT CIRCUIT LARGE MOTOR CABLE J

480 VOLT MOTORS

FIG. 1.28

e diagram c

, typical large industrial power system.

H

INFINITE BUSES

-SHORT

CIRCUIT CURRENT GOES THROUGH HERE

FIG. 1.29

Reactonce diagram of system shown in Fig. 1.28.

42

SHORT-ClRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULAltNG PROCEDURES

referred to as an impedance diagram, recognizing of course that only reactances will be used in many diagrams. The circuit element,s and machines considered in the impedance diagram depend upon many factors, i.e., circuit voltage, whether momentary or interrupting duty are to be checked, etc. The foregoing discussion and Table 1.2 explain when motors are to be considered and what motor reactances are to he used for checking the dut,y on a given circuit breaker or fuses of a given voltage class. There are other problems, i.e., (1) selecting the type and location of the short circuit in the system, (2) determining the specific reactance of a given circuit element or machine, and (3) deciding whether or not circuit resistance should be convidered.
SELECTION OF TYPE AND LOCATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT

Three-phase Short Circuits Generally Considered. I n most industrial systems, the maximum short-circuit current is obtained when a three-phase short circuit occurs. Short-rircuit-current magnitudes are generally less for line-to-neutral or line-to-line short circuits than for the three-phase short circuits. Thus, the simple three-phase short-circuitcurrent calculations will suffice for application of short-circuit protective devices in most industrial systems. Unbalanced Short Circuits in Large Power Systems. In some very large systems where the high-voltage-system neutral is solidly grounded, maximum short-circuit current flows for a single phase-to-ground short rircuit. Such a system might be served from a large delta-Y transformer bank or directly from the plant generators. Hence the only time that single-phase short-circuit-current calculations need be made is on large high-voltage systems (2400 volts and above) with solidly grounded generator neutrals or where main transformers that supply a plant from a utility are ronnected in delta on the highvoltage side (incoming line) and in Y with solidly grounded neutrals on the low-voltage (load) side. The calculations of unbalanced short-circuit currents in large power systems can best be done by symmetrical components, see Chap. 2. Normally, generator and large delta-Y transformer secondaries are grounded through a reactor or resistor to limit the short-circuit current for a single line-to-ground short circuit on the system to letis than the value of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit. Bolted Short Circuits Only Are Considered. Several tests have been made to evaluate the effect of arc drop at the point of short circuit in reducing the short-circuit-current magnitude. It was felt by some engineers that the current-limiting effect of the arc was pronounced. These tests showed, however, that for circuit voltages as low as 300 volts

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

43

there may be no substantial difference in the current that flows for a bolted short circuit and when there is an arc of several inches of length. These test,s also confirmed modern calculating procedure as an accurate method of estimating the short-circuit-current magnitude in systems of 600 volts and less. .4rcs cannot be counted on to limit the flow of short-circuit currents even in louvoltage circuits; so short-circuit-current calculations for all circuit voltages are made on the basis of zero impedance at the point of short circuit, or, in other words, a bolted short circuit. This materially simplifies calculation because all other circuit impedances are linear in magnitude, whereas arcs have a nonlinear impedance characteristic.
At What Point in the System Should the Short Circuit Be Considered to Occur? The maximum short-circuit current will flow through a cir-

cuit breaker, fuse, or motor starter when the short circuit occurs at the

4160V.

I

I

I

\$?

\$-

MAX.SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY ON BREAKERS ON THIS BUS \$ WR E : S FOR SHORT CIRCUIT

1 T
A&?? Y T T - 3
&

?;
+

r

y

MAX. DUTY FOR THESE BREAKERS OCCURS FOR SHORT CIRCUIT
HERE

rx -

* +

FIG. 1.30

Location of faults for maximum Short-circuit duty on circuit breakers.

44

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

terminals of the circuit breaker, etc. (Fig. 1.30). These devices, if properly applied, should be capable of opening the maximum shortcircuit current that can flow through them. Therefore, only one shortcircuit location (at the terminal of the device) need be considered for checking the duty on a given circuit breaker, fuse, or motor starter.
DETERMINING REACTANCES AND RESISTANCES OF CIRCUITS AND MACHINES

Typical reactances of circuit elements and machines are given at the end of this chapter. Resistances are included for certain items. These tables may be used as a basis for assigning values to the various elements of the impedance diagram. The reactances and resistances are all lineto-neutral values for one phase of a three-phase circuit. Where the reactances of a specific motor, generator, or transformer are known, these values should he used in lieu of the typical reactances in this chapter. The following is a guide to general practice in selecting and representing reactances. U s e R e a c t a n c e s of All S i g n i f i c a n t Circuit E l e m e n t s . Whether or not the reactance of a certain circuit element of a system is significant depends upon the voltage rating of the system where the short circuit occurs. In all cases, generator, motor, and transformer reactances are used. In systems rated above 600 volts, the reactances of short bus runs, current transformers, disconnecting switches, circuit breakers, and other circuit elements of only a few feet in length are so low that they may be neglected without significant error. In circuits rated 600 volts or less, the reactances of low-voltage current transformers, air circuit breakers, disconnecting switches, low-voltage bus runs, etc., may have a significant hearing on the magnitude of total shortcircuit current. As a general guide, the reactance of the low-voltage secondary-switchgear section in load-center unit substations with closely coupled transformers and secondary switchgear is not significant for all voltages of 600 volts and below. However, where there are several transformers or generators paralleled on one bus, or connections several feet long between a single transformer and its switchgear, reactances of the bus connections will generally be significant and should be considered in short-circuit calculations. I n systems of more than about 1000 kva on one bus a t 208Y/120 or 240 volts, reactance of all circuit components such as short bus runs, current transformers, circuit breakers, etc., should be included in the short-circuit study. I n systems of more than about 3000 kva on one bus a t 480 volts or 600 volts, reactances of all components such as current transformers, circuit breakers, short bus runs, etc., should be considered. It should be remembered that the lower the voltage, the more effective

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENl CALCUUTING PROCEDURES

45

a small impedance is in limiting the short-circuit-current magnitude. That is why extreme care should he used to include all circuit elements in the impedance diagram, particularly for large ZORY/lZO-volt or 240-volt systems. I care is not used, the calculations will result in a f value of current far higher than will actually be realized in practice. See the example outlined in Figs. 1.46 and 1.47. This often results in the adoption of low-voltage switchgear of higher interrupting rating and higher cost than are actually required. I care is used in including all f reactances, the calculated reiults will be close to the short-circuit currents obtained in practice. Short-circuit calculations are of most value if they reflect accurate answers. When Is Resistance Considered? The resistance of all generators, transformers, reactors, motors, and high-capacity buses (above about 1000-amp rating) is so low, compared with their reactance, that their resistance is not considered, regardless of their voltage rating. The resistance of all other circuit elements of the high-voltage system (above 600 volts) is usually neglected, because the resistance of these parts has no significant bearing on the total magnitude of short-circuit currents. In systems of 600 volts and less the error of omitting resistances of all parts of the circuit except cables and small ampere rating buses is usually less than 5 per cent. However, the resistance of cable circuits is often the predominant part of the total impedance of a cable. When appreciable lengths of cable are involved in the circuit through which short-circuit current flows in a system of GOO volts or less, the resistance as well as the reactance of the cable circuits should be included in the
GENERATOR

OF-THESE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS. IN GENERAL USF REACTANCE AND RESISTANCE OF THESE

___

-. . . -. 1100 FT. 101

---(20 FT

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE ONLY :20800 AMPERES
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE OF A LL PARTS PLUS RESISTANCE OF COW VOLTAGE CABLE = 11500 4MPERES.

FIG. 1.31 One-line diagram showing effect of resistance in cable circuits.

46

SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.31 shows the error that might result in neglecting cable resistance. I n secondary network systems of 600 volts and less, the resistance as well as the reactance of the tie-cable circuits between substation buses should be included in the impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.32 shows the effect of cable resistance in reducing short-circuit current in a typical industrial network.

n n
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING REACTANCE ONLY = 51000 AMPERES, SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING REACTANCE PLUS RESISTANCE OF T I E CIRCUIT= 41000 AMPERES.

T I E CIRCUITS 208 Y / l Z O V O L T S .

200 FT
2- 250 M,CM 3 CONO. CABLES ~~~~~T I N PARALLEL

200 F T

FIG. 1.32

One-line diogrtlm of low-voltage secondary network system showing effect of resistance o cable tie circuits. f

Where to Use Exact Multiplying Factors. I n low-voltage systems having considerable lengths of cahle, the X / R ratio may be so low that the 1.25 multiplying factor would be considerably in error. Hence in these systems where resistance is considered, determine the correct X / R ratio and then use minimum multiplying factor.
GUIDE FOR REPRESENTING THE REACTANCE O F A GROUP O F MOTORS

A group of motors fed from one substation or from one generating station bus may range in rating from fractional to several thousand horsepower per motor. All motors that are running at the time a short circuit occurs in the power system contribute short-circuit current and therefore should be taken into consideration. Motors Roted 600 Volts and Below. I n that portion of the power system operating at 600 volts or less, there are generally numerous small

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

A?

motors, i.e., under about 50 hp. I t becomes impractical to represent each small motor in the impedance diagram. These motors are constantly being turned off and on; so it is practically impossible to predict which ones will be on the line when a short circuit occurs. Furthermore, it would be impractical to obtain the characteristics of each small motor and to account for the effect of the impedance of their leads. Where more accurate data are not available, the following procedure may be used with satisfactory results for representing the combined reactance of a group of miscellaneous motors operating a t 600 volts or less. 1. In systems rated 240, 480, or 600 volts a t each generator and/or transformer bus, assume that the maximum horsepower of motors runniug a t any one time is equal to the combined kva rating of the stepdown transformer and/or generators supplying that one bus (see Figs. 1.33 and 1.34). 2. 10 systems rated 208Y/120 volts, a substantial portion of the load usually consists of lights and a lesser proportion of motor load than in 240-, 480-, or 000-volt systems. Hence in 208Y/120-volt systems where more accurate data are not available, assume a t each generator and/or transformer bus that the maximum horsepower of motors running a t
REbCTbNCE OF UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF 7 5 0 K V b TRbNSF.

TO UTILITY SYSTEM

QOW, OR5.,s

25 % REbCTbNCE OF EQUIVALENT
MOTOR

0.25% OR

5.5%

IMPEObNCE O I b G R b M 750 K V b BASE SHORT CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT MOTOR 750 KVb

SHORT CIRCUIT

El hKVA
TO UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF 7 5 0 KVb TRbNSF. EQUIVILENT MOTOR 375 K V b IMPEObNCE OIbGRbM 750 K V b BASE 2 0 8 Y / 1 2 0 VOLT SYSTEMS

240, 480, 600 VOLT SYSTEMS

50 % REACTbNCE OF EQUIVALENT MOTOR

0.50% OR

FIG. 1.33

Oiagromr illustrating how to include motors in low-voltage radial systems.

40

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

any one time is equal t,o 50 per cent of the combined rating of all stepdown trausformers and/or generators supplying power to that one bus, Fig. 1.33. For large commercial buildings the 50 per cent figure may be too low. Check carefully the mot,or load on all large 208Y/120-volt systems. I n the generalized rases referred t o in paragraphs 1 and 2 , no specific ratio of induction t o synchronous motors or no specific number of motors which prcduce unusually high short-circuit current,s has been set fort,h. T o account for these variables, a n average motor reitctance ihcluding leads is assumed t o be 25 per cent for the purpose of preparing application tables like Table 1.5 and in making short-circuit st,udies where no more accurat,e data are available. It will he noted that the average motor reactance of 25 per cent is based on the transformer or supply-generator kva rating. This figure is between the values of 28 per cent for induction mot,ors and 21 per cent for synchronous motors given in Table 1.14. Where the division between synchronous and iuduction motors is known, then more accurate calculations can be made by using the assumed motor reactances of Table 1.14. T h e reactances given in Table 1.14 are based on motor kva ratings and not supply transformer or generator ratings.

750 KVA

T
-480 VOLTS

A 500 KVA

750 KVA

500 KVA
v

EQUIVALENT MOTORS WOULD BE 250 KVA AND 375 K VA FOR 280Y/120 VOLT SECONDARY SYSTEM

FIG. 1.34 rvrternr.

Diagram illustrating how lo include motors in lowvoltage secondary network

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

49

Although a portion of the load connected to a bus rated GOO voks or less may be heaters, lights, a-c welders, solderitig irons, appliances, arid other devices which produce no short-circuit curreiit, the total installed horsepower of motors connected t,o such a bus is geiierally much greater than the kva rating of the supply transformers and generators. Hovever, allowing for diversity, generally the total comhitied horsepower rat,ing of all mot,ors running a t one time ix-ould trot produce short-circuit currents in excess of the values obtained when using the ahore assumptions. I n systems of 000 volts or Icss, the large motors (i,e., mot,ors 011 t,he order of several hundred horsepomerj are usually few i n number and represent only a small portion of the tot,al connected horsepower; therefore, these larger motors are generally lumped in with the smaller motors and the complete group is represented as one equivalent motor i t i the impedance diagram. Synchrouous and induction motors need not be segregated when combining the motors in these low-voltage systems, because lorn-voltage air circuit breakers operr so fast that only the current flow duritig the first half cycle is considered; i.e., only suhtraiisient reactances ( X y ) of marhiiies are considered. Motors Rated above 600 Volts. High-voltage motors (rated 2200 volts and ahove) are generally larger in horsepower rating thau motors on systems operating under 600 volts. These largcr motors may have a much more significant hearing on short-circuit-current magnitudes than smaller motors, and, therefore, more exact determinatiou of the reactances of the larger motors is in order. Therefore, it is often foutid convetiient t o represent each large high-voltage motor individually in the impedance diagram. However, in large plants like steel mills, paper mills, etc., where there are numerous motors of several huridred horsepower each, it is often found desirable t o group these larger motors iii one group arid represent them by one reartaiire in the impedance diagram. Individual motors of several thousand horsepoitrer should be coiisidered individually and their reactances accurately determined hefore starting the short-circuit study. Whether considering motors individually or in groups, regardless of voltage rating of the motors, it is necessary t o obtain an equivalent kva rating of the individual or group of motors. This can be done precisely for large motors by Eq. (1.9) or can be approximated hy Eq. (l.lO), ( l , l l ) , or (1.12), when the full-load current is not known. The latter equations are used when considering a single reactance t o represent a group of miscellaneous motors.

50

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

I n high-voltage systems, complete motor data may not be available. Lacking these data, the connected horsepower is assumed to he equal t o the generator and/or transformer capacity supplying a given highvoltage bus. If the reactance of the leads between the transformer and/or generator bus and the motors is significant, the reactanre of these leads should be included.
MAKING THE IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM

After it has been decided what elements of the one-line diagram are to be considered in the impedance diagram, the mechanirs of making the impedance diagram and of determining the short-circuit-current magnitude are as follows.

7

are treated as if they comprised a generator of zero reactance plus an external reactor to represent the reactance of the EXTERNAL TO machine windings, Fig. 1.35. The first REPRESENT IMPEDANCE OF step in making an impedance diagram GENERATOR OR MOTOR. is torepresent every generator and motor or groups of motors and utility supply FIG. 1.35 One-line representation by a reactance connected to a zero imof generator or motor in impedance pedance bus or so-called “infinite bus,” diogmm. Fig. 1.36. This bus represents the internal voltage of the generators and motors. Completing the Impedance Diagram. The second step is to add the reactance of cables, buses, transformers, current transformers, circuit

GENERATOR OR MOTOR OF ZERO IMPEDANCE

Treatment of Sources of Short-circuit Current. The generators and motors

flG. 1.36 Representation of reactances of generators, motors, and utility supply of system shown in one-line diagram form in Fig. 1.28.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

51

breakers, switches, etc., in their proper location to complete the impedance diagram, top of Fig. 1.37. Choice of Ohms, Per Cent Ohms, or Per-unit Ohms Method. The next step is to decide whether to use ohms, per cent ohms, or per-unit ohms to represent the various circuit impedances in the impedance diagram.
INFINITE BUS

INFINITE BUS

SHORT CIRCUIT

6.04V

STEP NO i COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES H

+1+J
'
I

C+D=0.04+0.15~0.19% = 2 . O t ~0.0+0.10~ 12.10%
COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES

STEP NO.:!

J) F,G AND I H + I = _' + L + I XI F G H + I + J
I

+

- _ 3 + p-j=j 2 . 5 + 0 . 2 + 0 . 0 8 3
-o,'40t

-=

I

XI

2.783 X =0.3698

STEP N 0 . 3 COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES
X t = XI

+ E = 0.36+0.04'0.40%
+ - I+ I
2.0

X,,AND

E

STEP NO. 4
I XR

COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES
X o , A . B . AND IC+D) 1 - +l i

- 1 + 1 + L+XI A X,

B

C+D

' . 0 025 04

0.19

2 . 5 + 4 + 0 . 5 +5.3=12.3
RESULTANT SINGLE REACTANCE

X

I ~

0.0805 % O ~ z
Steps for com-

FIG. 1.37 Complete reaclomce diagram for system shown in Fig. 1.28.
bining reactances into o single resultant value.

52

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Ohms are generally not used because of the difficulty of converting ohms from one voltage base to another without error and because of the very small numbers, which make accurate and easy calculation more difficult than the per cent or per-unit system. In many of the examples in this book, the assumed or given impedance or reactance data are listed in per cent, hut in the reactance dia,-rams these are converted to per-unit. N o notation will he made when that is done as it will be obvious. Equations (1.1) to (1.4) show how to convert ohms to per cent ohms, ohms to per-unit ohms. The Per-unit System for Electrical Calculations.* A per-unit system is a means of expressing numbers for ease in comparing them. A per-unit value is a ratio: a number (1.21) Per-unit = base number
~~

The base number is also called unit value since in the per-unit system it has a value of 1, or unity. Thus, base voltage is also called unit voltage. Any convenient number may be selected for the base number. For example, for the columns below, a base of 560 is used:
Number 93 125 560 2053 Per-unit Volue with 560 as a Base

0.17
0.22 1 .oo 3.65

Each number in the second column is a per-unit part of the base number. In the first column, to compare the numbers, first mentally determine the ratio of one to the other. In the second column this is already accomplished. The comparison can be aided by selection of the base number which will illustrate the comparison best. In the foregoing example, if it is desired to show how much larger each uumber is when compared with the smallest number, the number 93 might have been selected as the base. This would then be obtained as follows:
Per-""it Valve Number
with 93
( I , ( I

Base

93
125 560 2053

I .oo
I.35 6.00 22.20

The value of a per-unit system is particularly useful when comparing

* From material originally
Company.

prepared by H. J. Finison. iormrrly of General Ekctrir

SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

53

numbers that are similarly related to two different base numbers. example :
Norm01 "0th Volts during motor starting Core A 2300

For

2020

Cole B 460 420

The above figures in themselves have little significance until they are compared each with its normal condition as follows:
Vollr during starting per-unit of normal
0.88

0.91

Per Cent. Obviously per cent and per-unit systems are similar. The per cent system is obtained by multiplying the per-unit value arbitrarily by 100 to keep many frequently used per-unit values expressed as whole integers. By definition,

Per cent =

a number base number

x

100

(1.22)

Thus to change per cent to per-unit, divide by 100. For example, a transformer which has an impedance of 6 per cent has an impedance of 0.06 per-unit. The per cent system is somewhat more difficult to work with and more subject to possible error since it must always be remembered that the numbers have been arbitrarily multiplied by 100. For a simple example, money may draw interest a t the rate of 4 per cent per year. Early in arithmetic one learns to determine the interest by multiplying the principal by 0.04. It is thus necessary to remember to convert to the per-unit value before using the figure. In a complex calculation, this repeated conversion may invite errors. In effect it is safer and more convenient to say that interest is a t the rate of 0.04 per-unit. Impedances of electric apparatus are usually given in per cent. I t is usually convenient to convert these figures immediately to per-unit by dividing by 100 and thereafter do all calculating in terms of per-unit rather than attempt to remember always during the calculations whether a number should or should not be multiplied or divided by 100 to obtain the true value. Symbol. Just as the per cent system has a symbol (%) to designate that a given number is expressed in terms of per cent (as 6%) so also does the per-unit system have a symbol. The symbol for per-unit is (%). Thus 0.06 per-unit is written as 0.06 91. Selection of Base Number. In a per-unit system as used for expressing electrical quantities of voltage, current, and impedance, it is necessary to select numbers arbitrarily for the following: Base volts Base amperes

54

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Do not then in addition arbitrarily select base ohms since it has already been fixed by the first two selections because of Ohm’s law. E z=-

I

base volts (1.23) base a m p z s Using the selected base values, all parts of an electric circuit or system may be expressed in per-unit terms as follows: volts Per-unit volts = (1.24) base volts amperes Per-unit amperes = (1.25) base amperes ohms Per-unit ohms = (1.26) base ohms In practice it is more convenient to select: Base volts Base kva The base values of other quant.ities are thus automatically fixed. Hence, for a single-phase system, base kva X 1000 Base amperes = (1.27) base volts base kva Base amperes = (1.28) base kv base volts Base ohms = (1.23) base amperes where base kva is single-phase kva and base volts is single-phase volts. For a three-phase system: base kva X 1000 Bme amperes = (1.29) X base voks base kva Base amperes = (1.30) 4 X base kv hase volts Base ohms = (1.31) X base amperes where base kva is three-phase kva, base volts is line-to-line, and hase ohms is per phase. Per-unit Ohms. In practice i t is desirable to convert directly from ohms to per-unit ohms, without first determining base ohms. By Ohm’s law, base volts Base ohms = (1.23) base amperes Base ohms
=

4

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

55

Substitute Eq. (1.27) (which gives the base amperes) into Eq. (1.23), to obtain base volts Base ohms = (base kva X 1000)/base volts (base B s ohms = bsse kvavolts)P ae (1.32) x 1000 By definition: ohms Per-unit ohms = (1.26) base ohms Substitute Eq. (1.32) into Eq. (1.26) to obtain ohms Per-unit ohms = (base volts)e/(base kva X 1000) ohms X base kva X 1000 Per-unit ohms = (1.33) (base voltd2 ohms X base kva Per-unit ohms = (1.34) (base kv)2 X 1000 where base kva is single-phase kva and base kv is single-phase kv. When dealing with a three-phase system, i t is usual to select three-phase kva and line-to-line volts for the base values. Convert the above expressions to these bases to obtain ohms X base kva X 1000 X 3 Per-unit ohms = (base volts X d ,) .3 z ohms'X base kva X 1000 Per-unit ohms = (base volts)2 ohms X base kva Per-unit ohms = (1.35) (base kv)* X 1000 where ohms are per phase, kva is three-phase kva, and kv is line-to-line voltage. Usual Base Numbers for System Studies. If per cent or per-unit ohms reactance is used, the next step is to choose a kva base. In system studies it is usually desirable to select as the base voltage the nominal-system voltage or the voltage rating of the generators and supply transformers. Base kva will usually be selected as the kva rating of one of the machines or transformers in the system, or a convenient round number such as 1000, 10,000, or 100,OOO kva. After choosing the kva base, convert ohmic reactance of cables, wires, current transformers, etc., to per cent or per-unit ohms reactance on the chosen base, using Eq. (1.1) or (1.2) or Table 1.3. If ohms reactance is used, convert all per cent reactances to ohms by Eq. (1.3). Where two systems of differing voltage are interconnected through a

56

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

transformer, select a common kva base for both systems and the rated voltage of each system as its own base voltage. (These base voltages must have the same ratio t o each other as the turn ratio of the transformer connecting the two systems.) Base ohms and base amperes for the two systems will thus he correspondingly different. Figure 1.38 shows a typical example. Once the system values are expressed as per-unit values, the two interconnected systems may be treated as a single system and any calculations necessary carried out. Only in reconverting the per-unit values of the results to actual voltage and current values is i t necessary t o remember t h a t two different voltages actually existed in the system. Change of Base Number. Frequently the impedance of a circuit element may be expressed in terms of a particuiar base kva, and it may be desirable t o express it in terms of a different base kva. For example, the reactance of devices like transformers, generators, and motors is given in per cent on their own kva rating, and their reactances must be converted to the common base, chosen for the study by means of Eq. (1.5) or (1.36). Per-unit ohms on kva base 2 - base kva base kva 1

x

(per-unit ohms on kva base 1) (1.36)

Similarly, a machine rated a t one voltage may actually be used i n a circuit a t a different voltage. Its per-unit impedance must thus be changed to a new base voltage.
GENERATOR 1000 KVA I0;YKVA

MOTOR o(lOOO KVA)

13800 VOLTS PRIMARY RATING 13200 VOLTS SECONDARY RATING

2300 VOLTS

2400 VOLTS

TRANSFORMER RATIO= 1 200/2400=5.5 3 (A)HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM ( 8 )LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM BASE VOLTS BASE KVA EASE AMPS BASE OHMS RATIO (A1 (El 5.5
I .o

-

13 800

2500

I000
41.6

10 00

233

115 5

190

62 5 .

(5.5?

FIG. 1.38
onother.

Method of converting bore volts, kva, amperes, and ohms from one value to

n Reference to Eq. (1.35) shows that per-unit ohms is inversely proportional to the square of base volts. Thus: Per-unit ohms on new base volts - (old base volt.s)* (1.37) Per-unit ohms on old base volts (new base volts)* and Per-unit ohms on new base volts = per-unit ohms on old base volts (old base volts)2 (1.38) (new base volts)2 Equations (1.37) and (1.38) may be used for per cent ohms as well as perunit ohms. Converting Ohms to a Common Voltage Base. When using ohms instead of per cent or per-unit in the impedance diagram, it is important to convert the ohmic values to a common voltage base by Eq. (1.13). For example, if the short-circuit current is being calculated in a 480-volt system (supplied by transformers rated 480-volt secondary) fed through a cable and a transformer from a 2400-volt system, the ohms impedance of the cable in the 2400-volt circuit must be multiplied by 48O2/24OO2to convert it to ohms on a 480-volt base. The transformer ratings, i.e., 480, 240, etc., and not system ratings, if different from transformer rating, are used as the voltage base for short-circuit-current calculations. Representing the Utility Supply System. The utility system must be represented by a reactance in the impedance diagram. Sometimes this utility-system reactance is available in per cent on a certain base. If so, it is merely necessary to convert this value to the common base used in the impedance diagram. To do this, use Eq. (1.5). In some cases the utility engineers will give the short-circuit kva or current that the utility system will deliver a t the plant site. In otker cases, only the interrupting capacity of the incoming-line circuit breaker is known. In these cases to convert short-circuit kva, current, or incoming-line breaker interrupting rating to per cent reactance on the kva base used in the reactance diagram, proceed as follows: If given short-circuit kva, convert to per cent by using Eq. (1.6). I per-unit is desired, use also Eq. (1.4). f If given short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical), convert to per cent by Eq. (1.7) and to per-unit by Eqs. (1.7) and (1.4). If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line circuit breaker is known, convert to per cent by Eq. (1.8) and to per-unit by Eqs. (1.8) and (1.4).
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

DETERMINING THE EQUIVALENT SYSTEM IMPEDANCE O REACTANCE R

After completing the impedance diagram and inserting the values of reactance or impedance for each part of the diagram, it is necessary to reduce this network to one equivalent value. This can be done either by

58

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

longhand calculation or with the aid of a calculating board. Since so few engineers have access to calculating hoards and must use longhand methods, this method will be covered in sufficient detail to enable solving the short-circuit problems commonly encountered. Use of Calculating Boards. A d-c calculating board will permit accurate solution of all short-circuit problems where reactance only is considered. In most cases where resistance is a significant factor and must be considered, the d-c calculating board cannot be used readily. However, in some problems involving resistance, certain approximations can be made to obtain reasonably accurate answers on d-c calculating boards. For exact calculating-board solutions of problems factoring resistance and reactance, the a-c calculating board may he employed. A-c calculating boards have boxes to represent both the resistance and reactance of a circuit. The procedure for using calculating boards is beyond the scope of this book. Longhand Method of Combining Reactances. Longhand methods of combining reactances vary in some respects. To illustrate the principles involved, refer to Figs. 1.37 and 1.39. Arbitrary values of reactance have been assigned to the various branches. Combining the various branches of the diagram is merely a question of reducing two or more series reactances to one value and reducing two or more parallel reactances to one value until one single equivalent value is obtained. The following shows how to combine reactances and resistances. 1. Combining reactance and resistance to determine impedance,
z = m

wherej = 4 7 2. Adding series reactance of circuits where resistance is neglected add reactances arithmetically, i.e.,

z=r+jz

(1.39)

x,

+ x2 + xa = x.

= equivalent reactance z,, and x 3 = reactances of circuit components z2, zs= equivalent reactance

3. Combining parallel reactances,
zo = equivalent reactance

For two reactances only x, and z2
XI =
21
(d(z2) 22

+

(1.40)
1

For combining several parallel reactances 1 1 1 1 1
-=_
2 . 2,
2 2

+-+-+-+E XI 2,

(1.41)

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

59

INFINITE

c .
REACTANCE DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT SHOWN IN ONE LINE DIAGRAM TO THE LEFT.

ONE-LINE DIAGRAW

P~T&

T(

\$*,
EQUIVALENT Y

*T .P m

c.
STEP# I COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES PI~TI,RBT~,ETC.

CONVERT P I T I , PITIc , TO e EQUIVALENT Y. STEP x z

--&&Pa. Ct

I
3+c*

a"
+

L

c4

cs

DRAW NEW DIAGRAM STEP-* 3

COMBINE 2 C t , 3 + C+ AND THEN REPEAT STEPS 2 3 e 4 . UNTIL ONE EOUIVALENT REACTANCE IS OBTAINED. STEP t t 4

FIG. 1.39 Example of the method of combining remtmces of a network-type system into a single resultant value.

MI

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Some systems are such that they cannot he reduced by merely combining series and parallel rgactances. For example, take the one-line diagram of a circuit as show in upper left-hand corner of Fig. 1.39. The reactance diagram is shown the ypper righehand corner of Fig. 1.39. In addition to combining serieszind parallel reactances, it is necessary to TI, T convert a triangle of reactances such as PI, Pzr , and C1to an equivalent Y of reactances by the formulas of Fig. 1.40. By these conversions,

\

I

B=

ob

+ a c + be
b

a=-

0c
A+B+C

c=

a b + a c + bc

b:

A+B+C
A8 A+B+C

"

A = ob+oc+bc
a

C:

FIG. 1.40 Formula for converting a triangle or delta of three impedances to a Y of three equivalent impedances, and vice verso.

any commonly encountered system reactance diagram can be reduced to one equivalent reactance. Combining Impedances. Sometimes i t is desirable to consider the resistance and reactance of a circuit. This involves combining impedances. The procedure for combining impedances is outlined here. The combining of parallel impedances necessitates multiplication and division of impedances (complex quantities) and is outlined here. Adding Series Impedances. When two or more impedances are in series, the resistance and reactance components are added separately to combine the series into one equivalent value. Refer to Fig. 1.41. The three series impedances are
z1 = TI jzl za = 72 ijxa -

zz = Tp

+ + ja

SHORT-ClRCUIT+CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

61

3 SERIES IMPEDANCES

EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE

FIG. 1.41

Example illustrating the combining

of series impedances.

The equivalent impedance
2 %=

rl VZ 73 j(z1 Using the numerical values of Fig. 1.41,
= = = 21 =
2,
22

+ + +

+ zz+ 4

(1.42)

1+ j 2
2 +j3 0.5 + j l

(1

+ 2 + 0.5) + j ( 2 + 3 + 1) = 3.5 + j G

The above is applicable when impedances are expressed in ohms, perunit or per cent. Combining Parallel Impedances. Parallel impedances may be reduced to one equivalent impedance as follows (see Fig. 1.42):

TWO PARALLEL IMPEDANCES

EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE

FIG. 1.42

Example illustrating L e combining

of parallel impedances.

61

WORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

(1) Reduce the per cent values of resistance and reactance in each of the given parallel circuits to a per-unit basis by dividing per cent figures by 100 or convert the per cent values to ohms. Per cent values can be used in the following if the multiplier 100 is applied properly, e.g.,
T

X

(Branch 1) 0.05 (Branch 2) 0.008
2% =

0.15 0.108

(2) Calculate the impedance squared z2 of each circuit

r'

(Branch 1) rlz (Branch 2) r 2

+ = ZI', e.g., 0 .052+ 0.1547-0>25 + zz2= zz2, e.g., 0.008z+ 0.108* = 0.0117
21'

+

2 '

1

(3) Obtain the ratios of r/z' of each circuit Tl 0.05 (Branch 1) -' e.g., -= 2.0 , 21 0.025 rz (Branch 2) -, e.g., 0.0°8 - 0.683 z'2 0.0117
~

r / z z = Ga = 2.683

(5) Obtain the ratios of x/z* for each circuit 21 0.15 (Branch 1) -2 e.g., -= 6 21 0.025 XP 0.108 (Branch 2) e.g., -= 9.2 22 0.0117 (6) Add the foregoing
7 j

X/L'

=

Ba

=

15.2

(7) Ya2 = 02

+ Ba2,e.g., = 2.683' + 15.24 = 238.2
= =

(8) r a
(9) xa

= =

-9

Ga e.g., BJ e.g.,

Y ' 3
-2

;2
~

- 0.0112

15" __ = 0.0642 238.2 The foregoing may be tabulated for convenience in solving a number of parallel pairs of circuits: r z z4 = r' z2 r/z' 2/22 (Branch 1) 00 0 0 0 (Branch 2) 00 0 0 0 (Branch 3, etc.) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) By addition- Go( )Bo( )
Ya2

+

The combination of the circuits results in

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

63

Any number of parallel circuits may be accommodated by additional horizontal columns as fo branch 1 and branch 2, etc., their resultant (r/z2)’s and (x/z2)’s heling added to obtain G O and Bo. Multiplying and Dividing Impedances. Two impedmces may be multiplied as per the following equations:
(21)
21

1

(22)

=

23

=

TI +jXl

ZP = T S
23

= r8 jxa 2 3 = (TI jXl)(Tt = (TIT2 - 2 1 2 2 ) 13 = (nrz - XIXZ) j a = j(r1zz rczJ

+j x , + +

+ +

jZ2)
j(TIX2

+

1

+

TBZL)

(1.44)

Two impedances may be divided according to the following equations:

TI + =-x- j x ,

r2

+j x 2

TZ TZ

- jxt

- jxt
(1.45)

DETERMINING T E SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT MAGNITUDE H

After the reactance diagram has been reduced to a single value, the value of symmetrical short-circuit kva can be determined by Eq. (1.14), (1.15), or (1.16). To determine the symmetrical short-circuit current, use Eq. (1.17), ( l . l S ) , or (1.19). Equations (1.14) to (1.19) do not allow for any d-c component. Table 1.4 gives figures for converting kva to amperes. Apply Proper Multiplying Factor. The final step is to apply the proper multiplying factor from Table 1.2. To determine the total rms short-circuit current or kva, use Eq. (1.20).

64

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

TABLE 1.4
Three phore
line-to-line, volh

Amperes per Kva
Amperes rer phase per kvo
"0 wire

Amperes ier phase per kva

V d h

c or d-l

Amperes er kro or d-c kw

10 1 115 120 180 I99 208 220 230 240 440 460 480 550 575 600 1,100 1,150 1,200 2,200 2,300 2,400 3.300 3.450 3,600 3,800 4,000 4.160 6,600 6.900 7.200 11,000 11,500 12,000

5.25 5.02 4.81 3.21 2.90 2.78 2.63 2.51 2.41 1.31
I .25

13.200 13,800 14,400 22,000 23,000 24,000 33,000 34,500 36,000 44,000 46,000 48,000 66,000 69,000 72,000

0.0437 0.0419 0.0401 0.0263 0.0251 0.0241 0.0175 0.0167 0.0160 0.0131 0.0125 0.0120 0.00875 0.00838 0.00803 0.00525 0.00502 0.00481 0.00437 0.0041 9 0.00401 0.00375 0.00359 0.00344 0.00263 0.00251 0.00241 0.00175 0.00167 0.00160

24 48 110 115 120 125 220 230 240 250 275 300 440 460 480

41.7 20.8
9.10

8.70 8.33 8.00 4.55 4.35 4.17 4.00 3.64 3.33 2.27 2.17 2.08

1.20 1.05 1 .oo 0.962 0.525 0.502 0.481 0.263 0.251 0.241 0.175 0.167 0.160 0.152 0.144 0.138 0.0875 0.0838 0.0803 0.0525 0.0502 0.0481

I I0.000
1 I5.000

120,000 132,000 138,000 144,000 154,000 161,000 168,000 220,000 230,000 240,000

550 575 600
650 750 1,200 1,500 2,200 2,300 2,400 3,000

I .82
I .74 1.67

1.54 1.33 0.833 0.666 0.455 0.435 0.417 0.333

330,000 345,000 360,000

-

~

/
65

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS

The redurtion of impedance diagrams to a single value of impedance can he greatly simplified by using equivalent circuits for duplex reactors and three-winding transformers. Equivalent Circuit for Duplex Reactors. The duplex reactor consists of two sections of winding per phase on the same core, with a t a p brought out from the junction point. The current ratings and reactances of the two sections arc generally equal. Aside from the midtap connections, whirh necessitate a total of nine leads, the construction is similar to that of the series reactor. If 1, and l2 are the self-inductances ( X , and X , are the corresponding reactances) of the individual sections, and f c is the “coupling factor” of the mutual inductance betmeen sections, then the simplified equivalent

LEX REACTOR

O N E LINE DlAGRPlM I GENERATOR

k

J

-XI

fc

FIG. 1.43

One-line diagram and equivalent circuit for duplex reactor.

66

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUllNG PROCEDURES

circuit for the duplex reactor is as shown in Fig. 1.43. For preliminary calculations, an average figure off. = 0.5 should give results of sufficient accuracy. Equivalent Circuit of Three-winding Transformer. When making short-circuit calculations of power systems which include three-winding transformers, there is a question on how to use the designer's reactance values. Designers give reactance values between pairs of windings. Figure 1.44A shows a three-winding transformer, and Fig. 1.44B shows its equivalent circuit. The following equations are easily derived and are the proper ones to use in short-circuit studies:

x = x. + 2 . , e xs = + X2 c x,= + XAC

XBC

XIB

XAC

(1.46)

XBC

XdC

XdB

2

All reactance6 must be on same kva base. NOTE:The equivalent circuit and equations for a four-winding transformer are more complicated and will not he evident by simple analogy from Eq. (1.46).

,

A

(A1

mi

F G 1.44 (A1 I.
transformer.

One-line diagram and (61 equivalent circuit diagram of three-winding

EXAMPLES OF SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS'

The following examples are indicative of methods of applying the shortcircuit-current calculating procedures outlined in the foregoing. Systems 600 Volts and Below. The system shown in Fig. 1.45 involves one source of supply through a transformer from a primary system. The kva base for the short-circuit calculations is taken as the kva
*NOTE: Numbers in parentheses in Figs. 1.45 and 1.47 to 1.50 refer to numbers of formulas used.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUVITING PROCEDURES

67

INCOMING LINE
A

A

SOURCE

0.25 Yt
MOTORS

I

TRANSFORMER

750 KVA 5.5 x x (0.055%)
REACTANCE DIAGRAM USE 750 KVA BASE FOR CALCULATIONS

? T ? ?
(0)

480 VOLTS

M\$
SOURCE REACTANCE ON 750 KVA BASE
:

loo,ooo - 0.0075% 750

(1.61

0.0625 1

2

5

v

1x=--XI +x2-0.0625t025 XI% 0.0625XC125-0,05% T

5

%

750 - yj;xo,4&
I X

(d)

o,050 18,000 X 1.25"22.500 AMPERES ASYMMETRICAL (1.201

18,000 AMPERES SYMMETRICAL [ 1.18)

(el
F G 1.45 Illustration of procedure for calculation of short-circuit currents in radial loadI. center system.

68

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREHI CALCULATING PROCEDURES

rating of the transformer. The kva of the connected motors is assumed to be 750 with an equivalent reactance of 25 per cent. Only reactances are used in these calculations. This problem is the type on which Table 1.5 is based. Large 208Y/120-volt Systems. Problems, particularly those involving secondary-network systems in the downtown area of the large cities or in large buildings, require the determination of the short-circuit current on a 208Y/120-volt basis. In these systems it is particularly important that the reactance of all circuit elements, however small, be taken into account, as they have a much more significant effect in reducing the short-circuit current a t 208Y/120 volts than a t 480 or 600 volts.

FEEDERS BREAKERS

PLAN

CHANNEL B U \$ - 4 0 0 0 A

150'

n
I
y Z

w
NETWORK TRANSFORMER

1 3 2 0 0 - 2 1 6 ~ / I 2 5 VOLTS
KvA

II
rnY"l

nus o'
NETWORK PROTECTOR Z500 A

INCOMING LINE 5 O YVA SC

LELEVATION

.""...
CD"Yl

CIRCUIT BREAKER

4000

FIG. 1.46 Arrmgement of equipment for large 208Y/120-volt spot network system.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

69

The equipment for this example is arrauged as shoirn iir Fig. 1.46. The one-line diagram is shown in Fig. 1.47.4 which iurludes the hayir reartanre data on the circuit elemenk. The impedauce diagram is shown i n Fig. 1.47B. Figure 1.47C shows the condensed diagram to illustrate t,he relative distribution of reactance in the system. It will be noted t,hat the overhead bus R has 70 per cent as much impedance as the romhinatiotr of all the transformers an8,huses ahead of it,. Elimiiiatiug this item would cause a serious error in t h magnitude of short-circuit, curretit. The intermediate steps etween Figs. 1.47H and 1.47C can be worked out by followiug t h e f a oing text. The short circuit is located just ahead of the maiii 4000-amp circuit breaker as this determiires the available short-circuit, curreut, which this circuit breaker must interrupt. As pointed out previously, air circuit breakers are applied 011 the basis of availahle rurreiit, and therefore \\.heir calculat,ing the short,-rirruit duty oil them, t,he impedalire of t,he rirciiit breaker is not included. Large High-voltage Power System. T h e examplc shown in Fig. 1.48 i typical of what might, be eucouritered i n a steel mill. The kva base s chosen is 100,000 kva. Precise data are available 011 large motors and are used in the short,-circuit, st,udy. Since the large mot,ors roiistitute only part of the motor load, the remaining motor load is estimated. For short circuits on the 22-kv system t,he motor load is assumed to be equal to the capacity supplying each 22-kv bus, or 62,500 k r a aiid 20,000 kva. Should more precise data be available regarding ronnevted mot,or load, these data should be used for simulating motor ront,ribution for faults on the 22-kv system. In t,his example, the connected horsepower 011 the 6.0-kv bus mas known t,o be as shown in t,he diagram. To check the momentary dut,y at F , 011the KY-kv bus, the primary system should be represented by its equivalrut, subt,raiisieiit reartaure nf 12.2 per cent. For interrupting d u t y on the 6.9-kv bus, t,he primary syst,em should be represented by a reartanre equivalent t o the iirterruptirig duty on t,he 22-kv system, or 17.5 per cent. These large complicated syst,ems should he set up 011 a calculating board to enable accurate ausivers t,o he obtained easily.

J

SHORT CIRCUITS IN SINGLE-PHASE LIGHTING A N D WELDING POWER SYSTEMS (600 VOLTS A N D LESS)

A common p r a h c e is t o use single-phase trausformers roiiuected to three-phase primary systems t,o supply single-phase loiv-voltage power for welders and for lightirrg rircuits in some of the older syst,ems. When determining the short-circuit current a t the serondaries of these transformers, it, is necessary t o use the proper impedance t o represerrt the primary system. I n three-phase short-circuit calculations, the reactance

70

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.47

One-line diogram, reactance diagram,

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES

71

and short-circuit-current calculation procedure for spot network system show in Fig. 1.46.

72

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

c:

74

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

of a conductor is the reactance from the center of the condurtor to the theoretical neutral. Assume that for eaeh phase the rurrent leaves on the phase conductor and returus through the neutral. In a three-phase short circuit, the three currents balance; so there is no rurrent flowing in the neutral. With single-phase line-to-line short cirruits, the eurreut leaves on one phase conductor and returns ou the other. Therefore this rurrent sees the reactance of two condurtors as beiug in series. Heure, for siuglephase tramformers conuected line-to-hie on the primary, twire the primary system impedance must be used to represent it in a true relation to the rest of the circuit. The remaining calculatious are essentially the same as for three-phase circuits using the transformer and loiv-voltagecircuit reactances. Single-phase tramformers used for supplying 120/240-volt single-phase lighting circuits usually have the midtap available for ronnerting to threemire neutral and ground by the user and are usually relatively low iu kva. These small transformers have a relatively high resistatire-t~reactance ratio compared with three-phase trausformers of a higher seroridaryvoltage rating and of larger kva rating.

7
4 L t

100,000 KVA 3 PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT OUTY

BASE 500 KVA

PRIMARY SYSTEM REACTANCE ON 3-PHASE BASIS.

PRIMARY SYSTEM REACTANCE ON SINGLE PWSE BASIS = 0.005X 2 * 0.01V a

TOTAL X ~ 0 . 0 4 %

i

PRIMARY SYSTEM X

:0 0 % .1

TRANSFORMER X =O.O3Ym

1' %

o , 0 4 ~ ~ , , e o :%:26000 AMP SYMMETRICAL 0.0192 11.18 MODIFIED)

1.25 X 26000

= 32500

A M P ASYMMETRICIL K2Ol

FIG. 1.49
system.

Short-circuit-current calculating procedure for single-phase two-wire 480-volt

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

7 5 .

The most severe short-circuit condition in this case is a line-to-neutral short circuit because it involves a much higher primary-to-secondary turn ratio than does a line-to-line short circuit. Hence, this is the basis on which protective equipment should be selected. Since the reactance and resistance of the transformers are given on the basis of a full winding, it is necessary to convert to the proper values when only one-half the secondary winding is involved as is the case when a line-to-line neutral short circuit occurs. The reactance is increased by a factor of 1.2 and the resistance by a factor of 1.41. Therefore, the published reactances and resistances of these transformers are multiplied by those figures. Figure 1.49 shows a typical example where reactance only is used, as would be the case for a relatively large 480-volt transformer supplying a welder circuit. I n these calculations it is necessary to use twire the lineto-neutral reactance of the primary system. In the example of Fig. 1.50 use twice the line-to-neutral reactance of the primary. Use the proper

1

F+

100 000 KV4 3 PH4SE SH& ClRCUlT DUTY

120,240-V )IR X :3 % ON FULL WINDING 84SIs = 1.2 X ,. ,.

B4SE 5 0 KV4

PRIM4RY SYSTEM RE4CT4NCE ON 3 P H 4 K 84%

0.00198
PRlM4R"X

TR4NS X 0036% PRIM4RI SYSTEM RE4Cl4NGE ON 4 SINGLE PH45E B451S~00a)5X2iOO019~ H4LF WlNDlNG RE4CT4NCE OF TRMIYORMER42 XO0310036X TWW R 00172% 'I RESIST4NCE " .' ~144X0012~001720/1

i

:0

0005~~

II 61

1.25 X 10300

I2900 4MPS ASYMHETRICbL 11.201

F G 1 .SO I.

Short-circuit-current colculating procedure for single-phase three-wire 120/24Q.volt system.

76

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

reactance and resistance for line-to-neutral short circuit a t the secondary of the transformer. In both cases there is assumed to be no motor feedback.

TABLES AND CURVES FOR ESTIMATING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
To make short-circuit protective equipment application easier, particularly in circuits of 60 volts or less, many charts, tables, and curves have been prepared to eliminate the necessity for detailed calculations. Some of the more usef 1 ones are presented here.
UNIT SUBSTATIONS

:o.

%" ?' ] -

Standard low-voltage unit substations so widely used have standard transformer section impedance and voltage ratings. Hence, the secondary short-circuit currents available can be easily tabulated, as shown in Tables 1.5 and 1.6. The available short-circuit duty may be read directly from the table as a function of transformer kva, secondary voltage, and available primary short-circuit kva. Example of Use of Table 1.5. Assume a lonn-kva unit substation for 480-volt power service having an available SHORT CIRCUIT primary short-circuit capacity of 150,000 kva. " 2 x, See 480-volt application table. Follow FIG. 1.51 0 n e - k diagram the vertical column under the 1000-kva suhshowing location of short circuit station rating down to the 150,000-kvaavailfor determinotion of short-circuit able primary three-phase short-circuit kva currents shown in Table 1.5. line in thetable. The availableshort-circuit current a t the 480-volt bus is indicated as 30,400 amp.
REDUCTION OF SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT DUE TO FEEDER IMPEDANCE

The unit substation application Tables 1.5 and 1.6 make it easy to determine the short-circuit current a t the main unit substation bus. By the use of the simple estimating curves the short-circuit, current at the end of the secondary feeders can he easily determined too. Henre these tables and the curves shown in Figs. 1.52 and 1.53 make it easy quickly to estimate the short-circuit current a t any point in a secondary system 600 volts and less fed by standard load-center unit substations. The curves are for 60-cycle operation. Figure 1.52 is for cable cirruits and Fig. 1.53 for bus feeders. m The results are in terms of the three-phase average asymmetrical r value during the first cycle corresponding with the basis of rating for low-

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

77

voltage air circuit breakers. The effect of circuit resistance both in increasing the impedanre and speeding the decay of the d-c component 'has been included. The range of operat,ing conditions encompassed is as follows: System operating voltage (nominal) : ZOSY/lZO volts, three phase, four wire; or 208 volts, three phase, three wire 480 volts, three phase, three wire; or 480Y/27' volts, three phase, four wire 600 volts, three phase, three wire Short-circuit-current magnitudes: 10,000 t o 100,000 amp Feeder-circuit construction : Three-conductor cable, No. 4 Awg to 500 MCM Busway, plug-in bus of representative designs in current ratings from 225 to 800 amp. Interlared loiv-reactance feeder bus (LVD) rated 2,000 amp, t,hrec phase (four bars per phase).
3
y/

.
FIG. 1.52

CABLE FLLOER LENCTM- FEET

Chart for determining short-circuit current a t end of cable circuit consisting of three-conductor cable in conduit or interlocked-armor cable (60cycler).

2
SECONDARY RATING: 240 VOLTS, THREE PHASE
Substotion kra rclting

TABLE 1.5

Available Short- circuit C u r r e n t f r o m ' t o n d a r d T h r e e - p h a s e Unit S u b s t o t i o n s

SECONDARY RATING: 2 0 8 Y / l 2 0 VOLTS, THREE PHASE

Substation kva rating

Available Primary threephase

112.5
rmal current, en

1 1 I I I 1 1
750 1000 I500

150

225

300

500

short-

Normol current, amp

Fi.C"it kw

1804

313

417 270 722 361 542

1 1 1 1 1 1
2080 2780 4170 1203
~

625

834

1388

1
I
15.1 15,6 15.8 16.0 16.1 16.2 19.7 20.6 21.0 21.2 21.5 21.7

1

-

Total low-voltoge short-circuit Curlenh, thousands of amperes

.

~

-

10.0

11.9

12.2

' \$
2
5
2

50.000 100.000 150.000 250,000 500.000 42.3 46.8 48.5 50.0 51.3 52.5 48.7 61.3 74.5 80.0 85.5 90.0 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.8 11.2 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.8 53.3 60.4 63.3 65.9 67.9 70.2

Unlimited

10.3 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5

12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6

15.9 16.5 16.7 16.9 17.1 17.2

20.7 21.7 22.1 22.4 22.6 22.9

32.4 35.0 36.0 36.8 37.5 38.1

I
5.0 5.0

31.1 33.3 34.2 34.9 35.5 36.1

41.3 45.1 46.6 48.0 49.0 50. I

52.2 58.3 60.8 63.0 64.8 66.7

71.2 82.5 87.5 92.0 95.9 100.0

\$

~

-

NOTE:

or different voltoge bare, multiply short-circuit current values in table by NOTE: 3. For differed wltmge hose. I tipiy 9 208 240 the ratio values in toble by the ralio naw voltoge n o r *olt.*e NOTE: 2 Motor short-circuit current contribution is 2 5 times the transformer normal . . NOTE: 4 Motor short-circuit current-contribution is 5 0 t i m n lhe t m n r . . current for 50% connected motors. former norm01 current for 100% connected moton.

I

a
4.0 4.5 5.0 55 . 5.5 5.5

former

impedance,

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.0

5.0
5.5

5.5

5.5

%

80

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.53 Chart for determining short-circuit current (it end of feeder bur. designations refer to General Electric Company bus I60 cycles).

The type

Required Data. The basic data needed to enable the use of Figs. 1.52 and 1.53 are the following: 1. System operating voltage 2. Available short-circuit current at the source bus (average asymmetrical) 3. Length and construction of the feeder circuit 4. Connected motor load at the feeder terminal Procedure for Use of Figs. 1.52 and 1.53. The evaluation of feeder terminal short-circuit current involves only four simple steps (see Fig. 1.54): 1. Locate the magnitude of source-end short-circuit current on the proper left-hand operating voltage scale. 2. From this starting point move along to the right following along a curve or an interpolation between adjacent curves until the desired length of specific feeder construction (horizontal scales) is reached. 3. Project the latter point horizontally to the left and read the shortcircuit current contributed by the feeder on the same scale as used in 1.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

81

4. Add the feeder terminal connected motor-current contribution (five

times the sum total of the motor full-load current).
MODIFICATIONS FOR SPECIAL CONDITIONS

Parallel Circuit Feeders. A feeder circuit composed of two or more identical circuits in parallel can be readily treated by making a correction in the apparent length. The impedance presented by a feeder consisting of two circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a sing16 circuit of half the length; that of three circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a single circuit of one-third the length; etc. In the case of parallel circuit feeders, divide the true feeder length by the number of circuits in parallel and proceed on the basis of single-circuit data.
.

I

t

Y

H k--

I
.

1
i
I
,/CP)OICI

I

I
I_

l

850

l

I

FEEDER L m m "

I

FIG. 1.54

Example rhowing how to use the charts of Fig. 1.52 and 1.53.

25 137.5 Available primary
lhree-phose hoil-circull kro

I I 1
50
75 208 313 15.9 16.9 17.5 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.1

100

150

1 1 I 1
200

250

333

500

104

I 1 I 1 I 1
156 417 625

Normal eurrenl. ornperes a1 240 volts

833

1042

I
I

1388 12083

Tolo1 lox-vollage shw-circuil c ~ ~ r e nlhousandr of rms omperes for m e 120-volt winding l, short-circuited, lhe olhei opon-circuiled

- 25,000 50,000 100,000 6.5 9.6 12.6 6.7 10.0 13.3 6.8 10.2 13.6 6.8 10.2 13.7 6.9 10.3 13.8 6.9 10.3 13.9 6.9 10.4 - - 14.0 20.4 22.1
25.1

I
28.4 31.8 33.9 34.7

I
35.2

I
32.3

I
37.3

150.000
250,000

500,000
Unlimited Transformei full-winding impadançe: Per cent R . . Per cent 2..

23.5 23.7 24.0

48.9 40.8 36.9 43.5 60.2 44.2 39.7 47.4 68.1 45.5 41.0 49.0 71.1 35.3 46.6 41.7 50.1 73.9 1 3 5 . 8 1 4 7 . 5 1 4 2 . 3 1 5 1 . 2 176.0

__
1.2

... ....

1.4

1.4

1.2

1.21

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.5

3.5

1.21 3.5

1.21 3.5

5.0

5.5

1.0 5.5

- -

A short circuit invalving one of the secondrtry half windings (terminals Xi to X 2 ai terminals X, to X , ) , Fig. 1.51, allows eansiderahly more short-çireuit current to flow than a short circuit involving the full seeondary minding (terminals X i to X d . Consequently, the circuit-hreaker seleetions are based on the half-winding value of shortcircuit current. The eonditions on whieh the tables are hased are summsrizcd below: 1. A salid half-winding short cireuit at the tcrminals (scc Fig. 1.51). 2. Primary three-phase short-eircuit capacities vsrying from 25,000 kva to unlimited kva. For the worst case, the single-phasr short-cireuit capaeity is me-half the threephase primsry short-circuit capacity, and this value has bem used in thc celculations. This worst csse involves the assumption t h a t the primary of the transformer is connected line-to-line on the high-voltage system, not line-to-neutral. 3 The full-winding per cent impedance and per cent resistances m e given in . Table 1.6. 4. The half-winding reactance was taken as 1.2 times the full-winding reactance, while the half-winding resistance was taken as 1.44 times the full-winding resistance, on full kva base. 5. The d-e offset multiplier for the first half eycle was taken as 1.25. 6. It is sssumed that the 120/240-volt units will supply lighting loads only, i.e., no motor feedbaek. 7. The only source of power connected to the secondary bus is one transformer of the capaeity indicated.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

83

Feeders Consisting of Different Circuit Construction in Series. Make an independent evaluation of each common circuit construction starting at the source end. 1. Evaluate the short-circuit current a t the end of the first section of common feeder construction in the standard manner. 2. Using the answer derived from 1 as the source short-circuit-current value for section 2, proceed in the standard manner t o evaluate the shortcircuit current a t the end of the second section. 3. Using the answer derived from 2 as the source short-circuit-current value for the third section, proceed in the standard manner to evaluate the short-circuit current a t the end of the third section. Results obtained for sections beyond the first will be somewhat on the conservative side (higher than the true short-circuit-current value). This follows from the fact that the basic analysis assumes an X / R ratio of 12 a t the source end of the feeder. The true X / R ratio at the source terminals of any feeder section beyond the first will necessarily be less than 12 since no feeder construction exhibits an X / R ratio as high as 12. Interpolation for Intermediate Cable Conductor Sizes. Specific cable feeder length scales have been inscribed for conductor sizes of 500 MCM, 250 MCM, No. 2/0 Awg and No. 4 Awg. For intermediate valuesof cable size locate the horizontal scale points for the desired length of adjacent cable sizes which are charted, and interpolate between these values. For example, a No. 3/O-Awg conductor is about midway between a No. 2/0Awg and a 250-MCM. To evaluate the effect of a 100- f t run of No. 3/0Awg cable based on Fig. 1.52, locate the 100-ft point on the No. 2/0-scale and on the 250-MCM scale. A point midway between these two points will closely represent 100 ft of No. 3/O-Awg conductor. Three Single-conductor Cables in Conduit. Results obtained from the estimating curves without correction can be safely used to select protective interrupters. If desired, a closer approximation of the actual value can be obtained by increasing the apparent feeder length to account for the higher impedance of single-conductor feeder circuits.
Conductor Sirs 500 M C M . . 250 M C M . . No. 2 / 0 A r g . . No. 4 Awg

........ 130% of lhe acluol feeder Imglh ........ 120% of the o c h d feeder lenglh ..... 110% of lhe amal feeder lmglh ......... No correction

Use an Appored Lenglh of

Both the 60-cycle resistance and reactance of a three-single-conductor cable feeder in conduit are greater than those of a three-conductor cable feeder in conduit or steel armor in the ratios reflected in the accompanying table:

84

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Conductor sire

Residence,

7%
I

Reactance.

Yo

I
500MCM No. 2/0 A w g . . No.4Awg

..............

......... .............

I

i 25

106 102

I

15 -0 150

150

N OTE: Spaced open-wire circuits should be treated by conventional calculation procedures; a suitable one is given under Circuit AnalysisGeneral Case. Single-phase Circuits. Results obtained from the curves, Figs. 1.52 and 1.53, may be used with safety for the selection of protective interrupters. The true short-circuit-current value for a two-wire single-phase circuit operating at line-to-line voltage will be about 87 per cent of the t h r e e phase evaluation. Frequency. The curves, Figs. 1.52 and 1.53, are restricted t o 60-cycle operation. For operating frequencies other than 60 cycles, conventional calculations should be used, such as outlined under Circuit AnalysisGeneral Case. Note that feeder circuit resistance is not appreciably affected by frequency, while reactance varies directly with frequency.

UhIN SOURCE BUS 48O"OLTS ,.P"**E 6 0 C I C L E S SHORT CIRCUIT C W l R E N T i

4CCOOAYP

2 5 0 YCY 3IC INTERLOCKED ARMOR CABLES IN PARALLEL

FIG. 1.55 System diagram used as on example to illustrate the determination of short-circuit currenk a t the end of feeder circuits.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

85

Example of Application-Fig. 1.55.

Short-circuit current at bus A ?

Source short-cirruit current = 40,000 amp Equivalent single cable feeder length = 1595 = 75 ft From curve Fig. 1.52 (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale; 250-MCM feeder Irngt,h scale) : Contribut,ion via feeder cable = 23,000 amp Motor contribution, bus A = 5 X 310 = 1,550 24,550 amp 315 Motor contribution, bus R = 5 X 03 = Short-circuit current bus A = 24,8G5 amp
~ ~

Short-circuit current a t bus B? Source short-circuit current for section 2 = 24,550 amp (say 25,000) Feeder lengt,h = 75 f t From curve (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale) interpolate between the 7 5 f t point on ;To. 210 and KO. feeder length scales-Ko. 2 about one4 third of the way from Xo. 4 to No. 2/0. Contribution via feeder cable = 11,000 amp Motor ront,ribution, bus R = 5 X G = 3 315 Short-circuit current bus R = 11,315 amp
~

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS- GENERAL CASE

The circuit, problem involved in resolving short-circuit-current magnitudes in low-voltage feeder systems is outlined in Fig. 1.56. I n general, low-voltage short-circuit current,s are expressed in terms of three-phase average asymmetrical rms amperes during the first cycle of currcnt flwv. Since main low-voltage source systems exhibit a n X / R rat,io of about, 10, it, is standard convention t o multiply the symmet,rical short,-rirruit, current, by 1.25 t o obtain the short-circuit current a t the main buses (this corresponds with a n X / R ratio of 12) (see Table 1.2). Therefore, at the main bus 1.25 E Short-circuit current = 1.25 X I symm = - X -

v5 z*

z , = 1.25 -x &
z.=-x 4
1.25

E
short-circuit current
=

Considering the source system X / R ratio

12

E
short-circuit current

(A +

jl) = R.

+jX.

86

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

2 (obtained from reference tables) = R, j X , , 2, (impedance to end of feeder) = R, R, j ( X . X , / R , ratio a t end of feeder = x. XI - x, R. Izi Rt

+ + + + + _-

+XI)

M is the factor to account for d-c offset and is a direct function of the X , / R , ratio
XdRt ratio.. K

......... ...................

I 1 I I I 1
1;;s
I:*
s 1 :

! l

Ii6

2 1.02

I is the local motor contribution, and the three-phase average assym, metrical rms value may be taken as five times the motor full-load rated amperes. Available short-circuit current at X = I, (three-phase avg assymmetrical rms) I,

+

61
2 -SOURCE SVSTEY IMPEDANCE Rg+ j X s OHMS/PHASE

'1

I

MAIN LOW-VOLTaGE BUS

:'I

\J

4

FEE0ER:Zf:Rf

tjxf

OHMSIPHASE

IFROH TABLES)

VAIL4ELE SHORT ClRCUlT CURRENT DESIRED HERE IS'CURRENT CONTRIBUTION FROM SOURCE *"STEM ly*CURRENT CONTRlBUTlON FROM LCCAL YOTORS

FIG. 1.56 One-line diagram for rhortcircuit-current calculation ot the end of feeder circuits-genernl core.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

07

TABLES SHOWING EFFECl OF CABLE LENGTH

Another useful way of showing the effect of length of cable in reducing short-circuit currents is given in the Tables 1.7 to 1.10. These show how much cable length is required to reduce the short-circuit current from one protective-device rating level to another for circuits GOO volts and less. Standard protective-device rating levels are: 100,000 amp rms asymmetrical 75,000 amp rms asymmetrical 50,000 amp rms asymmetrical 25,000 amp rms asymmetrical 15,000 amp rms asymmetrical 5000 amp rms asymmetrical The tables show how long a cable with a given con<w%orsize is required to reduce the short-circuit current from 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 amp t o 5000, 15,000, 25,000, and 50,000 amp. The tables give the length L of cable a t various voltages which would change the available short-circuit current from I , to I , where I . is the available short circuit a t the source end of the cable and I , the shortcircuit current a t the end of the cable of length L. These calculations were based on the assumptions that the impedance hack of the beginning of the cable is primarily reactive and that the fault i s symmetrical for all three phases.
I
I

4

I

R CABLE

X

FIG. 1.57

Equivalent circuit for determining cable lengths given in Tables 1.6 l 1.9. o

From the equivalent circuit per phase shown in Fig. 1.57 and using the nomenclature of Fig. 1.57, a general expression for the length of cable t o limit the short-circuit current can be derived. The equation is

L

E=

~ Z 2 1 , 2 / I ,- R 2 - X 2 221,

Where I J I , is large or R is small, the equation reduces to

88

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

In these equations R is the resistance, X is the reactance, and Z is the impedance of the cable per unit length. For any voltage not given, the length a t the new voltage is t o the length a t a given voltage as the new voltage is to the given voltage, i.e., the length is directly proportional to the voltage

where L, = length a t voltage E, Lo = length a t voltage Eo The lengths L for all conductor sizes from No. 1 Awg to 250 MCM were put in the table for comparative purposes. There are certain minimum sizes of conductors and hence certain minimum lengths of cable necessary a t various values of I, to keep the cable from being damaged before the protective circuit breaker operates. Referring to Chap. 3, i t will be noted, for example, that a t 50,000 amp (I,, Tables 1.7 to 1.10) the minimum size cable which a 50,000-amp interrupting rating low-voltage air circuit breaker will protect is No. 4/0 Awg. Hence, the only values in the right-hand column of Tables 1.7 to 1.10 that have any practical significance are the two at the bottom of the column. The values above that are of academic interest only.
TABLE 1.7
Lirnitina Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 400 Volts.

Conductor size

Coble length 1, ft

26.9 42.6 67.5 106.5 165.0 254.0 384.5 468.0 564.0 664.0 775.0 890.0 962.0 7.3 11.4 17.9 28.0 42.6 63.7 91 .O 111.0 126.8 144.8 162.0 180.0 190.5

.. .. ... ... N e . 4 A w g ... No. 2 A w g . . . No. I Awg , , . No. 110 Awg . No. 2 ' A x g . 0 No. 3/0 Awg . No. 4/0 Awg . 250MCM.. . .
No. 14 A x g No. 12 Awg No. 10 A w g . . No. 8 Awg No. 6 Awg

69.0 109.4 170.3 263.0 402.0 488.0 592.0 706.0 827.0 960.0 038.0

::::

I

1 : ;

__
2.4

21.8 34.2 53.0 81.0 122.1 146.8 175.0 206.0 237.5 271.0 290.5

4.7 7.4 11.7 18.3 28.0 42.6 63.0 75.2 87.2 100.8 114.2 127.8 135.5

27.5 43.6 69.5
110.0

171.5 265.5 407.0 497.0 606.0 723.0 852.0 990.0 1072.0

9.1 14.4 22.8 36.0 56.1 86.3 131 .O 159.1 192.8 228.5 267.0 308.0 333.0

5.3 8.5 13.4 21.1 32.7 43.8 75.8 91 .4 110.7 128.8 149.1 171.2 184.1

-

-

-

3.8 5.9 9.3 14.2 21.4 31.8 38. I 44.0 50.9 55.4 64.7 69.0

I , = avail le short-circu: I f = short-circuit current

urrent in kiloamperes a t source end of cable kiloamperes ior short circuit a t end of cable of length L

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

89

TABLE 1.8

limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 480 Volts. Three Phase
Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmnetic Dud

I. I,
Conductor

25 / 1 25 / 5 5

50 5

i

l 50 5

~

50 2

5

100 5~ /

100 I5

sire
No. I 4 Awg. , No. 12 Awg.. , No.lOAwg No. 8 A x g . . , No. 6 Axg.. . No. 4 Axg.. No. 2 Axg.. , No. I A x g No. 1/0 Awg No. 210 Awg .. . No. 3/0 Awg . ... No. 4/0 Awg , .. 250 M C M . .
~

Cable length 1, fl

-

~

~

... 21.5 .. 34.1 ..... 54.1 ... 85.4 ... 132.5 .... 203.3 ... 308.0 ...... 374.0 .... 452.0 . 532.0 621.0 . 713.0 ..... 771 . O

5.8 9.2 14.3 22.4 34.1 51.0 73.0 89.0 101.5 115.8 29.6 144.1 52.5

21.9 34.6 55.2 87.6 136.5 210.5 321.5 391.0 474.0 566.0 663.0 768.0 832.0

7.0 11.0 17.4 27.4 42.4 64.8 97.8 117.5 140.1 164.8 190.0 216.8 232.8

3.8 6.0 9.3 14.6 22.4 34.1 50.4 60.2 69.8 80.6 91.4 102.2 108.6

22.0 34.9 55.7 88.1

485.0 579.0 682.0 793.0 860.0

7.3 11.5 18.3 28.8 44.8 69.0 105.0 127.4 154.2 183.1 214.0 246.5 266.8

4.3 6.8 10.7 16.9 26.2 39.9 60.7 73.2 88.7 03.0 19.3 37.0 47.7

1.9 3.0 4.7 7.4 11.4 17.2 25.5 30.5 35.2 40.7 44.4 51.8 55.2

-

I.

=

I1 =

availab short-c

- short rcuit current kiloampcrcs i S O I I I ~ Pcnd of uit current in kiloarnperPs for short circuit at m i l of c

-

-

TABLE 1.9

limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents a t 240 Volts, Three Phase
Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmgnetic Duct

100

100 50

25
Conduclor
*i*e

I

~

-

Cable length 1, ft

2.9 4.6 7.2 11.2 17.1 25.5 36.5 44.5 50.8 57.9 64.8 72.1 76.3

__
11.0 17.3 27.6 43.8 68.3 105.3 160.8 195.5 237.0 283.0 331.5 384.0 416.0

- 3.5
5.5 8.7 13.7 21.2 32.4 48.9 58.8 70. I 82.4 85.0 108.4 116.4

__
11.0 17.5 27.9 44. I 68.7 106.4 163.0 199.3 242.5 289.5 341 .o 396.5 430.0

3.7 5.8 9.2 14.4 22.4 34.5 52.5 63.7

~

__
I .o I .5
2.4 3.7 5.7 8.6 2.8

No. 1 4 A x g No.12Axg No. 1 0 A w g No. 8 Awg No.6 A x g No. 4 A x g No. 2 A w g . . No. 1 Awg No. 110 A x g No. 2/0 A w g . . No. 3/0 A x g No. 4/0 Axg.. 250MCM

-- --- - - available short-circuit currcnt in kiloampercs at source end of eahle I , = short-circuit current in kiloamperrs for short circuit a t end of cahlc of length L
I.
=

....__.. 10.8 ........ 17.1 ........ 27.0 ......... 42.7 ....__.._ 66.3 ......... 101.5 ....... 153.8 ........_ 187.0 ....... 226.0 ..... 266.0 .._....310.0 .. ... 356.0 ........_.385.0

1.9 3.0 4.7 7.3 11.2 17.1 25.2 30.1 34.9 40.3 45.7 51.1 54.3

77. I
91.6 107.0 123.3 !33.4

2.2 3.4 5.4 8.5 3.1 '0.0 0.4 6.6 4.4 I .5 9.7 8.5 3.9

5.3
7.6 0.4 2.2 5.9 7.6

PO

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

TABLE 1.10

Limiting Effect of Cable an Short-circuit Currents ot 208 Volts, Three Phase
Three Single-condudor Cables in a Magnetic Duct

25 5 Conductor sire
No. 14 Awg.. No. 12 Awg.. No. 10 Awg.. No. 8 Awg.. No. 6 Awg.. No. 4 Awg.. No. 2 Awg.. No. 1 Awg No. 110 Awg No. 2/0 Awg.. No. 310 Awg.. No. 4/0 Awg.. 250 MCM..

25 50

I I
lo:
9.5 15.1 24.2 38.2 59.6 92.2 141.4 172.5 210.0 L51.0 295.5 143.5 172.0

100 25

100 50

lG

Cable length 1, h

-9.3 14.8 23.4 37.0 57.4 88.0 133.4 162.1 196.0 230.5 269.0 308.5 334.0 2.5 3.9 6.2 9.7 14.8 22.1 31.6 38.6 44.0 50.2 56.2 62.4 66.0 9.5 15.0 23.9 38.0 59.2 91.3 139.4 169.3 205.3 245.0 287.0 132.5 160.0

30 . 4.8 7.5 11.9 18.4 28.1 42.4 50.9 60.7 71.5 82.4 94.0 100.8
I.6 2.6 4.1 6.3 9.7 14.8 2 .9 1 26.1 10.3 14.9 19.6 i4.3 1. I 7
3.1 5.0 7.9 12.5 19.5 29.9 45.5 55.3 67.0 79.4 92.7 106.8 115.5

1.9 2.9 4.6 7.3 11.3 17.3 26.3 31.7 38.4 44.7 51.8 59.5 64.0

0.8 1.3 2.0 3.2 4.9 7.5 11.0 13.2 15.3
17.7

..... ..... .... . ...... ...... ...... ...... ........ ...... .... .... .... .......

,

, , , ,

19.2 22.4 23.9

-

REACTANCE AND RESISTANCE DATA FOR MACHINES AND CIRCUITS

When making short-circuit calculations, the most accurate reactance data available should always be used. In particular, reactauce of specific generators, larger motors, and transformers should be obtained from the manufacturer. Many short-circuit studies must he made without such specific data available, as for a proposed plant or in many older plants where the time and work required to obtain such data from the manufacturers make it impractical to do so. Since a great many short-circuit calculations fall in this category, it is desirable to use approximate reactance data. Such approximate data as are commonly used are given in Tables 1.11 to 1.31. The most applicable reactances should be selected from these tables.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

91

APPROXIMATE MACHINE REACTANCESdO CYCLES

Large Induction Motors. The approximate short-circuit reactance of an induction motor (or induction generator) in per cent on its own kva base may be taken as

Per cent X : =

100 times normal stalled rotor current*

The reactance of such a machine will generally be approximately as given in Table 1.11 (in per cent on own kva base).
TABLE 1.1 1
Range

M-t

15-25

Common 20

TABLE 1.12

Approximate Reactances of 60-cycle Synchronous Machines
Per Cent Vdues on Moshino Kva Roting I
I

Salient-polo cpnerotors (without amortirre,url: 12 poles 0, leu.

.....................

14polnoimne Salient-pole ganomton~ (with amortiiseur): 12 pole* or In.. 14 poles or more.. Synchmnoui condenrers.
Synchronwi converterd 600 v d h dc.. 250 d t s dc..

..................... ..................... ...................
.................

15-35 25-45 10-25 10-35 18-35 17-22 28-38
10-20 15-25 25-45

25 35
18 14 27

....................... .......................

10 33 15 20 30 15-30 20-40 25-60

Synchronous motor^'

6 pole 8-14 pole I 6 pole or more.

.............................. ........................... .......................

23 30
40

a Nearly all salient-pole generators built by General Electric Company since 1935 have amortisseur windings. Add transformer reactance: For compound-wound converters add 12 per cent. For shunt-wound converters add 7 per cent. These data are useful for estimating reactances of individual large motors of several hundred or several thoumnd horsepower.

* With rated voltage and frequency applied.

92

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

TABLE 1.13

Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turbine Generators, 625 to 18,750 Kva

K w ..ling 0.8 power facer

w rating

Volt.g* rating

__
1200
rpm
~

3600
rpm

625

500

240 480 600 2,400 4,160 6,900 240 480 600 2,400 4.160 6,900 240-4.1 60 240 480 600 2,400 4,160 6.900 240 480
600

781

625

.... .... .... .... .... .... ....
14.0

14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.0

8.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.5 6.5 8.5 8.5 7.5 9.0 9.5 5.5

875 937

700 750

1,250

1,000

.... .... .... .... .... .... ....
15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5

11.5 7.5 7.0 7.5 7.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.0
10.0

2,400 4,160 6,900 1,562 1,250 240 480 600 2,400 4,160 6.900 240 480 600 2,400 41 60 . 6,900 13.800

1,857

1,500

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....
16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0

8.5 9.5 8.5 8.5 9.5 9.0 8.0 10.5 9.0 8.5 8.5 9.5 7.5

-

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

93

rABLE 1.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turhine Generators, 625 to 18,750 Kva. (Continued)
Kvn rating
:w ‘atin(

08 .

power facto,

Vdtoge ‘ding

X&‘

3600 rpm

2,500

2,000

480 600 2,400 4,160 6,900 l1.500-13.800 480 600 2,400 2.400/4.160 6.900 I 1,500 13,800 480 600 2,400 2,400/4,160 6.900 11,500 13,800 480 600 2,400 2,400/4,160 6,900 11,500 13,800 480 600 2.400 2,400/4.160 6,900 1 1,500 13,800

P5 . 10.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 9.0 8.5 9.5 8.5 9.0
10.0

3.125

2,500

10.5
9.0 10.5 9.5 10.0 95 . 10.5 10.5 8.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 1. 00 10.5 75 . 7.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 9.5 12.0 75 . 7.5 8.0 8.5 85 .

3750

3,000

4,375

3,500

5.000

4,000

6,250

5,000

600 2,400 2.400/4,160 6,900 I 1,500 13,800

94

SHORT.CIRCUIT~CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES

TABLE 1.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turbine Generators. 625 to 18.750 Kva. (Continued)

w rating

Kvo rotinp

0.8 power f.Ct0.

Voltage rating

X ;

3600 rpm

7,500

6,000

2,400 2,400/4,160 6.900 1 1,500 13.800 2,400 2.400/4,160 6,900 11.500 13,800 2,400/4,160 6,900 11.500 13.800 6,900 11,500 13.800

9.0 10.5 9.0 9.5 9.5 9.0 10.5 9.0 9.5 9.5 10.0 8.0 9.0 8.0 11.0' 11.0' 11.0'

9.375

7.500

12,500

10,000

i 8750

15,000

* 0.5 psig hydrogen pressure.

-

TABLE 1.14
I

Reactances Based on Kvo of Connected Motors
1
Tranrient

Itern

Motor rotings ond connections

reactance

I
600 "0th or lessinduction 600 volts or lewynchronous l i t e m 1 end 2 indude motor leads1 600 volh or l e u i n d u c t i o n 600 volts or les-ynchronour litems 3 and 4 indude motor leads and step-down bansformen1 Motors above 600 voltinduction Motors above 600 volt-ynchronwr Motors above 600 volh-indudon Motors o b w e 600 voltriynchromur litems 7 and 8 include stepdown transformers1

I
1

Xi.
per rent

per cent

28' 21 34' 27* 20 15 26 21
1

29 35

25 31

I

* Based on AIEE Standard No. 20.

-

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

95

Assumed Motor Reactances- Group of Small Motors. In many short-circuit studies, the number and size of motors, either induction or synchronous, are not known precisely. However, the short-circuit contribution from these motors must be estimated. In such cases Table 1.14 is used to account for a large number of small induction and synchronous

motors.
The proportions of synchronous and induction motors (at all voltages) should be known for short-circuit investigations. Some typical ratios of total plant motor load which are usable in preliminary work are given in Table 1.15. The kva of the motors which are energized at one time varies also with the type of plant and should be investigated for the more complete studies. Approximate relations of energized to installed motors and of energized motors to source (transformer and/or generator) capacity are given in Table 1.16.

TABLE 1.15

Rotio of Induction and Synchronous Motors
Motor mio, par cent
Plant Induction

Sydrnnom

Cement Machine shops ond IexHIe.. Rubber and rolling mills.. Paper (excluding grinder mobs). Commercial ond offiso..

.............................. .............

............... ........ ................

40 85 50 67 50

60 15 50 33 50

TABLE 1.16

Rotio of Energized and Instolled Motors
Energized motor kva to insbled motor k w , per cent Installed motor k w to source kva (excluding SPW"). por cent

P I . 3

Continuous PIOLOS (cement. textile). Semicontinuous (paper, reflnerier, rubberl.. Rolling mills.. Intermittent operotiom.

............. ....... ............................... .......................

100 90 80 75

110

110
1 67

215 400

96

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

APPROXIMATE IMPEDANCE O F TRANSFORMERS

The impedance of transformers ronsidered in a short-circuit study should be obtained from the name platc or the manufacturer. However, where such data cannot be obtained, the values given in Tables 1.17 to 1.19 may be used in short-rircuit studies for estimating the short-circuit currents in the usual case. I n the usual short-circuit study, the transformer reactance and impedance may be assumed t o be the same without causing significant error for transformer banks above 300 kva. This assumption is useful because transformer name-plate data include impedance and not reactance.
TABLE 1.17 Approximate Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance of Single-phase Distribution Transformers
High voltage; 7200/12,47OY v01b
ow voltage: 120/240. 240/480,600 volts-

High voltage: 2400/416OY volts and 2400/4800/8320Y "Olt. ow voltage; 120/240,240/480.600 volts60 yclos

60 cycles

Per cent R

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

X

z
2.3

R

Per. cent X

Per cent

z
~2.8

3 5 10 15 25 37> 50 75 100

1.7

I .5

2.2

1.7

1.5

1.7

2.3

I.6

I .6

2.3

I. 3

2.2

2.6

1.3

2.0

2.4

I .2
1.1

2.3 3.8 4.7

2.6 4.0 4.8

1.2

3.5 3.6 5.1

3.7 3.7 5.2

1 67
250 333 500

1.0
1 .o

I.o

APPROXIMATE REACTANCE A N D RESISTANCE O F CABLES

The reactance of a cable circuit is, generally speaking, a function of the spacing between conductor centers and the conductor diameter. Knowing the conductor spacing and diameter, the reactance of three-conductor

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

97

TABLE 1.18

Approximate Impedance of 60-cycle Power Transformers
IAbovs 500 Kva)
Impedance at kvo bole equal lo 55 C rating of largest Capacity winding for

Inwlotion doss, k r

Self-cooled or

Forced-oil
cooled rating, per Cenl

High voltage

Low voltage

woter-cooled rating, per cent

..... 15 or lower ........... 15 or lower 3 4 . 5 . . ......... I5 or lower 4 6 . 0 . . ......... I 5 or lower 6 9 . 0 . . . ........ I 5 o r lower 9 2 . 0 . . ......... I 5 or lower I 15.0. .......... I 5 or lower 138.0 ........... 15orlower
I 5 or lower. 25..

5% 5%
6 6%

7 7%
8 856

For high-voltagr insulation elassrs intermediatr of those given, use the imppdancr of thc next higher listpd insulation class. For transforrncrs with a load-ratio control add 0.5 prr ccnt to the vaIu?s IistFd abovc crcrpt in those eases in which a IOWPY impedaner has heen sprrifirtl. Thc p ~ c m t resistance on the hase given above rangrs from 1.0 down to 0.06. r
TABLE 1.19 Approximate Reactance o f Load-center-type Transformers, 60 Cycles
(Three-phase) 15-kv Maximum Primary Voltage 600-volt Maximum Secondarr Voltaoe Per cent Reactance on O w n K r o Bore* 3.0 5.0 5.5

-

Kro Range

Il256-l50 225-500 750-2000

* Per cent resistance on own kva base is apptoiirnatcly 1.5 p ~ ccnt for 150 kva r snd b&w and varips from approxirnatdy 1 down to 0.8 p ~ c m t on ratings above r 150 kva

cables in nonmagnetir ducts and without maglietic binders can be determined by the formula

X

=

0.023 log, D 2s

(

+ K)

X = reactance, ohms per 1000 ft at 60 ryrlrs; S = spacing of couductors (center t o center), in. D = diameter of ronductors, in.; K = a rocffirient dependent upon ratio of iriside diameter of a ronductor to outside diameter of condurtors. For standard strand construction K = 0.25

98

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

This formula does not take into account any increase of reactance due t o the spiraling of the strands. Such increase is usually negligible in three-conductor cables and in large single-conductor cables, but it may amount to 1 to 2 per cent in small single-conductor cables. The effect of irregular spacing of the conductors and of magnetic binder causes an increase of reactance of single-conductor cables, compared with otherwise equivalent three-conductor cables. Cable insulation thickness varies with different types of insulation for a cable of a given voltage class. The approximate reactances of cables taking into account these variables are shown in Tables 1.20 t o 1.22.
TABLE 1.20 Approximate Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance of 600-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft
Three-conductor cable including interlocked armor cablo, ohms per 100 fi

Three single-conductor cables per dud. ohms per 100 fi
Coble size R' X

R '

X

Z

No. 14 Awg. No. 12 Awg No. 10 Awg.
No. 8 Awg No. 6 Awg No. 4 Awg
O

.

0.3135 0.1972 0.1240 0.0779 0.0498 0.0318 0.0203 0.0163 0.0131 0.0106 0.00860 0.00700 0.00608 0.00520 0.00461 0.00419 0.00359 0.00280

0.00765 0.0071 0 0.00687 0.00638 0.00598 0.00551 0.00513 0.00500 0.00495 0.00490 0.00486 0,00482 0.00480 0.00474 0.00469 0.00462 0.00450 0.00438

0.3135 0.1972 0.1240
0.0782 0.0500 0.0322
0.0209 0.0171 0.0140

0.3135 0.1972 0.1240 0.0779 0.0493 0.0312 0.0197

0.00468 0.00456 0.00448 0.00427 0.00391 0.00362 0.00344 0.00342 0.00340 0.00336 0.00333 0.00327 0.00322 0.00316 0.0031 0 0.00304 0.00295 0.00284

0.3 1352 0.19720 0.12410 0.07460 0.04899 0.03140 0.02000 0.01606 0.01296 0.01 054 0.00866 0.00721 0.00632 0.00557

.. .. .. N . 2 Awg . .

No. I Awg.. No.l/OAwg. No.Z/OAwg. No. 3/0 Awg No.d/OAwg 25OMCM... 300 M C M . . 350 M C M . . 400MCM... 500MCM... 750 MCM..

0.0157
0.0125 0.0100 0.00800 0.00640 0.00547 0.00460 0.00400 0.00354 0.00292 0.00208

.
. . .

0.0117 0.00986 0.00850 0,00778 0.00704 0.00658 0.00625 0.00575 0.00520

0.00510
0.00469 0.00412 0.00346

* Based on 75 C.

--

--

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

99

TABLE 1.21

Approrimote Resistance. Reactance, and Impedance of 5000-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft
Three.conductor cable including interlocked armor cable, ohms per 100 ft

Three dngle.condudor cobler per duct, ohms per 100 ft Cable size
___.

R*

X

z
0.3135 0.1240 0.0781 0.0503 0.0325 0.0212 0.0173 0.0143 0.0119
0.0101 0.00877 0.00802

R'

X

z
0.3291 0.1241 0.07808 0.04944 0.03154 0.02017 0.01619 0.01304 0.01061 0.008785 0.007535 0.006527 0.005791 0.005299 0.004923 0.004439 0.003723

No. 14 Awg No. 10 Awwg. No. 8 Awg No. 6 A w g . . No.4Arg.. No. 2 A x g . . No. 1 Awg..

. ..

0.3135 0.1240 0.0779 0.0498 0.0318

0.00969 O.OO8M 0.00788 0.00748 0.00681 0.00623 0.00588 0.00567 0.00545 0.00535 0.00529 0.00525 0.00519 0.00514 0.00506 0.00495 0.00474

0.3135 0.1240 0.0779 0.0493 0.0312 0.0197

0.006664 0.005745 0.005308 0.004941 0.004619 0.004366 0.003964 0.003792 0.003677 0.00363 1 0.003585 0.003562 0.00351 8 0.003477 0.003436 0.003344 0.003088

0.0203
0.0163 0.0131 0.0106 0.00860 0.00700 0.00609 0.00520 0.00461 0.00419 0.00359 0.00280

No. 110 Awg
No. 2/0 Awg

. . .

0.0157 0.0125 0.0100
0.00800 0.00640 0.00547

No.3/0 A x @ . No.4/0 Awg. 250 MCM..

300 MCM..
350MCM... 400 MCM.. 500 MCM.. 750 MCM.

.
.

0.00735 0.00690 0.00657
0.00611 0.00551

0.00460

0.00400
0.00354 0.00292 0.00208

..

Based (1

7 5

c.

--

---

TABLE 1.22

Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts
Single-condudor a b l e ,

Fo&r for conesting

reactancn, dl rizor
of cable

No. l 4 t o No. 8 A x g

I
I

Focton for correcting redrlmces

No.610 No. 0 Awg

1

No.00to 250 MCM

1

30010 500 MCM

0.8

I

1.0

0.96

I

0.93

0.83

11

750 MCM

0.72

100

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

TABLE 1.22

Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts.

(Continued)

Three-conductor Cables Determine correct Z from corrected d ~ eof X and R. N o ~orreclion s required for interlocked i i armor.

Factors for correcting resistances Factor for correcting reoctancer. di sizes of coble

No. 14 to No. 00 Awg

No. 0000 Awg to 750 MCM

0.87

1.0

1
I
575
~

0.98

TABLE 1.23

Per Cent Reactance of Typical Three-phase Cable Circuits
Per Cent Reactance of 1000 Circuit Feet on o 1000-kva nose

System roltoge

1 ! 1
230 460 24.6
18

2,400

j

4,160

~

6.900

I

1
I

13,800

Cqble sire. No. 4 to 1 Awg

Three single-condudor cables in iron conduit.. 98.3 Three-conductor coble in iron conduit or interlocked armored I 71.8 cable Three-conductor cable in nonmag58.5 netic duct..

..............

15.74

1.075

0.358 0.222 0.194

~l
0.11

..................... ................
I

11.5 9.4

0.669
0.581

0.0276 0.024

14.7

0.0955

Cable size, No.

I f 0 to No. 410 Awg

I
92.5 23.2

I
14.85 0.955 0.318

Three single-conductor coblei in iron conduit. Three-conductor cable in iron conduit or interlocked armored cable. Three-conductor cable in nonmognetic duct..

...............

1 !
0.0943
0.0818

.................... 68 ................ 54.8

17.1 13.72

10.9 8.8

0.6 0.52

0.2 0.173

0.0237 0.0205

Cable Sire, 250 to 750 MCM
~

Three ringlo-conductor cables in
ironconduit. Three-conductor cable in iron conduit or interlocked armored coble Three-conductor cobie in nonmognetic duct..

..............

85

11.3

13.63

..................... ................

61.4

15.4 12.8
1 y

9.85 8.19

0.538

0.179 0.159

0.0796 0.07

0.02 0.0176

51

0.477

2.

__

SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

101

Where more precise data are not available, the values given in Tables 1.20 t o 1.23 may be used in short-circuit-current calculations without significant error.
APPROXIMATE REACTANCE

O F

BUS B A R S 6 0 CYCLES

Unlike cable circuits the resistance of bus-bar circuits is so low compared with the reactance that the resistances of bus bars may he neglected in all a-c short-circuit calculations without significant error. There haye been many papers written on the subject of bus-bar reactance calculations, and a complete bibliography is included in t,hc 1945 A I E E Transactions, Vol. 64, page 385, The Design of Bus-bar Indust,rial Distribution System: An Epitomization of Available Data, by T . .J. Higgins. For practical short-circuit calculations, the reactance of bus bars may be taken from Figs. 1.58 to 1.G2 or Tables 1.24 and 1.25.
TABLE 1.24 Reactance of Typical Three-phase Low-voltage Copper Busway Circuits
Per cent reoctonce of 1000 circuit feet on
D

1000-kva base

System voltage
Butuoy rating, amp

240

1 I
480 24.7 15.6 11.4 4.3 2.7 1.9

600

Plvg-in type:

Upto600 60110 1000 Lox-impedance type: Upto600 60110 1000 135010 1600 2000

............. ........... ............. ........... .......... .................

98.8 62.4 45.2 17.2 10.8 7.6

15.8 10.0 7.3 2.7 1.7 1.2

Although not gcnerally used in short-circuit calculations the resistance of typical copper busway circuits is giveu in Table 1.25.
TABLE 1.25 Resistance of Typical Copper Busway Circuits
Current Capacity of Bvsroy, Amp 250 400 600 800 1000
Resistance. Ohms p e l 1000 Ft 0.114 0.033 0.023 0.016 0.012 0.0096 0.0073

I350
1600 2000

0.0055

102

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.58

Chart showing reactance

V. I

spacing of rectangular bus bars

160 cycler).

FIG. 1.59

Chart showing reactance

VI.

spacing of rectangular bur bars

I 0 cycler). 6

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.60

Chart showing reactance

Y. I

spacing of rectangular bus bars

(60cycled.

104

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.62

Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of channel bus bars I60 cycler).

REACTANCE A N D RESISTANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES

To assist in obtaining the conductor spacings, two typical crossarm arrangements are shown in Fig. 1.63. The arrangements used in practice will vary from system t o system, but hecause of space limitations only these two are shown. For ordinary single-phase circuits, the equivalent spacing is the distance between conduct,ors. For ordinary t,hree-phase circuits, the equivalent spacing is exprcssed by the formula + A X t X C where A , B , and ( C are the distances, center t o center, of the conductors as follows:

~ - B - I -A- I

-

~

The resistance of overhead lines may not always he neglected without significant error. In general, long runs of overhead lines (several miles) at 2.4 t o 13.8 k v with small conductors 250 MCM or less have significant resistance compared to reactance; therefore resistance should be considered in short-circuit calculations for short circuits a t the ends of such long overhead lines. Resistance should he considered in all low-voltage (600 volts or less) overhead lines. Reactances and resistances may be taken from Table 1.26 for small

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

105

spacings (up t o 8 ft) and from Figs. 1.64 and 1.65 for spacings up t o 20 ft. Under usual application conditions, transmissiodine reactance varies over quite a narrow range. Table 1.27 includes the usual variations as well as “average ohms per mile” which are normally satisfactory for quick estimating work. Very large conductors, used to carry unusually large amounts of power for short distances, have abnormally low reactance so that this tahlr is not applicable.

L---

67“

4 - P I N CROSSARM AND SPOOL- TYPE SECONDARY RACK

6 - P I N CROSSA-M

FIG, 1.63

Spocing of pins on four- and six-pin crossarms for vie in calculating line reoctance on 2400/4160-Y or 48OO-volt circuits.

106

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.64 Chart showing poritive-phaie-sequence reactonce of transmission lines using hard-drown stranded copper conducton (60cycle).

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURfS

107

POSITIVE SEQUENCE 60 CYCLE

EQUIVALENTA SPACING OF CONDUCTORS IN FEET

FIG. 1.65 Chart ahowing poritive-pha**.requence ACSR conductors (60cycler).

reactance of trammission liner uting

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES

I9 0

TABLE 1.27 Approximate Equivalent Delta Spacing and Average Reactance r M i l e of Three-phase 60-cycle Transmission Lines
Normal tronrmiirion
Line in.ul.tion class, kv

Approximate equi*o1ent dell. spocing of

Reoctonce,
size

conductors. ft

ohms per mile lslrmded ~ o p p e i l

5

2.5

40. 4 1 0 Awg No. 6 Awg

~15

0.61 0.74 0.64 0.75 0.65 0.77 0.64 0.75 0.65 0.77

0.65

__

3.5
4

23 34.5 46

4.5

5.5

250 MCM No. 4 Awg 250 MCM No. 4 Awg 400 MCM No. 2 Awg 500 MCM No. 1 Awg

0.70

69 115 138 161 220 287

14 8 16 20 20 40 0.70-0.80 both copper and oluminum

411 UIUDI

sizes

0.75

TABLE 1.28

Reactance of Typical Three-phase Medium- and Low-voltage Distribution Circuits*
~

System Yoiloge.. ,

..., .

230

~

460

575

Equivalent delta spacing, ~ 6 ~ 1 2 ~ / 1 2 1 ~ 8 1 d / I 2 / 1 8 1 3 0 1 6 1 8 1
I".

. . .... .... . .....
Wire sire

301 3 6 1

42

Per cent reoctance of I000 c i r ~ u i feet on l

D

1000-kvo bore

N0.4loN0.1Awg 180208~22345.052.156.028.833.335.8 No. I i O A w g t a 2 5 0 M C M 155 i8520238.846.550.724.8 29.732.4 300 lo 750 MCM.. 134 1631180 33.6 40.8 45.0 21.5 26.1 28.8

__...

.....

I

2.19 0.7620.286 0.073 2.06 0.6880.258 0.067 1.87 0.625 0.235 0.061

110

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Volts (line-to-lid

Equivalent dslto spacing, Kv line- Equirdent delta rpmcing, in. to.li". ft

*

115

230 460 575 2,300 4,160 6,900 13.800 22,000 33,000

12 12 I8 I8 30 30 36 42 48 54

44 66
I10

112 I54 220

5.5 8.0 14.0 16.5 20.0 29.0

APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F LOW-VOLTAGE ClRCUll BREAKERS A N D DISCONNECTING SWITCHES

In some low-voltage circuit calculations, the reactance of such switching equipment may be significant. The reactance of circuit breakers varies greatly, depending upon the rating and design. For approximation, however, the reactance in ohms of a circuit breaker may be taken as

0.2 continuous rating of circuit breaker in amperes
The reactance of lever switches and disconnecting switches for low-volt,age circuits (600 volts and below) is of the order of magnitude ranging from 0.000050 to 0.000080ohm per pole at fiO rycles,for sizes ranging from 4000 to 400 amp, respectively, depending on the ampere rating, design, and phase spacing of the switches.
APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

These data are useful o~ily calculation of short-circuit currents ill for circuits rat,ed 600 volts and below. The reactance of current transformers depends 011 their current rating and design arid varies over a wide range. Therefore, a sirigle value of reactance applicable to a variety of current transformers cannot be given. Current Transformers with Primary Circuits of t h e Wound Type. Approximate data on renctarice a t 60 cycles for current transformers of

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Ill

type W, covering current ratings from 100 t o 800 amp based on tests at short-circuit currents, are given in Table 1.30. The values in Table 1.30 apply t o t,ransformers with a serondary burden of I volt-amp or less at 5 amp or a t normal i:urrent. For higher burdens, the impedance referred t o the primary side will be somewhat increased, but the increase is far less than that occurring a t normal currents, berause of the reduced mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings. The reactance values based on low burden are conservative fur calculations of maximum short-circuit current.
TABLE 1.30 Over-all Reactance of Type W Current Transformers, Referred to Primary Winding

Approximate Values at Short-circuit Cvrrenh with D-C Component, Rms Symmetrical Component Ronging from 15,000 to 55.000 Amp Current Rating of Primary Winding, Amp
Reactance (11

60 Cycles, Ohms
0.0035 0.0017

100

I50 200
250

300 400
500

0.0010 0.00066 0.00050

600 800

0.00032 0.00022 0.00019 0.00012

These values are also representative of t,he order of magnitude of the reactance for current transformers of the following types, rated a t 5000 volts: JW1, JW4, JW6, JW14, WC12, WFI, WF6, and WF12. Reactances for other designs of current transformers of the wound primary type may be estimated by applying the folloming approximate factors t o the values of Table 1.30.
Type of Current

Transformer

Foctor to Be Applied to Reactance Vduer in Table 1.30

KF85-7,500 volt
JSI-15,000 volt

1.8

0.4

Current Transformers Having a Bar-type Primary Conductor. For bar-type current transformers with currerit rat,ings from 1000 t o 4000 amp, such as t,ypes bS2-GO0 volts, WC15-5000 volts, KC60 7500 volts, the react,arice has an approximate order of magnit,ude of 0.000070 ohm a t currents within the range from 10,000 t o over 80,000 rms symmct,rical amperes, with or ait,hout d-c component,. T h e reactauce depends on the spacing bctweeu phases, since a COILsiderable amount of air flux links the primary bar conductor. The value given is t,hat for !&in. phase spacirig wit,h the t,ransformers side by side, reprcserit,ing an average value for the three phascs for t,hree-phase short circuits. Strictly speaking, the reactance in the three phascs will

I12

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

he unequal i n a side-by-side assembly of current transformers, but for short-circuit-current calculations an average value can ordinarily be used without serious error. To say that the reactance for bar-type transformers is equal to the air reactance of the primary conductor, considering its length, size, and shape, and the spacing between phases, is a fair approximation.

APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F A - C REACTORS AND FEEDER REGULATORS

The reactance is proportional t o the rating. The voltage drop through the reactor at rated current and frequency divided hy the line-to-neutral voltage of the circuit gives the per-unit reactance on the current rating of the reactor. (This will also he the per-nnit reactance on the kva rating of the circuit if the rated reactor current is the same as the rated current of the circuit.) The reactanre of a given step regulator is modified by the position of the tap changer and becomes a maximum a t maximum voltage boost. It is minimum at neutral position, while at maximum buck, the impedance is higher than at neutral.
TABLE 1.31
Short-circuit ImDedance of Feeder Reaulators of

I
No. of
Type

Per cent

,O(lCt(l"L* C ~ C .k

No. of
core,

phoier

Circ. "Oil,

Kva of
r.g"l.tol

Ion base of

rd

......... I n d w . . .........
Indue..

!-

Min

Avg

Max

~

_
2400
to

_ -~~
I?
I0

I or 3 Ior3

.. ..

0.65

0.85

10 .0

_____

4800

96
Amp
rO~Y1.101

_

_

Step Step. Step.

............

~ _ _ _ _
O.O+

........... ...........

1 3
3

1 I

2400
lo

3

13,800

Allrolings to160omp Over 160arnp

O.O+
0.15

.... .... ....

0.6 0.7
1.0

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

113

REFERENCES
1. A I E C Committee Rrport. Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, E k e . E’ng., Octobrr, 1912.pp. 509-511. 2. A I I * X Committee Ilrport. Simplifird Calmlation ai Fault Currmts. Trans. AlEE’. 1942, Vol. G I . pp. 113:3-11:35. 3. Revision Made to AIICI: Report, Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, Efec. Emf,.. February, 194d. p. 65. 4. Darling. A. G., 4-C Short Cirrriit Caleiilating Procdure for Lon--roltage Systems, ‘I‘mns. A I E E . l!)41, Vol. GO, pp. 1121-1136. 5. Srhurig, 0. It.. Fault Voltngr Drop and ImpPdanre a t Short-circuit Ciirrmts in Low Voltngr Circuits. Trans. A I E E , 1941, Vol. 60, pp. 479-486. 6. AIEE Committw Rrport. Simplifird Calculation of Fault Currents, Trans. A I E E , 1948, Vol, 67, p. 1433.

Chapter 2

by R, H. Kaufmann

Symmetrical Components as Applied

to Short-circuit-current Calculation on Three-phase Systems
The unhalanred circuit problems eucountered in short-circuit analysis can be resolved by using symmetrical-component analysis. This analysis technique is used extensively by power-system invest,igators and authors. Developed in this chapter are concepts and procedures for the application of symmetrical-romponent aualysis t,o the determination of short-circuit currents. While this procedure is built up from base fundamentals, it is aimed expressly a t the solutiori of electricalsystcm short-circuit problems. For other possihlc applications of symmetrical-component analysis such as the determination of unbalanced currents in certain circuits or machines, it is suggested that reference be made t o a more elaborate texthook* which explores the full field of application more completely.

THE USE

O F

COMPONENTS

The separation of an electrical vector quantity into components t o simplify computation procedure is familiar t o all. It has been common practire t o consider an alternating voltage or alternating current to he composed of two components a t right angles t,o each other. It should he evident that the process is not limited to two quantities, nor is it necessary t h a t the components be 90" apart.
*Edith Clark?. "Cirruit Analysis of A. C. POIVPI Systrrns." vol. 1, John W i k y & Sons, Inc., NPWYork, 1943.
I14

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

115

For example, take the expression

E = IZ

It is entirely valid t o express this as E
provided that
=

(I,

+ I,)Z = IIZ + I,%
I,

+I,

=

I

or as

E
provided that

=

(I1

+ +IJZ
1 2

=

I1Z

+ I2Z + IaZ

I,

+ I2 + I3 = I

Thus there is 110 mystery about the use of components. It is applicable so long as the equations are linear (as they will be in electrical-cirruit work). E = IZ I = EY I, = ZJ, etc.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

If the Z per phase as illustrated in Fig. 2.1 could he represented as a firm fixed value, the circuit analysis would be-simple. Since the conductors of the three phases are magnetiz I A -b cally coupled, the voltage drop in the A JWVL Nl phase depends not only on the current in the A phase but on the current in the other two phases as well. Consider the induction-motor impedance diagram of Fig. 2.2. Assume the FIG. 2.1 A simple i y m m e t r i c d rotor t o be turning a t normal speed in ryrtem, the direction produced by an impressed voltage of sequence ARC. What I Z drop will be produced in the -1phase because of a current I , alone? That is a tough one; although there are some relationships of which we are sure. Under the conditions of balanced currents of sequence ARC there will be balanred terminal voltages of sequence ABC. With normal rated voltage and light load the current will he of the order of one-fourth or one-third rated value. Under this condition all three phases appear t o have identical impedances of 1/0.25 or 1/0.333 or three or four per-unit (300 or 400 per cent). On the other hand, had the impressed voltage been applied with opposite sequence (.4CB), i t is evident that this would he equivalent t o

116

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

plugging. There mould he a balanced set of currents, but this time the application of rated voltage would cause currents of about six times rated value. In other words, the impedance appears to be the same in all three phases, but its value is now \$6 = 0.16 perunit, or 16 per cent. The effect of mutual winding coupling alone may make the effective impedance per phase as low as 16 per cent or as high as 300 or 400 per cent. There is one significant observation. So long as the three currents are equal and separated by the same angular displacement, the effect of currents I s and I , on the voltage drop in phase A will be identical with the effect of currents I , and I , on the 'IG, Inductionvoltage drop in phase B and also with the effect motor impedance dioof currents I , and I , on the voltage drop in phase grcm. C . Thus the effective impedance will appear to be identical i n all three phases; that is, the impedance voltage drop in the A phase will bear the same relationship to the current in the A phase as the impedance drop in phase B bears to the current in phase B and as the impedance drop in phase C hears to the current in phase C . Or expressing this symbolically,

kJ!
'.'

InZn _ = I,

B B _ I_ Z _ -

ICZC
I C

IS

Thus Z , = Z B = Z c . This also identities the fact that the impedance voltage drops I a Z A , I,Z,, and I c Z c are separated by the same angles as I,, I , , and I c . These are two very important facts which emphasize the value of symmetrical components.

POSSIBLE SYMMETRICAL COMBINATIONS

There are but three possible symmetrical combinations in a three-phase system in which the three phase quantities are equal and separated by the same angle. The displacement angle must be a multiple of 120" since the three phases of a three-phase system are separated by 120". This is shown in the following three cases using currents for illustration.

Case 1. I , is 120' behind I , and Ic is 120° behind I,. Case 2 . I , is 240" behind I d and I , is 240' behind I,. Case 3. I , is 360" behind I , and Ic is 360" behind I,.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

117

The vector relationships represented by these three cases of symmetrical displarement are shown in Fig. 2.3. Henceforth reference will he made to case 1 as the positive-sequence component denoted by a suhscript 1 characterized by three equal vectors 120' apart in the normal sequenre A R C ; to rase 2 as the negative-sequence component denoted by a subscript 2 charact,eriaed by three equal vectors 120" apart hut with a sequence A C B opposite normal; and to rase 3 as the zero-sequence component denoted by a subscript 0 chararterized by three equal vectors with zero angular separation (in phase with each other). Even a t the risk of unnecessary repetition, the two important properties of these three symmetrical components are repeated. The circulation of any one of the three symmktrical three-phase current patterns in a symmetrical three-phase circuit, even though the phase windings are mutually coupled, yields a balanced three-phase impedance voltage drop whose sequence pattern is identical with that of the current pattern. Likewise, the application of any one of t,he three symmetrical three-phase voltage patterns on the circuit will give rise to a balanced three-phase current whose sequence patterti is ideutical with that of the voltage. 1. Current flow of one sequence pattern produces voltage drops of the same sequence pattern only. 2. Applied voltage of one sequence pattern produces currents of the same sequence pat,tern only. 3. For each sequence pattern, the impedance can he regarded as a definite fixed quantity identical in all three phases. This then is the significance and identity of the symmetrical components (of which there are three types in t,hree-phase systems) and may be applied to voltages as well as currents.

Ic
CASE I lPOSlTlVE SEOUENCEl CASE 2 (NEGATIVE SEWENCE) CASE 3 (ZERO SEOUENCE)

FIG. 2.3 Symmetrical patterns of current.

118

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

THE OPERATOR

0

I n the application of symmetrical-component analysis there will be repeated need t o shift a particular vector by multiples of 120". Particularly in analytical studies it will be advisable merely to indicate the desired operation, leaving the actual resolution until the final solution is approached. Invariably it will be found that combinations of operations appear modifying a particular vector which can be directly reduced t o much simpler form, or often simply vanish. The small letter a is used to indicate an angular advance of 120' in the vector t o which it is appended. Its use parallels the use of j as a 90" advance operator, i.e., aIb would mean a vector of the same magnitude as labut advanced 120'; while azZbwould mean a vector of the same magiiitude as Ib but advanced 240'.
0-12

O+j1.732

-02

0.5tj0.866

/

/

f

,1.5tJO.866 ,
/
/

/71:a2

/

//'

I/

/

I

/ //

a3

FIG, 2 4 Functions of the 120' .

+\

0.5 -50.866 Ir-0.

\

1.5-~0.866 :I a

operator

0.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

119

The significance of commonly encountered combinations of a operators is indicated in Fig. 2.4. For instance (az-a)Iswould indicate a vector fl times as large as la and advanced 270' in angle. Comparing the operators j and a in more detail to explain Fig. 2.4, a vector 1 t o the right on the horizontal, Fig. 2.4, when multiplied hy .i would be 0 jl. That same vector multiplied by a becomes (in terms of j ) - 0.5 j0.866; multiplied by u2 it hecomes - 0.5 - j0.866. 1-a then becomes 1 - ( - 0.5 jO.866) = 1.5 - j0.866 or an advance of 270" and times as large.

+ +

4

+

RESOLUTION OF SEQUENCE C O M P O N E N T S

It develops that any possible patt,erri of three-phase currents or threephase voltages can be resolved exactly into rombinatioris of the three types of symmetrical components. Some properties of the three symmetrical-sequence components will he of interest in showing the nature of their independence and the manner in mhirh they may he separated. Referring to Fig. 2.5 it will he seen that, if the vertor sum of the three vectors of each component is made, the answer will be zero for the positive-sequence and negative-scquence systems and 3 for the zero-sequence system. If first the B-phase quantity is advanced 120' and the C phase advanced 240" and the vector sum then evaluated, the answers will he 3 for the positive-sequence system and zero for the negative- and zerosequence systems. But if first the B-phase quantity is advanced 240" and the C-phase quantity advanced 120", the vector s u m will then be zero for

FIG. 2.5

Properties of rymmetriccll-component quantitiei.

I20

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

the positive-sequence system, three for the negative-sequence system, and zero for the zero-sequence system. This suggests that the three sequence components have independent degrees of freedom. Suppose that the three actual line currents I,, I,, and I , are to he resolved into three balanced-sequence components of types positive, negative, and zero. If I,, I,, and l c are added vectorially, it may be expected that whatever positive-sequence and negative-sequence component were contained therein would add u p to zero, and the answer should he three times the value of the zero-sequence component.

IA
I.0

+ I B + I c 31.0 Pi + I s + I c
=
=

3

If the B-phase currerit is first advanced 120' and the C-phase current 2.40' and then added, it can be expected that whatever negative-sequence and zero-sequence component were coutained therein would add u p to zero, and the sum should thus he three times the positive-sequence component.

1,

+ a l , + a Z I c 3I., 11 + a l a + a21c I.,
= =

3

In similar fashion hy first advancing the B-phase current 240' and the C-phase rurrent 120' the sum should then he three times the negativesequeuce component in the A phase.

I,

+ a z I B+ a I c = 3I,,
11

1-2 =

+ a2Ia+ aIc
3

Sinre each of thc sequence systems is symmetrical, one can immediately identify the corresponding comporierits in the other phases. Refer to Fig. 2.3 to cherk the angular positiou of phase components. Zero sequence:

Id
Positive sequenre:

=

Ih0 =

1.0

=

I,

+ I, + I,
3

I,,

=

1,

+ a l e + a21c 2 =
=

IS,= all.,
I C 1= aI.,

a21A I S 3 aIA a21a 3

+ + alc + + Ic

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

121

Srgativc sequence:

I,,

=

I,

+ a2IB+ a l e
3

.\I1 three i.urrctits whii.11 romprise each of the three component systems now have been dekiiicd. The sum of all t,hree compotrcnt currents of each phase should equal the original actual phase current.
Phase
il

:

Phase 1 : 3
I B

=

+ la? f + I I I+ a l c + aIr -t I , + azIc + I , + I , + I c 3 3 3 = >SIA(aP a + 1) + I a ( l + 1 + 1) + I c ( a + a2 + 1) + !5(0 + 31, + 0) = I B
= Ib,
IbO

- a?IA -

Phase C:
Ic =

+ I,, + I d + a21e + IC a'IA + a l a + IC + I., + 1, + I c 3 3 3 4\$IA(a + az + , I ) + IB(a* + a + 1) + I c ( 1 + 1 + 1)
I,,
+

=

=
? >

>\$(O

+ 0 + 3Ic) = Ic

1 hus a means now has been devised of separat,ing the three actual line currents (or voltages) into t,hree systems of symmetrical components, and further it, has bee11shown that the sum of the three component quantities of earh phase does exactly equal the original true line current (or voltage). Several fuiidamental equatioiis and commonly used relationships are listed i n Tahle 2.1.
INDEPENDENCE

O SEQUENCE SYSTEMS F

The fact has been developed that, in symmetrical circuits, currents of one sequence produce voltages of the same sequence only and likewise

122

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

impressed voltages of one sequence produce currents of like sequence only. I n other words, there is no mutual coupling between scquence systems. Thus the voltage drops in impedances can be separately evaluated for earh sequence componerit of current and the resulting volt,agc drops added t o get the total voltage drop. Thus in Fig. 2.1 the t,otal impedance drop f across the impedance Z in the direction o current flow is Phase A :

(IZ).

=

IdZI

+ I,,Z, + I,OZ,

Similar expressions could he written for the other two phases, hut a simpler attack is possible from concepts already acquired. The positivesequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of positive sequence, the negative-sequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of ncgative sequence, and the zero-sequence drops will he of cqual magnitude and of zero sequence. Therefore, Phase B :

(IZ),
Phase C:

=

a21.,Z,

+ aIa2Zr+ I,,Zn + aZIa2Zz I,oZO +

(IZ), = a,I.,Z,

Here for the first time the advantage of the symmetrical-component approach can be appraised. For each symmetrical-compoiierit system, impedances can he regarded as having a definite fixed value identical in all three phases. The impedauce values in the three component systems may he widely different, howcver. That is, Z, may he altogether different from Z2 or Zo. Unt,il the actual currents were resolved into symmetrical componcnt,s, there seemed no alternate t o thc use of self atid mutual impedances in each phase. At this point note that under balanced-load (wnditioiis the current is entirely of positive sequence. Thus t,he usual solution of balanced operation is really a special case iiivolving only the positive-sequence system, i.e., positive-sequence voltages, poshive-sequence currents, and positive-sequence impedances. The application of these principles t o the solution of unbalanced-load problems now may he studied. It seems appropriate at this point to review some physical concepts of the three compi~neutsystems. All source machines generate only positive-sequence vokage. The winding pattern in the A phase will he repeated in the B phasc 120 electrical degrees later and i n the C phase 240 electrical degrees later. Thus identical voltages will be generated in each phase minding except that the B phase mill be 120' behind the A phase arid the C phase will he 120" behind the B phase.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

123

TABLE 2.1

Fundamental Equations

With line currents I A , I*, I c known, sequence currents are
1.0

=

In

+ Is + I c = I,, = I d
3

NOTE: Voltages E., Eb, and E. generated vithin halaneed-winding rotating machines are entirely positive sequence. Commonly Used Relationships:

Negative- and zero-sequence voltages result from the impedance drop produced by the flow of negative- a n d zero-sequence components of current. Generally, positive-sequence voltages will he greatest at the source machines and diminish as one moves toward the short circuit. On the other hand, negative- and zero-sequence voltages will he greatest a t the

124

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT5 FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

short-circuit point and diminish as one approaches the source machines, Positive-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated with) magnetic fields within rotating machines which rotate in the same direction as normal rotational dirertion. Negative-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated with) magnetic fields in rotating machines which rotate in a direction opposite to normal rotation. The latter thus produce machine torques tending to slow down a motor rotor, and the positive-sequence electrical quantities must produce a torque equal to the load torque plus that resulting from the negative-sequence current if normal running speed is to be maintained. Zero-sequence currents are in phase in all three conductors. For such currents to flow a t all it is evident that the electrical neutral must be connected to a fourth conductor or ground. Being in phase, the currents add up numerically at the neutral ronnection and become 31.0 in the neutral circuit, Zero-sequence currents produce a stationary pulsating magnetic field in the rotating machine stator winding which is predominantly of stator-leakage character, very little of which crosses the air gap to enter the rotor. Zero-sequence current will rarely be found in motors since the motor neutral is almost never grounded.
PER-UNIT SYSTEM'

While symmetrical-component analysis is valid regardless of the system o units used, it will be found desirable to adopt the per-unit system. f In the per-unit system, potentials are expressed as a fraction of an arbitrarily assigned line-to-neutral voltage (usually the normal operating voltage). Currents are expressed as a fraction of an arbitrarily assigned circuit current. This base current is usually selected to correspond with a convenient round-number kva such as 1000, 10,000, etc. Only two quantities can be arbitrarily assigned, i.e., base voltage and base kva or base voltage and base current. Unit values of all other quantities become fixed as soon as the first two are assigned. Unit base voltage and current are arbitrarily assigned a t some one part of the system. The values of unit voltage and current at other partsof the system become those which would result from the turn ratio of interconnecting transformers. The per-unit impedances define the fraction of base voltage which will be produced by the flow of unit base current. The value of the per-unit system is a t once apparent. The impedances of generators, motors, and transformers when expressed in per-unit on their own rating as a reference base assume almost a constant numerical
* S e e Chap. 1, p. 52.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

125

value throughout a wide range of physical size and voltage rating. For example, the impedance of a transformer mill be about 0.05 per-unit (6 per cent) on its own rat,ing as a base quite independent of size or voltage rating. If expressed in ohms, the numerical value of Z would vary widely wit,h 110 sigu of any common denominator. Also, in the per-unit system a particular per-unit value of current flowing into one side of a transformer comes out the other side as the same per-unit value. Refer to Chap. 1, page 54, for a complete list of equations relating ~er-unit values.
SYSTEM APPLICATION

The approarh to circuit problems consists of writing the relations existing between geuerated voltages and impedance drops in the usual conventional manner except that three sequelice systems may he involved. In t,he simple cirruit arrangement shoivu in Fig. 2.0 it cau he seen that oue can directly evaluate (in terms of the A phase) Positive sequence:

E. Val
Segative sequence:

=
=

r.,(zol zLl zr,) 8 - Z,I(ZC, . ZL,

+

+ + v., + +
ZTd

v.,
Zero sequence: Combined :
Ti"
= v1 . =

0 0

=

=
=

I.dZm ZL2 ZTJ Tio* -ra2(zGs zL2 zr2)
ZLO

vm0 -r,,(zoot z t o+ zTd =

+ + + + + I.o(Zo0 + + Zro) +
T - Za,(Zci ~

v . 0

+ ve/02 v.,o +
-

E,

Iai(Zoi

+ Z L I+ Z

+ Zr.2 + Z
-

T ~

I~O(200

+

ZLO

+ ZTO)

It will be useful to draw the individual sequence circuits such as indicated on Fig. 2.7. Xote that the circuit for the positive sequence is
ZG
"WY

ZL

Ec/

E T ..." +".,. . .....
.,.A

."..

1A-h

vb

I6 -w

V0

tc

*

vc

FIG. 2.6

Typical symmetrical three-phase circuit.

126

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

N

I

262

z L2

zT2

102-

Vaz

I-

SEQUENCE1

E a = 101 ( Z G I + Z ~ I + Z T ~ I ~ V O I

0 = 102 ( Z G Z t Z L 2 1 Z T Z 1 t
V = v o l t v02+v00 A

VO2

0 - 100 (ZGO+ Z L O t Z T O I t YO0

=
FIG. 2.7

E o - I o l ( Z G l t Z L l tZT11-102

(ZGZ+ZLZ+ZTZI

-1w

~~tz,~+z,l

Equivalenl sequence circuits of Fig. 2.6 (in terms of the A phase)

identically that which mould be used alone for balanced-load prohlems. In the treatment of unbalanced loads, two additional circuits are involved (negative and zero sequence) which appear about the same evcept that there are no generated voltages therein and the respective sequence impedances are used.
TYPE OF APPROACH

Through experience in the application of symmet,rical-component analysis, partirular types of approach, appropriate selection of reference phase, and useful equivalent circuits have been discovered vhich lead to a solution in the simplest manner. Generalized solutions of problems presented in short-circuit studies of three-phase systems (circuit-breaker selection or relay appliration) include the following forms of short circuits: 1. Three-phase 2. Line-to-line 3. Line-to-ground 4. Double line-to-ground
THREE-PHASE SHORT CIRCUITS

The three-phase short-circuit condition represents a balanced threephase short circuit on the system. Only positive-sequenre quantities are involved; hence only the positive-sequence impedance system will be needed. The solution thus simplifies to an analysis of a single-rircuit

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

127

network involving only positive-sequence impedances and is done in the familiar conventional mariner as follows, using Figs. 2.8 and 2.9: Balanced operation [ ( l ) (2) (3) tied together] For balanced load Z, per phase, make Z, = Z, For thrce-phase short circuit, make Zx = 0 Reference phase: L4

I , = I., =

z, z x +

E.

I, Ic

=
=

a21A all

The solution becomes simply

I,

=

I,, =

~

E.

total Z I

I s = a21A I , = aIn

FIG. 2.8

Actual three-phore circuit pattern.

_ _ ____-_-~
POSITIVE SEQUENCE N +
_c

1

I

Ib=lol

EO

v ,;
1.3

zx - -v/JI.- - -2

I I

2, +ZX

IS= 0216
IC =

o h

FIG. 2.9

Equivalent circuit for three-phore short-circuit analysis.

LINE-TO-LINE SHORT CIRCUITS

The generalized solution works out in the simplest manner by considering the short circuit t o exist between the B and C phases, using phase A as the reference, as illustrated in Fig. 2.10.

I28

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

The boundary coiiditioris a t the short-circuit point are

E2F
I, I,
=0
= =

-Ic

v,

vc

LINE-TO- LINE SHORT CIRCUIT (SOLID1

vc

II' - 0
Ig

=-Ic

vg

=vc

SHORT CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT SEOUENCE CIRCUITS IN TERMS OF THE A PHASE

(b)

LINE-TO-LINE SHORT CIRCUIT (SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE ZF)

E E c 5
v b< '

:.

VB

vc

PER PHASE

SHORT CIRCUIT EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE CIRCUITS (A PHASE REFERENCE )

FIG. 2.10

Circuits involved in line-to-line short-circuit bnolyrir,

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

129

So zer(i-sequenre rurrent is involved since

Ian =

I*

+ I, + 5 - o + 3

I* - I , 3

=o

The positive- and negative-sequence currents in the A phase will he diametrirally opposite sinre

+ aIll + a l l , - 0 + a I s - a l l , - (a-aa)IB -~ 3 3 3 I,, + d l , + a I c - 0 + a l l a - _ I= _ (az-a)Is a s _ - - _ _ I,? =
Id = I,
3 3

3

(a-a’) I , 3

I.,

=

-Id

The solution now hinges 011 the equality of voltage on the B- and (‘-phase ronductors at the short rircuit.

V B = a2E. - a21.1Z1 - aI.*ZZ V , = aE,, - aI.lZ1 - azI.zZz
To make V”
= ITc

a2E, - a21.,Z1 - aIo2Zz = aE. - aI,,Z,
Substituting - I., for I a 2 and collecting terms

- a21.,Z,

(a2-a)E. = (a2-a)I,,,ZI - ( a Z - a ) ( - I . , ) Z 2 E = 11 1 IdZ9 . .z = IG1(Z, ZJ

+ +

la, =

al., = - aIa1 la,

~

I,

=

+ l a z = (a‘-a) z , E. z* 6 +
=

z , + z,
~

aE.

mz- I c -

B.

The portion of the solution which contains the circuit parameters E./(Z, Z , ) suggests an equivalent circuit in whichthe positive-sequence system Z (containing the driving voltage E . and impedance Z , ) is in series with the negative-sequence impedance system Z,. Also i t is noted that in the reference phase A the negative-sequence current is the negative of the positive-sequenre rurrent. This leads t o an equivalent circuit connertion shown in Fig. 2.11. The magnitude of total rurrent in the B- or C-phase conductor is times as much as either of the components. I n most applications, only

+

6

130

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSlEMS

the magiiit,ude is of interest,, in which case 110 attentioil need bc given the relative phase angle between this current and the refereure voltage. The same generalized siilution ran bc applied to a rase in vhich the short circuit contains impedanre. Suppose the linc-to-line impedance t o be Z F . This can be simulated by i.onsidering the systcm to he extended through an additional symmetriral branch containing an impedance ZF/" per phase. 4 solid line-to-line fault at, the end of this branch produres the efleot nf an impedance Z P ronnerted line-to-line on the basic system. The solution is as follows, using Figs. 2.8 and 2.11: Line-to-line connect,ion (line B to line C ) ( 2 ) connected to (3); (I) open For a line-to-line impcdance Z F , make ZX = Z F / ~ For a line-to-line short rircuit, make ZX = 0 Reference phase: A (Bourrdary conditions: I , = 0, I , = - I c , V ( , ) = V ( , ) ]

.

.

- -j

+ z,+ z,
E,

EG

Resolving further, the solution hecomes simply Is
=

z, + ( Z F / 2 ) + z*+ ( Z P / 2 ) = En = 4 . z1+ z, + z 1F P ,
~

v3

- I,

POSITIVE SEQUENCE

I

I
I
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE

Iai

I I I
I

22

Val
va 2

zF/2

-"W&

N

* - +v'AVP

zF/2

1a2FIG. 2.1 1
Equivalent circuit for line-to-line short-circuit analysis.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

131

LINE-TO-GROUND SHORT CIRCUITS

Refer to Fig. 2.12 for circuit conditions. SOTE: Circuit is symmctrical except for short-rircuit connect,ions. The simplest solution is arrived at by sclecting as the reference phase t,hat phase on which the short circuit, exist,s. IMPOHTANT SOTF:: Zero-sequence current flows through the neutral impedance Z,, but in Z , the magnitude is 31a0. Thus thc voltage drop will be three timcs as much as would be produred by Z , inserted in each phase. Since Z,is defined as the impedance per phase, the corrert value , of Zo t o represent the neutral impedance Z mill be 3 2 , . This mill he true of all circuit impedances appearing in the neutral conductor. Thrir equivalent Zomill be three times the value of Z . ,

Zn

{: : +%
ID+

L-0 SHORT CIRCUIT ON PHASE A

vc

-

IB+

IC+

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS vp. = o Ig = o

Ic = o

..
3Zn
EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE CIRCUITS I N TERMS OF T H E A PHASE

FIG. 2.1 2

Circuits involved in line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.

The three sequence circuits are defined in Fig. 2.12. The boundary conditions whirh must be satisficd at, the short circuit, are
Solution.

v, = 0
I, I,
=
=

0 0

The relat,ionships which prevail in the symmetrical part of the system are E = I J i V-1 . 0 = I O Z Z l v2 . 0 = I.oZ0 v 0 .

+

+ +

132

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

Equating these to satisfy boundary conditions,

V , = V-1 I, = IS, I C = I,,
Subtracting

+ V,, + Van E, - l o i Z i - Io2Zs - I,oZo + I,, + Ian a21.1 + al,, + I.u 0 + Ic2 + I,n al., + a21a2+ 1.0 0
=
=

=0

=

=

=

IC from l e gives
l a- I , = (az-a)lal

+ (a-a2)ia2 0 = 0 +
(a2-a)I,z
1-2

(a2-a)I., I.,

=

=

Substituting t,his result into I , gives

IB= a21a1 al,, 4 I.u = 0 = a21,1 aI,l I,, - I . , I,, = 0 (a' a 1)1., - 1-1 I,o = 0 I,, = I d

+ + + +
I . ,
=

+

+

+

Thus: i d
=

I,,

This fact might have been evident by the geometry of line currents at the short circuit. The sum of the three component currents in the B and i n the C phase must be zero. Only if the individual component currents are equal and 120' apart in both the B and C phases could this be possible. But this would mean that in the A phase the component currents would be equal and in phase. = I,, and IaO I., into the V Aequation gives = Substituting

v, = E.

-

I,,,Z,

- I*,Z%- I.,ZO

Ea = I , I ( Z I
I -

+ Z , + Zu)
E.

= 0

- z , + z*+ z,

This suggests that the solution can he made in terms of an equivalent circuit in whirh the generated voltage E. is impressed on the three impedanre networks Z,, Z 2 , and Z o in series. It is more accurate to think of this to he in the form

Ea = I,IZI

+ I d 2 + 1,oZo

This still suggests the series ronnection of the three networks hut recognizes that the current in Z , is Ia1, Z 2 is lo2, in Zois Io0. Since in and 1-1= i 0 2 = Ia0 there is no conflict with Kirchhoff's law at the junction between the individual sequence networks. The important result is the equivalent-circuit concept by which the sequence networks ran he interconnected to yield an answer for the value of I., = I,, = 1,". The equivalent-circuit concept is helpful even when

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

133

the solution is to be obtained by numerical computation, hut it is of partirular importance if use is to he made of a d-e or an a-e network analyzer (calcuiating hoard). ., Knowing the value of I, the value of current in the fault (I,,) is

10 = I A = 1 . 1

+ 2 + I,, . 1

=

31.1

whirh is t,hree times the current found directly from t,he equivalent circuit. Where t,here is impedance in the short circuit or in the neutral path, the procedure outliiied above is modified as shown in Fig. 2.13. z
..

I

: -

I

L-G CONNECTION THROUGH IMPEDANCE ZF M 4 G h E TnE SYSTEM S EXTEhDED THRObGh Q BALAhCED C.RCJlT OF ZF PER PhASE LZFI’ZF~=ZFO=ZFI

A SOLID SHORT CIRCUIT TO GRD

NOTE: SINCE I B = I c = O ,THE INCLUSION OF ZF IN THESE PHASES PRODUCES NO ERROR,
THbT I + :

BEYOND THIS IMPEDANCE RESULTS IN ZFCONNECTED LINE-TO-GROUND. LUSETHESAME PROCEDURE

FIG. 2.1 3

External impedance in the line-to-ground connection.

ZERO
SEQUENCE

N

_---__-__zo
VVAv
“20

1

I

.,,* + * .,

ZF

-1

I I

Iao
FIG. 2.14

- t -

Equivalent circuit for line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.

134

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

Summarizing, the solution becomes (see Figs. 2.14 and 2.8) Line-to-neutral connection (line A to ground) (1) zonnected to ground; (2) open; (3) open For a line-to-ground impedance Z,, make Zx = Z , For a line-to-ground short-circuit, make Z , = 0 Referenee phase: A [Boundary conditions: I , = 0, ZC = 0, V ( , ) = 0 1

I.,
I A

=
=

+ z* zo + 32" + 3 2 , + 3E. I d f Id + Id z, Z? + zo + 3z,2 32, + +
I.,
=

I,o

=

E.

ZI

=

Other Cases. The equivalent circuits by which other common circuit conditions can be evaluated are worked out in a similar manner as, for example, a double line-to-ground fault would he solved as follows using Figs. 2.8 and 2.15:

Double line-to-ground solid fault (line B t o C to ground) (2) and (3) connected to ground; ( 1 ) open; Zx = 0 Reference phase: A [Boundary conditions: I , = 0, V(,) = V(,) = 0 1

v,,

=

v,,

=

Vao

=

E,

-

I,,Z,= I,,

z, Z" +
~

ZZO

Rotating-machine Characteristics. Positive-sequence currents are associated with mmf patt,erns which rotat,e at synchrouous speed in the normal rotational dirertion. The effective pi)sitive-sr(ioetice reactance is consequently influenced by time. For the first cyrle of short-circuit current, the subtransient rcact,ance of synchronous machines and the standstill reactance of induction machines apply. Within a few cycles the subt,ransient effects have decreased t o negligible proportions and the transient reactance of synrhronons marhines is i t i control while the effective impedance of induction marhines has inrreased to a value close to t,he normal running impedanre ( i t 1 the order of 100 per cent, 011 its o\vn base). During t,he next, serond or t,wo, t,wo artions are taking place in the synchronous machine. Induced field currents are decaying, and t,he

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

-

I35

POSITIVE SEOUENCE

I
I

'

FI

I

\$+EO

& z

v l:

Iai+

- - -1
I

I
ZERO SEOVENCE
+--A

VOO

I

100FIG. 2.1 5
Equivalent circuit for double line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.

effective machirie reactance is approaching the synohrooous reactance. The effective voltage ahead of synchronous reactance is approaching the value established by the steady-state field current and may he influenced by the operat,ion of a n automatic voltage regulator. Rarely nil1 it be neressary to evaluate short-circuit-current magnitudes for prolonged time intervals, but it will he well t o recognize that special treatment will be needed t o obtain correct results in such cases. Negative- and zero-sequence impedances of rotating machines car1 he considered as remaining constant regardless of the duration of shortcircuit-current flow.
TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS

The zero-sequence circuit produced by various transformer connections is often a source of trouble; so a considerable number of typical comhinations are defined in Fig. 2.16. The positive- and negative-sequence impedauces are equal as are those of all stationary winding circuits. There is one tricky aspect associated with Y-delta or delta-Y transformers. There is an inevitahle phase displacement hetween the highand low-tension line circuits. Standard convention has agreed that the terminals designated H , and X I shall be those which are only 30" apart. Present st,andards also st,ate that when operated with electrical sequence A B C ou t,erminals HI, H,, H 3 the high-tension system will lead the lowtension system by 30'. This displacement is the result of winding geometry and is not of the

136

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS
CONNECTION ZERO SEQUENCE CIRCUIl

(

ZT 4 -

x

x

F

3

2 131 ( - P H

Y
SPECIAL CASE- 3 - P H CORE TVPE

---(
WYE-WYE WITH DELTA T E R T I b R I

- : 7
N

131 I-pn
P N

* CLOSED IF THE CORRESPONDLNG TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL
I S GROUNDED. LT IS THE NORMAL TRANSFORMER AS POSITIVE SEQUENCE 2 1

Z (SAME

FIG. 2.16
connections.

Zero-sequence circuits clrrocioted with common three-phase transformer

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

137

nature of an impedanre voltage displacement angle. Thus if the standard transformer is operated with reversed sequence, i.e., electrical sequence .,IN' assuriated with terminals H,, H , , HI, the high-tension system will lag t,he low-tension system by 30". l3y reason of these fa&, in a Y-delta or delta-Y transformer with standard ronnertions operating with normal sequence, the positivesequenre rurrerit and voltage iii the high-tension circuit will be advanced 30" with respect to that i n the low-tension circuit, while the negativesequenre mrrent i n the high-tension -cirruit will be retarded 30", as is defined in Table 2.2. Tronsformer Zero-sequence Circuits. The zero-sequence circuit produced by various transformer couiiectious is ofben a source of trouhle; so a considerable number of typical combinations are defined in Fig. 2.1G. By first examining the zero-sequence properties of simple winding patterns, it ivill then be possible t o identify understandably the serosequetirc circuits of more complicated practical transformer connections. Delto Winding Connection. Zero-sequence current cannot flow in the circuit t o a deltt-connected 11-inding (see Fig. 2.17) sinre there is no eleetrical conuection t o ground by which it could return, even though zerosequenre current can flow within the closed delta circuit. Thus the zerosequence circuit is always interrupted at a juiirt,ion with a delta-connected minding. Y Winding Connections. Zero-sequence current cannot flow in a cirruit ronnerted to a Y-connected winding if the neutral is not grounded (see Fig. 2.18). Thus the zero-sequence circuit will be interrupted at the jurirtion with a Y-connected winding if the neutral is.uugrounded.

Iao

-

FIG. 2.17

A circuit connecting with

( I

delta-connected transformer winding.

FIG. 2.18

A circuit connecting with an ungrounded Y-connected transformer winding.

138

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

TABLE 2.2

Transformer Phase Shift

With standard d-lta-Y or Y-delta transformms, H I (high voltage) will hc 30" shcad of X I (law voltage) for normal phase sequence. H I will hc 30" behind X , with opposite phase sequence.

PHASE SHIFT I N

A->

OR

)-ATRANSFORHER

Standard, H , 30" ahead of X I

Many investigators pwfer to exprrss the relationship hetween high- and low-tension line currents in B slightly different manner so as to simplify the associated phase shift opcration, for example, Standard, H I 30" ahead of X I

I:, = -jr

o,

= +jZO

ZC
I., H I 30" behind X , I:,

= -jZo1 = -jib,
= i i I b ,

1;.

=

+jI-*

= +j1bx

z;,

1:, = -j1tIs

= +I,, I:, = + j ~ * ,

z :
Zr2 '

= +I<>
=

-jIa9

NOTE: If currents w e not in per-unit, the transformation ratio must also he factared in.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

I39

Zero-sequence current, in a circuit connect,ed t o a grounded-neutral Y-connected winding can flow if zero-sequence rurrent, in t,he secondary windings can he caused t o flow in the direct,iori iiidicat,ed by the secoridary arrows, (see~Fig. 2.19).

F G 2.19 I.

A circuit connecting with

0

grounded Y-connected tronrformer winding.

If the secondary currents in Fig. 2.19 cannot flow, the primary zerosequence current is limited t o the magnetizing current of the core (in t,he order of 5 per cent of rated current for 100 per cent impressed voltage). This represents a Z O of ahout, 2000 per cent on the transformer rating, which for practical purposes may he regarded as infinite. A n exception to this rulc is presented hy the thrce-phase core-type design whose construction is as indicated in Fig. 2.20. The flow of zerosequence current, in the primary windirig produces magnetic flux whii,h is in phase in the same direction in all three core legs. Since there are no external core legs between upper and lower core yokes (as would exist in a shell type of three-phase design), the zero-sequenre flux must return largely through the air. The steel tank walls provide a fairly low reluctance path forpart ofthereturn circuit, but thecrossover to t,he core yoke at both the topand bottom isdirectly through air. The magnetizing reactance c represented by this flux path FIG. 2.20 The three-phase c k - t y p e tronrusually he in the order of 30 to ,-, .. 50 per cent on the t,ransformer rating, which is low enough to have practical significance. Zero-sequence current in a circuit connected to a grounded-neutral Y-connected winding can flow if another set of transformer wiridiiigs is connected in delta as in Fig. 2.21. The closed delta provides a circuit for t h e flow of zero-sequence current. The impedance presented to the flow of current is the interminding impedance Z, (the same as the normal positive sequence ZT), Kote, however, that the zero-sequence currents are not repeated in the outgoing line circuit but are short-circuited within the delta winding.

140

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

111 a Y-Y-connected transformer& b&L neut,rals grounded, as in Fig. 2.22, zero-sequence current can flow if the 'reflected zero-sequence current in the other winding finds a closed circuit at some point along the connected circuit. I n this case the tramformer t,ransfers zero-sequence current from primary circuit t o a serondary circuit in the same manner that it transfers positive- or negative-sequence current. The transformer simply inbroduces a series impedance in t,he zero-sequence circuit which in magnitude is identiral with the normal positive-sequence impedance Zr. With this understanding of elemental behavior, the equivalent zerosequence circuits for the usual transformer connections can he directly resolved. Some of the more rommon ones are identified in Fig. 2.16. When drawing zero-sequence circuits for extensive systems, it is a good plan t,o designate transformers in the manner shown in Fig. 2.16, showing an interruption of the zero-sequence circuit by an open gap. By this method one ran be constantly aware that a break in the cirruit was intentional and not the result of an oversight. Circuit Resolution Example. I n Fig. 2.23 is illustrated a particular typical syst,em. The resuking composition of the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequenre circuits is also portrayed. Suppose that the immediate problem concerns the evaluation of various performance qualities on the 2.4-kv system radiating from bus L1. The first step involves a resolution of equivalent impedances by which the entire hulk system t o the left of hus L4 is expressed as a single equivalent impedanre. This would be accomplished by successively paralleling, etc., until firially a single equivalent impedance value connecting with bus L , is obtained which would then look like Fig. 2.24. In many cases

A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with a delta winding on the same core structure.

FIG. 2.21

FIG. 2.22 A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with another grounded Y winding on t h e same core structure.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

141

i t vill he at onre apparent that the impedanre of transformer T swill he the major rontrolling impedance in the circuit from Ai',. I n this case it may be entirely reasonable t o consider that rated voltage is sustained on the high-tension side; or consider the short-circuit rapacity at the hightension terminals to be about equal t o the interrupting rating of the

MOT

MOT

.S. 2.23

Typical system example.

142

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

switching equipment on the bus M,. Obviously, some such approximation will be required in practically every problem since the actual line interconnections will otherwise extend over the entire electrical distribution system of several states. It will be of interest t o note that the zero-sequence system is quite discontinuous, which is typical of practical systems. In the present illustrative problem the zero-sequence system associated with bus L 4 is independent of that on bus M2. For comprehensive studies of extensive system networks, the equivalent sequence circuits shown in Fig. 2.23 might he set up on the d-a or a-c network analyzer. T o examine an operating characteristic at the point P I , each individual sequence circuit would be tapped at the point PI. For each sequence system the correct impedance network is that obtained from the tap lead P I and it,s own neutral bus N . The interconnections between sequence networks will he governed by the type of unbalance (see Figs. 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.14, 2.15). Provision is made in the network analyzer directly to measure current in or voltage across individual branches of all three networks. Measurement of Individual Components. Useful measurement connections by which a particular sequence quantity may be independently resolved, or a particular sequence quantity excluded, are identified 011 Fig. 2.25. The circuits for obtaining 10 or Eo alone are frequent,ly used. (In applying potential transformers for measuring EO on an urigrounded neut,ral system, line-to-line rated transformers and secondary loading resistors should he used t o avoid overvoltage hazards.) The delt,a-connected current transformer circuit (which excludes l o in the output) is useful in providing internal-short-circuit protection for grounding transformers. The circuits for individually segregating the sequence quantities I , and E', are only rarely used. Possible applications would be (1) making a single-roil voltage regulator responsive t o positive-sequence voltage of

F I G . 2.24

Simplification of Fig. 2.23 for study of performance on bur 14.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

143

the three-phase system, ( 2 ) providiug a protective relay which will trip if the sustained negative-sequence voltage exceeds a preassigned value. It is of interest t o note that the usual open-delta line-to-line connected in potential transformer application excludes go the secondary.

C U RR E N T
ZERO SEQUENCE

IK=CTR.VIOI NEG4TIVE SEQUENCE

VOLTAGE l i = mR A T I O I
ZERO SEO'lENCE
POS!TIVE SEQUENCE

JO 8661

NOTE

- 8"

INTERCWNGING LINES B B C METER WILL READ Vo2

FIG. 2.25

Measuring circuits for segregating specific components.

Chapter 3

by Donald Beernan and R. H. Kaufrnann

Selection of A-C Short-circuit Protective Devices and Circuit Equipment
HOW TO BE SURE OF ADEQUATE SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION
To design an industrial power distribution system adequate from a

short-cirruit st,andpoiiit, the maximum short-circuit current at any point should he less than the short-circuit rating of the equipment applied at
that piiint. When systems are so designed, it is common t o speak of them as having adequate short-circuit protert,ion. I n other cases, they are said t o have adequate int,errupting capacity (IC). Horn can one be sure that, a plant, dist,ribution system is adequate for all short-circuit eonditions? Mere are the steps t,o follow: 1. First accurately determine the available short-circuit currents a t all sigriificant poir1t.s in t,he system, using the methods outlined in Chaps. 1 atid 2. These rdrulat,ing procedures have been verified by many tests on actual systems and in short-cirruit testing lahoratories. Nariy former fallarious ideas w1iir.h led to the installation of inadequate short-circuit prot,ectire devires arid circuit elemerit,s hare beerr dispellcd. For example, the idea that, ouly about 20,000 amp maximum short-circuit rurreiit could he obtairied at -180 rolt,s has heen dispelled by actual measurements of short-circuit currents of over 100,000 amp a t this voltage. Litl t,he magnitude of short-cirruit currcnt is known, one cannot be 'ii sure thitt adequate short-rircuit protcrtion is provided. 2 . Iiistall only short-circuit protect,ive devires such as circuit breakers, s\ritvhes aiid fuses, and r~ombinat,iou motor starters of known adequate
I44

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

145

146

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

147

FIG. 3.1

Rerull of foilure of inodequote oil circuit breaker on heovy short circuit.

Fortunately the switrh house was isolated from nl.her I~uildit~gs, orily and the switrh house burned dn\vn. llad this fsilurc ocwrrcd i n a fiict,ory tiuilding, the damage could have been much more cxLensive. r. Ihe picture, Fig. 3.1, tells the st,nry of what happened hotter thaii ii book of mords could. The irony of this fiiilurc was that, the plant, erigineer had ri~cogriizetl h e t inadequacy of the circuit hrcakers in this swit,ch house aiid was replacing t,hem with adequat,e ones. The ot,her circuit breakers in this switi.h house had already hcen rcplaced mit,li adequat,e unes, and t.liey \wre destroyed too. One can never tell how long hia luck will last wii.h inat1t.quat.e circuit breakers or fuses. It, may rim out sooner tliaii one thinks.

SELECTION O THE TYPE O F F SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICE

1 here are marly features t o he cnnsitlered in t,he sr?lcvtioii of shortcircuit protective devices t,n provide adequate short-circuit prntertinn for an industrial power syst,em. One of the most import,ant, that t h e shortis eircuit protective device be adequate for the service. The adrqiuicy of circuit breakers, fuses, or motor st.art,ers can be determined from t h e procedures outlined in Chaps. I and 2. Ariother important function of mnst short-circuit, prot ive devices is that t,hey also provide a means of switehi!ig circuits nder normal operat,irig conditions. T o m( requirements fully and eomplctcly for both circuit switching and short-

r l

148

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

circuit protection, a protective and switching device should fulfill the following basic specifications: 1. It should be capable of being safely closed in on any load current or short-circuit current within the momentary rating of the device. 2. It should safely open any current that may flow through i t up t o the interrupting rating of the device. 3. It should automatically interrupt the flow of abnormal currents u p t o the interrupting rating of the device. There are two fundamental devices that are commonly used for or have as one of their functions short-circuit protection. These are: 1. Circuit breakers 2. Fuses Some motor starters are used for short-circuit protection, hut in general these have either circuit hreakers or fuses as the short-circuit protective element. A basic comparison of fuses and circuit breakers will be made and their area of application outlined. More detailed comparisons are made on the basis of syst,ems voltage classes, i.e., (1) 600 volts and below and (2) above 600 volts.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS-GENERAL

M e e t s All Requirements. A modern circuit breaker meets all the basic requirements listed above. It is designed and rated to be capable of heirig safely closed in on any current within its momentary rating (some oil circuit breakers do not fully meet this requirement). It can safely open any current within its interrupting rating. When proper relays or tripping devices are applied, i t is capable of automatically opening any current which is above the pick-up setting of the tripping device and below its interrupting rating. It combines in one unit a device for safely switching the circuit under normal as well as abnormal load conditions and t o automatically open abnormal rurrents up t o its interrupting rating. Eliminates Single Phasing. Circuit breakers, in all except a few special cases where single-phase switching is used in transmission-line circuits, open all ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Therefore, the probability of single phasing of three-phase circuits is eliminated from a practical standpoint in so far as the circuit protective equipment is concerned. Adjustable Tripping Time and Pickup. The total time t o operate under various overcurrent conditions is adjustable for practically all circuit breakers. The adjustment is either in the built-in tripping devices or in the relays associated with the circuit breakers. The adjustability of time of operation makes the circuit breaker ideally suited t o selective operation as is required for circuit protective service in a system. Electrical Operation. Circuit breakers in general are suitable for elec-

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I49

trical operation, which means they can be used for automatic control, remote operation, etc. Furthermore, auxiliary circuits are available on practically all electrically operated circuit breakers for the control of external auxiliary or process circuits. Wide Selection of Time-current Characteristics. Various types of relays with special characteristics to meet particular service requirements can be used with circuit breakers to broaden their scope of application. For example, time-delay overcurrent relays which match motor-heating curves can be used to enable the circuit breaker to be used for motor starting and running and short-circuit protection. Or the relays may he specially designed to protect transformers or any ot,her piece of equipment or circuit. This makes the circuit breaker and its associated relays almost universally applicable as a short-circuit protective and switching device . Repeated Operations. Circuit breakers can repeatedly open abnormal currents without destroying t,he interrupting element, Of course, inspection and some maintenance may be required after each duty cycle at or near their interrupting rating. When the circuit, openings are repeated a few cycles or seconds apart, derating factors must be applied. But fundamentally the circuit breaker does permit repeated operations without destroying itself or affecting the accuracy of operatirlg time. Same Degree of Protection after Operation. Since when a circuit breaker operates it does not destroy itself, there is little likelihood of affecting calibration of time and pickup settings; hence the same protection is afforded all the time. Minimum Temperature Effect. Most circuit-breaker time overcurrent tripping devices and relays are not appreciably affected by temperature. Hence, greater accuracy as a function of ambient t,emperature can be maintained than by devices that depend upon t,hermal conditions to activate them. Moderate Operating Speed. Circuit breakers in general are not so fast in operation a t high overcurrents as are most fuses. Wide Choice of Current Ratings. Circuit breakers are available up to 4000 amp cont,inuous current rating at GOO volts and less and up to 1200 to 5000 amp a t higher voltages. Trip-coil ratings run from 15 amp up. Interrupting levels are available from 5000 to 100,000 amp a t GOO volts or less and from 15 mva to 25,000 mva at higher voltages. Rigid Industry Standards. Circuit breakers are made under rigid industry standards which prescribe complete interrupting ratings for them and methods of test for establishing interrupting ratings. These permit the application engineer to apply them on a sound safe basis and within their rating. Proper derating factors must be applied for repetitive-duty cycles and high-altitude applications. *

* Refer to applicable NEMA standards.

150

A-C SHORT.CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRClllT EQUIPMENT

FUSESGENERAL

Fuses are often considered for circuit protection because of their low first cost. Before selecting fuses in place of circuit breakers, there are certain general characteristics and limitations which must be recognized and considered as well as cost. While fuses have their proper applications, one must look rarefully a t the fuse picture in general and then more closely a t specific fuses to see how many of the hasic requirements are met. Generally Do Not M e e t All Requiremsnts. One of the first and foremost considerations is that fuses in themselves do not meet the basic requirements for a complete short-circuit protective device. Fuses alone (except t,he oil-fuse cutouts) do not incorporate any switching means to permit closing in on high currents or to switch load currents. T o meet the basic requirements it is necessary that a fuse other than a n oil-fuse cutout be used in conjunct,ion with a properly rated interrupter or safety switch. In this combination the fuse provides the ability to open ahnorma1 currents automatically. The switch should provide the ability to open load currents and moderate overcurrents which are below the blowing point of the fuse and should provide the ability t,o safely close in on short-circuit currents up to the interrupt,ing rating of the fuse. When the switch is in the closed position, it should be able to carry safely whatever current the fuse will pass. The operation of fuses in combination with interrupter switches at moderate overcurrents imposes problems not easily overcome. The fundamentals of the problem can be seen by referring to Fig. 3.2. To illustrat,e one phase of the problem, let us assume that it takes \$6 see only to close and open a switch manually. Should there be a moderate overload when the switch is opened and closed rapidly, as there may well be because of connected motors, etc., the switch would have to open perhaps several times its rating because the operation took place so quickly that the fuse did not have time to melt. This area is represented by the crosshatched section of Fig. 3.2. For example, an interrupter switch might he rated to make 20,000 amp, carry 20,000 amp momentarily, and to open 100 amp. This switch, when used with a 100-amp E-rated fuse* or even a much smaller rated fuse, may not be adequate on moderate values of current,. At 1000 amp, for example, the blowing time of the fuse may be 3 see. An operator may close the switch and open it within 36 see. The fuse would not have had time to melt, and the switch vould be required to open 1000 amp, or ten times its rating. Whenever the circuit interruption takes place in two separate devices which are * E-rated fuses will carry their rated eurrmt eontinuouslv and blow in 5 to 10 min
at 200 to 264 per cent of rated current.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

151

interdependent on each other for complete functioning over a wide range of currents, there is always this problem of operation on moderate overloads which is much more difficult t o overcome than operation a t very high short circuits where the time for the fuse to clear is very short. As a precautionary measure for increased safety, the switch element of fused switches should be closed with a fast positive action and not opened immediately. This will give the fuse a chance to melt on moderate overcurrents before the switch is again opened.
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS O FUSES F

Possible Single Phasing. Fuses are single-phase devices; therefore, one fuse may blow, leaving a multiphase circuit supplied with only singlephase power. It may not completely isolate a faulty circuit. Nonadjustable Tripping Time or Pickup. When fuses are used, their pickup setting and time-current setting are changed by changing the size or type of fuse.

AMPERES
Interrupter-switch rating and fuse time-current characteristics showing performonce on moderate overcurrent..

FIG. 3.2

152

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Limited Choice of Characteristics. Because fuses are thermal devices, the choice of shape of time-current characteristics is very limited for coordination purposes. Nonrepetitive Operation. Fuses, once they have operated, must be replaced. Certain types of fuses have removable links which permit salvaging part of the fuse after it has blown. Replacement cost of fuses varies widely, depending on type and size of fuse. Protection M a y Be Reduced or Lost after Operation. Because the interrupter destroys itself, care must be taken to replace a blown fuse with one of the same rating and characteristics. Otherwise, protection may he lost. There is always the danger that if no fuses are available short bars or wires may be inserted to keep power on. When this is done, all protection may be lost. Affected by Ambient Temperature. Fuses are thermal devices; therefore, their operation is subject t o variation due t o ambient temperature changes. This effect in fuses is much greater than in relays or circuit-breaker tripping elements. It is less important in high-voltage circuits. Fast Operating Speed. Fuses are generally divided into two classes: (1) non-current-limiting and (2) current-limiting. The current-limiting fuses possess two important advantages, particularly for branch-circuit protection: ( 1 ) Berause of extremely fast operation, they limit the damage due to the flow of short-circuit current. (2) They actually limit the shortcircuit-current magnitude to far less than the available short-circuit current, thereby allowing the use of smaller conductors and equipment in branch circuits. This current-limiting ability is one of the most useful characteristics of the fuses in branch-circuit protection. Non-current-limiting fuses also operate faster than circuit breakers at currents near their interrupting rating. The fast operat,ion of most types of fuses, however, makes it difficult and often impossible to coordinate them with other short-circuit protective devices located beyond the fuse in the circuit. Therefore, fuses in general are best suited for branch-circuit protection where they need not operate selectively with other protective devices between the fuse and the load. Choice of Current Ratings. Fuses are now available for low voltages (600 volts and less) up to 4000 amp. For circuits above 600 volts, the upper limit of fuse ratings is in t,he range of 100 to 400 amp. Fuses are generally limited in size hecause of thermal considerations. Large fuses may produce so much heat that ventilation and mounting become severe problems. Also, as current-limiting fuses become larger

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I53

and larger, they lose more and more of their current-limiting ability. Sinre the current-limiting ability of fuses is most useful in branch-circuit protection, the handirap of having to use small ratings to get effective rurreut-limiting artion is not so pronounred, as most branch circuits are of small rurrent rating anyway. Industry Standards. Fuses above 600 volts are made according to indnstry st,andardsesrept, that standardized levels of interrupting ratings are not set up. Low-voltage fuses have no a-c interrupting standards, although surh st,andards may be available in the future. See further disrussion nuder voltage classification. Mechanical Simplicity a t Low Current Ratings. Fuses and their associated switches for low-current circuits, i.e., about 200 amp or less, are simpler mechanically than circuit breakers. For higher current circuits t,he switrh, if built, t o have the necessary momentary and interrupting abilit,y, loses its advantage of mechanical simplicity.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS VS. FUSES-GENERAL
I 1 selecting circuit breakers YS. fuses, the techniral ronsideratious cer1 tainly favor the rirruit breakers in most rases. Because of this, circuit breakers are generally considered the only acceptable protective devices by most engineers for all'lorations in industrial plants where switching and short-rirruit protectioii is required except for some hranch circuits and control circuits and motor starters. Fuses and switches are preferred for some hranch rircuits because of the fast operation of the fuse. Besides the technical roiisiderations, economirs is a factor. While cost is very important, it is secondary to the technical considerations noted above and secondary to select,ing the devire that has an adequate interrupting rating for t,he servire. Berause there may he in some cases a wide difference in rost between circuit hreakers and fuses, there is a tendency to get so involved in economic issues in the selection of circuit breakers vs. fuses that technical ronsiderations are lost sight of. AS a result many hazardous syst,ems are installed to save a few dollars in first cost, a saving that may soon be lost because of the poor performance and higher maintenanre of inadequate equipment, particularly in low-voltage circuits. It is for that reason and because the technical cansiderations vary somewhat with voltage that the technical considerations are reviewed in further detail as a function of voltage class. There are other factors in the selection of fuses for overcurrent protection. These factors involve mainly coordination with relay time-current characteristics or the time-current characteristics of built-in devices on circuit breakers (see Chap. 9).

I54

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR SYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND LESS

For low-voltage systems rated 600 volts or less, there are three commonly used types of short-circuit protective devices for protecting main power circuits, secondary feeders, and branch circuits. These devices are 1. Large air circuit breakers (sometimes referred to as magnetic circuit breakers) of which the one shown in Fig. 3.3 is typical. 2. Molded-case circuit breakers of which those shown in Fig. 3.9 are typical. 3. Fused safety switches of which the one shown in Fig. 3.11 is an example of a high-quality safety switch and fuse. There are panel boards which are used for protection of small branch circuits. These are used mainly in lighting and in small power systems and employ either small molded-case-type circuit breakers or fuses as their overcurrent protective means.
LARGE AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Description. The large air circuit breaker, Fig. 3.3, consists of a n operating mechanism, contacts, an arc interrupter, and usually a built-in overrurrent tripping device. These circuit breakers are characterized by their sturdy construction, ample electrical clearances, availability in highcurrent-carrying and interrupting and momentary ratings. The tripping devices are adjustable as to their pickup setting and operating time, and various shapes of time-current characteristics are available. The ratings available are listed in Table 3.1. TABLE 3.1
Ratings of Low-voltage Large Air Circuit Breakers for A-C Service
Range l r i p - d ratings,' omp
~

1nterrvpting roting., rm, amp a.ymmetric.al
_____

240 volts
and below

241-480 volts 25,000 35,000 60,000 75,000 100,000

600 volts
_____

and below

240 voitl

241-480 volts 25-225 100-600 400-1.600 2,000-3,000 4,000

600 volts 15-225 35-600 200-1,600 2,000-3.000 4,000

__.
~ ~

30,000 50,000 75,000 l00,000 150,000

15,000 25,000 50,000 75,000 I00,000

30-225 150-600 60+1,600 2,000-3,000 4,000

* Standai

rating8 are 15, 20, 25,35, 50,70,90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250,275, ., -__., .. .. .> - .__.)

Application. These circuit breakers are intended primarily for application in main switchboards where pou'er may be generated a t low voltage

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

155

FIG. 3.3 Large air circuil breakers mounted in drawout metal-enclosed low-voltoge rwifchgear.

or where it may he received from the utility at low voltage and for the secondary svitchgear of load-center unit substations or in main subdistribution centers, Fig. 3.4. They are also applicable for individual branch-circuit prokction where t,he highest qualit,y device is required and where special time-current characteristics are necessary for coordination. They are particularly applicable for braneh-circuit protection for larger loads over 200 amp or for smaller loads where, as stated above, highest quality protection is desired or electrical operation is required. These circuit breakers have longer life built into them than do other types of low-voltage circuit breakers and are, therefore, suitable for many more operations, particularly where there is moderately repetitive duty imposed. Selective Tripping vs. Cascading. Large air circuit breakers may be used either in selective tripping systems or in cascade systems. Selective tripping systems, Fig. 3.5, are those in which the circuit breakers are set to trip selectively so that the one nearest the fault operates first so that only the faulty portion of the circuit is deenergized. I n this case all circuit breakers should have adequate interrupting ratings, that is, their rating should be equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty a t the

156

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRCUlT EQUIPMENT

point of application. There are additional problems of selecting the time-current settings which are discussed more fully in Chap. 9. I n cascaded operation, Figs. 3.6 and 3.7, circuit breakers may he used under certain circumstances beyond their interrupting rating. This applies where the main circuit breaker (commonly referred to in application tables as the A' circuit breaker) has adequate interrupting rating, that is, its rating is equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty imposed a t the point of application. The feeder circuit breakers (commonly referred to in application tables as the B circuit breaker) in this case, Fig. 3.6, may be used to twice their interrupting rating provided that the following conditions are met. The total kva of connected synchronous motors should not exceed 25 per cent of the supply transformer or

I
A

GENERATOR

A
- A

/

nnUNIT l

3
Y

MAIN SECONDARY BREAKER

SU0

- DISTRI0UTlON

ELECTRICALLY OPERATED

FIG. 3.4

MOTOR WELDER 200 HP One-line diogrom showing typical applications of large air circuit breakers.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECnVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I57

generator rating. In addition t o the main circuit breakers having adequate interrupting ratings, their instantaneous tripping attachment must be set t o operate when the current through the backed-up or B circuit breakers is not more than 80 per cent of the interrupting rating of the backed-up or B circuit breakers. This ensures that the main circuit breakers will operate whenever the short-circuit duty exceeds the interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers.

-

& 1500 KVA LOAD CENTER UNIT SUESTDTION A
MDIN CIRCUIT BREAKER RATE0 DT LEAST 50.000 DMP INTERRUPTING

FEEDER CIRCUIT EREDKERS RDTED 50,000AMP INTERRUPTING

SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 50.000 DMP RMS ASYMMETRICDL WOOD DMP FROM THE TRANSFORMER DND 9000 DMP FROM THE MOTORS

ERANCH FEEDER CIRCUIT BREDK-

+FEEDER SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 32.000 DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL
/

CABLE

7
/I' ERDNCH FEEDER CIRCUIT
V
SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 22000 DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL

~UE-BU~

A

*

)BREDKERS RATED 25000 DMP INTERRUPTING

NOTE: SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS DT SUB E u s s E s n REDUCED DUE FEEDER CAELE IMPEDDNCE

am

FIG. 3.5 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers applied in selective tripping system. Time settings of overcurrent trip elements must be properly set to obtain selectivity.

158

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I
&I500

i

MAGNETIC TYPE

I

MOTOR CONTRIBUTION 9000AMP

I '

I

SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY AT THIS POINT 50.000AMP RMS ASYMMETRICAL

NOTE: INSTANTANEOUS TRIP ELEMENT ON MPIN BREAKER A MUST BE SET TO TRIP AT 16400 AMP THIS IS 0.8 OF 2 0 5 0 0 AMP

20500 AMP IS THE CURRENT FLOWING FROM THE MAIN TRANSFORMER THRU BREAKER A WHEN CURRENT FLOWING THRU FEEDER BREAKER 0 I S 25.000 AMP THE R A y i N G O F B R E A K E d B

FIG. 3 6 One-line diagram showing large oir circuit breakers applied in cascade with .
only one source of low-voltage power.

Motor contribution must be considered. The duty including motor contribution should not exceed twice the interrupting rating of the backed-up circuit breaker. However, the motor contribution may not come through the main circuit breaker. Therefore, the main A' circuitbreaker instantaneous trip setting may be less than 80 per cent of the backed-up circuit-breaker interrupting rating because the main A' circuit breaker must trip instantaneously when the total rms asymmetrical shortcircuit current through the backed-up circuit breaker is 80 per cent or more of the interrupting rating of the backed-up B circuit breaker. For example, in Fig. 3.6 if the backed-up or B circuit breakers are rated 25,000 amp interrupting rating, the short-circuit duty a t the point of application of the B circuit breaker should not exceed 50,000 amp rms asymmetrical. This may he made up of 41,000 amp from the main source and 9000 amp from the motors. The main-source circuit breaker must trip instantaneously a t 0.8 X 20,500 or 16,400 amp rms asymmetrical. It makes no difference whether the circuit breaker is applied a t the bus or a t some point remote from the bus. When the backed-up circuit breakers are applied a t points remote from the bus, such as circuit breakers B' in Fig. 3.7, the interrupting duty a t the circuit breaker ahead,

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

159

B in Fig. 3.7, may be in excess of twice the interrupting rating of the backed-up B' circuit breaker, but because of cable impedance the shortcircuit current a t the point of application of the backed-up circuit breaker B' must be limited to twice its interrupting rating. Circuit breakers operating a t beyond their interrupting rating in cascade mustbe inspected after each operation and may require more than normal maintenance after interrupting currents beyond their rating even though the main circuit breaker does open. Another qnalification is that the circuit breakers must be of the same manufacture and of similar characteristics. Feeder circuit breakersshould be electrically operated because the forces incident to closing against short circuits in excess of the circuit-breaker rating may preclude successful manual closing. Circuit breakers of two widely different interrupting

f
&I000 -UNIT
KVA LObD CENTER SUBSTATION

I

I

I

I

-knunar

NOTE! INSTbNTANEWS T R I P E L E M E N T ON FEEDER B R E I K E R B MUST BE SET bT 12000 bMP(OQ X I 5 0 0 0 1

snom CIRCUIT DUTY HERE 26000 AMP RMS ISYMUETRICbL

I

FIG. 3.7 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers in cascade applied remote from the main source of power.

160

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTEtTlVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

ratings cannot be cascaded. As a guide to this, refer to Table 3.2 which shows the maximum interrupting rating circuit breaker which can he used to back up any given interrupting rating feeder circuit breaker. The ratio of the columns may be more than 2 : 1. The higher interrupting duty in the main circuit breaker often comes about because of having t o select it for continuous current-carrying rating rather than interrupting rating. Regardless of the interrupting rating of the main circuit breaker, the duty cannot exceed twice the interrupting rating of the cascaded B feeder circuit breaker.
TABLE 3.2 Range of Large Air Circuit Breakers Which Can Be Cascaded with Each Other
Main Circuit Breaker A'
Interrupting Rating, Amp Rmr Minimum Interrupting Rating of Coscaded Feeder Circuit Breaker B, Amp Rmr

25,000
30,000

50.000 60,000 75,000 100,000 120,000 150.000

15.000 15,000 15.000 25,000 25,000 50.000 75,000 100.000

Where there are two or more sources of current to a bus with cascaded feeder rircuit breakers, the following rule applies, Fig. 3.8. All main A' circuit breakers (i.e., A : , A : , A : ) must be tripped instantaneously when the total short-circuit current through the hacked-up B circuit breaker exceeds 80 per cent of its interrupting ratings. The example in Fig. 3.8 shows what the various instantaneous overcurrent trip settings of the main circuit breakers should be for a given case. The rule is that the instantaneous setting must be proportioned t o the short-circuit current delivered through the main circuit breaker in question. The interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers is 50,000 amp. When the total current reaches 40,000 amp, the current delivered by these various sources is 6000 amp, 8000 amp, and 18,800 amp. The motor contribution is 7200 amp. All currents are rms asymmetrical. Cascaded operation is a means of lowering the cost of short-circuit protection in secondary systems. In the cascaded system, smaller feeder circuit breakers are used than in the selective system; therefore this differential favors the cascaded system from an economic standpoint. I t must be recognized, however, that the service reliability of a cascaded system is poorer than that of a selective system because in a cascaded system, whenever a feeder short circuit draws a current in excess of 80 per cent of the interrupting rating of the feeder circuit breaker, the main circuit breaker is tripped out and service on all feeders served by that main circuit breaker or breakers is lost until the service is restored by reclosing the main circuit breaker. This application has proved satisfactory from a service-reliability standpoint for many industrial processes.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE OEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

161

However, mhere critica1 processes are iiivolved, selective tripping is generally considered essential. Selection of Large Air Circuit Breakers. As a guide t o selertion of Iarge air circuit breakers for selective or cascade service, three-phase and single-phase, see Tablc 3.3.

d:3J) 7 4 7

, 0 0 0 AMP

Y
TOTAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTAT THIS POINT 100,000 AMP R M S ASYMMETRICAL

18,000AMP

WHEN TOTAL CURRENT THRU BREAKER B IS 0.8 OF ITS RATING I.E. 40,000 AMP BREAKERS n'i, "'2 8 d j MUST TRIP. THE CURRENT FLOWING IN THIS CASE AND THE INSTANTANEOUS TRIP ELEMENT SETTINGSX ON BREAKERS ~ ) . n ; . e; A R E : A

r

MOTOR CONTR IBUTION 7200 AMP THIS FAULT DRAWS 40.000 AMP R M S ASYMMETRICAL

FIG. 3.8 One-line diogram showing lorge air circuil breakers in cascade wilh more ihan m e source of power to ihe main low-volloge bur.

m bJ

TABLE 3.3

Air-circuit-breaker Application Tables-Cascade System and Selective System

600 Volts ond Less Ratings required for equipment for Ironsformer and feeder circ~itl, with selection of circuit breaker 8 on basis of cascade sydsm and selective trip system. Other fadois than short-circuit duty ore important in the selection of circuit breakers for selective trionine. Refer to monvfocturer for other lirnitotions.

__
Norm0
load Recommended interrupting rating of o i r c i r w i t breaker (see flgurer above)

208Y/120 Volts. Three Phoie

I
ompore.)

240 Volts, Three Phase
Short-circuit current, rmr amp
(average three-phase

3 rn
2
Recommended interrupting rating of air circuit breaker (see flgures above)

Tmnsformer rating, three-phore

Norm.

Short-circuit current, rrni amp (overage three-phase .Zmpe.&

Con-

,
Transalone

5 z 5 A
>
100%

ti""O"l

:".,O"t

Kvo

Imped. once,

amp

A "

A'

per CeP

!
8.400
11,200
1.800

I
,
I
1,350' 9,750 50,000 13.550 50,000 13,400 2,700 16,100 50,000 17.900 3.600 21 500 7 5 0 0 0

ca+

B 6 releccode
ti*= trip

c? ; I

____________

__

c

112.5 150

4

225

1

4

5 5

300 500 750

~

5%

313 417 625 834 1,388 2,080 2,780 4,170

95,900 150000 I00000 50000 100.000

1 ' 1 'I,

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I63

I64

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Standards. The XEMA Standards that, apply to all large air circuit breakers are KO. SG3-1951.
MOLDED-CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Malded-case circuit breakers, Fig. 3.9, are smaller in dimension, less sturdily constructed, and do not have t,he electrical &ararrces t h a t large air circuit breakers have. They are distinguished from large air circuit hrcakcrs primarily because of the fact that t,hey are mounted in a molded plastic case. These circuit, breakers have built-in trip element,s, and in some cases they are adjustable. Also marly functions cannot, be huilt into these smaller molded-case circuit-breaker tripping elements that can be huilt into the large air circuit-breaker tripping e1ement.s. It, is not easy t o make t,hem electrically operated or t o provide large numbers of auxiliary swit,ches. Ratings Available. Ratings are available as given in Table 3.4.

FIG. 3.9

Molded-care air circvit breakers mounted in a panel board.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

165

I
&75D
KVA MAX CIRCUIT CASE MOLDED BREAKERS

A 1 :
LOAD CENTER SUBSTATION WITH MAGNETIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS

{1 1h
)

I

1

I

I

+MOLDED )

CASE BREAKERS I N PLUG-IN DEVICE

INDIVIDUAL MOLDED CASE BREAKERS

DISTRIBUTION CENTER MOLDED CASE BREAKERS

FIG. 3.10 One-line diagram showing where molded-core air circuit breakers can be applied in a low-voltage power distribution system.

Application. Because of their small size and lower cost, the moldedcase circuit breakers find application for branch-circuit, protection where the interrupting duty is within their interrupting rating, Fig. 3.10. They also find applicabion on the secondaries of some small light-duty Ioadcenter unit substations. Not Suitable for Cascade Operation. These circuit breakers are not suitable for cascade operation wit,h large air circuit breakers berause they operate so fast that the large air circuit breakers are not able to protect them (see iVEhlA Standards for Large Air Circuit Breakers, Section SG3-3.43). Xeither are they suitable for cascading vith ot.her moldedcase circuit breakers. This conclusion mas reached after exhaustive tests.

166

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Selection of Interrupting Ratings. As a guide, the portion of Table 3.3 referring t o circuit hreakers for selective operation may be used mhere the continuous current is less than 600 amp and iiiterrupting duty is within the available ratings of molded-case circuit breakers. Table 3.4 gives the interrupting ratings as defined by applicable NEMA standards. TABLE 3.4 Interrupting Rotings of Molded-cose Circuit Breakers for A-C Service
Interrupling iatingi, r m i amp orymmetrical

240 ~ o l t s and below

i

Range of trip-coil rrrtingr amp

241-480 volts

600 ~ 0 1 1 s

I
15,000 20,000 25,000 35,000

~-

7,500 20,000
25,000

30,000 50,000

15.000 15.000 25,000 25.000

15-100 15-100 125-225 125-225 125-600

)O, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250,

Standards. At preseiit there are no applicable NEMA standards for molded-case air circuit breakers.

FUSED SWITCHES

Fused switches, Fig. 3.11, consist of an interrupter switch and a fuse mouuted on a common base and usualiy in a metal enclosure. There are many types and varieties available. There are severa1 types of fuses available. The most common variety is the standard N E C (Kational Electrical Code) cartridge fuses. These fuses practically a11 corisist,of a fusible link enclosed in a cylindrical cartridge with connectors a t each end t o slip into the fuse clips of the switch. Xew and improved designs of fuses and switches for low-voltage service have been developed recently. The fuses are mainly of the currentlimiting high interrupting capacity silver-sand type, typical of which is the General Electric type EJ-6 fuse shomn in the smitch in Fig. 3.11. Typical of the improved switches is t,he type HCI switc,h as manufactured by the Trumhull Components Department of the General Electric Company. To be specific in the follomiiig discussion of the improved types of fuses and switches, the type HCI smitch and EJ-6fuseivill beused. Ratings Availoble. There is a wide variety of lon-voltage fuses and switches available. These ratings run from as low as a few amperes up t o

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

167

FIG. 3.1 1 High-copocity interrupting (HCI) enclosed switch with high interrupting-rating current-limiting silver-rand fuses (EJ-6).

several hiindred amperes. Cnfortunately most, of them do not have short-cirruit rat,ings assigned. Again, t,o be specifio, t,lie type IICI switch and E.J-6 fuse will be used t,o illusirate a-c short-circuit abilities which have hem established hy test,. The preserit availahle data are listed in Table 3.5.
TABLE 3.5
I n t e r r u p t i n g Ability of Type HCI Switches and C u r r e n t - l i m i t i n g Fuses (1954)

EJ-6

Type HCI switch

II
I

Type EJ-6 fuses

Volts

! -I,
200

Amperes

Volts

1

lnterrvpling ability of combination HCI rwilch and EJ-6 fuse. amp
byml

I

Amperes

15-20-30

100.000 100.000
100,000 l00,000

Application. All small hiRh-interrupting-ability loix~-voltage fuses are current,-limit,ing in t,heir action, hence are very fast in their operation, and from this staidpoint they are partieiilarly well suited t o branch-circuit

168

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMEW

L -

INDIVIDUAL WALL MOUNTED H C I SWITCHES AND E J - 6 FUSES

FIG. 3.12 One-line diagram showing whsre safety switches m d fuses may be applied as the lost protective device in low-voltage distribution circuits.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

169

AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTASYMMETRICAL R M S AMPERES 1.25 I SYMMETRICAL (AVERAGE FOR THREE CONDUCTORS)

AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT

FIG. 3.1 3

Curves showing the current-limiting choracterirtics of type EJ-6 silver-sand current-limiting fuses (60cycler).

I70

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

will withstand 9000 amp rms for 0.2 cycle. So, the 30-amp fuse vill protect a wire which will be required to carry 30-amp load current. This current-limiting feature, in addition to protecting small wires in systems of high short-circuit-current capacity, can protect small switching devices. It is for this reason that the type HCI switch can he used with type EJ-6 fuses 011 circuits where the available short-cirruit-current duty is as high as 100,000 amp. The t,ype HCI switch and EJ-G fuse combination has high interrupting rating arid is current-limit,ing in its operation which enables it to beusedin many places where molded-case circuit breakers would not have adequate interrupting rating and where large air circuit breakers would be too expensive, too large, or not applicable from an engineeriug standpoint. For example, a circuit breaker for a 30-amp circuit fed from a certain lowvoltage bus may require a circuit breaker with 100,000 amp interrupting rating. The wire or cable mould have t o be of the order of 350 MCM t o withstand the short-circuit current. I n the first place, a 100,000-amp interrupting rating circuit breaker cannot be built with a 30-amp trip coil that will withstand the short-circuit forces or heating. I n the second place, any 30-amp load devire mould not have terminals that would accommodat,e 350-MCM cable, the size required to withstand 100,000 amp. The use of an EJ-G current-limiting fuse and the HCI switch rated 30 amp would provide adequate short-circuit protection, and the currentlimiting effect of the fuse mould enable a wire of smaller size t o be used. The switch and fuse comhinat,ion is not generally suitable for main feeder circuit protection because of the fact that it is difficult to make the fast current-limiting fuses operate selectively with other overcurrent protective devices that would be in the circuit between the fuse and the load. Standards. Information for standards on fuses may be obtained from the Underwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin, Standard for Fuses. Information on st,aridards for enclosed switches (safety switches) may be obtained from IJnderwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin, Standard for Enclosed Switches or NEMA Publication No. 42-78, Enclosed Switch Standards.

SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR SYSTEMS ABOVE 600 VOLTS There are in general two types of short-circuit protective equipment available for systems above G 0 volts. These are: O 1. Power circuit breakers 2. Power fuses

A-C SHORT.CIRCUlT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

171

POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS

There are many types of power circuit breakers availahle, but basically they are divided into the oil t,ypc and the nillcss type. I n the field 2.4- t o 13.8-kv t,he oilless-type cirruit breaker, Fig. 3.14, has largely superseded t h e oil-t,ype circuit breaker. In indoor metal-enclosed switehgear of the st,ation t,ypc for circuits 13.8 L 34.5 kv, the air-type circuit breakers are o in general superseding the oil-type vircuit breakers. I n the field above 11.A kv for outdoor switchgear, oil circuit breakers are most commonly used, Fig. 3.15. For the sake of the discussion here relative to d e c t i o n of equipment>fiom a short,-rircuit standpoint, it makes no difference whcthcr the rircirit breakers are of t,he nil or oilless type. Ratings Available. High-voltage power circuit breakers are availahle in ratings from 2.4 kv up to over 300 kv and in interruptirig ratings from 15 mva up to 25,000 mva. Complete listings of power circuit breakers can he found iii the latest copy of S E R l A Standards SG&l954. T h e circuit, breakers most comtnonly used in industrial plants are the oilless or air type, sho\rn i n Fig. 3.14. The available ratings of this type of circuit breaker are given in Table 1.1 (Chap. I).

FIG. 3.14 Typical ille err (air) power circuit breaker ar wed in metal-clad switchgear for
c i t w i t s rated 2.4 to 13.8 kv.

172

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

FIG. 3.15 Outdoor frome-type oil circuit breaker This circuit breoker i s rated 34.5 kv.

01

used in circuits rated above 15 kv.

Application. Power circuit breakers are applicable anywhere in the syst,cms rated 2.4 kv up t,o the highest a-c voltages in use today. They combine all the essential characteristics for circuit switching and protect,ion and therefore may be used at main buses supplied by generators or transformers or i n connection with unit substations. They are also applirable at, loral switching points and for protection of primary branch circuits (see Fig. 3.16). Motor Starting or Other Repetitive Duty. Certain of the power circuit breakers, particularly the oilless type, are suitable for motor-st,arting duty within the limitations outlined by the manufacturer. It should be noted that compared with contact,ors the principal limitation of power circuit breakers for motor-starting duty is the degree of repetitive duty that can be withstood. Contactors are designed for more operations and longer life under severe operating duty cycles than are power circuit breakers.

A-C SHORT-CIPCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES ANO CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

173

Selection of Interrupting Ratings. The selection of interrupting ratings of power circuit breakers for industrial applications is out,lined in Chap. 1. A detailed description of the various faetors to consider in applying oilless eircuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear is given there.

I

Q

Q P
T
TYWI

I

69 KV

OUTDOOR POWER C I R C U I T BREAKERS

GENERATOR

GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY CIRCUIT BREAKER

!

' MAlN FEEDER
CIRCUIT BREAKER

A AHEAD O F L I N E
OF L I M I T A M P
MOTOR STARTERS

LARGE OU HIGH VOLTAGE MOTORS

FIG. 3.16 One-line diogrorn rhowing where oilless power circuit breakerr in metal-clad rwitchgeclr and outdoor power cirwit brecikerr may be applied in industrial power dirtribution ryrtemr.

174

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Standards. Poiver circuit breakers are eovered by NEMA Standards SG1-19%
POWER FUSES A N D OIL-FUSE CUTOUTS

There are many types of power fuses available for circuits rated 2.4 kv and above. These t,ypes of fuses, generally speaking, divide t,hemselves into three categories. The first is the power fuse, typical examples of which are shown in Fig. 3.17 which are for high-rapacity power circuits. The second type that is slightly differeni, i n construct,ion i s the oil-fuse cutout, which i s really a combination of a cntout and a fuse immersed in a container of oil, Fig. 3.18. The third type of fuse is used mainly in distribntion cutouts for overhead opcir-wire outdoor distriliutioii systems of utilit.ics in urban and suburban areas, Fig. 3.119.

FIG. 3.17 Typical high-voltage (above 600 volts1 power furer: Ifeft) current-limiting nonenpulrion silver-rand type, (right] "on-current-limiting expulsion outdoor type.

176

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

The last type of fuse mentioned is applicable toindustrial power systems for outdoor installations only where the interrupting rating is less than the duty on the system. This fuse is not metal-enclosed and is not for indoor installation. I n general, power fuses divide thcmselves into two classes, i.e., currentlimiting and non-current-limiting. Typical of the current-limiting category are the silver-sand fuses, Fig. 3.17(left). Typical of the non-current-limiting type are the oil-fuse cutout, Fig. 3.18, the expulsion fuses, Fig. 3.17(right), as well as the “boric acid” fuses and “liquid” power fuses. A further classification is that some are expulsion type, i.e., expel hot gases when they operate. These are not suitable for indoor application because of the hazard of the expelled hot gases. Such fuses are the expulsion fuse, Fig. 3.17(right), and the “boric acid” fuse without a condenser and the “liquid fuse”. Typical of the nonexpulsion type are the silver-sand fuse, Fig. 3.17(left), and the “boric acid’’ fuse with condenser. Application- General. All types of power fuses operate faster than power circuit breakers a t or near their interrupting ratings. Because of the fast operating time of the fuses, they are generally employed as the last circuit protective device in each voltage level in a primary power system, as shown in Fig. 3.20. Typical applications are in motor starters and ahead of primaries of transformers stepping down to a lower voltage. The silver-sand fuse, Fig. 3.17(left), is often the preferred type of fuse for power circuits because of its fast operating time and currentlimiting ability. However, in some cases where coordination is required, it may be necessary to use non-current-limiting types of fuses which have longer time delay. However, when the longer time delay is obtained, the benefits of reduction of damage to the circuit through which shortcircuit current passes is lost to a large degree. Interrupter Switches and Fuses. Nonexpulsiori-type power fuses suitable for indoor use are often applied in a metal enclosure with an interrupter switch to form a switch-and-fuse cornbination for high-voltage circuits. Interrupter switches are desirable for this application because they have interrupting ratings usually in the range of 100 to 400 amp. Plain disconnecting switches are generally not satisfactory for this service because they have no interrupting ability, and therefore the combination of the plain switch and fuse cannot be used as a load-switching device. The oil-fused cutouts combine in one unit the fuse and the interrupter switching element. Interrupter slyitches and fuses and oil-fused cutouts find wide application in industrial plants as the primary swit,ching and protecting section of a load-center unit substation (see Chap. 11). Application of Fuses in O p e n Switching Structures. Open-structure switches or disconnect,ing mountings without current-interrupting ability are often used with power fuses. These can be considered for isolation purposes only. Hazards in operations are materially increased in this

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

177

type of appliration. That is the reason that such applications should be limited t o outdoor structures Ivhere the operator is a considerable distance from the disconnecting switch when operating it. The use of such isolatiug switches i n series with fuses in indoor metal-enclosed structures is not coilsidered safe practice bemuse of thc proximity of the operator to t,he sivitrh and the possibility of the operator inadvertently operating the switch under roiiditions i u which the switch will hare to interrupt or close in on currents ronsiderably beyond its ability. Failure may result eveti though there is a fuse in series with such switches.
33 K V

P

UTDOOR TYPE FUSE SMALL POWER

IyTy\ TRANSFORMER

I
LIMITING

AHEAD OF SMALL LOAD CENTER UNIT SUBSTATIONSUSE INTERRUPTER SWITCH AND POWER FUSE OR FUSED OIL CUTOUTS.
FIG. 3.20 One-line diagram rhowing where high-voltage (above 600 may be applied in industrial power distribution systems.
VOllS)

Power

178

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Selecting Fuse-interrupting Rating. Fuses are generally rated in amperes interrupting ahility. CMculate the short-circuit duty in rms amperes asymmetrical at the first half cycle as outliiied in Chap. 1, and select a fuse whose interrupting rating is greater than the duty imposed. Equivalent three-phase iiiterrupt,ing ratings may also be considered. Since the ratings of fuses are not too well st,andardized, refer t o t h e fuse manufacturer for complete data before applying fuses. Standards. Power fuses are covered by S E M A Standards, Cutouts, I’orer Fuses, and Current-limit,ing Resistors, Publication S(2-1954, and AIEE Standards S o . 25.
MOTOR STARTERS

There are in general three kinds of motor starters: 1 . The contactor 2. The combination motor starter 3 . The circuit breaker Contactors are in general of two types, the most common variety being t,hose which have a n interrupting rating of only ten times normal rated current. These are completely inadequate for short-circuit protection and must have addit,ional short-circuit protection provided b y either fuses or circuit breakers. When a short,-circuit protective device such as a fuse or circuit breaker

FIG. 3.21 Typical lowvoltage 1600 volts and below) combination motor starter with current-limiting silver-rand furer for short-circuit protection.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

179

is used in comhinatiori with contactors, it forms what is commonly called a combination motor starter. Circuits 600 Volts and Less (Fig. 3.21). In systems 600 volts and less there are t w i types of cornhination motor starters, both employing the same type of cont,act,or. The first employs a fuse disconnecting sm.itch alirad of t,he conta,ctor, and the other a circuit, breaker, usually a moldedcase-type circuit breaker, ahead of t,he cout,actor. The select,ion between t,hese two is based mainly on the fuudamerital differelice betveen fuses and circuit, breakers as short-circuit protective devices. The fused combinatirin motor starters have an over-all interrupting ahility so that the combination motorst,arter can successfully irit,errupt an available short-circuit current equal t,o 50,000 amp rms asymmetrical wheri equipped wit,h high-interrupt,ing-capacity currentlimiting fiises. This is for a short circuit outside ” the case of t,he mot,or starter and using type E.14 fuses. The molded-case circuit-breaker comhiiiat,ion mot,or starters are limited to a maximum duty of 15,000 or 25,000 amp rms asymmet,rical. Circuits above 600 Volts (Fig. 3.22). For circuits of 2.4 kv aud up t o 5 kv, the combination motor starter commonly used consists of current-limiting silver-sand fuses and contactors with the fuses mount,ed in disconnecting-type supports and placed in a metal enclosure s o interlocked that the fuses cannot be disconneeted unless the coritactor is in the open position. In this way the disconnecting fuse mounting has no current to interrupt. Since the FIG.3.22 Typicalhighfuses are for short-circuit protection only, suit,able (2,4to 4,8 kv) running overload relays should he provided in the bin tio motor motor st.art,er. These motor starters have inter- starter using current-limrupting ratings of 150 mva at 2.4 kv and 250 mva iting rilver-rand power a t 4.16 kv. From a short-circuit standpoint they furel for short-circuit protection. may be appIied up to their momentary and int,errupting rat,iiig. Since these devices contain fuses as the short-circuit protective element, they are naturally best suited t o application as the last protective device in the circuit. When used as motor starters, they are t,he last protective device, and therefore the fast operating time of the fuse is a very dist,inct advantage in limiting damage in the motors when a failure occurs. The fast operating time of the fuse also permits low settings on other relays further back in t.he system.

180

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

SELECTION O CONDUCTORS AND OTHER CIRCUIT F COMPONENTS FROM A SHORT-CIRCUIT STANDPOINT The floiv of short-circuit current in an electric system imposes mechanical and thermal st,resses (heating) on all component,sof the system through which such currents flow. This includes cables, bus bars, current transformers, disconnecting switches, as \veil as circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters. The following is intended t,o aid in the selection of circuit component,s, ot,her than circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters, from a short-circuit,-current standpoint.
POWER-CABLE SELECTION FROM A SHORT-CIRCUIT STANDPOINT

Multiple-conductor power cables possess high mechanical strength because of the compact conductor lay and the continuous concentric binding arsist,ed many times by armor or lead sheath. KOlimit on mechanical stresses in such cables has been assigned. This is not true with regard to thermal effects. In common with ot,her current-carrying parts of the electric system during short-circuit-rurrent flow, the abrupt elevation in conductor temperature will be limited only by the ability of the conductor metal to absorb the heat developed. The magnitude of the temperature increase is greater (1) as the current magnitude becomes greater (as the square of the current), (2) as the conductor cross section becomes smaller, and (3) as the duration of current flow becomes greater. Temperature limits. Power-system short-circuit-current magnitudes, feeder-conductor cross section, and short-circuit protective device interrupting time should be coordinated to avoid severe permanent damage to cable insulation during an interval of short-circuit-current flow in the system. The effect should be limited to a moderate reduction in useful cable life (possibly 1 per cent of normal life). Reasonable maximum-peak transient temperatures for various cable insulations and operating potentials have been designated and in general are approximately 150 C (see Table 3.6). At a slightly higher temperature (approximately 175 C), destructive disint,egration of organic materials may occur, accompanied by smoke and combustible vapors. At somewhat higher temperatures large quantities of combustible vapors are expelled which increases the risk of explosion and fire. It is important to note that the abnormal temperature persists much longer than t,he duration of short-circuit-current flow. For example, the flow of 20,000 amp in a KO. 4/0-Awg copper conductor will elevate the

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

181

copper temperature from an initial temperature of 75 C to 150 C i i i ahout 34 see. With the current then redured to zero, about 1000 see d l be required for the copper temperature to return to 75 C in a 30 C ambient.
TABLE 3.6 Conductor Rated Maximum Continuous Operating Temperature and Peak Transient (Momentary) Temperature for Various Types and Operating Voltages

lollogl

MOX

lronrienl

Cable type

d.**,
kv

copper temp.

C

Vc type V or VL, single conductor or three conductor..

.......

I 5 8 I5

85 85 84 77 85 85 85 81 85 85 85 8 1
60
60

I50 145 135 120 I50 I45 140 135

Impregnated paper (slid), single conductor..

..............

1 5 8 I5 1 5 8 I5

lmpregnalod paper (did), three mnductor.

...............

I40 135 I30 125

Type R*.

............................................ ............................................

I
5

8
15
T i p s RH

60

60
75 75 75 80 80 80 80

I40 135 130 125 I50 145 140

1 5 8
1 5 8 15

Coronol

.............................................

type R (1947 code specification). t Actual operating temperature may be lompr because of consprvative application or a favorable ambient temperature.

* Applies to new

-

-

I50 145 I40 I30

Conductor H e a t i n g . On the basis that all heat produced by shortcircuit-current flow is initially absorbed by the rondurtor metal (wbirh

I82

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

TABLE 3.7

Quick Estimating Table o f Minimum Conductor Sire'
A. Low-voltoge Air-circuit-breaker Protection

Short-circuit current.

omp

~

~~

11.25

X rymmetricall

1.5 to 2 cycles
linrt. trip)

>g s*c
No. No. No. No.

5,000

I0,OOO 15,000
25,000 35,000

No. 8 Awg No. 4 Awg

4 Awg
1 Awg 2/0 Awg 4/0 AWQ

No. 2 Awg No. I Awg
No. 1/0 Awg No. 3 / 0 A w g

No. 2 Awg No. 1/0 A w g No. 3/0 Awg 300 M C M

5o.m
75,000

100.000

300 M C M 350 M C M

300 M C M 400 M C M 600 M C M 800 M C M

400 M C M 600 MCM 800 M C M I000 M C M

Short-circuit
current, amp

Interrupting kvo at

Duration of hort-sircuit current

(1.0

x

symmetricoll

3,000-3.500 3,500-4.000 4.000-4.500 4.500-5.000

5,000-6.000
6.000-7.000 7,000-8,000

8,000-9.000
9,000-1 0,000 10,000- 12.500 12.500-15,000 15.000-20.000
20,000-25.000 25,000-30.000 30.000-35.000 35.000-40.000

...... 25mvo ....... 75 m w N o . 6 A w g ........................... No. 4 Awg ............. 50 mva ....... No. 4 Awg ........................... No. 4 Awg ........................... No. 2 A w g 25 mva 50 m w ....... I50 mva No. 2 Awg ........................... No. 2 Awg ............. 100 mva ....... No. 1 Awg ........................... No. 1 Awg 50 mvo .............. 250 mvo No. 1/0 Awg ...... 100 mva 150 m w ....... No. 2/0 Awr ........................... No. 3 / 0 A w r
00 m

No. No. No. No.

2 Awg 2 Awg

2 Awg
2 Awg

No. 2 Awg No. 1 Awg No. 1 Awg No. 1/0 Awg
No. 2/0 No. 2/0 No. 3 / 0 No. 3/0
Awg

No. No. No. No.

1 Awg
1 Awg I / O Awg 2/0 Awg

Awg Awg Awg

No. 2/0 Awg No. 4/0 Awg 250 M C M Na 3/0 Awg No. 4/0 Awg 300 M C M 300 MCM 400 M C M

........................... ...... 250 mva ....... 750 mvo 5 0 m r o ....... 500 mvm .......

w

150 m w 250 m w 500 m w No. 4/0 AWI 250 M C M 300 M C M 350MCM

350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 600 MCM

500 M C M

600 M C M
750 M C M 750 M C M

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQVIPMENT

183

has been proved to be valid for canductor sizes of No. 8 Awg or larger*), the conductor heating is governed by the following: For Copper:

duration of current flow, see rms amperes during entire interval of current flow em conductor cross sect,ion, cir mils T I= initial copper temperature, C T 2= final copper temperature, C To simplify a n application, these relationships are presented graphically in the large chart in Fig. 3.23. The permissible time for various ternperature ranges can be quickly evaluated with the aid of the auxiliary curve B , shown in Fig. 3.23. For quick estimating purposes, minimum safe conductor size is given in Table 3.7, subject to application conditions as shown. For Aluminum. The problem of joining and terminating aluminum conductors without creating local “hot spots” deserves very careful attention. There are available, however, materials and methods which laboratory tests and experience have proved to be satisfactory. In the absence of abnormal local heating, a rough approximation of permissible current duration may he made on the basis of the same limiting temperatures as for copper. (For a particular current and conductor cross section, the permissible duration of short-circuit-current flow will he 45 per cent of that for copper.) It may be more convenient to make an artificial correction in current. Consider the current to be 150 per cent of the actual value, and proceed on the chart (Fig. 3.23) as if the conductor were copper. Rms Current. Rms current as used here is defined as the root-rneansquare value for the total interval of short-circuit-current flow. The temporary d-c component encountered in a-c circuits increases the rms current, but to a lesser extent as the interval of current flow becomes longer. The appropriate factor K , by which the symmetrical current value shall be multiplied to determine the true rms current is given in chart A , Fig. 3.23, for several typical ratios of circuit 60-cycle reactance * B. W.Jones and J. A. Seott, Short-time Current Ratings for Aircraft Wire and
= = =

t I

Cable. AIEE Technical I’sper, 1946.

184

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

18.5

"I.

-8.

Short-time bhort-circuit) heating limits of copper cables and correlation of current and time to elevate the copper temperature from 75 to 150 C (dlheat is oirumed to be stored in the copped.

F G 3.23 I.

to resistance (distribution circuits will generally fall in thc region of X / R = 10 or less). Circuit X / R ratio is generally not known and requires numerous circuit constants for an evaluation. Conservative factors ( K , ) for the more common application conditions are

K , = 1.25 Low-voltage circuit breakers tripped instantaneously Power circuit breakers, eight cycle, instantaneously tripped K I = 1 . 1 Any industrial power-distribution problem with current duraK , = 1.0 tion of 35 sec or more
Short-circuit Protective-device Interrupting Time. Circuit Breakers. The minimum time duration of short-circuit-current flow in a rircuit protected by a circuit breaker tripped by an instantaneous element will vary with the type of circuit breaker used. Typical values are shown in the lower left-hand corner of the large chart in Fig. 3.23. When interruption is purposely delayed by time-delay relays or timedelay trip coils, the duration of current flow will be governed by the timedelay relay or trip coil plus the inherent delay in the circuit breaker. Fuses (Current-limiting) , Current-limiting fuses (silver-sand and National Electrical Code low voltage) tend progressively to limit the time interval of current flow to lesser values as the magnitude of current increases. As the current magnitude increases toward the maximum interrupting ability of the fuse, the magnitude of Z't approaches a fixed value (approximately) for a particular fuse ampere rating. This is equivalent to a fixed temperature rise in a particular size of conductor. Data accumulated indicate that a fuse (of the types mentioned in this paragraph) whose ampere rating is not greater than 1.5 times the conductor continuous-current rating will protect against dangerous conductor

106

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

temperatures for severe overcurrents up to the maximum interrupting rating of the fuse. Table 3.8 shows the wire sizes which will have less than 75 C conductor
TABLE 3.8
Silver-sand Fuse Protection at High Overcurrents Based on Copper Conductor
Fuse roting,
amp Small~t wire normally vied,

Sm.lle.t

wire

RH insulation

protected

30 60 I00 IS0 200

No. 10 Awg No. 6 Awg No. 3 Awg No. 1/0 Awg No. 3/0 Awg

No. 14 No. I2 No. 10 No. 0 No. 6

Awg Awg Awg Awg Awg

temperature rise because of the flow of short-circuit current when protected by silver-sand fuses. Fuses (Nou-current-limiting). Non-current-limiting fuses accomplish current interruption at a normal current zero, and thus the current conduction time cannot be reduced below that of the first current loop of short-circuit-(.urrent flow which may be as much as about one cycle of the power frequenry. Applications should thus recognize one cycle as the minimum time of short-circuit-current flow. Application Procedure. 1. Evaluate the symmetrical short-circuit current or currents that may be critiral. 2. Define the short-circuit protertive device clearing time at this or these current magnitudes. 3. Apply the rms correction factor to allom for the d-c component for each time interval involved. 4. Make an initial check on the current-time chart for the smallest conductor size being considered (permissible time should exceed shortcircuit protective-device interrupting time). 5 . If critical, it is advisable to rorreet for the exart temperature range (see Table 3.6 and temperature-range correction curve). F. If an oversize ronduetor is considered, but the continuous-load rursent is to remain fixed, advantage can be taken of the lower initial ronductor temperature.
EXAMPLES

Example 1. A transformer feeder cable is being selected to accommodate a 1000-kva 2.4-kv transformer. The rated current of the t,ransformer (240 amp) indirates a rahle conductor of 250 MCM. The trans-

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

I87

former iri question is good for full short-circuit current (sixteen times normal) for 5 sec. It is desired that the feeder cable have the same ability. Solution: Rms symmetrical amperes = rated current X 16 = 240 x 16 = 3900 amp. The duration of this current as defined by the conditions of the problem is 5 sec. Assume X / R ratio = 10 or less From chart A of Fig. 3.23, K 1 = 1; ( X / R ratio of 10 and time of 5 sec) Henre, the total rms amperes affecting cable heating = K , X 3900 = 1.0 X 3900 = 3900 amp On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal 3900-amp line and the 250-MCM conductor diagonal line. The permissible time (read on the bottom scale) is indicated to be 12 sec (75 to 150 C hasis). The 250-MCM cable will adequately meet the 5-sec requirement. Example 2. Feeder circuits are t o be run from a 480-volt 60-cycle load-center unit substation at which point the short-circuit duty is 25,000 amp (20,000 symmetrical rms amperes). What is the smallest reasonable feeder conductor size based on the use of a 25,000-amp interrupting rating air circuit breaker which trips instantarieously (1.5 cycles) a t currents in excess of fifteen times the normal rating? solulion: Symmetrical current = 20,000 amp Time duration = 1.5 cycles Rms amperes = 20,000 X 1.25 = 25,000 See preceding text for explanation of 1.25 factor K , On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal 25,000-amp line and the vertical 1.5-cycle line. The minimum size conductor (75 to 150 C basis) whose curve is above the intersection is a KO.1 Awg. Example 3. A 4-kv feeder is t o be run from a substation at which the symmetrical short-circuit current is 25,000 amp. A continuous load caparit,y of 1000 kva is desired (113 amp), and a KO.2/0-Awg coronol cable run is being considered. Line relaying is to consist of standard time-overcurrent relays on the &amp tap and S o . 5 time-lever setting v i t h 250/5-amp rurrent transformers. Instantaneous attachments are not planned, but could be used if set at 3000-amp line current. Solution: Symmetriral short-circuit current = 25,000 amp Case 1. No instantaneous attachment on relay Rms symmetrical short-circuit current = 25,000 amp Relay operating time = 50 cycles; (From published time-current curves) Circuit-breaker operating time = 8 cycles

188

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Total time = 50 8 = 58 cycles Assume X / R ratio = 15 or less From chart A of Fig. 3.23, K 1 = 1 Hence, total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 25,000 = 1.0 X 25,000 = 25,000 amp On the large chart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the 25,000-amp horizontal line and t,he 58-cycle vertical line. The smallest conductor whose curve lies above this intersection is a 500 MCM. Therefore, a Xo. 2/0-Amg conductor is inadequate. Case 2. Instantaneous attachment, on relay set to operate at and above 3000 line amperes. Two point,s must, he checked: (1) a current of 3000 amp and time delay of overcurrent relay (just below the operating current of the instantaneous element) and (2) the maximum current with instantaneous relay operation. 1. From published relay data, the relay time a t 3000 line amperes is 66 cycles, circuit-breaker time is 8 cycles, making a total time of 66 8 = 74 cycles. From chart A of Fig. 3.23 for X / R ratio of 10 and time of 7 1 cycles, K I = 1. Total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 3000 = 1.0 X 3000 = 3000 amp. The intersection of 3000 amp and 71 cycles on the large chart of Fig. 3.23 s h o m that a Xo, 2/0-Awg conductor is amply large to carry the 3000 amp for 74 cycles. 2. At the maximum current, instantaneous relay operation will be obtained. The total current duration will be the relay time ?,g cycle plus circuitbreaker time 8 cycles, or 836 cycles. For 8>i-cycle time interval, K , = 1.1. Total rms current affecting cable heating = K , X 25,000 = 1.1 X 25,000 = 27,500 amp. The intersection of the 27,500-amp horizontal line and the 84g-cycle vertical line on the large chart of Fig. 3.23 indicates a No. 4/0-Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) and shows that point 2 cont,rols the cable size. However, a No. 4/0-Awg conduct,or mould operate at less than rated temperature. A specific check may show that a KO. 3/0-Awg conductor is adequate. Rated conductor temperature coronol cable = 80 C (see Table 3.6), ambient temperature = 40 C. Xormal temperature rise produced by rated current = 80 - 40 = 40 C. Rated continuous current for No. 3/0-Awg coronol cable = 185 amp. The temperature rise will be roughly proportional to the square of the current.

+

+

r

A-C SHORTT-CIRCUITPROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

189

T i m e - seconds

I

190

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Hence, the normal conductor temperature of a No. 3/0-Awg conductor operating a t 143 amp would he expected to be

() g’

+ ambient

=

=

63.8 C, or 64 C

The maximum momentary temperature for coronol at 5 kv is 145 C (see Table 3.6). From detail chart B , Fig. 3.23, the correction factor K for an initial conductor temperature of 64 C and final of 145 C is K = 1.13. From the large chart of Fig. 3.23, the permissible time for 27,500 amp in No. 3/0-Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) is 6.7 cycles. The permissible time corrected t o a 64 to 145 C basis is K X 6.7 = 1.13 X 6.7 = 7.6 cycles. Therefore, a No. 4/O-Awg conductor is the correct selection since a No. 3/O-Awg conductor would fail t o meet the 8.5-cycle requirement.
FUSING CURRENT TIME FOR COPPER CONDUCTORS

The fusing current time curves for copper conductors are shown in Fig. 3.21. The curves are based on the folloiving assumptions: 1. Radiatiou may be neglected because of the short time involved. 2. Resistance of 1 cu cm of copper at 0 C is 1.589 microhms. 3. Temperature-resistance coefficient of copper a t 0 C is 1/234. 4. Melting point of copper is 1083 C. 5. Ambient temperature is 40 C. Data are an adaptation from the eight,h edition of “Standard Handbook for Elect,rical Engineers.”*
* A . E. Knowlton (editor-in-chief), “Standard Handhook for Electrical Engineers,” 8th ed., Chap. 4, McGraw-Hill Book Company, h e . , S e w York, 1949.

Chapter 4

by W. R. Crites and Maynord N Halberg* .

Voltage-Standard Ratings, A llowable Variations, Reduction of Variations, Calculation of Drops
The purpose of any industrial power system is to maintain voltage a t the terminals of power-using equipment. This voltage should bewithin acceptable limits-equal to the rated voltage of this equipment. The standard voltage ratings for utilization equipment are discussed in this chapter, along with the standard voltage ratings for power generation and distribution equipment. KOpractical power system can maintain voltage a t rated value a t the utilization equipment a t all times. The voltage variations allowable and the methods which can be used in the design of a power system to keep the variations within acceptable limits are discussed. I t is necessary to calculate the voltage drop in the power system for steady-state conditions and during the starting of the larger motors to determine whether or not the voltage mill remain within acceptable limits. Methods of calculating these voltage drops are presented in this chapter.

* The following men, formerly in Industrial Pawcr Enginwring. General Electric Company, made substantial contributions to the material in this chapter: W. K. Boice, General Electric Company, l e w Haven. Conn.; D. F. Capehart. General Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio; J. R. Eliason, General Electric Company, Sehenectady, N.Y.
191

192

V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

VOLTAGE DESIGNATIONS *

It is necessary t o have a n understanding of the voltage names of systems and t,he voltage rat,ings of various pieces of apparatus used in the system before start,ing a discussion on system-voltage problems so t h a t the proper voltage identification can be used throughout. It is also necessary t,o know v h y the voltage designat,ions are applied t o help in understairding the system-voltage disussion in the following sections. The volt,age-identification structure is summarized iu Table 4.1. For each of the nominal syst,em voltages listed, t,he table gives voltage ratings of generators, transformers, motors, and (in some cases) lamps. T o illustrate the use of Table 4.1, consider a 13,800-volt system. The generators would be rated 13,800 volts. Transformers stepping power down from transmission voltage would have secondary windings (I?, Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Transformers steppiug power down t o utilization vokage in load-center substations would have primary mindings (C, Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Motors connerted directly to the 13,800-volt bus would lie rated 13,200 volts. From the foregoing summary and Table 4.1 it is evident that care must tie exercised in using the proper voltage ident,ifiration for each piece of equipmelit as well as for the system. Some fundamental rules are as follo\vs : 1. When speaking of equipment, the rated voltage is used, aud it is the voltage to which the operating characteristics are referred. 2. When speaking of systems, rat.ed voltage is not an applicable term because various piwes of equipment in a given system often have different voltage ratings. Therefore, t,he term n o m i n a l s y s t e m vollage is used for convenient designation of systems and circuits t o define the voltage class. The problem of proper identification would be easier if all apparatus of a given voltage class had the same vokage rating. Then, of course, tem voltage could have that same value. Possibly if the industry were starting over again, vokage ident,iticatioii mould be made that simple. But, as syst,ems grew, voltages were ini,hed up t o compensate for t,he voltage drop between source arid load. As a result, of t,hese changes that have taken pla(.e over a period of years, transformer arid generator voltage rat,ings are generally higher than utilization-eiiuipment vnltagc rat,ings. There is logic in this in that the voltage rating of transformers, for example, is t,heir no-load rating. Since most plants are supplied by transformers, the concept has beeri acceptcd that, supply equipment will have a higher voltage rating than utilization equipment,. This means that in a 480-volt system, for cxam* For a iiirthrr rrpansion of t h i s srihjpet F W l < I ~ ~ I - X 1 5 MKPport., l’refrrrrd VoltA age I h t i n g s of :\(: Systrrris and Equipmmt, N I X l’uhliration lo. R-6. S E M A I’ulilirstion l o . 117, \lay, 1‘JIU.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

193.

ple, transforniers or geiierators supplying motors ivoiild have a ratiiig of 480 volts whereas t,he motors irould have a ratiiig of 440 volts. Part of this ditrereiicc: is compeiisated for by voltage drop iii the traiisformer aiid in the distributioii system betiveeii the traiisformers aiid the motors. Therefore, in general, the voltage at the motors is reasoiiably iiear thc iiame-platc ratiiig iii the average system. I n older types of distrihiitioii systems it i m s commoii prartire to use step-doivii trmçformers irith a Iower primary voltage ratiiig thaii thc transformers which ivould siipply that systcm. For example, the ti'aiisformer steppiiig dowi from the iitility voltage ofteii hnil a ratiiig of 2400 volts oii the secoiidary, aiid the traiisformer steppiiig doi\-ii to the utilizatioii voltage of 480 or 240 volts had a ratiiig of 2300 volts oii tlie primar?.. Becausc of the desigii of preseiit-day systems n-itli smaller drgi'ers of volt,age drop, aiid judirioiis m e of taps i i i traiisformers, the prartirc is, as
INCOMING

4
\

MASTER U N I T SUBSTATION ( P R I M A R Y SUBSTATIONI (IF USEDI WINDING

u

1

( A I P R I M A R I WINDING

m SECONDARY l

X
P L A N T P R I M A R Y D I S T R I B U T I D N VDLTAGE

LOAD C E N T E R U N I T SUBSTATION (SECONDARY SUBSTATION IN FACTORYI PRIMARY WINDING
WINDING

FIG. 4.1

Typicol industrial plont power ryrtern

194

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

evident from Table 4.1, t o use the same voltage rating for all traiisformer windings connected t o a given system voltage. This is true whether the transformers are stepping down to this system or steppiug down from this system.
TABLE 4.1
No min0 I
system

Boric Pattern of Voltage Identification
Transformer secondory rated voltage Transformer primary rated voltage Motor and control rated rottoget
L.mp rated YoltDge

Genordor

rated
voltage

*olt.ge

120 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 208Y/120 208Y/120 208Y/120
Three-phase Systems

120 240 I20

230 115

118or120

208Y/120' 240 480* 600 240 ,0' 410 .6' 4,800 6,900* 12,000 13,200
13.800' 23,000 34,500 46,000 69,000 1 1 5,000

20sY/l20 240 480 600 2.400 4,160 4,800 6,900 12.500 13.800 13.800

........ ........ ........

208Y/120 240 480 600 2,400 4,160 4.800 6,900 12,000 13,200 13,800

208 or 120 240 480

220 or 208 208.118. or 120 236 220 440 165
2,300 4,000 4,600 6,600 11,000 13,200 13.200

I

........ ........ .... .... .......

600 2,400 4,160 4.800 6,900 12,000 13.200 13.800 22,900 34,400 43,800 67,000

I I0,OOO

* In ~ P I Vinstallations, or W ~ P ~ P Y srlwtion oi voltngr can l i p ~ n a d rthrsr i ~ r c aP ~ . prcferrrd s y s t m valtagrs. t Specifying t h e w valiirs for motor voltsgcs is itnportarrt: For instnnw. motors to opprste on -IltiO-. GWC-, or 18,800-volt systrins should Iw rntcil 4000. (i(iO0. or 1:1,200 volts, resp2ctively.
The one-line diagram (Fig. 4.1) shows a t y p i i d method of distributing power in industrial plants and will be used as referenre to identify some portions of the systems and equipment referred to.
RATED VOLTAGES OF TRANSFORMERS

Transformer voltage ratings are hased on the no-load values, and the ratio of primary to secondary rated wltages is equal t o the turn ratio. The transformers have a voltage rating for each xindiiig. These are

VOLTAGSSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

195

the voltages a t which characteristics are measured. What then are standard transformer voltage ratings for industrial plants? First, consider primary or master unit substations and transformers which step down from some voltage above 15 kv to plant primary distribution voltage, which is generally below 15 kv (see Fig. 4.1, top substation). The standard primary-winding ( A , Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of this class of substation and transformers are 110, 67, 43.8, 34.4, and 22.9 kv. These are the actual transformer-minding ratings. They are derived from the old rating structure based on secondary ratings in multiples of 115 volts. When secondary ratings were boosted to multiples of 120 volts, the high side rating was raised to maintain the same turn ratio. For instance, 33,000-2300 volts was once a standard rating. Thc corresponding present-day transformer would be rated 34,400-2400. The familiar designations 115, 69, 46, 34.5, and 23 kv refer to the classes of insulation used with these transformers. Secondary-winding ( B , Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of this class of industrial substat,ions and transformers are 13.8, 13.2, 12, 6.9, 4.8, 4.16, and 2.4 k v . S e x t consider transformers in load-center unit substations (see Fig. 4.1, bottom substation) used in t,he industrial plants for stepping down from plant primary distribution voltage to utilization voltage. As stat,ed above, the plant, primary voltage is usually less than 15 kv. Therefore, the list belox includes only voltages below 15 kv. The primary-winding (C, Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of load-center unit substations are 13.8, 13.2, 12, 6.9, 4.8, 4.16, and 2.4 kv. . Note that the primary voltage rating of this class of transformers (bottom, Fig. 4.1) i s the same as the secondary voltage rat,ing of the primary substation transformers (top, Fig. 4.1). The voltage ratings of secondary substations in the plant which supply motors and other utilization equipment are divided into two classesthose for serving utilization equipment above 600 volts and those for serving utilization equipment below BOO volts. Standard rat,ings are listed in Table 4.2.
TABLE 4.2
Transformer Secondary Voltage Ratings ( I ) , Fig. 4.1)
Supplying Utilizoti0n Equipment Roted

Above 600 Volts, Kv 6.9 4.8 4.16 2.4

Supplying Utilization Equipment Roled 600 Volt, or 0e1ox. Volt. 600 IY or delta1 400 IY or delta1

240 208Y/l20

All standard unit substation transformers have taps in the primery winding to allow compensation for voltages that vary from the transformer rating. The most common are four 255 per cent taps, two above

196

VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

aiid two below normal, giving a total adjustment of plus or minus 5 per cent,. With these t,aps in the primary winding, a transformer actually has five different ratios. I t vould he very cumbersome to refer to all five of these ratios in all discussions; therefore, when in the following discussion a transformer is referred t o as having, for example, a rating of 2400-480 volt,s, the discussion will apply equally well whether the transformer is operated 00 the cenher t a p or other taps. Regardless of the tap used, the t,raiisformerwill still be referred to as a 2100-480-volt transformer, Comhined light arid power systems are frequently used where motors are supplied a t 180 volts, for example, and lights are supplied at 120 volts from the same 480-volt system, using dry-type transformers. The standard primary volt,age ratings for t,hese light,ing transformers are 600 volts, 480 volts, arid 240 volts, aiid the standard secondary vohage ratings are 208Y/120 volts and 120/240 volts. Two rated kva 5 per cent below normal t,aps are provided in these transformers t,o allow for operation of 120-volt lamps near t,heir rated voltage when the voltage on the 480-volt system is below 480 volts as it normally vill be.

TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REPRESENTATIONS

Transformer voltage designations become rather complex. For illstance, windings may have series-parallel connections. Or they may be designed for connection line-to-neutral on higher rated volt,age systems, such as 3400-volt transformers which are suitable for line-toneutral operation OIL 4160-volt systems. These and other complex arrangements make exact identification desirable. These variables in t,ratisformer voltage ratings have long been expressed by various symbolic met,hods. Such methods are essential because t o fully describe the \\-indings of transformers often would require a fairly lengthy paragraph. However, t o bc of any value a transformer rating so expressed should meao the same to everyone. To further a consistent use of symbols, hot,h KERIA and ASh standards have been established t,o rci~ommenda standard transformer “shorthand.” Four symbols are used: the dash (-), t,he slant (/), the X, and the Y. In general terms, their uses are as follows: Dash (-). Used to separate the voltage ratings of separate windings in a specific transformer. Slant ( I ) . Used t o separate voltages t o be applied to or obtained from the same windiug. X. Used to designate separate vokagcs obtainable by reconnection of the coils of a winding in series or multiple combinations. Y. t!sed t o designat,e a winding t,hat is Y-connected. The absence of

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

I97

this symbol in a three-phase transformer rating indicates that the winding is delta-connected. The use of the dash, slant, and Y can he easily illustrated by the voltage rating of the transformer for a typical load-center suhstation. 4160-480Y/277: Note that this meaus the 4160-volt high-voltage winding is delta-corinected while the 480-volt winding is Y-couiiected with t,he neutral brought out. A three-winding t,ransformer might have this voltage rating: 13,800-2400-480Y/277. In three-phase transformers the slaut is ofteri used to indicate wiiidiiigs connectable either in delta or Y. For iiistauce, a 2400/4lCiOY windiug can be couiiected either for 2400 volts deka or 4160 volts Y. Xote that the delta voltage is expressed first. When a Y-connected winding has the neutral brought out it is siguified like this: 2OSY/lZO. Here the line voltage is expressed first, fol1oir.d by the line-to-neutral voltage. If the neutral is brought out with reduced insulation, that fact is shoivu by 208 Grd Y/120. Another use of the slant is to indicate taps, especially 011 single-phase transformers. For instance, a 240-volt wiuditig with a midtap is expressed 240/120. When a single-phase t,ransformer with a series-multiple winding is vound to be suitable for three-wire service on the series conoectioii, it is designat,ed 120/240. When a winding has several taps close to the rated volt,age, it is cust,omary to specify them as illustrated in t,his specific case: four 255 per ceut rated kva taps, t x o above and tI5-o below rated voltage. The X symbol is used to separate t,he volt,ages obtainable in a seriesmukiple minding not, suitable for three-wire operation. For example, a minding rated 120 X 240 can be connected with t,he coils in parallel to obt,ain 120 volts or Tr.it,h the coils iu series for 240 rolt,s.
RATED VOLTAGES OF GENERATORS

Siiice the generator is a source of elect,ric poir-er aud is ofteu i u parallel wit,h primary substation transformers (see Fig. 4,1), its voltage aud ('oiiscquently its rat,itig is in practically all cases the same as the transformer in a giveu voltage class. Listed in Table 4.3 are the three-phase generator ratings that, are recommended by the latest EEI-SE5I.i report.
TABLE 4.3
208Y/120 "Olt. 240 volts 480 volts 600 volts

Generator Voltage Ratings*
2,400 volts 4,160 volts 4.800 volts 6,900 volts

13.800 "011. 14,400 volts

of 11,500 and 12,500 volts are n s ~ d genrrators on smnr rstablislird for hut are, not rrrommmdrd for nmv systim~s. Thc corrcsponrling trnnsfornii,r rating is 12,000 w i t s and transformcr taps sllon for paralirl oprration.
systems

* Ratings

198

VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

The 14,400-volt rating has been adopted largely in large generating stations where the input is transformed up to higher voltage in a unit transformer generator arrangement (see Fig. 4.2).

mTwI

2
4
I
FIG. 4.2
HIGH VOLTAGE BUS
merit,

Unit transformer generator arronge-

RATED VOLTAGES OF MOTORS

A t the other end of the system are the motors, and their rat,ings reflect the fact that voltage at utilizatioii equipment is somewhat loirer t,haii a t the sources of power because of voltage drop. Single-phase motors are usually rated at 115 or 230 volts. The standard voltage rat,ings of polyphase motors are given in Table 4.1.
TABLE 4.4
110 "0111

M o t o r Voltage Ratings
550 "011. 6,600 Volt.

208 volt. 220 wit.
440 rolls

2,300 ~011s 4,000 ~ o l t i 4,600 volts

I1.000 volt,
13,200 volts

hlot,or-cotit,rol equipment has the same voltage rating as the associated motor.
RATED VOLTAGES OF LAMPS

Inrandescent lamps are standardized at 120 volts. Higher voltages have not in general heeo found sat,isfactory. Fluorescent lamps offer a wider range of operation and are commotily rat,rd a t 118, 208, 230, and 265 volt,s (for line-t,o-neut,ral on 480-volt systems).
OTHER APPARATUS

Some other types of equipment such as capacitors and industrial heating equipment have compromised between the extremes of generator

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

I99

rating and motor rating in a given voltage class. For instance, industrial heating devices are rated at 115,230, 4G0, and 575 volts. Capacitors are rated at 230, 460, 575, 2400, 4800, 7200, 12,470, and 13,800 volts.
NOMNAL SYSTEM VOLTAGES

The choice of the numerical value t o represent nominal system voltage is purely arhitrary and does not attempt to indicate an average system voltage. It is merely a name. However, it is very desirable that a consistent practire in designating nominal voltages be followed. When used properly, the nominal voltage should give a good picture of the voltage struct,ure of a system with a minimum of misunderstandings. The standard values for nominal system voltage correspond t,o the ratings of source equipment.
TABLE 4.5
Standard Nominal System Voltages
Singlo Phase

120 120/240 240
Three Phore

208Y/l20

240 480 600 2,400 4,160

4,800 6,900
12,000

34,500

4, O 6 O C
69.000 115,000

13,200
13,800 23,000

Table 4.5 is not complete but is representative of industrial practice. To repeat, it is extremely important to identify properly the voltage rating of each piece of apparatus in a system as well as to identify the nominal system voltage. The voltage ratings of the various pieces of apparatus, as ran he seen from the foregoing, may be different even though the apparatus is for use on the same given voltage class system. Therefore, correct identification of each piece is of paramount importance. For example, if one is buying equipment to supply a 180-volt system, the secondaries of t,he transformers should he specified as -180-volt rating. The motors and control should be specified as 440-volt rating. The system nominal voltage is referred to as 480 volts. Other apparatus on this system may have different voltage ratings. For example, capacitors would be rated 460 volts; heating equipment would be rated 460 volts. It is also important to remember that transformer and generator voltage

200

VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

ratings are always higher than utilization-device ratings. This is logical because the transformer voltage ratings are the no-load voltage ratings, and as load is applied to the system the voltage drops to near the nameplate rating of the lower rated utilization apparatus.

An ideal electric power system is one which will supply constant frequency and volt,age at rated name-plate value t o every piece of apparatus in the system. I n modern power systems, frequency is a minor problem. It is impractical, however, t o design a power system which will deliver absolutely constant rated name-plate voltage to every piece of apparatus. Since this cannot he attained, what are the proper limits of voltage variation in a n industrial plant? These should be determined by the characteristics of the utilization apparatus. First, certain definitions are essential to underst,arid clearly the discussion of this problem. Voltage Spread. Voltage spread is the difference between the maximum and minimum voltages which appear at any location in a system under riormal operating conditions. Voltage spread is not intended to cover momentary voltage changes uf a transitory nat,ure such as those due t o switching surges, motor starting, welders, etc. The first part of this discussion is primarily concerned with voltage spread a t utiliaatiori equipment. This is the diKercnce between the maximum and minimum voltages a t the terminals of the utilization equipment under normal system operating conditions (Fig. 4.3). Maximum values usually appear during light load and minimum values a t full load on the electric system. Another important type of voltage spread is primary or supply voltage spread which is the difference between the maximum and the niinimum voltage a t the service entrance or plant primary bus of a particular plant under normal operating conditions. Voltage Zone. Voltage zone is the envelope of all voltage spreads for a particular voltage class of system. For any specific voltage class designated by a nominal system voltage there inherently exists an appreciable range of operat,ing voltages between the systems having the highest and lowest voltages for this class. Countrywide, this zoue is larger thaii the voltage spread at, ariy one location because of recognized differences in practices of different companies.

* The data in this sretion arc l a r ~ c l y adapted from an AIEE Industrial Power System Coinmittre 1Lpurt. Industrid Voltag- Ilrquirpmeats, Elec. Eng., vol. 6 i , 1948, pp. 358-374.

3.3 7.
PRIMARY SYSTEM

z
LONGEST SECONDARY FEEDER

5 ,

NO _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ LOAD_VOLTAGE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 480 __ _ _ ~

2500-PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREAD. NO LOAD TO F U L L LOAO AT PLANT SERVICE ENTRANCE

: : z
r

s
0 Y

2400Y

> E
v) Y

0
TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE DROP

2 N 0
E >

1

k 9
2
( L

Q

2300P

T.
Y 0 <

FEEDER VOLTAGE DROP

5

> 0
> 2200-

*
I
L

I

PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREIO, NO LOAD TO F U L L LOAD AT PLANT SERVICE LNTRANCE

VOLTS

I

E

0
TRANSFORMER VOLTAEE DROP

C U R V E A - T R A N S F O R M E R OPERATING ON HIGHEST TAPRATIO 2 5 2 0 - 4 8 0 VOLTS AT NO LOAD. CURVE 8 TRANSFORMER OPERATING O N LOWEST TAPRATIO 2260-480 VOLTS AT NO LOAD.

FIG. 4.3

Examples of voltage zone, spread, and drop.

202

VOLTAGFSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

difference in voltage in various parts of the power system. The other cause is primary voltage spread a t the service entrance of the plant.

EFFECT O F VOLTAGE DROP

To show the effect of voltage drop in a plant it will be assumed that the primary voltage is maintained a t a constant value regardless of plant load. The simple circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 will be used as an illustration. The primary voltage is assumed to be of such magnitude that the secondary voltage on the transformer is 480 volts a t no load. Referring to Fig. 4.5, a t extremely light load there is essentially no voltage drop through the transformer or in any of the secondary circuits connected to the transformer. Consequently, the voltage is substantially the same throughout the plant, and any lights or other incidental load connected a t this time is subject to practically the no-load voltage. It is particularly significant a t this point to recognize that transformer voltage ratings are the no-load
SECONDARY BUS

TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT

FIG. 4.4

Typical industrial plant power circuit,

480
2

.-

400 VOLTS

ZERO VOLTAGE DROP
A

2

4704 6 0 ~

y)

3

9

:rp
460

_ _ _ _ _ ~. FA NO TRANS
----

]----____________________

LOAD VOLTAGE-480 VOLTS VOLTAGE DROP VOLTAGE DROP IN THRU TRANSFORMER15 VOLTS SECONDARV FEEDER-IOVOLTS

TOTAL VOLTAGE

l,z
IN BRANCH DROP
CIRCUIT-

450

sE~!~48oro~?p~"2~Ts G!? ? E

_________________-__

--- -___

5 VOLTS

_

A

Full-load voltage conditions f r circuit shown in Fig. 4.4. o

No primary voltage

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

203

204

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

480470y1

---VOLTAGE DROP THRU TRANSFORMER 1 VOLTS 5 VOLTAGE DROP IN SEOWDARI FEEDER VOLTAGE DROP IN

9
450 440

I

_________________________________

TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD 480 TO 440 VOLTS 140 VOLTS1

---

-______

FIG. 4.7 Full-load voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig, 4.4 with 10 volts (on 480volt baris) primary voltage spread. Primary voltage varies from maximum at no load to minimum a t full load.

VOLTAGE DROP I N SECONDARY FEEDER1 VOLTS 0

FIG. 4.8 Full-load voltoge condition3 for circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 with 10 volt. (on 480volt basis) primary voltage spread. Primory voltage varier from minimum at no load to maximum at full load.

470

~

460;

4SO

G

440

430 420

. 410 .
J

;1
___---

_____

_________NO

-

480 VOLTS

- 40

VOLTS

VOLTAGE DROP THRU TRANSFORMER

VOLTAGE DROP IN SECONDARY FEEDER
lo

VOLTAGE DROP

2s__vw3

TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD 4 8 0 TO 4 0 VOLTS 170 VOLTS) 1

V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

205

EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SPREAD O N UTlLlZATlON EQUIPMEN?

G e n e r a l Effects. Whenever the voltage a t the terminals of a utilization device varies from name-plate rating of the de\.ice, something is sacrificed either in life or performanre of t,he equipment. The effert,may be minor or serious, depending upon the chararteristirs of the device, how the device is applied, and the amount the voltage deviates from the device rating. KESIA Standards provide for rert,ain tolerances whirh may he taken advantage of without seriously affertiiig the performanre of the apparatus. However, with usbge of electrir pover for precise operations, there is often a major sacrifire in produrtion for volt,age variations of considerably less than given in t,he NERlA Standards. So that the plant engineer can better judge the effect 11f vokage variation on t,he electric equipment in his plant, the rharacteristics of many commonly used derires are given here. I t is these rhararteristirs rvhirh have been used as a st,arting point for establishing the desired voltage spread of Tables 4.8 and 4.9. Effect on Induction Motors. Induction motors are the most rommoir utilization derires in industrial plants. Thr variatioii i n rharactrristiw as a function of voltage for the widely used inductiotr motors is shoivn i n Table 4.G. The material in this section deals only n-ith the cffert 011 motor chararterist,ies of rhaiiges in voltage magnitude. The effect, of unbalanced voltages is also very importatit and shonld he rotrsiderrd. The rurrent may hecomc esressive for only a small voltage iuihalanre. The XEBIA St,andards should be consulted for detailed information on this subject,. Principal Effects of l o w Voltage on Induction Motors. The most significant effects of too lox voltage are reduction in starting torque a t i d increased full-load t,emperature rise. The redurtion of st,arting torque may be significant i n mot,or applications driving high-inertia rqnipmeirt. The lower torqne i d 1 result, in longer armleration periods. Torque mot,ors are also very materially affected hy redured voltage as thi. torque decreases as the square of the voltage; thus a t 10 per reut helow normal voltage, the torque is redured 19 per cent. The increased heating at low voltage aiid full load rediirrs thr lifr of the insulat,ion. Principal Effects of High Voltage on Induction Motors. The most, significant efferts of too high voltage are inrreased tnr(lue, inr,rrasrd starting rurrent, and decreased p o r e r factor. The increased torque may muse rouplings to shear off or damage t o driven equipment. Increased starting curretit raiiscs greater voltage drop in the power system, henre increases light, flirker. Uecreased p o ~ v z r factor is particularly disadvantageous where power-fartor peualty rlanses

206

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATiNGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

TABLE 4.6

General Effect of Voltage Variation on Induction-motor Characteristics

I
90% voltage
Starting and maximum running torque... Synchronous speed.. Per cent d i p . . Full-load speed.

Voltage Variotion

Functionof voltage

110% voltage

.......... No change Cons1.nt ............... Increase 23% 1 (voltagel~ .............. Decreore 136% ISyn. speod--.llpl Efficiency: Full load.. ................ Decrease 2 points .............. 9% load. .................. Proclicolly no change .............. )i l o a d . . ................. Increase 1 to 2 point\$ ..............
Power faclor; Full land.. Increase 1 point load.. Increase 2 lo 3 point! load. Incrcoie 4 lo 5 points Full-load ~ u r r e n t . Increase I1 Yo Starting w r r e n l . . Decrease 10 to 12% Voitoge Temperature rise, full load. Increose 6 to 7 C Maximum torque capocity.. IV0ltogeJ~ Decrease 19% Magnetic n0ire.m load in parliculor.. Decrease slightly

................. Decrease 19%

(Voltage)’

InCreOle 21 N o change

Decrease 17%

Increase 1 %
Small increo*e Procticdiy no change Decrease 1 to 2 points

I( 36

................. .................. ............. ............. ..... .... .....................

................

.............. Decrease 3 points .............. Decrease 4 points .............. Decrease 5 lo 6 points .............. Decrease7% Inc,eo.e 10 to 12% .............. Decrease I lo 2 C
Increa3e 21 %

..............

Increase slightly

This table s h o w gencral effcets, which will vary somewhat for specific ratings.

are applied by the utilities. The higher the motor voltage rises, the lower the power fartor mill become. This may result in a greater penalty and hence a higher power bill. While the temperature rise at full load on standard motors decreases slightly for moderate overvoltages, the temperature rise may increase on certain types of sperial motors a t even very small overvoltages. Overvoltages of 10 t o 1.5 per cent have caused numerous burnouts on special four-speed grinder motors. Motors rated for intermittent load are also materially affected by overvoltagcs. While marry drive applications are not seriously affected by voltage deviations as much as plus or minus 10 per cent from rated voltage, there are import,ant applications that are. Effect on Synchronous Motors. The effect of voltage variation on the performance of synchronous motors is similar t o that on induction motors. However, while t,he starting torque varies as the square of the voltage, the maximum or pull-out torque varies directly with the voltage. From the above discussions it will be noted that, in general, voltages slightly in excess of motor name-plate rating have less detrimental effect

V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

207

on motor performance than voltage helow the name-plate rating. This is one of the bases on which the voltage spreads in Table 4.9 mere determined. A s a n example, the figures show a recommended spread of 420 t o 180 volts for the 480-volt nominal system voltage, which is approximately 4 per cent below and 9 per cent above the 440-volt motor rating. Effect on Incandescent lamps. The light output and life of incandescent filament lamps are critically affected by the impressed voltage. I n Table 4.7 is shown the relationship of lamp life arid output t o voltage for a vokage range from 80 t o 120 per cent of rated voltage. I n general it may be said that for incandescent filament lamps a 1 per cent deviation from rated voltage causes a change of 3 t o 335 per cent in light output. It can be seen from Table 4.7 that a 10 per cent reduction in lamp voltage results in a 30 per cent reduction in light output. In other words, when the voltage is 10 per cent low, the investment in the lighting system is working at only 70 per cent efficiency-thus, 30 per

! i ! 3
a

2

0
c

9 a
FIG. 4.10 Characteristics of large gar-filled incandescent type C lampr. average of many lampr. There are the

3

PER CENT NORMAL VOLTS

208

V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

cent of the investment is lost. With an overvoltage of 10 per cent the lamp-life is reduced t o less than oue-third~-t,hus lamp-replacement costs are three times as great as a t normal voltage. Other dat,a arc shown in Fig. 4.10, from which it, should be noted that the lumens per watt., or lamp efficieilcy, rises sharply at voltages above 100 per cent. I n some cases, operating eronnmies result from hurriing lamps at higher efficiency and short life, or vice versa.
TABLE 4.7 Effect of Voltage Variations on Gar-filled Incandescent-lamp Choracteristics
Per cent rated voltage Per cent rated lighl output Per <en1 heoretical* life

Socket
voltage
~

96.0 102.0 108.0 110.4 112.8 115.2 117.6 120.0 122.4 124.8 127.2 129.6 132.0 138.0 144.0

80 85 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110
115

47 58 70 75 8 1 87 93 I00 105
115

1900 850 400 300 225 170 130 100 75 60

I20 I30
I40

45 35
30 15 10

I20

I60 185

~* Throrrticnl lifv in thc nhsrrrcc of any mcrhanicnl hrcakagc.. In onlinary sprvire, mcchanird hrrakage r c d n r r s t h p liip expectanrc a t tlrr lo\ver roltagrs.
Effect on Fluorescent l a m p s . The changes in lamp characteristics iI-ith rariatioii in cirruit, voltage arc given in Fig. 4.1 1. IIIgeneral, 1 per cent variatiim i n line voltage n-ill changc t,he lumeir oudput only about 1 per cent. Toltage is a factor in starting reliahility, and voltages l o w r than recommeiided may result in unsatisfactory starting. It will be noted that the ores-all efficiency (if the fluoresrerrt, lamp decreases if the line volt,age is raised above normal. The increased line volt,age causes the choke t,o pass more current to the lamp. This loivers the resistance of the arc. column, rcsulting in a lower voltage drop i n the lamp itself. The input, Ti-atts t o the lamp are slightly increased, and t,herefore the lumen output increases over a cert,aiii range. In this condition, however, the higher currcnt density priiduces the short ultraviolet radiation less effirieutly; wilserpently t,he luminous efficiency of the lamp decreases.

VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

209

Fluorcsreiit lamps are f a r less af'ectrd hy circuit voltage variatioli tllan filament lamps, from t,he standpoint of life. The life of preheat-type lamps should he quite satisfartmy throrlghollt, the range of published voltage fur the various Iiallasts; tlicsr volt:tg(. ranges, iii general, are 110 ti] 125, 100 t o 2l(i, 220 to 250. :ind 240 t o 280. There may be some derrease i n life performalire \\-3ir11w i t c d a t maxiop mum vokage as compared with that, at miiiimiim vdt:igr. I I ~ i ~ e v t ~ r there are a numher of other fartors, SWIM: of whidi arc i ~ i r p r ~ ~ d i r ~tlr;lt,~ l ~ tal affect life. I I There is ?onsideral)le differenre i l l this rrsprct het ~ C ~ slimlillp a t i l l regular preheat-type lamps. The iiistairt-start rathodr whivh is ~ l s r d l l i all slimline and instalit-start lamps van Iw o p e m t d ovrr ii ividr ~'angr if , current, from 120 to 430 ma, with rrlatiwly littlr d f c r t 1111 life. Ballasts also affert life. Even though they mtsrt sprvitivatioll r ~ y ~ i ~ i r c , . meiits, they have maiiufactnriiig toleranre and t h i w a r c drsigit rliffwvnws b e t w e n types.
DECREASE0 UNCERTAIN OPERATION EXCESSIVE LIGHT OUTPUT ANP STARTING AND MAY RESULT AT UNDER VOLTAGE. INFERIOR LAMP PERFORYANCE AN0 DANGER OF OVERHEATING AUXILIARY MAY RESULT AT EXCESSIVE OVER VOLTAGE.

/
i

\

x

I

RECOMMENDED OPERATING RANGE BEST PERFORMANCE

I

I

L I N E VOLTAGES

FIG. 4.1 1

Characteristics of fluorescent lornpr OI function of voltage applied to bollort.

210

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

Fluorescent lamps also differ from filament lamps in that the frequency of start,irig is a factor iii the life obt,ained. Rated life is usually based on 3 hr of operation per start,. For 10 hr operation per start, the lamp's life is increased approximat,ely 35 per cent. Therefore, ally data 011 life vs. circuit voltage for the normal range in operat,iiig voltage ivould have little significaiice. At voltages below the lower limit, insufficient preheat current for proper cathode emission prior t o starting may result in short life. At voltages heyoiid the upper limit, the overcurrent operat,ioii may rcsult in unsatisfartory lamp life. Effect on Mercury Lamps. The effect of voltage variation on mercury lamps is shown in Fig. 4.12. Effect on Resistance Heating Devices. The energy input and therefore the heat output of resistaiice heaters varies in general with the square of the impressed voltage. Thus a 10 per cent drop in voltage will cause a drop of 19 per cent in heat, output. This, however, holds true only for an operating range over which the resistance remains constant. M a n y healing devices are conservat,ively designed arid if thermostatically controlled may operate satisfactorily even if the voltage varies 10 per cent or more. However, in many rases the designer must confine his heating units into a miiiimum of space and must, therefore, operate them near maximum rating. Also the temperature requirements for many heating applicatioiis IiecessiMe the operation of the heating units a t maximum temperature. h drop i n voltage meaiis a drop in heat input, varying with the square of the voltage, and a loss in production. On the other hand, excessive voltage will increase the temperature of the heating units and therefore will reduce their life. This condition applies especially t o furnaces operating at high temperatures near the maximum permissible for

I

I
I

I I

I I

/I/ I

I

I
I

I

I

I

I

u OC
60

40

0

U

10

60

I

70

P R I M V0LTIT.F

-I

rn
CCYI

I

90 wo 110 iao 10 3 0 s TIIANSFORMER T P SETTING A

I

1

I

I

I

140

I

I

FIG. 4.12

Choracterirticr of mercury type H 400-watt lamps.

VOLTAG&STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATtON

O F

DROPS

211

the type of heating unit used. To assure uniform high production and the best operating conditions, the voltage should be maintained mithiu a spread of plus or minus 5 per cent of rated voltage. Effect on Infrared Heating Processes. Although the filaments of the lamps used in these installations are of the resistance type, the energy output does not vary with the square of the voltage because the resistance varies a t the same time. The radiated energy vs. voltage is shown in Fig. 4.13 for the rating of 115 volts used on industrial infrared lamps. The wattage input is nearly proportional t o the energy output for a voltage range of 50 t o 150 per cent of rated voltage. The change in wattage and radiated energy is only 7 per cent for a 5 per cent change in voltage. However, this might he more harmful thau a larger change in typical resistance heaters employing thermostatic controls, if the product dryiiig is very sensitive t o temperature differences. For the usual paint-drying applications, no voltage coutrols are required with infrarcd lamps. Uniformity of product speed in the oven is the usual objective for coiiveyerized operations. Differences in heating requirements are rea,dily accomplished by connecting the infrared lamps to a number of circuits, so that some of the lamps can be switched on and off in accord with t,he exact, heat,ing needs. I n t,he cases vhere lamp sivitching cannot rompensat,e for the volt,age variat,ions, it may be necessary to use a voltage regulator to maintain conveyer speed and product quality. Effect on Electronic Equipment. The current-carrying ability or emissiou of all elect,ronic tubes is affect,ed seriously by voltage deviation from rating. Figure 4.14 shows typical emission curves plotted agairist cathode heater voltage. Curve 1, entitled Oxide Coated, applies t o most of the thyratrons, pliotrons, and rereiving tubes. Curve 2 for thoriated tungsten applies t o the small transmitter tubes and some of the hattery-

FIG. 4.13
QI

Radiant-energy output of General Electric Company industrial infrared lamps a function of impressed voltoge.

212

VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

heated tubes. Curve 3, Pure Tungsten, applies t o the oscillator tube such as used in high-frequeiicy induction and dielectric heaters. The rathode-life curve f o r pure tungsten indicates that, the life is redured by half for esrh 5 per rent iiiwease iii cathode volt,age. This redured life is due t o the higher rate of evaporation of the rathode material. At voltages below rating, the loss d emission has very serious sec-

20 0

40LL
30
40

FIG. 4.14

Calculated values of electronic-tube emission and life

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

213

ondary effects. In a vacuum tube surh as the pliotron and kenet,ron a small loss of eniission below that needed means rednced ont,put and sometimes excessive tube heating which is reflerted in a shorter life. However, for gas-filled tubes such as thyratrons and phanotrons i n ivhirh t,he rurrent, is not limited by the tube spare rharge, if insuffirient emission is available t o carry the load current, the gas molecules bombard the rathode surfare and may destroy t,he tube in a matter of minnt,es. Therefore, it is extremely important that the rathode voltage be kept up near rating on these tubes for sat,isfactory service. I n addition t o the above factors there are ot,her important things to be taken into ronsiderat,ion. If the volt,sge is too high, the evaporated material from the cathode may contaminate the grid or anode and cause grid current and arc-back, making the tuhe iuoperativc. If the rathode voltage is too low in the gas-filled tuhe, the snrfare callnot be activated properly and loses its emitting effiiknry very quirkly. This permits bombardment, as explained above, and destruct,ion of the cathode. T o permit the voltage t o fall helow rather than t o rise slightly above rating i s serious. Standard industrial t,uhes are desigued t o operate \vith a voltage tolerance of plus or minus 5 per cent. Iloivever, if a closer tolerance than this can be maiutained, thc user will he amply repaid i n increased tube life and reliable operatioil. If voltage sij-ings must he tolerated, it is more desirable t,hat,t,he minimum s\ving be t o not less thau 95 per cent, of rating even hhuugh the average voltage may he slightly above rating. While this prartice \\-ill, of course, give somewhat redured tube life, it is preferablc t o low xwltage rr-hich rauees rapid tube drterioration. While t,he effect of voltage change is most, important on the tube cathode, it is also undesirable ill ot,her parts of the ririwit. Electrotiic circuits, as all other electric cirruits, lost power mparity rapidly if the voltage is decreased from rating. Although critiml circuits normally contain voltage-regulator tubes and other mealis t o hold a constant reference vokage in spit,e of line-voltage variat,ions, economic reasons prevent voltage regulation on t,he majority of rirruits, and henre thcir funrtion will naturally be impaired by excessive voltage variation. This is especially true when magnetic sat,uration is part of the roiitrol function. Effect on Solenoid-operated Devices. I n this group fall solenoids, brakes, valves, and rlutrhes. The pull of the a-c solenoid varies approximately as t,he square of the voltage. There is some deviation from this law, depending upon which part of the brake-horsepower cnrve the solenoid is working. The temperature rise, too, varies approximately a s t h r square of the vokage. I n general, solenoids are liberally designed and standard rommerrial solenoids are designed to operate satisfartorily on 10 per cent overvoltage

214

V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

and 15 per cent undervoltage. Since an a-c solenoid has an inrush current of approximately ten times the sustained value when sealed, the branch circuit sJpplying it should be of ample capacity to prevent an excessive voltage drop. Effect on Capacitors. The corrective capacity of capacitors varies with the square of the impressed voltage. A drop of 10 per cent in the supply voltage, therefore, reduces the corrective capacity by almost 20 per cent, and where the user has made a sizable investment in capacitors for power-factor correction, he loses the benefit of 20 per cent of this investment.
RECOMMENDED VOLTAGE SPREAD AT UTILIZATION EQUIPMEN1

Rased on the foregoing effects of voltage variation on utilization equipment and an extensive poll of industrial plant operating engineers, the AIEE Committee on Industrial Power Applications established the recommended voltage spreads at the terminals of devices in industrial plants. These are shown in Tables 4.8 and 4.9.*
TABLE 4.8
Recommended Voltage Spread a t the Terminals of Utilization Devices in Industrial Distribution Systems 600 Volts and Below
Nominal Iyllem
volt.ge

Commonly "red ulilizolion-device
"Oltage rating.

Recommended limib of volloge at terminals of ulilizolion devices

480

A00

!

440,* 460
550,* 575

!

420-480 525-600

Drsigriations for nominal system voltages are those commonly used in industrial plants. * ThPse are standard polyphase-motor voltage ratings. t Polyphase power loads may not operate satisfactorily a t this l o m ~ r limit

In designing industrial power distribution systems, the system design engineer should design for voltage spreads not in excess of those mentioned in Tables 4.8 and 4.9. If anything, it would be desirable to design for closer limits to allow for critical utilization apparatus that may be developed and widely used in the future. The history of electricity in industrial plants has been to extend its use to more and more functions. As

* Thcse rwommcndstions are in iuhstantial agreement with thP recommmdations of the joint EM-SEMA Committce whirh puhlishrd their findings in a report, Prcferrpd Voltage Ratings of AC Systems and Equipmcnt.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

21s

TABLE 4.9

Recommended Voltoge Spreod a t the Terminols of Motors Served ot Primory Voltoge
Recommended limits af voltage at terminalr of high-voltage moiors

Nominal syitem dtage

Motor-nome-plote *oltoge rating

2400 2400 4160 4800 6900

~

2300"
4600 6600

1

1I
I

2160 2250 3920

4500
6470

2380 2480 4320 5000 71 30

*

I'rmrnt standard rnot,or voltagc rating.

well as driving the utilization equipment, it is alço used for a11 types of rritical proccss control systems; therefore, its role is hecorniiig exceedingly important, and t o fulFiI1 this role effectively, good voltage must he rnaintaiiied iii industrial plants.
L I G H T FLICKER V O L T A G E REQUIREMENTS

Relatively slom chaiiges in voltage are associated mith voltage spreads as discussrd iii tlie foregoiiig. There are, however, maiiy types of voltage changes 1rhii.h are of a traiisient nature aiid last only a feiv cycles. Thcse are commiiiily referred to as voltage flicker, aiid its primary effect is to cause flicker iii t h r light ciiitput of lamps. The arnount of voltage variatioii as a fiiiirtioii of frequency of variation which can be xvithstood on iiicaiidesrent larnps aiid not cause ohjei:tionahle psychological effects is shown iii Fig. 4.15. These curves were preseiited in the General Electric Review, hugust, 1925. Fluoresceiit lamps are less suhject t o flicker over a range of voltage that is beloiv that whirh mil1 piit them out. Iii industrial plants, voltage flicker i s caiised primarily hy the followiiig types of load: repetitive motor starting, large rei,iprocatiiig cornpressors, punch presses, etc., which dram a fluctiiating load; resistarice wcldcrs; aiid arc furnaces. T o elimiiiatc objcctionable light flicker, the design of the systcm should be siich that the lirnits of Fig. 4.15 are adhered to. Wider lirnits may be iiscd uiider certaiii coiiditioiis without cornplaiiit from the personnel orrupyiiig tlie affei,tcd arca. Ho!rcv&, this subject is so cornplicated aiid involved t h a t general guides other than Fig. 4.15 would probably not be of much use.

216

VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS FLICKER OF INCANDESCENT LAMPS CAUSED 81 RECURRENT VOLTAGE DIPS

I

5
0
Y

5
0

w 3

' t

t-

z Y
a

,' w

0

0
DllO

PL"

"0"I

DlPI

PLI1 SECOND

1 0

8 2 6 YlUUlLI

J

2

I

30

12

L

IFCOYDL

TIME

BETWEEN DIPS

FIG, 4.15
IWlPS.

Relation of magnitude of voltage dips to frequency of dips for incandescent

METHODS O F REDUCING VOLTAGE SPREAD AND FLICKER
REDUCING VOLTAGE SPREAD (See Fig. 4.271

\Vitlr recommended values of voltage spread established by the N E E
Industrial Power Systems Committee a i d EEI-SEA\Z.%, it is possible to

study specitiv syst,ems to see hon. they romparc with these rcquiremerits. Where voltage spreads arc found t,o be heyorid t,hose limits, there are four 11-aysof reducing the voltage spread. 1 . Carry the power further a t a higher voltage and a t a lesser dist,aim at 1o\vcr voltage, i.e., use the load-center power system. 2. 1tediii.p the impedance of the systrm. 3. Use regiilat,iiig equipment t o rompelisate for volt,age drop. 4. Use s\~iti~Iied capacitors. llaintaiiiiiig the volt,age at an average desirable I e i d also requires the judicious use of traiisformer ratios and taps. Traiisformer taps (for changing a t no load oilly) do trot, reduce the spread but affect only t,he general voltage level arid particularly the light load voltage in the plallt.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

217

TABLE 4.10

Per Cent Voltoge Drop as a Function of Circuit Voltage for a Feeder of a Given Cross Section
circcuit V0ltoge 240 480 2,400 4,160
Relative Per Cent Voltage Drop

400
100
4

I .33
0.12

13.800

Some examples will serve t,o illustrate the better voltage conditions in the load-cetit,er system. The average 480-volt load-renter substatioii is rated 750 h a . With ail average load density of 10 va per sq ft, this substatioir will servc a i l arca of 73,000 s q ft,. Ideally, the load area would be a square, with the substatioii esartly i i i the renter; then the longest feeder length ivould tie about l(i5.ft. Rut it i d 1 he assumed t,hat t,he area is somewhat rcctaiigular atid that the suhstatioii rannot he lorated exactly at the center. The artual length of the longest feeder might then he ahout 200 ft. Figure 4.16 rontains charts showing the voltage profiles for this 480-volt suhstatioii. The trairsformcr taps should lie set for 480 secondary volts when the primary voltage is at its maximum atid with no load on the substation. The highest, voltage that is eticoi~titered by ally equipment served hy this substatioii is 480 volts. At maximum load, voltage drop has its maximum effect. A 4 pcr rcnt voltage reduction i u the primary system is assumed, to illustrate the Ion--voltage rondition. This could he due to a dcrreasc i n the power-vompauy supply voltage with inrreased load on its system. h drop of 15 volts due t,o traiisformer react,ancc can he experted. Assuming the 200-ft feeder t o ronsist of a 250-MCM cahle per phase and to he fully loaded a t 80 per rent power factor, i t mill~iutro-

218

V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

O DROPS F

duce about another 7 volts drop. h final 5 volts may be lost in the branch circuit. The result is a minimum voltage at the end of the branch circuit of 433 volts. In this system, voltage varies between the limit,s of 433 volts and 480 volts---a voltage spread that should, in general, be satisfactory. The old-type system often uses a suhstatioii as large as 3000 kva at 480 volts. And not heing of unit substation construction, it has to be located at one edge of the load area-probably with the t,rausformers outdoors. With the same load density as before, 10 va per sq f t , the 3000-kva snbstation must supply an area'of 300,000 sq ft,. I n this substation the longest feeder will probably be ahout 900 ft. The corresponding feeder voltage drop will be 29 volts. Here the voltage spread is from 411 to 480 volts. Such a spread is well heyond the recommeuded limits. A full load voltage of 411 i s too low t o be coiisidered good practice; 420 i s the recommended minimum voltage for 440-volt motors.
7 5 0 KVA SU0STATlDN

460

2440
420

400
NO LOAD VOLTAGE CONDITIONS WITH PRIMARY

VOLTAGE a T M A X I M U M

2 440->
420

-

SECONDARY FEEDER/ VOLTAGE DROP- 7 VOLTS

-VOLTAGE DROP-

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION O F DROPS

219

60

48
w
0

a

3 0
>

k

ABLE 51ZE

FULL LOAL AMP

U

3

n U
w

U0.4 vo. I 000

90

7 24l
21 0
W

z

I40 210 500 MCM 4 0

-

z

J

5 SECONOARY FEEDER LENGTH(FEET1 FIG. 4.17 Chart showing length of three-conductor 600-volt cable in iron conduit to produce 2 3 per cent voltage drop a t the most unfavorable power factor and full load on the cable.

(

-

Tolerable Secondary-feeder Voltage Drop. Figure 4.17 offers a guide as to about how far fully loaded cables for circuits 600 volts and less can be run and not encounter voltage-drop troubles in a n average industrial plant. Thcrc are many variables which can alter the maximum feeder length materially, such as power factor of load, primary voltage drop, load per feeder, etc. The chart of Fig. 4.17 is based on representative conditions, i.e., primary voltage drop 5 per cent, transformer drop 355 per cent, branch-circuit feeder drop 156 per cent. The remainder is the secondary-feeder drop of 2>5 per cent, the basis of Fig. 4.17. The allowable spread a t 480 volts is 480 t,o \$20, or 60 volts or 1255 per c e n the sum of the percentages just ment,ioned. Secondary-feeder drops greater than 235 per cent should be cherked under conditions expected at the plant, t,o see if t,hey can be tolerated without c-using undesirably wide voltage spreads. Looking at this another way, 480-volt secondary feeders longer than 250 f t for small cable sizes and 400 f t for larger cable sizes should be

220

V O L T A G G S T A N D A R D RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

221

Voltage Regulation of M a i n Power Source. Where a transmission or disl,ribution h i e supplies a plant with power whioh has a voltage spryad

greater than a’.iout 5 per rent,, it may tie difficult t o mairrtairi the desired voltage spread even wiLh the best designed plant power system. In these cases sonic form of voltage regulatioii is often required. If the supply is at, high v d t a g e arid must, he stepped down t,o below 15 kv (commonly -Ll(i0 or 13,800 volts) for distritiut,ion, regulation rain tie built int,o the transformer. This regulation is accomplished by automatic t a p changing which xi11 operat,e under load (load-rat,io (:oiitrol). Usually t,here are 32 (76 per cent) steps to enable close volt,age control over a range of plus or minus 10 per cent.. 1,oad-ratio control for plus or niiriirs 10 per cent range is a very low cost iii the over-a11 plant costs, arid yet because the load-ratio corit,rol provides good voltage, it will improve prodii(tiiin and quality of maliufartured goods. Iienc,e, the dividend from t,his small investment \rill often repay the investmerit many t,imes over earh year. It is strongly rei~ommcrided tha.t load-ratio control tie cmsidered itt every transformix stepping down from voltages ahorc 15 k r to plant primary voltage iii the raiige of 2I to : 13.8 ku. The systems aliove 15 kv arc not dn-ays regulated to suit, t,he . industrial plant but for most, r f i r i i ~ n o x r - a l l opcratioli of t,lie poiver syst

FIG. 4.18

A typical outdoor packoged substation in which bod-ratio control con be

incorporated.

222

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, 'VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

tem. When load-ratio control is installed, both the utility and industrial plant can operate their systems independently and to their own best advautage without interference voltage wise. Figure 4.18 illustrates an outdoor substation, typical of those whose transformers can include load-ratio control. Voltage Regulators. If power is supplied by the utility at below 15 kv, the only transformation required is at the individual load-center substations. Load-ratio control in each industrial load-center unit substation is uneconomical and even may he impractical. Hence, where the primary-voltage spread is wide enough to require voltage regulation, separate voltage regulators should be installed in the primary supply, Fig. 4.19. For this service either three-phase step voltage regulators (Fig. 4.20) or induction voltage regulators (Fig. 4.21) can be used. Their standard range of voltage regulation is plus or minus 10 per cent. The question is sometimes raised as to whether two induction regulators should be connected in open delta. This is slightly less expensive than three regulators to regulate three-phase circuits. However, the opendelta connection creates an unbalanced voltage condition that should be avoided. The voltage unbalance is small but may be enough to increase

STEP OR INDUCTION VOLTAGE REGULATOR REGULATOR HOLDS CONSTANT VOLTAGE HERE \

v

v

t
Y

NOTE

:

THE BY-PASS PERMITS MAINTENANCE O F SERVICE TO PLANT WHERE REGULATOR IS BEING MAINTAINED

FIG. 4.19 One-line dioorom rhowino the a d . c o t i o n of steD or induction voltom r e d o , i tori for holding constant voltage on the plant primary bur for plants served at primary voltage.

-

-

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

223

FIG. 4.20 Typicol three-phore step voltage regulator roted 13,200 volts, 208 kvo, plus or minus 10 per cent voltage regulotion.

FIG. 4.21 Typicol induction voltage regulator rated 225 kvo, 4330 volts, plus or minus 10 per cent voltoge regulation.

224

VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

the heating appreciahly in fully loaded polyphase motors. For this reason, best prartice avoids the open-delta conneition in favor of three-phase regulation. It is rerommended that serious consideration be given the addition of t,hese regulat,ors i n the plant supply lines whenever the expected voltage spread in the primary supply lines exceeds ahout 5 per cent. Regulators may he hypassed for maintenance and a t the same time maint,ain unregulat,ed service t o the plant. Itegulat,ors, like any other piece of apparatus, must be given consideration from a short-circuit, standpoint. Feeder Voltage Regulation. trt,ilit,iesoften regulate individual feeders at distribution voltage (2100 or 416F volts, for example) t o compensate

480 VOLTS

SECONDARY FEEDER INDUCTION VOLTAGE REGULATOR FEEDERS TO MOTORS, ETC LIGHTING FEEDER

LIGHTING LOAD 120 VOLTS FIG. 4.22 One-line diagram showing the opplication of air-cooled induction voltage regulators for secondary feeder regulation.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

225

for the voltage drop i n that, feeder. The itidustrial plaut does iiot often ry, since \.oltage drops in individual primary ferde usually small, less illan 1 or 2 per cent. Thus, regulation of voltage a t the main h s is more rwmmotily used. While there seems t o he little, jirstifiratioii for irrdividuul primary-feeder regulation, there may be many appliratioris for individual seroiidaryfeeder reeulation. For examuk, tlie voltage spread may I)<> satisfartory ._ . , for t,he majorit,y of utilization e q u i p ment, such asmotors, welders, etr., but not, considered good cliough for lights. I n such cases, t,he lighting feeder may be regirlat,ed and the rest irnregulated, Fig. .4.2%. For such applications, air~ooledregirlalorslike that shown in Fig. 4.23 may be used. I n other cases, individual loads a t GOO volts or less may require voltage regulation t,o obtain the desired performance from the equipment,. Rirh loads might he heating unit,s, process cont,rol, infrared ovens, hluepririt machines, lights, radio arid television transmitt,ers, brooders, etc. Where these loads are served at, utilizat,ion voltage, aii iridrictimi regulator like that, of Fig. 4.23 may be used. lnductrol P o w e r Pock. A iie\\- dcvelopment is a regulating loi\~-voltage subst,atioII known as the Inductrol Power Pack. It, is a itiiit made up primarilyof an indurtioii voltage regulator arid a dry-t,ype transformer. The transformer is rat,ed 480 or 600 volts on t,he primary aiid %08Y/lZOor FIG, 4.23 A modern induction voltage 120/240 volts on the secondary. A regulator for circuitr 600 volts and leis. Typical of either single 01 three phase. primary switching arid protective device arid secondary terminals complete the package. This unit may be used for supplying regulat,ed lighting power from general-purpose 480or 600-volt feeders or for supplying any other loads with regulated 120volt power from 480- or 600-volt power systems. Shunt C a p a c i t o r s . Refer t o Chap. 8 for a comp1et.e discussion of the application of shunt capacitors t o improve voltage conditions. Autotransformers. I n some cases where the general voltage level is

226

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

lorn and transformt?r taps cannot he used t,o correct for it, autotransformers may he used t o provide a permanent boost i n voltage. T h e autotrausformer does riot reduce t,he spread. A t,ypiral appliration xvouid lie in the case of a, 208Y/120-voll system supplying 220-nolt, mot,ors. The volt,ege may be proper lor the lights hut not high eiiimgh for t,he 220-volt motors. An autolrmisformer could he used l o step 208 volt,s up t o 220 volts for the motors only. Generator Voltage Regulators. Where power is generated by t h e plant,’s oxvti geiir.ralors, the voltage on t,he powerhouse bns can be held constant or exwi varied with load to compensate for voltage drop as load comPs on. Problems of voltage rcgulat,ion where industrial generators are operalnd iri parallel with utility systems are referred to in Chap. 15.
REDUCING FLICKER (See Fig. 4.27)

Reduction of flicker is often a much more difficult prohlem than the reduction of voltage spread previously referred to. Flicker due t o reciprocating motor-driven loads such as compressors, purich presses, et,c., can often be reduced by increasing the inertia of the met:lranical system to smooth out the pulsations. Where this is not ive, t,wo t,liings may be done. One is to separate flicker-producing load from the lights or critical load, i.e., use separate supply circuits. The nther is to use a voltage stabilizer, Fig. 4.24, to feed the critical load. Sometimes the critical load is fed through a motor-generator set t o provide good voltage for tliet load. This, lioxvevrr, is more expensive over all thaii voltage stabilizers and in gcmral offers no advantage in this

FIG. 4.24

Typicol voltage stabilizer.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

OF DROPS

227

application. Voltage regulators previously discussed are not fast enough to correct flicker, but for single-phase circuits, and in small sizes, automatic voltage stabilizers are available to hold voltage mit,hin very close limits. A typical model is designed to maintain an output voltage of 115 volts with maximum variation of plus or minus 1 per cent, even though the supply volt,age may vary between 95 and 130 volts. The volt,age stabilizer has no moving parts and no electronic tubes; its operation is obt,ained from the properly coordinated characteristics of reactors and caparitors. Series Capacitors. Series capacitors can be of value in reducing voltage flicker. C:hapt,er 8 contains a complete discussion of the application of series capacitors.

SELECTION O TRANSFORMER TAPS F

All modern transformers in ratings above 100 kva and most or those helow that kva rating have taps in the windings to change the turn ratio. The taps do not materially affect the voltage drop through the transformer; they merely change the turn ratio, hence the no-load voltage ratio. For example, a standard transformer rated 2400-480 volts may have four 2>5 per cent taps in the 2400-volt winding. The standard for these taps in transformers used in industrial systems is to have two 256 pcr cent, taps above 2400 volts and two 24i per cent taps below 2400volts. The no-load ratios of such a transformer would be as given in Table 4.11.
TABLE 4.11
No-load Voltoge Ratios of Standard Transformer Rated 2400-480 Volts
2520-480 “0th 2460-480 volts 2400-480 volts 2340- 480 volts 2280-480 volts

5% obove tap 236% obove top
Norrnol rating top

2>P%

below top

5% below tap

These taps do not improve voltage regulation but are only for changing the general vokage level iq the plant. If a 2400-480-volt transformer is connected to a system whose maximum voltage is 2520 volts, then the 2520-480-volt tap could be used which would provide a maximum of 480 volts no load on the system, as shown by curve A , Fig. 4.25. If, for example, another system had a maximum no-load voltage of 2400 volts, then the 240&480-volt t a p could be used to provide 480 volts no load in the plant. This would be as shown in curve B , Fig. 4.25. Similarly if a plant had a maximum voltage of 2280 vo!ts, then the 2280-480-volt tap could be used to provide a maximum of 480 volts no load in the plant, as shown in curve C , Fig. 4.25. It will be noted that in all cases the secondary no-load voltage is 480 volts; so the secondary system does not know

2600-

-

-

4 8 0 VOLTS MAX

U

2
>
>
( r
(L

c

2400

-

-

4 8 0 VOLTS _ _ ---- ----- _ _ _MAX _ _ - -

440 V MIN

-?
40 VOLTS

B

I

U

440V
MIN

a

2300-

-

---------

480 VOLTS MAX

________

VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

229

8 VOLTS MAX - -- --4-5- --- - --- -_-

g
J

2400

I-

a

0 5

I LL

a a

>

440 V MIN

P

FIG. 4.26 Voltage profile showing that rotisfactory voltages con be obtained without excessive no-load voltage by proper election of taps on transformer.

230

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

Volloqe Correction For TypicoI Feeder Circuits

FIG. 4.27

Summary of methods of improving

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

231

iee

1 . tow

Normal

1A1 (81 ICI

2. High leeden drop

Normal

(81
ID1 ICI

3. High feeder
drop.

Normal

(El I81

4. High feeder drop.

IEI
IF1

I . Normal
drop.

2. Normol
drop.

i I

Volt.ge r e g d o t o r Tronlformer ,ap setting Voltage 'egulalor
Tranrformer top 'elting

IBI
1A1

101
(A1

3. vo1t.g.
rile

"No b o d " Leoding Aulornotic switching o f capociExcept shunt ot no lood tors <apa<itorl Voltage regu1otor lif no peno1ty o r e on1 CIQYX leoding power factor1 for

IGI
IF1

IVolt.ge

regulator is Only P'"<tiC.l

I0l"tiO"J

IHJ

LIGHTING FLICKER Lood Causing
Flicker Correcl by m e o n r of

I . Rerirtan<e welders
>POI or seom.

Series r a p o d o r with welder to reduce dernond by power.farlor correction Series c"Po<itor in line to ne",r.lize ,y,,em
.eO<ta"Ce

2. Flmh.

Separote welder supply r i r 4 l Volloge stabilizer l o r lighting circuit Separate welder supply c i r w i t

welders.

3. Motor loads. such 01: sow mill^, Rubber
milli. Grinders. 4. Arc furnorer.

Voltoge Ifobiliier for lighting circuil Series coparilor in line to "e",,.lize
re.artance

'y'lem

Sep..ate

motor '"pply Ci.CYil

Voltage slmbilirer for lighting circuit Sante 0 s for lmotonl

voltoge conditions in an indurlriol p l a n t

232

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

minimum may he raised t o 420 volts. At the same time the maximum is raised to 500 volts, too high for generally sat,isfactory performance. Conversely if the maximum voltage is too high and a wide spread exists, the chatrgiug of taps, to reduce t,he maximum voltage, reduces the minimum vokagc still further.
CALCULATIONS O F VOLTAGE DROP

4 .

Nomenclature for Formulas e = line-to-ucutral voltage drop
es = line-to-neutral voltage at source end

en

=

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

233

angle whose cosine is the load power factor line current = resistance of the circuit, ohms = reactance of the circuit, ohms (By convent,ion, inductive reactance is positive and capacitive reactance is negative.) cos 8 = load power fact,or in decimals sin 8 = load reactive factor i n decimals (By convention, sin B is positive for lagging power-factor loads and negative for leading power-factor loads.) Approximate data on circuit and transformer impedances may be obtained from Chap. 1 and trigonometric functions from the Appendix. Exact Formulas. If eR is known,
8 I R X
= =

Line-to-neutral voltage drop = d ( e B cos 8

+ I E ) ? + (ee sin 8 + I X ) p- eR

If es is known,

-

(4.1)

Line-to-neutral voltage drop = es I R cos 8 I X sin B - .\/es* - ( I X cos 8 - I t l sin 8)'

+

+

(4.2)

The voltage drop can also he obtained hy a proportional method. Both the voltage drop and phase shift due t o voltage drop can be obtained by

where all quantities are expressed vertorially and Z is the equivalent , load impedance and Zsis the system impedance including ZL. Voltage drop
= es

- eR (numerically)

(4.4)

I n Using Eq. (4.3) it should he noted that the load impedance is assumed to he constant, whereas all other formulas are based on the load current remaining constant. A p p r o x i m a t e Formulas. I n practical cases, the results of these approximate formulas are suffiriently accurate where a slide rule is used. If e R is knomn, Line-to-neutral voltaee droD
-

I ( R cos

'+

Y

sin

( I X cos 8 - I R sin S ) l + 2(en I R cos 8 I X sin 8 )

+

+

If es is known,
Line-to-neutral voltage drop
=

I R cos 8

+ I X sin 8 + ( I X cos 8 2e. I R sin 8)*

234

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

Most Commonly Used Approximate Formula.

Where either e R or es

is known, then
Line-to-neutral voltage drop = I ( R cos 0

+X

sin 0 )

(4.7)

Equation (2.7) can he converted as follows to calculate the per cent voltage drop : Per cent voltage drop
=

kva (R cos 0 X sin 0 ) 10 (kv)*

+

(4.8)

where kva is three-phase kva and kv is line-to-line kilovolts. For singlephase circuits the per cent drop is twice this value. From the vector diagram in Fig. 4.28 it can he seen that, whilc Eqs. (4.7) and (4.8) are approximate, they are close enough for practical purposes. In practical cases the angle between e,; and ey will he small. In these formulas the error diminishes as the angle between e R and es approaches zero and is exact if that angle is zero. The latter condition will exist when the power factor of an inductive load is the same as the power factor of the inductive circuit through which load current is causing the voltage drop. In Fig. 4.28, 0 is the power factor of the load. Effect of Nonlinear Loads. The error caused by variation of load cur-'-_ rent and power factor with voltage applied to the load is not taken into consideration in any of the foregoing formulas. If this error is significant, it may he compensated for by using the cut-and-try method; that is, first assume a given load or receiver-end voltage eR in the formulas. Then if the value obtained by subtracting the calculated voltage drop from the sending-end voltage is considerably different from the assumed receivingend voltage, make another try. Generally such refinement is not necessary when the total plant voltage drops are less than 10 per cent.
SENDING END OR BUS VOLTAGE

\
R E C E I V E R OR LOAD VOLTAGE

CALCULATED VOLTAGE DROP

F
ACTUAL VOLTAGE DROP

ERROR

FIG. 4.28

Diagram indicating magnitude of error when using Eqr. (4.7) and (4.8).

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS STEADY-STATE VOLTAGE DROP BY USE OF CHARTS

235

Voltage Drop in Transformers. Figures 4.29 and 4.30 may be used to determine the approximate voltage drop in single-phase and three-phase 60-cycle liquid-filled self-cooled transformers. The charts are applicable for single-phase transformers by entering the chart a t three times the single-phase kva rating. Figure 4.29 covers transformers in the following ranges:

Single-phase : 250-500 kva, 8.6-15-kv insulation classes 833-1250 kva, 2.5-25-kv insulation classes Three-phase : 225-750 kva, 8.6-15-h insulation classes 1000-10,000 kva, 2.5-25-kv insulation classes An example of the use of the chart is given below. Example. Find the voltage drop in a 2000-kva three-phase KO cycle

236

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

transformer rated 4160-480 volts. The load is 1500 kva at, 0.85 power fact,or. Solution: Enter the chart on the horizontal scale a t 2000 kva. Extend a vertical line t o its interpeetion with the 0.85-power faetoP t u n e . Extend a line from this point horizontally to the left t o its intersection with the vertical scale of per cent voltage drop for rated load. Multiply this value by the ratio of actual load to rated load. Per cent drop at rated load Per cent drop at 1500 kva
=
~

3.67

l5Oo X 3.67 = 2.75 2000 Actual voltage drop = 2.75 per cent X 480 = 13.2 volts
=

Figure 4.30 applies to the 34.5-kv insulation class transformers in ratings from 1500 to 10,000 kva. These curves can be used t o determine the voltage drop for transformers in the 46- and 69-kv insulation classes by using appropriate multipliers a t all power factors except unity. To correct for 46 kv, multiply the per cent vokage drop obtained from the chart by 1.065, and for 69 kv multiply by 1.15. Example. Find the per cent voltage drop in a 5000-kva 69,00013,800-volt three-phase 60-cycle liquid-filled transformer carrying 3500 kw a t 0.8 power factor. Solution: Enter chart Fig. 4.30 a t 5000 kva and read per cent voltage drop where this transformer size intersects the 0.8-power factor curve. Per cent voltage
6
Q

=

4.25 for 5000 kva

5

NOTE: CURVES ARE BASED ON 6 PERCENT IMPEDANCE FOR 34.5 KV CLASS

05 w
I 4 -

I I I I I I I

&

54
a
U
0

0

u3 0
4

5 8, I z
Y

Y

U Y I

a

0

TRANSFORMER RATING-THREE PHDSE KVA

FIG. 4.30 Tronrformer voltage-drop curves for three-phase transformers, 34%-kv voltage class.

VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

237

- 4380 kva 0.8 Multiplier for 69-kv insulation class = 1.15
= 3500 =

Actual per cent voltage drop

4380 4.25 X 1.15 X - = 4.28 per cent 5000

Voltage Drop in Cable. Voltage-drop curves, Figs. 4.31 to 4.34, may be applied with reasonable accuracy to all types of paper-insulated, rubber-insulated, and varnished-cambric-irisulated cable insulated for 600 or for 5000 volts. Two charts were prepared for each of these two voltage classes of cable to cover the different t.ypes of installat,ions for cable sizes No. 14 to X o . 4/0 Amg and 250 to 750 MCM. Voltage drop for loads between 0.7 power factor lagging and unity is shown for t,his range of cable sizes for three-conductor and three single-conductor cables in magnetic conduit. The resistance and reactance used in preparing these charts are taken from Chap. I. They are calculated values based on 75 C copper temperature and scattered tests. In determining reactances, it was assumed that for three conductors in conduit the cables d l lie a t random in the hottom of the conduit. If the cables are twisted together so that they operate in contact with each other, they should be regarded as a three-conductor cable. The chart,s are prepared for three-phase voltages. For single-phase circuits consisting of a two-conductor or two single cables in a conduit, the. voltage drop measured line-to-line will be 16 per cent higher than indicated in the charts. Use o Voltage-drop Charts f r Cable. First, select the chart applyf o ing to t,he problem with regard to voltage and type of installation. Enter the chart a t the abscissa with the power factor of the load. Extend a line vertically from this point to the correct size cable. On the ordinate read the volts drop per 100 amp per 100 ft or per 10,000 amp-ft. Multiply this value by the multiple of 10,000 amp-ft, for the problem under consideration to get line-to-line voltage drop in a t,hree-phase system. For a single-phase system multiply the three-phase drop by 1.IG. Example. Assume that a 500-ft three-conductor rubber-insulated size KO. l/O-hwg cable in magnetic conduit is the feeder for a three-phase 440-volt 60-cycle 150-amp 0.8-power factor inductive load. Find the voltage drop. Solution: Enter chart, Fig. 4.31, at 0.8 power factor and move upward to the KO.l/O-Awg cable curve. From the point of intersection move to the left and read thc voltage drop as 2.08 volts per 10,000 amp-ft.

Ampere-feet in cable Actual voltage drop

= =

500 X I50

=

75,000

E X 2.08 = 15.6 volts 0 10,000

238

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

LL w n
4

W

I

0
LL

8 0
0

w

u)

3
&

0

>

z -

z n
W

4

c 3

5 0
>

VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

239

FIG. 4.32
conduit.

Voltage-drop curves for three single-conductor 600-volt a b l e r in magnettc

240

VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

FIG. 4.33

Voltage-drop curves for three-conductor 5000-volt cable in magnetic conduit

or interlocked-ormor cable.

242

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

OF DROPS

Voltoge Drop in Busway. Figures 4.35 and 4.36 may be used to determine the approximate voltage drop in a busway. Figure 4.35 applies to a busway that is designed specifically for low-voltage drop. Figure 4.3F applies t o a typical feeder busway of the type used with plug-in switches. Figure 4.35 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for GOO-, 800-, 1000-, and 1350-amp low-voltage-drop busway. These curves apply only for balanced loading of the busway at an operating temperature of 70 C. The voltage drops for other than rated load may be obtained by multiplying the voltage drop for rated load by the ratio of actual load to rated load, Similarly, the voltage drop for lengths other than 100 ft may he

M

40 60 BO LOAD POWER FACTOR

W O

20

40 60 80 LOAD POWER FACTOR

10 0

W A D POWER FACTOR FIG. 4.35 Voltage-drop curves for low-voltage-drop burwoy ot rated load. operating temperature assumed.

70

c

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

243

obtained hy multiplying the voltage drop for 100 f t by the ratio of actual length to 100 ft. These corrections are expressed in the following formula: Actual line-to-:ine voltage drop
=

voltage drop for 100 feet at rated load X

actual length 100 ft

Example. Find the voltage drop on a 200-ft run of 800-amp husway carrying a 600-amp load a t a 90 per cent power factor. Solution: Enter Fig. 4.35 for au 800-amp husway at 90 per cent power factor on the horizontal scale. Follow a vertical line to its intersection

4 . 5 X 3 = 13.5 V O L T S

FIG. 4.36

Voltoge-drop curves for typical plug-in bvrwcly carrying rated load.

244

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

0 0 the curve and proceed horizontally to the left. The intersection of this line with the vertical scale is the voltage drop per 100 ft for an 800-amp busmay, 2.4 volts.

Line-to-line voltage drop = 2.4 X

600 200 X - = 3.6 volts 800 100
~

Single-phase voltage drops may he obtained by multiplying the threephase voltage drop times 1.16. Figure 4.36 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for a plug-in type busmay. An example is given with the curves to illustrate their use. Example of System Voltage-drop Calculation. The power system shown in Fig. 4.37 is used t o illustrate the use of the foregoing charts and formulas. Using the most critical feeders from the standpoint of voltage
33.5 KV TRANSMISSION L I N E 60 CYCLES

10,000 KVA PERCENT 2 = I.OPERCENTti6.0 PERCENT 34.400 -4160 VOLTS

9000 KVA 0.8 PF LAGGING
4160 VOLTS 3- CONDUCTOR 250 MCM

1500 KVA, 4160-480 PERCENT t = I . O PERCENT T t j 5 . 5 PERCENT 1300 aus 0.8LOAD KV A a PF LAGGING 480 VOLTS
*-480
VOLTS I 3 - k S o O MCM V C L I N CONDUIT

I I

OHMS ?=0.0072tj0.009200 FEE1

250 KVA 440 VOLTS 0.7 PF LAGGING

A
W

FIG. 4.37
Calcdatio".

System one-line diagrom used

01 a

baris for examples of system voltage-drop

V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

245

drop, four solutions involving varying degrees of accuracy were made to determine the operating voltage at the 4160- and 480-volt utilization buses and at the load end of a 480-volt feeder. In each solution except 4, it is assumed that the indicated load kva, power factors, and efficiency remain constant for voltage variatious due to regulation. I n other words, the load current varies with applied voltage to keep the kva constant. Table 5.12 lists the operating voltages obtained by the four methods of solution used.
TABLE 4.12
Solution

Operating Voltages as Calculated by Four Methods
Equations' used

1
1

I
I

Bur A

I
i

Bur 8

I
I

1 2

14.7) 14.31 end 14.41 Charts Charts

3900 3910/-2.2" -~ 3925 3932

425 426/--4.40 429 432

418 419/~4~50 422 425

3 4

* Sce

Eqs. (4.3), (4.4), and (4.7)

Solution 2 was made by using the exact formulas Eqs. (4.3) and (4.4).

It shows that the phase angle of each successive voltage level is shifted to lag slightly the no-load voltage. It should he recognized that the use of
this exact formula does not necessarily mean that the answer is exact, because it is necessary to use a cut-and-try process in the solution. As with any cut-and-try process, a point is reached where the added accuracy to be obtained does not justify another trial, and therefore the answer is not absolutely exact. In solution 3, voltage-drop charts were used to determine voltage drop. The error involved in this method results from the greater margin of error in reading charts and in the arithmetical additiou of voltage drops slightly out of phase. Solution 4 involved the use of charts but neglected t,he cut-and-try procedure necessarily employed in the other solutions. The cut-and-try procedure was used in the other solutious because the load kva x a s assumed to be constant as the voltage changed and therefore t,he load currents changed. In this solution the current x a s assumed to remain constant as the load voltage varied. Solutioii 1 is given helow as an example. Solution 1: Calculatiou by approximate Eq. (4.7).

246

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

where v

I R X

e

line-to-line voltage drop line current, amp = circuit resistance, ohms = circuit reactance, ohms = load power-tactor angle
= =

Bus A Voltage. From Fig. 4.37,
Overhead line resistance = 1.97 ohms Overhead line reactance = 1.52 ohms Converting transformer per rent resistanre and reactance t o ohms by the formula Ohms = %ohms X (kv)' X 10 kva

and using the principle that transformer impedance varies approximately as the square of the per cent voltage tap used,

K,. = 1.0 X (34.4)*X (0.975)' 10,000

X 10

= =

1,12 ohms

x, = 6.0 X (34.4)' X (0.975)' X 10,000
Total ohms resistanre = 1.97 Total ohms reactance = 1.52

10

6.73 ohms

+ 6.73 = 8.25

+ 1.12 = 3.09
9000 kva
=

Assuming 4lFO volts at bus A and considering constant load, Bus A amperes =

1250

4 4.160 X
1250 X 4.16 = 155 34.4 x ,975
= 0.8 andsin

Suhstitutingin the voltage-drop formula with cos 0

0 = 0.6,

v

155(3.09 X 0.8 8.25 X 0.6) 155(2.48 4.95) = X 155 X 7.43 = 1990 volts
= =

4X 4X

4

+

+

Bus A volts = (source voltage

- voltage drop)

X (power transformer ratio)

4.160 = (33,500 - 1990) 34,4 o,975

VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

247

Recalculating the voltage drop assuming 3910 volts on Bus A , Overhead line amperes
Y

= 4160 X -

3910

155 = 165

=

4 165 X 7.43 = 2120 volts X
4.160 34.4 x 0.9%

Bus A voltage = (33,500 - 2120)

This value is assumed t o he close enough for practical purposes. Bus B Voltage. From Fig. 4.37, 5-kv cable resistance 5-kv cable reactance
= =

0.1094 ohm 0.0712 ohm
=

Transformer resistance

1.0% on its own base

Transformer reactance

5.5% on its own base X 10 1500 = 0.634 ohm
=

- 5.5.X (4.16)' ~~

Total ohms resistance Total ohms reactance

= =

0.109 0.071

+ 0.115 = 0.224 ohm + 0.634 = 0.705 ohm
&X

Assuming 450 volts on bus B ,
1300 kva = 1670 0.450 480 5-kv cable amperes = 1670 X -= 193 4160 v = 4 I ( R cos 0 X sin 8 )

Bus B amperes =

+

cos 0 = 0.8, sir1 0

=

0.6

v

193(0.224 X 0.8 0.705 X 0.6) 4 X 193(0.179 0.423) 3 = fi X 193 X 0.602 = 201 volts
=
=

4X

+

+

Bus B voltage

(bus A voltage - v) (transformer ratio) 480 = (3900 - 201) 4160
=

248

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

I{rcali~ulatrngI> a\suming 4"(i volts on bus H with same load,

450 5-kv cahlr amperes = 193 X 4%
v =

=

204

4 3

X 204 X O.GO2
=

Hns B voltage

212 volts 480 (3900 - 212) 4160
=

Secondary load voltage, assuming q20 volts a t load, 250 0.420 X Cable resistance = 0.0072 ('able reactance = 0.0090 Load amperes
= =

4

344

v =

4 r ( x cos B + X sin 8 ) x
344(0.007"

ros B

=

0.7,

sill B =

0.714

c = 4 3
= = =

4 344(0.00504 + 0.00643) X

x

x

0.7

+ O . O O ~ Ox 0.714)

4 X 344 X 0.01147 3 G.9 volts

Load voltage = 425 - G.9 = 418.1 volts Since the most i.ritii.al feeders n-ith respect, t o voltage drop have been selerkd, the ralrulated load voltages a t hus A , bus B , arid at the secondary-load trrminals provide sufkieirt information t o analyze the system from the standpoint of voltage drop. Xct,ually, the 480-418 voltage spread at the serondary-load terminals iiidicates that the system is on the horder line and should he stiffened, possibly'hy using a larger 5-kv feeder cable. Howevw, this is beyond the scope of this problem, which i s mcrcly iriteiidcd to out,liiic t h e method of det,ermitriiig voltage drop.
CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE DROPS DUE TO MOTOR STARTING
INTRODUCTION

I t is rharactrristic of most a-c motors that the riirrent, which they draw startiirg is mu(.h higher t,han t,heir rrormal running ( w r e n t . Syni~hronous and sqnirrel-rape iudi~rtion motors started 011 full voltage may draw a c u r ~ w i tas high as sevt!ii or eight t,imes their fnll-load running rurrcnt. This sriddeir increase in the (.usrent, drawn from the power system may r c s i i l t iii csressive drop i n volt,age unless it is considered in
oii

VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

249

the design of the system. Folloii-ing are methods for ralculatiug the voltage drop which results from startiug of three-phase induction aud synrhronous motors.
M O T O R - S T A R T I N G METHODS

The motor-startiug kra, imposed on the power-supply system, and t,he available motor torque are greatly aKected by the method of starting used. l'ahlc 4.13 gives a conlparisoii of several common methods. Full-voltage Starting. This method usually provides the most torque hut muses the greatest load t o be applied to the system. The load applied equals (at motor rated voltage) the full-voltage starting kva of hhe mot,or. Frill xwlt,age is the least espeosive method of startiug. The full-voltage starting kva of syurhroiious and squirrel-cage indurtion motors ruuges from 230 to 800 per cent of their full-load h a input. The latter is approsimately cqual to t,hc horsepower rating of induction and 0.8-pomr-factor syirrhrorious motors and is approximately 80 per eelit of the horsepower rating of 1.0-poiver-factor syrichronous motors. If the starting curreut in ampercs is kno\vu, the startiug kva (of threephase motors) may he ralrulated from the formula Kva = 1.73 X amperes X line-to-line volts

looo

Reactor Starting. With t,his method, a reactor is connect,ed in series with the motor aud is shorted out when the motor approaches full speed. 4 reactor starter redures the line current in proportion t o the tap used. For example, with a 50 per cent tap, the current is cut in half. The torque is reduced hy the square of the tap used. Hence, the torque is reduced more rapidly than the line current. Reactor st,arting is commouly used for large motor-generator sets. Resistor Starting. Resistor starting is similar t o reactor starting except that a resistor is used in series with the motor, instead of a reactor. The torque available for a given reductioti in startiug current is the same as with a reactor. The hie-voltage drop may be somewhat less because of the better power factor of a resistance-st,arting load. Resistor starting seldom offers a cost advantage, except wheu several steps are required, t o meet limitations established for the maximum kva applied at any oue step. Power companies sometimes establish such limitations. Use of several steps may permit a generat,or voltage regulator to restore voltage between steps. It also tends to make light flicker less noticeahle, even if most of the drop is in the distribution system and cannot be reduced by regulators.

250

VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

Autotransformer Starting. If an autotransformer starter is used, the line current is reduced approximately as the square of the tap setting. For example, if an autotransformer at a 50 per cent tap is used, a motor starting load of 100 per cent of the rating of a generator will be redured to about 25 per cent. Table 4.13 shows 30 per cent because it allows for autotransformer magnetizing current. Autotransformer starting may cost more than reactor starting, but may be needed to provide adequate torque. The tap selected should always be high enough to accelerate the motor to a speed a t which the current will not be excessive after transfer t o the running connection. If the load torque is high a t the time of transfer to the line, a high transient inrush for a few cycles may occur at this time even if the speed is high. This is seldom sustained long enough to cause troublesome voltage dip, but may cause tripping of instantaneous overcurrent protection for the motor circuit.

TABLE 4.13

Comparison of Motor-starting Methods
Line voltage = motor-rated voltage

Type of

starter*
Motor voltage

t.rting

tolqY*

line voltage

f"ll-"oltoge tarting torque

Full.roltage stmrter. Autotransformer: 80 Per Cent t o p . . 65 per cent tap.. 50 per cent tap.. Resistor storm, single step [adjusted for motor voltage to be 80 per cent of line voltogel Reoctor; 50 per cent tap.. 45 per <*"I top.. 37.5 per Cent t o p . . Part-winding starter [low-speed m o l ~ r s onlyl: 75 per cent winding. 50 per cent winding.

........................ ........................ ........................ ........................

1 .O

1 .O

1 .O

0.80 0.65 0 .so

0.64 0.42 0.25 0.64 0.25 0.20

0.68 0.46 0.30
0.80

0.80

....................... ........................ ...................... ..................... .....................

.I

0.50 0.45 0.375

0.14
0.75 0.50

0.50 0.45 0.375 0.75 0.50

1 .O 1 .O

* The settings given %rethe more common for each type.
Some motors can be provided with taps for part-winding starting. In such cases, power is first applied to a portion of the winding and later the entire winding is connected to the line. This is sometimes done in several steps, using increasing proportions of the winding. When only part of the winding is energized, the current and torque are
Part-winding Starting.

VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

251

less than for full-voltage starting. They are both changed approximately in proportion t o the amount of winding connected. That is, for a typical low-speed motor, at the half-winding connection, the current and torque are approximately equal t o one-half their full winding values. This method is comparable in cost with autotransformer starting, and also provides a smoother transfer to the running connection. However, this method is seldom advantageous for motors above 514 rpm (fourteen poles), because it provides relatively less torque for such motors. Starting of Wound-rotor Motors. Wound-rotor motors are invariably started on full voltage, but control is provided which inserts a high resistance in the secondary winding on starting and short circuits this resistance in one or more steps as the motor comes up to speed. This serves to limit the starting current drawn by the motor-usually to about 150 per cent of full-load current. Furthermore, this current will have a high power factor. Consequently, the voltage drop caused by starting this type of motor is comparatively small. On the other hand, wound-rotor motors and their control have a relatively high cost.
TYPE OF VOLTAGE DISTURBANCE PRODUCED BY M O T O R STARTING

Generator Voltage. Figure 4.38 shows the behavior of the voltage of a generator when an induction motor is started. Starting a synchronous
100

90

80

\$ 70

2 d" >
Y I L

5 50
u 40

f 30
20
1 0

ov
0
2 3
4 5
6

TIME- SECONDS

MOTOR-STARTING XVd*IDDPfR

CENT OF

DENEMTOR RATING

A B
N

-

NO INITIAL LOeiD ON GENERATOR

- NO REGULATOR

5 0 PER CENT INITIAL LOAD ON GENERATOR

FIG. 4.38

Typical generator voltage behavior.

151

V O L T A G S S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

253

mately as the square of the voltage at the motor terminals just before application of field. Distribution-system Voltage. Frequently there are transformers, lines, or cables between the motor starter and the generator or generators supplying the power for starting. The drop in the transformers, lines, or cables will be additional to the generator drop. Often practically all the drop is in this distribution equipment. The drop in this equipment is not reduced by the action of voltage regulators. Consequently, when practically all the drop is in transformers, lines, and cables, the voltage falls immediately and docs not rerover till the motor approaches full speed.
ESTIMATING GENERATOR VOLTAGE DROP

Minimum Voltage. The curves of Fig. 4.39 may he used for estimating the minimum voltage occurring at the terminals of a generator supplying power to a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor which is being

254

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

started. The initial load on the generator, if any, is assumed to be of the constant-current type. The three sets of curves shown are for three ranges of generator speed. The generator reactances assumed to apply for each speed group are also given in Fig. 4.39. The curves show the minimum voltage, in per cent of the initial generator voltage, plotted against the "motor-starting kva" in per cent of generator rated kva. The "motor-starting kva" is the kva which would be drawn by the motor being started if the generator voltage were maintained at rated value. Since there is a drop in generator voltage, the actual kva drawn by the motor will generally be less than the value defined above, but the effect of this is taken into account by the curves. The several curves in each speed group-except those marked N a n d Eapply for various values of a factor K. This factor is the exciter response in volts per second divided by the exciter voltage for rat,ed generator voltage at rated load and multiplied hy the generator open circuit field time constant in seconds. Approximate values of K are given in Fig. 4.40. The values of Ii in Fig. 4.40 are based on the use of a self-excited excit,er controlled by a direct-acting rheostatic voltage reguhtor (such as the

GENEIIbTOR e I T E O K"&
~ W T DIRECT-CONNECTED EXCITER "

... .. ~ WIT" BELTED ~..

EXCITER NUMBERS ON CURYES ARE R P N

NUMBERS I" BRACKETS &RE EXClTER R P H

FOR "IMIAITION OF EXClTER RESPONSE WlT" GENERATOR IN1TIAL L o l o lNlTlbL LOAD (PER C E N T , UULTlPL" I( B" (00 ,70 75 I55 50 I"5 25 I25 HULTlPLlERS TO *ILLOW
0

*

,oo
generators.

FIG. 4.40 Typical valuer of performance factor K for (I-c

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS A-C GENERATOR

255

EXCITER FIELD

1

u

GENERATOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR

'l 'L

FIG. 4.41

Excitotion system for a-c generator.

General Electric Company Type GDA) as shown in Fig. 4.41. In this system the response of the exciter depends not only upon its design hut also on the setting of the exciter field rheostat. The latter is determined by regulator requirements. The rurves of Fig. 4.40 are based on a setting of the exciter field rheostat which makes available a maximum generator field current of 120per cent of its rated value. The K fartors given by the curves are typical only, and in an individual case K may vary considerably from the value shown. The curves of Figs. 4.39 and 4.40 allow an estimate to be made of the generator miuimum voltage directly from the generator kva rating, the generator speed, the exciter speed, and the motor starting kva. If guarantees of performance are required, a study based on romplete data should be made considering the characteristics and adjustments of generator, exciter, regulator, exciter rheostat, initial load, and the motor being started. Restored Voltage. The curves of Fig. 4.42 may be used for estimating the restored voltage of a generator, that is, the voltage attained after the regulator has acted to apply maximum excitation current to the generator (or has restored the voltage to its initial value) following the starting of a squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor. The curves show the restored voltage in per cent of rated generator voltage plotted against the kva which would be drawn by the motor being started if rated generator voltage were maintained. The several curves apply for various values of initial load which is assumed to be a constantcurrent load of 0.8 lagging power factor. The excitation system is assumed to be such that a maximum excitation current of 120 per cent of rated generator field current can he obtained. If guarantees of performance are required, a study based on complete data should be made considering the characteristics and adjustments of generator, exciter regulator, exciter rheostat, initial load, and the motor being started.

156

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

O F

DROPS

MOTOR S T I R T l N G

I("&

I N P E R C E N T O F G E N E R l T O R K Y A A T R A T E O O E N E R ~ T O AVOLThQE

( B A S E D O N Y l x l Y u Y EXCITATION-IZOPER C E N T O F R A T E D G E N E R A T O R F l E L O C U R R E N T I
NOTE: RESTORED VOLTAGE E W I L S VALUE READ FROM CURVE OR THE INITIaL YOLTlGL (REGULATOR SETTING1 WHICHEVER I S LOWER

FIG. 4.42

Restored generator vollage.

Advontages of Voltage Regulators. Figures 4.38, 4.39, and 4.42 show dashed curves, marked N , which indicate the results t o be expected if no regulator is used. It is apparent that regulators are very beneficial. They practically always justify their cost whenever the starting of large motors is involved. For example, consider a 480-volt 125-kva 1200-rpm generator. From Fig. 4.40 this may have a performanre factor K of about 1.7 with a regulator. From Fig. 2.39, 110 per cent motor-starting load or 138 kva will cause a 28 per cent voltage dip. This load would correspond t o starting a 25-hp motor at full voltage. T o obtain the same motor-starting performance without a regulator would require a 438-kva generator, because the curve N shows that about 32 per cent motor-starting load will cause a 28 per cent voltage drop if no regulator is used. (138 kva is about 32 per cent of 438 kva.) The 438-kva generator would cost over twice as much as a 125-kva machine. The best and least expensive arrangement mould be t o provide a regulator adding less than 15 per cent to the cost of the 125-kva generator. This mould permit successful starting of the 25-hp motor even against full-load torque and would improve normal generator performance. I n Fig. 4.39 are curves, marked E , which show the performance available when using an electronic exciter or some other very high-response excitation system. It shows there is a definite limit to the improvement

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCUUTION OF DROPS

157

258

VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS, UL6UUTION OF DROPS

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION O DROPS F

259

generator rating t o about 40 per cent. This increase could be approximately simulated by an increase of the motor-starting kva from 100 per cent to 113 per cent. This is true because a motor-starting load which would draw 13 per cent of generator rated kva a t full voltage will draw 10 per cent current a t 75 per cent voltage. Figure 4.43 shows the amount by which motor-starting kva should be increased to allow for the effect of an initial load consisting of fully loaded induction motors. Effect of Starting Power Factor. The power factor of most motorstarting loads lies between 10 and 40 per cent. Variations within this range do not materially influence voltage drop of generators. Wound-rotor motors have a starting power factor of about 80 per cent lagging. At this power factor the resulting voltage drop (initial voltage minus the minimum voltage) will not generally exceed 75 per cent of the drop caused by the same kva a t low power factor. Resistor starters
PFR CFNT VOLTAGE
18 17
U
Y

__

DROP
30
25 20

>

16 15
14

0 z 2

13
12
I !

15
10 5

g

10 09 08

'
LL

07
06
05

2
=

a w

04

03
02

F
1

3

01

o

0

0 ' 2

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

20

RATIO OF

I N I T I A L LOAD KVA MOTOR STARTING KVA

INCREASE MOTOR STARTING KVA BY MULTIPLIER SHOWN BEFORE USING CURVES OF FIG.4.39AND FIG.4.42 ( ! N I T I A L LOAD MAY THEN BE CONSIDERED AS CONSTANT CURRENT T Y P E )

FIG. 4.43

Approximate effect of initial lood consisting of fully loaded induction motors.

260

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

R TN S VARIATIONS, A I G,

CALCULATION OF DROPS

seldom cause the starting power factor to he high enough to reduce voltage drop greatly, except for the first steps when several are used. Effect of Drop in Generator Speed. Since the power factor of motorstarting kva is low, the amount of kw load applied to a generator is seldom large. Furthermore, the voltage drop, by reducing the electrical output, also reduces the new load applied. For example, a motor-starting load of 100 per cent of generator-rated kva at 0.3 power factor will involve a suddenly applied km load less than 30 per cent of rated kva, or 37.5 per cent of rated kw for an 0.8 power-fartor generator. The speed drop is not likely to be excessive if good governing means are employed. For most motor-starting problems, it may safely be neglected. As speed dips, a corresponding dip appears in the voltage, which is in addition t o the voltage drops considered in this section. For cases where speed dip may be sufficiently great to be important, this should be considered, but calculation of speed drop is beyond the scope of this book.
ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM VOLTAGE DROP

The voltage drops in lines, cables, and transformers are often as important as generator voltage drop. In fact, they are frequently more important. For example, if the total kva of connected generators in the power system is more than 100 times the horsepower rating of the motor being started, then the generator voltage dip will be less than 1 per cent, and it will be quickly eliminated by regulators. In such a case, however, the motor will probably be supplied through a transformer bank. If the transformer-bank kva rating is only slightly larger than the motor rating, the voltage drop may be quite severe. Voltage Drop of Transformers. The curves of Fig. 4.44 may he used for estimating the voltage drop through typical transformers when starting a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor connected to the secondary of the transformer. The secondary voltage on starting of the motor, in per cent of the initial secondary voltage, is plotted against the motor starting kva. The latter is expressed in per cent of the transformer-hank kva rating and is the kva which wouldhedrawnhythemotor being started if rated transformer secondary voltage were maintained. The curves of Fig. 4.41 neglect the effect of primary-voltage drops caused by motor starting. Methods of taking these into account will he explained later. Note that the secondary voltage is plotted in per cent of its initial value. This initial secondary voltage is determined by the initial primary voltage, the t a p setting, and the initial load. It may he determined by measurement or by suitable calculations. It is usually slightly less than the rated secondary voltage.

VOLTACbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

261

MOTOR STARTING KVA

1% OF B & N I K V A aiT RATED TRANSFORMER SECoNOAR” VOLTAGE1

FIG. 4 44 Transformer secondary voltage

)

262

VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

For example, if the motor-starting load were 1000 kva, the circuit 1000 ft long, and the initial voltage 2400 volts, the loading factor M would be

1000 x 1000 = o,1,3 (2400)'
Figure 4.45 shows that for this case the voltage drop at the load end of a typical three-conductor cable is 1.5 per cent. This illustration gives data for three circuits: a three-conductor cable, a single-conductor cable, and an overhead line. It will be noted that the voltage drop in an overhead line is greater than that for a cable. If two circuits are in parallel, the drop is equal to that for a single circuit of one-half the actual length of each circuit. The voltage drop in a line or cable depends upon the conductor size and spacing. Consequently, for different cases than those illustrated in Fig. 4.45, the voltage drop may be somewhat different. This is illustrated by Fig. 4.46 showing the voltage drop for a range of circuit configurations. The points corresponding to the circled cases in Fig. 4.45 are circled in Fig. 4.46. Figure 4.46 applies for the condition hf = 1.0. It may be noted, however, that the curves of Fig. 4.45 are nearly straight lines. Hence, the voltage drop for other values of M may be estimated by multiplying the values of Fig. 4.46 by M . This provides a simple method of estimating the voltage drop for motor-starting loads. The power factor of the motor-starting load is assumed to be 0.3 power factor. For conductor sizes above No. 0 Awg, variations over the usual range from 0.2 to 0.4 power factor will not have an important effect on voltage drop. Figures 4.45 and 4.46 are based on a frequency of 60 cycles per sec. Lines and cables for systems operating a t lower frequencies mill have less voltage drop. The voltage drop will be reduced approximately in proportion to the frequency for all couductor sizes above KO. 0 Awg. For smaller sizes, the reduction will he less. Voltage Drop of Reactors. The voltage drop in a current-limiting reactor on starting a squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor may be estimated from the transformer curves of Fig. 4.44. Current-limiting reactors are usually described as having a certain per cent reactance on a specified system-kva and syst,em-voltage base. The motor-starting kva of Fig. 4.44 should be that drawti at the specified system voltage expressed in per cent of the specified system kva. If the per cent reactauce of a reactor does not lie between 5 and 8 per cent, multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio X / 5 , where X is the actual per cent reactance of the reactor, and read the voltage corresponding to this equivalent motor-starting kva on the 5 per cent reactance curve.

V O L T A G E - S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 100

263

0

"
Y

90

10

Q

80

20

70

30

0

0 0.1 02 0 3 0.4 05 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 10 . .

1.1

1.2 1.3 1.4

~

~

( L E N G T H IN FT.)

~

(A) 3- CONDUCTOR C A B L E - (NO. 4 / 0 - A W G - I 5 K V )

(6) I - CONDUCTOR C A B L E - ( N O . 4 / O - A W G - 6
(C) O V E R H E A D L I N E - N 0 . 4 / 0 - A W G - 1 5 K V CIRCLED P O I N T S APPEAR O N FIG. N O 4 46

IN. SPACING)

FIG. 4.45

Variation of voltage drop with looding factor M for typical liner and cables.

c:

CONDUCTOR DIAMETER (INCHES) FOR MOTOR-STARTING LOADS OF 0 3 POWER FACTOR
LO~DING FACTOR M:

(MOTOR-STARTING KVAI (LENGTH IN FEET1 (INITIAL VOLTAGE)^

I0

*FOR FL4T SPACING, EQUIVALENT TRIANGULbR SPACING'; ADJACENT PHASES

I 2 6 TIMES SPACING BETWEEN

FIG. 4.46

Voltage drop in lines and cables with loading factor M of unity.

264

V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

O DROPS F

Effect of Series Capacitors. Sometimes it is advantageous t o include series capacitors in the distrihut,ion system t o neutralize the reactance of lines, cahles, or t,rausformers. Series capacitors redure voltage drop. The amount of redurt,ion depends upon the raparitor rating. For further informat,ion on series capacitors, refer to Chap. 8. Voltage Drop of Power Systems. Motors are frequently supplied from power systems cotisistirig of complicated uetworks of lines and cables for which a calculation of the voltage drop ~vouldhe difficult. The voltage drop may be est,imated, however, if t,he short-circuit current is known at the point of power delivery. The short-circuit rurrent is usually expressed in kva. When motor-starting kva is drawl from a system, the voltage drop in per cent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to 100 times the motor-startiiig kva divided by the sum of this kva and the short-circuit kva. The motor-starting kva used should be that drawn by the motor if the initial system \&age were maintained. For example, if a 1000-hp motor has a startirig kva of 5000 if initial system voltage were maintained and the system short-cirruit kva is 50,000, the voltage drop will be approximately

5000/(5000

+ 50,000) X 100

=

9 per cent of the initial voltage

In many systems the short-circuit kva varies over a wide range, depending upon the number of parallel h e s that are in service, system interconnections, etc. In such cases the highest short-circuit kva is the one usually determined since it must he the one used in selection of equipment which is t o carry or iritcrrupt the short-circuit current. For calculating voltage drop, oil the other hand, the minimum short-circuit kva should be used since the corresponding operating condition will give the highest voltage drop. The short-circuit kva of power systems varies over a wide range, as shown in Table 4.14. A corresponding variation occurs in the voltage drop produced by a certaiu motor-starting kva.
TABLE 4.14

Power-system Short-circuit Kva
Usual Range of
Short-circuit Kvo 15.000-1 50,000

System Voltage 2,400 4,160 6,900

25.000-250.000

50.000-500.000
100.000-1,000,000

13.800
23,000 34,500 69,000

I50.000-1,500,000
150.000-1,500,000 150,000-I,500,000

I 15.000

250.000-2.500.000

The method of calrulating voltage drop given above is not applicable at system locations where the short-circuit kva would be appreciably

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION DF DROPS

265

affected by reactance of generators. I t should be used only when the impedances of transmission lines, transformers, reactors, and cables largely determine the short-circuit current.
COMBINED VOLTAGE DROP

Series Circuits. Often a motor is supplied through cables, transformers, overhead lines, and generators, all in series. In such cases, the total voltage drop may be roughly estimated as the sum of the voltage drops given by the foregoing illustrations for each of the different parts of the system. However, the simple addition of voltage drops is not quite accurate because addition of impedance in series tends to diminish the current supplied to the motor. For more accurate work, the following procedure is suggested: 1. Determine the voltage drop in the circuit element nearest the motor, neglecting the other elements. For example, for a motor supplied from a generator, transformer, and cable in series, determine the drop in the cable first. 2. Multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio of the load-end voltage to the initial voltage of the cable just determined. 3. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage drop in the next circuit element. In the example selected, this is the transformer drop. 4. Now multiply the motor-starting kva by the product of the ratio of the load-end voltage to the initial voltage of the cable and the ratio of the secondary voltage to the initial secondary voltage of the transformer. 5. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage drop in the next circuit element. In the example selected this is the generator voltage drop. 6. Continue the process until all elements in series have been considered. 7. Multiply the initial voltage a t the motor by the product of the final to initial voltage ratios of all the circuit elements. This result is the final voltage a t the load. An example a t the end of this chapter illustrates the procedure described. Parallel Circuits. If several sources are in parallel, the voltage drop is less than if the motor-starting load is supplied through any one of them. To determine the combined voltage drop, it is suggested that groups of similar generators may be treated as a single generator having the same total kva rating and the same performance factor as the individual machines. Transformer banks may also be grouped if they are supplied from the same primary bus and have the same per cent reactance and the same tap settings. To find the combined voltage drop for several parallel sources of different characteristics, it is suggested that the motor-starting load first

266

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

OF DROPS

be divided equally and the corresponding voltage drops determined. Then a new trial division of load can be made so as to increase the proportion of load carried by the sources with the least voltage drop. Usually oiily one or two trials are required to obtain a sufficiently accurate result. For example, consider the case of a motor which has a startiug kva of 1000 and is furnished with power by a 500-kva generator and a 300-kva transformer bank. The first trial division of load will he 500 kva each. Let us assume that this results in a minimum voltage of 75 per rent on the generator and 90 per cent on the transformer secondary. This means that the generator will actually accept less thari half the load. The drop in the generator is 2.5 times as great as in the transformer. Then assume that the transformer accepts 2.5 times as much load as the generator. This results in 285 kva being accepted by the generator and the remainder, 715, being imposed on the transformer (715 is 2.5 X 285). The voltage drop in the transformer for 715 motor-starting kva will be found to be practically the same as for 285 motor-starting kva applied to the generator. The drop obtained is the combined voltage drop. For the case illustrated, this voltage drop is about 14 per cent. A final check of the amount of voltage drop through each source is advisable, because the drop in a generator does not always vary directly with the amount of motor-starting load applied to it. This is especially true of the restored voltage obtained through the action of voltage regulators.
FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING VOLTAGE DROP

The various curves and other data that have been presented allow estimates of the voltage drop due to motor starting to be made quirkly with minimum iuformation on the motor and circuit elements involved. For cases not adequately covered by these data, the formulas given below may he used. Static Circuit Elements Only. First assuming that all the voltage drop occurs in static circuit elements such as transmission lines, cables, transformers, and reactors, the voltage at the motor starter mill he equal to

d(ttM Rd2
where Z ,
=

+

Z.W

+ ( X , + Xd* X initial voltage at motor starter

(4.9)

impedance of motor being started (ratio of applied voltage to current drawn) R, = z cos a, , X , = Z sin eM ,

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

267

power factor of current drawn by motor being started total resistance of circuit, between motor and point in system where voltage remains constant, i.e., is not affected by start.ing of motor X s = hotal reartance of circuit between motor and point in system where voltage remains constant The impedance, resistances, and reactances in the above formula should all he expressed in ohms or all in per rent (or per-unit) on any convenient kva and voltage base. The mot,or impedance Z.,, expressed in ohms is
=

cos B.,

Rs

=

4

Voltage rating of motor in volts X starting current in amperes a t rated motor voltage

(4.10)

If a reduced voltage type starter is used, the starting current is that drawn from the line with rated motor voltage on the line side of the starter. Similarly, cos Ox is the poiver factor of the current drawn from t,he line. The voltage at the starter must, be multiplied by the motor voltage-line voltage ratio of the starter (see Table 4.13) to obtain the voltage at the motor t,erminals. The resistance and reactance of a transformer hank ran he expressed in ohms by multiplying its per cent resistance and per cent reactance, respectively, by
(Secondary voltage rating in kv)2 X 10 Kva rating of bank (4.11)

Circuit elements separated from the motor by a transformer should have their actual resistance and reactance values in ohms multiplied hy the square of the no-load voltage transformation ratio, that is, by (4.12) before adding to the ohmic resistances and reactances of the motor and other circuit elements on the serondary of the transformer. If two or more transformers are in series between the circuit element and the motor, the actual resistance and reactance in ohms should be multiplied by the square of the product of the various no-load voltage transformation ratios. For transformers equipped with taps 011 either primary or secondary winding, the voltage ratings used in the above formulas should correspond to the t a p setting. Using the per-unit system, it is generally convenient to select as base kva the kva drawn by the motor at rated motor voltage, which is
X starting current in amperes X rated motor volts

1000

(4.13)

268

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION

O DROPS F

and select rated motor voltage as the base voltage. Iii this case Z , = 1. The per cent resistanre and reactance of a transformer, with the motor connected t o its secondary, should be multiplied by

f Motor-starting kva at
rated motor voltage \ G t i n g of transformer

\

)

\

Isecondary voltage ratiug\' of transformer rated motor voltage

1 (4.14)

A second transformer in series would have its per cent resistance and reactance multiplied b j the above expression and also bj' the square of the no-load volhage transformation ratio (secondary voltage divided by primary voltage) of t,he first transformer. The resistaiice and reactaiice of circuit elements that are expressed iii ohms should be multiplied hy

Motor starting kva at rated motor voltage ." (Rated " r volts ' x 1000

)

(4.15)

except where the circuit element is separated from the motor by a transformer, in vhich case the multiplier is

(~~__

Motor-starting kva at rated mot,or voltage Prjmary voltage r a h g of transformer rated motor volts -x Secondary voltage rating of transformer 1000

) x 1000
(4.16)

I t v o or more transformers are in series bet,ween the circuit element and f the motor, the transformer no-load voltage ratio which appears in the above espression should be replaced by the product of the no-load vokage transformation ratios of the various traiisformers. Where voltage taps are provided on a t,ransformer, the voltage ratirigs used in the above formulas should correspoiid t o the t a p sett,ing. The resistance and reactance of circuit elements connected in series can be added directly. For circuit elemeots connected in parallel, equivalent wlnes of resistance and react,ance can be det,ermined hy the method given in Chap. 1. I current to other loads is flowing in one or more of the circuit elements f between the motor and the const,ant voltage point mhen the motor is started, the above formula for voltage a t the motor mil1 still apply, assuming that these other loads are of the constant-current type, i.e., the current drawn does not change ivhen the voltage drops. Such load currents must, of course, be considered io determining the initial voltage at the motor starter. A method for taking into account loads whose current varies u i t h voltage will be given later. Often it is desirable t o know the effect of motor starting on the voltage

V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS. C A L C U U T I O N OF DROPS

269

a t various points in the system as well as a t the motor. The voltage a t the motor starter divided hy rated motor voltage and multiplied hy the current drawn at rated motor voltage gives the actual current drawn from the line. This current can be comhined with any load current flowing through the various circuit elements and the voltage a t any point calculated hy the methods given earlier in this chapter. For the case where motor starting current only flows in the circuit elements between the motor and a point in the system, the voltage a t this point will he equal to

d(Rw d(RX

+ + Rs)*+ (x.w , + (X
+ R i ) 2+
= =

x1)2 X XS)2

initial voltage a t motor starter

(4.17)

resistance of circuit betweeo motor starter and specified point reactance of circuit between motor starter and specified point R a , X,, Rs, and X s are as previously defined I any load drawing current through the circuit elements in series with f the motor is not of the constant-current type, the voltage a t the motor starter can still be calculated hy the formula given provided that the initial voltage a t the motor starter is calculated using the current drawn by the various loads aft,er the motor is started. Since these currents will depend upon the voltage drop occurring when the motor is started, a trial-and-error solution is necessary. Thns the voltage a t the various loads eaii first be estimated from calculations based on ali loads drawing a constant current. The current drawn by each load a t the estimated voltage is used to calculate a new value of initial voltage a t the motor starter from which the voltage a t the motor starter and a t the various loads can be recalculated. I the load voltages do not agree closely with f those estimated, nem estimates can be made and the process repeated. In many cases the voltage drop can he caleulated with little error, considering only Lhe reactance of the circuit elements in series with the motor and using the formula Voltage a t motor starter
=

where R I Xi

zx z +x s x . w

initiai voltage a t motor starter
(4.18)

total reactance of circuit betmeen motor and point in system where voltage remains constant Z = impedance of motor heing started , When the reactance-to-resistance ratio of the eircuit elements (X,/Rs) is 2 or greater, this formula gives a voltage drop which is generally within 10 per eent of the correct value. Transformers rated 100 kva or larger usually have a reactince-to-resistance ratio greater than 2.
=

where X s

270

VOLTAGF-STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

Effect of Generators. h’ext consider the case ivhere generator voltage drop as well as the voltage drop through static circuit elemeiits must be considered. If there is no initial current flowing through the circuit elemeiits mhen the motor is started, the voltage a t the gerierator terminais may be determined from the curves of Figs. 4.39 aiid 4.42 using a value of “motor-startiiig kva at rated geiierator voltage” equal t o

Starting kva drawn by motor if voltage at motor starter mere maintained at the initial value
X

d(fi,,n,)z + +

Z I,

(x,“ xsjz +

x(.initialgeiieratorvoltage ..

rated geiierator voltage

)

(4.19)

where Z,,,, R , , and X , are as previously defined Ra = resistance of circuit betweeii motor starter and geiierator terminals X, = reactaiice of circuit betmeeii motor starter aiid geiierator termina Is The pomer factor of the current drawn from the generator will equal
(4.20)

Haviiig dctermiiied the voltage a t the generator termiiials, the voltage at the motor starter cari be calculated as it xill equal

d(&, K s ) ? + (XI, + +

zw

XS)*

voltage a t generator terminals X initial motor voltage _ _ ~ initiai generator voltage

(4.21)

If currents t o other loads (of constant-current type) are floniiig through the circuit elements mhen the motor is started, the voltage drop may be determined by trial aiid error. The formula gireri above, Eq. (4.19j, for motor-starting kva a t rated generator voltage may be used for the first estimate and the correspoiiding value of generator voltage determiiied. From this the voltage at the motor starter may I i c calculated. It is equal t o /initial voltage at motor\ starter which mould apz >< (4.22) pear if generator voltage drop had already occurred
Having the voltage a t the motor starter, the kva drawn by thc motor caii be calculated. The equivalent motor-starting kra a t rated generator voltage wili equal the actual kva drawn by the motor multiplied by

V O L T A G L S T A N D A R O RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

271

(Rated generator voltage)z Actual voltage at motor starter x actual voltage at, gcrterator
~~ ~ ~

(4.23)

If there is a transformer between the generator arid the motor, the vollagc a t the mot,or starter should be multiplied by the no-load volt,agc trausformation ratio (primary voltage ratiiig divided by secondary voltage rating) of the transformer before suhstitutiiig it in the above formula. With t,wo or more transformers in series, use as a multiplier the product of their no-load voltage transformation ratios. If the calculated mot,orst,arting kva a t rated generator vokage differs appreriably from the first estimate, a serond estimate based on the calculated value can be made and the calculatioiis repeated until a close rherk is obtained. Motor-starting Power Foctor. Use of the preceding formulas requires a knoivledge of the motor-start,ing power fartor ((WS 8.,,). The starting power factor of squirrel-cage induction and synchronous motors varies over a rather wide range, depending upon the rating and desigii characteristics. Approximat,e values of starting power factor for typiral squirrel-rage induction motors are given in Fig. 4.47. Low-speed (450 rpm aiid below) synchronous motors for reriprovatirrg compressor drive usually have a start,itig p o m r fartor bet,ween 0.20 aiid 0.40. Synchronous motors for rrntrifugal pump drive, on the other hand, have starting power fartors generally between 0.15 and 0.35. Where motor-start,ing power factor must be kuo\vn more acrurately, a value should be ohtailled from the motor manufacturer. With reduced voltage starting, the p o m r factor of the rurreut drawl from the line may be somewhat different from the motor-starting power factor. An autotransformer starter has oiily a small effect on the porver fact.or, but the magnetizing current of the autotransformer makes the power factor of the current drawn from the line slightly less t,han the motor-starting p o w r factor. With a reactor st,arter, the power factor

"
0

0.70

50.60
0.50
0.40
A

=
B

0.M

= 0.20 w
O.I0 0.001
5
K)

I

I5

I

20

I

30 40 50 75 1 0 0 HORSEPOWER RATING

I l l

I

I

150 M o

1

1

300

I

500

I

700 1000

I

I

FIG. 4.47

Approximate 3tor:ing power factor of typical squirrel-cage induction motors.

272

VOLTAGE-STANDARD

RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

of thc. riirri.iit dmwi from t h r liiie \ri11 eqiial the motor-startiiig power f w t o r miiltiplird Iiy thi: volt,age ratio (motor volt,age divided hy liiie voltage) of t h r startcr. .i rc:sist,»r starter, oii the other haiid, results i i i a power fartor for t h r riirreiit drawii from the liiie equal t o

To illiistrate, assume t h a t a motor Iiaviiig a startiiig poirer factor of 0.30 is providrd with a resistor starter dcsigtied t o reduce the voltage applied t o the mot,or t o íi3 pcr cciit of ratcd motor voltagr. Thc p o w r factor of t h r (wrrriit drawii hy tliis motor-start,cr combiiiatioii \vil1 iie
~~

-\/I-

~(0.íi5)2 [1--(0.30)*] X

=

0.785

REDUCED-FREQUENCY STARTING

Ociasioiially i i i ordcr to start a largc motor, t,he system frequeiicy is rcduccd to a Ioiv valiic i i i ordcr to iiirrcasc t,hc ratio of tlie motor torquc to thc motix-startiiig ciirreiit. At rcduced frcqiiciicy the applied volt,age is l o w r , liiit i i i thc iisual applicatioii of tlic schcmc, thc applied voltage is rrdiii,rd oiily to t h r samr rxtriit as the frrqiieiivy; that is, t,hc geiicrator exvitatioii is maiiitaiiied at tlie same valiie as heforr. Motor torqiie aiid wrrriit varg irith rediiiiiig frequeiivy i i i t,he samp iray as t,hey do with iiirrrasiiig spwd. sitiw i i i either rase t,he rotor frequeiicy is redured. C:«iiseqiieiitly, at 10 pcr i c i i t frcqiiciicy, the torqiie delivered and the wrreiii d r a w i \vil1 iic approsimatcly thc same as at 90 prr r r n t speed. IItari: tlir torqiie is griierally highcr aiid the ciirreiit loi\-er thaii at standstill. h t ttirse lon- freqiiriiries the effertive liiir resistarire is grcatly iiirrrast:d so that RII this iortliic is iiot rcalizcd. Severtheless, t,he scheme will eITrctively iii(.rcase t,lic toripie a\-nilat>lefor startiiig aiid aweleratiiig tlie motor. H o w v e r , thcre are scvcral disadvaiitages which usually makr it impractical: i . T o ohtaiii miich improvemriit thí! frequciicy must be redured t o a \-cry Iow valiie, iisiially M o \ \ - 50 per w i i t frequeiii.y, ivhich is difficult for some typcs of geiirrator ilrives. 2. i i i i iiidcpciideiit drive for the exeiter must he proridcd as direetcoiiiiectcd (ir I>rltrd exriters uill iiot provide suficieiit excit,atioii at 1ow geiicrator speeds. 3 . Loivcriiig tho system freqiieiiry may adversely affwt other equipmeiit coiiiiected to tlie systrm. Coriscquciitly, t h r svhrme is usually applicahle only for a generator supplyiiig a siiiglr motor ivheir excitatioii is supplicd by ai1 excitcr driven by a sepaiate steam tiirhiiic or aii eqiially iritiepeiidciit excitation source. 1 1 siicli cases, t h e schemc may be quite advaiitagrous. 1

VOLTAG~STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION

273

O F

VOLTAGE DROP DUE T O M O T O R STARTING '

Data (see Fig. 4.48) Generators: Two identical turbine-driven generators, 3600 rpm Total output rating = 10,000 kva Voltage rating = 6900 volts Voltage-regulator setting = 6700 volts Overhead line: 3-ft equivalent delta spacing Length = 5000 f t Conductor size = KO, 4/0 Awg Transformer hank: Output rating = 2000 kva (three-phase) Transformer voltage rating = 6600-2400 volts Motor starter: Autotransformer type Tap = 65 per cent Motor: Synchronous motor Output rating = 1000 hp Full load input = 1000 kva, 0.8 power factor Voltage rating = 2200 volts Full-voltage starting kva = 500 per cent Full-voltage starting torque = 65 per cent Initial conditions: Initial voltages At generator bus

=

6700 volts (regulator setting)

I
rrT"

LINE TRANYORMER BANK

FIG. 4.48 Circuit diagrcm of power supply to motor.

MOTOR

274

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

At transformer primary = 6700 volts At transformer secondary = 2440 volts Initial loads At generator bus = 5000 kva (50 per cent of generator rating) of constant-current type No initial load on overhead line or on transformer Requirements : Minimum allowable voltage a t generator bus = 90 per cent of initial voltage Motor starting torque must be at least 25 per cent Voltage calculations: Starting kva drawn with rated motor voltage a t autotransformer starter = full-voltage starting kva X multiplier from Table 4.13 = 5 X 1000 X 0.46 = 2300 kva Kva applied to transformer a t rated secondary voltage
=
=

starting kva a t 2200 volts X 2300 X

rated secondary voltage 2200

(2200)

2400

=

2735 kva = 137 per cent of bank rating

Transformer secondary voltage (neglecting primary voltage drop) is obtained from Fig. 4.44. For banks rated 15 kv and below and a starting kva of 137 per cent, it is 93 per cent of the initial secondary voltage. Kva applied to transmission line a t initial voltage secondary voltage of transformer = starting kva a t initial voltage X initial secondary voltage
=

2300 X

Loading factor = kva applied a t initial voltage length in feet= 2620 X 5000 - 0.292 (6700)* (initial volts)*
~

() . 4'
~~,

X 0.93 = 2620 kva

From Fig. 4.46, for M = 1, 4/0 line, 3-ft spacing, voltage drop is 11.5 per cent. Since M = 0.292, drop in line is 0.292 X 11.5 = 3.36 per cent. Voltage a t end of line (neglecting generator voltage drop) is 100 - 3.36 = 96.64 per cent of initial voltage (6700 volts). Kva applied to generator a t rated generator voltage voltage a t end of line = starting kva a t rated generator voltage X initial line voltage

VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

275

( i n i t i a l secondary voltage transformer secondary voltage X 0.9664 X 0.93
=

)

=

2300 X

(

6900 X 22002400)

m o

i

=

2690 kva 26.9 per cent of generator rating

From Fig. 4.40, performance factor K for a 5000-kva 3600-rpm generator a t 50 per cent initial load is 1.9. From Fig. 4.39, minimum generator voltage, for 26.9 per cent starting kva and K = 1.9, is 92.5 per cent of the initial voltage (6700 volts), or 6200 volts. From Fig. 4.42, restored generator voltage for 26.9 per cent motorstarting kva and 50 per cent initial load is equal to the initial voltage or 6700 volts. The minimum voltage a t the motor starter is equal to the initial voltage a t the motor starter multiplied by secondary voltage of transformer Minimum generator volts Initial generator volts initial secondary voltage voltage a t end of transmission line initial voltage a t end of line = 2440 X 0.925 X 0.93 X 0.966 = 2030 volts

) (

(

The restored voltage a t the motor starter is equal t o the initial voltage at the motor starter multiplied hy secondary voltage of transformer Restored generator volts initial secondary voltage Initial generator volts voltage a t end of transmission line initial voltage a t end of line = 2440 X 1.00 X 0.93 X 0.961 = 2200 volts

) (

(

Since the restored voltage is equal to rated motor voltage, the starting torque on the 65 per cent autotransformer tap = 65 X (0.65)' = 27.5 per cent The minimum voltage a t the generator bus (92.5 per cent of initial value) and the motor starting torque (27.5 per cent) both meet the requirements. Next the formulas for calculating voltage drop will be used to solve this problem. I t will be assumed that Motor-starting power factor Transformer resistance Transformer reactance Transmission-line resistance
= = = = =

30 per cent 0.7 per cent 5 per cent 0.0573 ohm per 1000 f t 0.287 ohm total

276

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION O F DROPS

Transmission-line reactance

=

=

0.121 ohm per 1000 f t 0.605 ohm total

The per-unit system will be used n.ith base kva equal to the motorstarting kva a t rated motor voltage (2300 kva) and base voltage equal to rated motor voltage (2200 volts). On this basis, the motor constants are

z =1 ,
cos On/ R.u
= =

0.3

B M = 72.5'
=

Z . w cos BM = 0.3

X M = Z M sin Bar

0.954

The resistance and reactance of the transformer vill equal the per cent values multiplied by Motor-st,arting kva a t rated motor voltage Kva rating of transformer secondary voltage rating of transformer rated motor voltage

Transformer resistance = 0.7 X 0.0137 = 0.0096 Transformer reactance = 5 X 0.0137 = 0.0685 The resist,ance and reactance of the transmission line will equal the ohmic values multiplied by Motor-starting kva a t rated motor voltage rated motor Primary voltage rating of transformer volts x 1000 1000 Secondary voltage rating of transformer 2300 1000 Line resistance
= =

=

0.06275

(4.16)

0.287 X 0.06275 0.605 X 0.06275

= =

0.0180 0.0380

The total resistance and reactance between the motor starter and the generator will be Rs = 0.0096 0.0180 = 0.0276 X s = 0.0685 0.0380 = 0.1065

+

+

The equivalent motor-starting kva at rated generator voltage = starting kva drawn by motor if voltage at motor starter were maintained at the initial value

VOLTAGE.-STANDARD

RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

277

X

d ( R , ,+ &)2
=

z

Y

2300 X

2440 (-)

+ (X,, + Xs)*
~~

2200

(rated generator voltage initial generator voltage 1 X d ( 0 . 3 0.0276)* (0.954 0.1065)'

+

+

+

x (o)*

= 2700 kva

(4.19)

This is substantially the same as previously determined; so the generator voltage drop will h r essentially the same, that is, the minimum voltage will be 6200 volts a i d the restored voltage, 6700 volts. The voltage at the motor starter will equal the voltage at the geuerator multiplied by initial motor voltage zw x ( .initial generator voltage .. d(~,, + ( x ,+ xS)2 + n,)z ~
-

d(0.3

z 0.328 6700 + 0.276)' + (0.954 + 0.1065)* X ' o
1
~

=

(4.21)

Thus t,he minimum voltage at the motor starter will he 6200 X 0:328 and t,he restored voltage
i d

=

2030 volts

he
=

F700 X 0.328

2200 volt,s

Chafiter 5

by R. H. Kaufmann and Maynord N. Halberg

Sys tern Overvoltages-Causes and
Protective Measures
Electric insulation in energized systems is continuously under stress. To make the most economical use of insulation, operating overvoltages should he curbed in so far as is reasonably possible. The application of additional insulation to accept higher overvoltage levels entails several rather obvious disadvantages: (1) increased cost, ( 2 ) increased size and weight, (3) increased resistance to the flow of heat from the currentcarrying conductors. In the case of a-c systems, the electric potential is varying substantially as a sine wave. The crest potential will be 41 per cent greater than the rms value. Under ideal conditions the line-to-ground voltage stress mill he less than the line-to-line operating voltage. In the case of direct current or single-phase alternating current, this ideal line-to-ground voltage would he E L L / 2 , 50 per cent of the line-to-line value. In the case of or three-phase a-c systems, this ideal line-to-ground voltage would be E L L / f i , or 58 per cent of the line-to-line value. Throughout this section, overvoltages will he expressed as multiples of the ideal balanced voltage stress in three-phase systems. Electric systems are subject to disturbances of many types which unavoidably produce overvoltages. However, the application engineer has at his command many system design principles which will greatly curb the magnitude of overvoltages. It is important to note that a-c systems are subject to many types of overvoltages not to be found in d-c systems; hence a-c systems deserve more careful consideration of the overvoltage problem. Electric insulation exhibits the effect of fatigue. Insulation will fail upon repeated or prolonged application of a given voltage stress which is
278

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

279

far below the single-impulse \vit,hstaiid abilit,y. One may conclude that a reduct,ion in either the magnitude or duration of overvoltage stress will in general result in longer useful life.
OVERVOLTAGE SOURCES

There are many varied sources of overvoltages of sufficient magnitude to be damaging t o the insulation of a-c industrial power distributioii systems. 111 t,liis chapter the mechanism by which the more prominent overvolt,ages are created v i l l be described and preventative measures suggested. ‘Treatment of t,he following will be included: I . Static 2 . Physical contact nith a higher voltage system 3. I1esouani.e effects ill series inductive-capacitive circuits 4. Repetitive int,ermittent short circuits 5 . SIT-itrhing surges (. iForced-current zero-current interruptiou 7. Autotransformer connections 8. Lightiiitig Of these, most are the result of effevtsdirectly within the electric system itself. I n contrast, lightning (a vicious source of overvokage) is communicated to the electrical system from nature’s powerhouse in the heavens above.
STATIC

Wind-blown sand or dust can become highly charged and impart relatively high voltage to exposed overhead electric conductors. Moving belts rutiiiing on iioiimet,allic pulleys can also develop high voltages by st,at,icmeans which may in turn be communicated t o electric system conductors if electric enclosing frames arc improperly grounded. The rate a t wtrirh electric i,harge is communicated t o electric system conductors by stat,ir means is extremely low. Even a rather high-resistance ground i~iiincrtionon the electric system n d l discharge these stat,ic currents t o ground as fast as they are rereived with negligible overvoltages. I n addition to grounding the elect,ric service system, it is important that electric machiue frames arid all metallic enclosures which contain electric circuit conductors be effectively grounded (see Chap. 7).
PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH A HIGHER VOLTAGE SYSTEM

If the conductors of a high-voltage electrical circuit come in contact with those of a lower voltage circuit, then the same potential will exist on

280

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASIJRES

both circuits at the point of contact. If Lhe low-voltage circuit does not have its neutral grounded, its potential will be increased t o t h a t of the high-voltage system or flashover mil1 occur. If Lhe low-voltage system is anchored close t o ground potential as hy Lhe use of a solidly grounded neutral, high values of current may flow from the high-voltage system, b u t a much lower voltage will appear than with an isolated neutral system. Accidental cootacts hetmeen primary and secondary voltages on industrial systems are guarded against by the use of metal enelosures and metal barriers which separate conductor systems of different operating potentials. In some cases overhead circuits have both primary and secondary on the same pole, but substantial clearances reduce Lhe danger of accidental contact t o a minimum. Occasional cross-ups have occurred between primary and secondary on overhead circuits, and a few cases are known where failure has occurred between primary and secondary inside a transformcr.
UNINTENTIONAL CONNECTION

7
PHYSICbL CONNECTIONS

P ,

I
I

2 LI 3I 1

'. .

/

N O R M b L POSITION O F 4 8 0 V VOLTAGE TRIbNGLE

C xq
I

Eb= 2 4 0 0 V

L,--'
I

I

\:ol,

\\ ,
e 0

b
RESULTING VECTOR VOLTbGE DIbGRbM

FIG. 5.1 Overvollage on 480-volt ungrounded ryrtem rerulting from contcxt with a higher roltoge ryrtem.

Figure 5.1 illustrates this type of fault connection. It can be responsible for dangerous overvoltages on ungrounded low-voltage systems. The most effective protection against that type of overvoltage is grounding of Lhe lowvoltage system mith the grounding impedance made low enough t o accept Lhe maxirnum line-to-ground fault current of the high-voltage system without biasing the neutral of the low-voltage system by a dangerous amount.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

281

RESONANT EFFECTS I N SERIES INDUCTIVE-CAPACITIVE CIRCUITS (LIMITED TO A-C SYSTEMS)

Ungrounded-neutral a-o systems are most commonly subject t o overvoltages originatiiig from this cause. It is import,aot t o recognize that ungrouiided-iieutral systems are actually capavitively roupled t o ground rather than truly divorred from ground. They are ungrounded in the sense that no int,er(.oiinection with ground has purposely been made, but every element of the electric system incorporates some capacit,aiice t o ground which constitutes an inherent caparitive impedance interconnection tietween the elertrir system conductors and ground. Every ungrounded elertric system contains the essential elements presented i n the upper diagram of Fig. 5.2. The electrical behavior of any one phase conductor relative t o ground rail be determined by a much simpler equivalent rirruit, as indicated in the lower sketrh of Fig. 5 . 2 .
A
I

.

'S

A PHASE

GENERATOR OR TRANSFORMER

3- PHASE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

xs
" "" A*

A PHASE

Eg

-E'.c %

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT REFERRED TO A PHASE CONDUCTOR

FIG. 5.2

Elemental composition of an ungrounded system

In terms of this simpler equivalent circuit it will be possible t o understand readily the effect of connecting different types of impedance hetween line and ground as shown in Fig. 5.3. I t becomes evident that the connection of any value of either resistance or raparitanrc tietween one line and ground produres no dairgerous overvoltages. The potential on the phase to which the impedance is connected progressively diminishes from normal value t o zero. The potential t o ground on the remaining two phase conductors will be increased t o full line-to-line value at the time the first

282
6

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

5

I

I

.

Y

" 4

J

LL

z

4 3
" Y 7

E c
' 2

. i
I

FIG. 5.3 Overvoltages on ungrounded systems result
from a high-inductive-reactonce connection between line and ground.

0

0

2 3 4 R4TlO OF ZF TO X C O , ~

S

6

phase conductor has been reduced to zero potential. This represents an overvoltage of only 73 per cent, which is not dangerously high and will normally produce no ill effect unless continued for a long time. The connection of an inductive reactance between line and ground, on the other band, can be responsible for the production of serious overvoltages to ground. It is the ratio of the inductive reactance of the lineto-ground circuit to the total capacitive reactance of the system to ground which controls the degree of overvoltage. The highest overvoltage will occur when these two reactances are equal, and a t this point they may be as much as ten times normal. It is significant to note, however, that over a two-to-one range of reactance, overvoltages of three times normal or more would be produced. The unintentional connection of an inductive reactance between a phase conductor and ground can occur in a number of ways, some of which are illustrated in Fig. 5.4. The operating magnetic coil of a motorstarter contactor may be inadvertently connected between phase and ground by a ground short circuit in the control wire to the push-hutton station or the slip of a maintenance man's screwdriver. Any time that the inductive-reactance value, which becomes connected from phase to ground, falls in the danger region indicated on Fig. 5.3, dangerous overvoltages to ground will be produced which are communirated over the entire metallic conductor system of that operating voltage. Overvoltages originating from this canse can be completely suppressed by a relatively light-resistance ground on the electric system neutral. A grounding resistor of about the same ohmic value as the total charging

"--

B

I I

_

I

C

f
BROKEN L I N E GROUNDED CbSE 3 ONE BROKEN OVERHEbO LINEGROUNDED ON T H E L O A D SIDE OF T H E B R E A K CONNECTS T H E REACTANCE OF TRANSFORMERS 12 AND 13 I N PARbLLEL B E T W E E N L I N E b N D GROUND [NOTE II

C4SE I

CbSE 2

AN INDUCTIVE WINDING CONNECTED BETWEEN 0 1 GROUND

:CIDENTbLLY PHASE h N D

b GROUNO FAULT bT A F U S E PROTECTED T R I N S F O R H E R C I N BLOW ONE FUSE LEbVING THE REACTbNCE OF TRANSFORMERS 12 4 N D T 3 I N P b R A L L E L B E T W E E N L I N E AND GROUND 1 NOTE I I

NOTE I

Y U N G R O U N D E D T R I N S F O R M E R CONNECTIONS WOULD PRODUCE T H E SAME EFFECT

FIG. 5.4

Examples of unintentional high-reactance connections between line and ground.

284

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

r
Tz. T3, W I T H THE L I N E - T O - L I N E RATED VOLTAGE 2 APPLY A SECONDARY LOADING RESISTOR WITH A RESISTANCE NOT GREATER THAN 4 0 PERCENT OF THE TRANSFORMER MAGNETIZING REACTANCE. NOTE- THE LOADING RESISTANCE CAN BE APPLIED TO EACH SECONDARY BUT WILL THEN CDNSUME POWER AND LIBERATE HEAT CONTlNUOUSLY
I SELECT P T s TI.

capacitive reactance t o ground is sufficient t o eliminate overvoltages almost completely. It will be evident t,hat there is good reason t o adopt electric system neutral grounding with a much lower value of grounding resistance for ot,hcr reasons (see Chap. 6). Figure 5.3 has been computed on the basis t,hat the inductive reactance is linear. If this reartance incorporates a n iron core which during the mode of operation being considered should encounter magnetic saturation, the performance will be somewhat different. Under such conditions the effective reactance of t,he inductive circuit can become much lower than the unsaturated reactance, and the voltage will tend t o oscillate automatically betveen vokage limits which cause the effective inductive reactance to match the capacitive-reactance value. This character of operation has been named ferroresonance. The maximum voltage so developed may not be so high as would be produced by a linear reactor but, may still be in excess of two or three times normal. Substantial overvoltages may result by ferroresonance when the unsaturated reactance is many t,imes the capacitive reactance to ground. The application of grounded-Y potential transformers on ungrounded systems with a Y or broken-delta secondary connection can be responsible for damaging overvoltages as a result of resonant or ferroresonant action since the magnetizing reartance of the pot,ential transformers becomes connected from phase conGROUNDED WYE- BROKEN DELTA POTENTIAL TRANSFORMEIS FOR GROUND ductors t o ground. A comINDICATOR OR ZERO SEQUENCE VOLTAGE plete descriptionof thisphenomenon need not be taken UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL SYSTEM u p here as it has been adequately treated in an AIEE technical paper (see reference3). Thesesystemvoltage oscillations will not occur if the electric system U neutral is grounded. Freedom from this particular type of voltage oscillation TO INSTRUMENTS can be obtained even with R ungrounded-neutral operation byusingpotential transTO INSURE FREEDOM FROM UNWANTED LINE-TOformers with a line-to-line GROUND VOLTAGE OSCILLATIONS :
FIG. 5.5 Grounded-Y brokendelta potential transformers for ground indicator or zero-sequence voltage detector.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

285

voltage ratiiig and the applirat,iori of shuiiting resistors on the secondary windings as is outliried iii Fig. 5.5. Series-capacitor melders are occasionally applied, particularly in the case of large-sim machiiies because of their ability t o reduce the kva demaiid aiid improre the operating poiver fartor t o substantially unity. However, the series-raparitor welder preseiits a definite voltage hazard to aii uiigrouiided-iieutral a-c supply system. Duriiig welder operation the voltage arross hoth t,he series raparitor and the weldiiig transformer primary v i l 1 he severa1 t,imes the rated line-to-liiie voltage. The physical electrir roiiiieitioiis aiid the associated vector voltage relationships are iiidicated iii Fig. 5.íi.
o
48OV 3-PH 6 0 C Y

s i i o m m ~ u ~GROUND TO
NORMAL POSITION OF IP UOLTME TRIANGLE;

?--.

PHVSlCbL CONNECTDNS

-, ,,
/'
b

RESULTING VECTOR VOLTbGE OIAGRPH

FIG. 5.6

Overvoltager on ungrounded syrtemr os a rerult ot o ground contact on a ieriei capocitor welding mochine.

Should a fault t o grouiid occur at the juiiction hetveeii the series capacitor aiid the weldiiig transformer (poiiit, P ) , the lorat,ioii of ground poteiitial will teiid t o become t,hat of this juiictioii poiiit iiistead of the center of the a-r system voltage triangle. The t,otal system eapacitiye impedaiice t,o grouiid would geiierally be expeeted to be high, relatire to that of the welder series rapacitor, aiid thus offers practically no opposition t o this shift in the loration of ground potential. Iii the case illustrated iii Fig. 5.G, it will be evideiit that the poteiitial of the A-phase roiiductor may be elerated to ahout 2000 volts to grouiid, which is about seveii times iiormal. As iii the other cases, this overvoltage is commuiiicated to a 1 equipmeiit metallically iiiterroniierted a t this commoii 1 operatiiig voltage. AI1 these resonant inductive-caparitive overvoltage hazards can be elimiiiated by electric system neutra1 groundiiig.

186

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

INTERMITTENT GROUND FAULTS

Substantial overvoltages can he developed in ungrounded a-c industrial systems by sputtering or intermittent ground-faulting connertions. The intermittent character of the short-circuit path may be the result of vibration which causes an electrical conductor to make contact intermittently with ground, the result of scattering particles of molten conductor metal which intermittently establishes a conducting path to ground, or as a result of successive breakdown and seal off of the separating space between conductor and ground. In the last case involving a fixed separation between conductor and ground, a progressively increasing breakdown voltage across this gap is an essential element in the build-up of severe overvoltages. Intermittent ground-fault conditions on lom-voltage ungroundedneutral systems have been observed to create overvoltages of five or six times normal quite commonly. An unusual case involved a 480-volt ungrounded system. Line-to-ground potentials in excess of 1200 volts were measured on a test voltmeter. The source of trouble mas finally traced to an intermittent ground fault in a motor-starting autotransformer. About two hours elapsed while the source was being located, during 13 hich time between 40 and 50 motors broke down. Electric systems which are grounded through reactanre of too high an ohmic value ( X a more than ten times XI) are also subject to overvoltage by this same mechanism acting in a little different form. An understanding of the manner in which a discontinuous electric connection can he responsible for the generation of overvoltages can he most easily acquired by examining the case of a sputtering or intermittent line-to-ground fault on an ungrounded-neutral system. I n Fig. 5.7 at A is shown the vector voltage pattern of a three-phase a-c system as it would operate under normal balanced conditions. The voltage vectors E., Eb, and E, rotate about the neutral at synchronous speed. The electric neutral is a point of central symmetry and remains constant at ground potential if the individual phase voltages are pure fundamental-frequency sine waves. Should the A-phase conductor become grounded, the system voltage triangle mould become displaced as illustrated in B . At the phase position illustrated in B , the A-phase voltage is at its maximum value at which instant the charging current to ground (90' ahead of the voltage) is passing through zero. In case the short circuit contains a small gap or an arc, the arc current would become extinguished at this point. Note that the trapped charge on the line-to-ground capacitance will tend to maintain the voltage triangle in the same displaced position. I n other words, the potential of the neutral (relative to ground) would tend to

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

287

remain at a d-c potential equal to the crest value of the a-c voltage wave. All this merely says that there will be little tendency for any voltage to reappear across the gap in the short circuit immediately following the current zero which occurs at B . During the next half cycle, however, the a-c generat,ed voltages will reverse their polarities (vectors rotate 180°),which would cause the threephase vector voltage pattern to assume the position shown in the upper part of C . Kote that during this one-half cycle time interval, the potential of the A phase has progressively inrreased from zero value to about twice the normal line-to-neutral crest voltage relative to ground potential. This value of line-to-ground potential of the A phase may he sufficient to break down the gap in the ground-fault circuit arid reestablish the corinection between the A phase and ground. If so, the A-phase potential will tend to be suddenly yanked to ground potential. Iuevitably there will be some system reactance in the A-phase conductor to the ground shortcircuit point which would result in an oscillation of the A-phase-conductor potential between plus 2 and minus 2 at a frequency probably 20 to 100 times normal. If the short circuit consisted of a solid metallic connection, this oscillation would decay to zero, leaving the A-phase conductor at ground potential. Xote that associated with this high-frequency transiEi"'

Y-4

E ;

+ \$

CYCLE

--tC

\$

CYCLE

€0

NORMAL

A

B

C

D

Overvoltages on ungrounded systems due to repetitive momentary contact between one line and ground.

FIG. 5.7

288

SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

tory oscillation will he a corresponding trarisitory charging current t o ground. This transitory charging current t o ground, or restrike current, will again reach zero value when the system voltage swing is at the maximum excursion i n the negative direction, as showri in the lower part of C . Thus, an opportunity is afforded for the gap in the ground short circuit t o rerlear. I reclearing does occur, a charge is again trapped on the system f rapacitance t o ground which would tend t o maintain a constant d-c potential t o ground on the system neutral. In the course of the next following half cycle, the voltage vector system will again rotate 180°, causing the potential of the A-phase conductor to ground t o he elevated from minus 2 to minus 4 as indicated by the transition from the lower part of C to the lower part of D. This increased voltage across the short-circuit gap may again result in restrike, in which case the voltage triangle would tend t o be thrown in the positive direction in the form of a high-frequency oscillation between poteutial limits of minus 4 and plus 4, which in the presence of a solid metallic connection would gradually decay t o zero. I n this explanation of the mechanism, it will be noted that all conditions have been most favorable to the creation of the highest possible restrike voltages in the shortest possible time. The restrike has been assumed t o occur at the time the maximum recovery voltage was reached but not before. Likewise it has been assumed that a reclear occurs at the first current zero after restrike. Under these conditions a line-to-ground potential of five times normal has been developed in less than two cycles. I n practical cases, t,he restrike may occur before the maximum recovery voltage has been reached, and several cycles of the transitory oscillation may take place before the short cirruit reclears. While in theory it might he possible progressively t o increase the line-to-ground voltage by successive restrike without limit if the dielectric strength progressively increases, voltage measurements on actual systems indicate that voltage levels of five t o six times normal are rarely exceeded. There is reason t o believe that damaging overvoltages of repetitive restrike origin are far more common on ungrounded-neutral systems than mould a t first he suspected. The case which was mentioned in an earlier paragraph is unusual in t,hat the obnoxious restriking conditions persisted for a long interval of time while t.he source was being located. A farmore common occurrenre is one in which several pieces of electric equipment on the system suffer electrical breakdown apparently simultaneously and one or more of the fault conditions were known or believed to involve ground. These multiple failures are commonly associated with ungrounded-neutral system operation. It is also known that a solid metallic ground connectioo on one phase may exist for subshntial intervals of time without producing multiple breakdowns in equipment,

SYSTEM GV'ERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

289

although it does produce 73 per cent overvoltage on two of the phase conductors. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the multiple failures result from the appearance of overvoltages considerably in excess of 173 per cent normal. Distribution-system ox,ervoltages of repetitive-restrike or intermittentground origin can be entirely eliminated by effective system neutral grounding (see Chap. 6). Resistance grounding with a resistance ground fault of any value upward of the line-to-ground charging current mill be effective. For various other reasons it mill he evident that higher values of available ground-fault current will he desirable. If reactance grounding is contemplated (it rarely finds application in industrial systems), it is important to keep the reactance of the grounding circuit sufficiently low so that the ratio of X o is no more than ten times X , . If this grounding reactanre value is exceeded, opportunity is given for another type of repetitive restrike action which can result in overvoltages t o ground. The ground-fault neutralizer (Petersen coil) represents one special case of high-reactance grounding which is free of overvoltages by repetitive restrike action. This is due t o the fact that the reactance value is carefully selected so that the oscillating circuit formed hetmeen it and the system-to-ground capacitance will oscillate a t normal line frequency. Following a ground-fault cnrrent shutoff point as at B in Fig. 5.7, the potential of the electric system neutral with respect t o ground would oscillate between plus and minus 1 at fundamental frequency as controlled by the tuned grounding reactor and system capacitance t o ground. Thus as the potential of the n-phase conductor with respect t o the neutral due to the generat,ed voltage in the supply system alternates from minus 1 t o plus 1, the free oscillation of the zero-sequence circuit remains in step with it, with the net result that the potential of the A-phase conductor tends t o remain at ground potential. Voltage of normal frequency gradually reappears as the free oscillation in the zero-sequence circuit decays. I n general, some 15 or 20 cycles will elapse before the potential of the previously shorted phase increases t o three-quarters of normal value. Thus, the freedom from restrike is due t o the long-delayed reappearance of voltage across the line-to-ground circuit.
SWITCHING SURGES

Circuit switching operations constitute abrupt changes in circuit parameters and can be responsible for the creation of overvoltages although generally of short duration and not in excess of two to three times normal. It will be important t o recognize that normal a-c switching interrupters offer very little opposition t o the flow of circuit current during the course of current flow but do act t o build up dielectric strength rapidly during a

290

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES- CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

normal current zero and prevent reestablishing current flow during the following half cycle. As a result of this action it is unnecessary that the stored magnetic energy in the inductance of the circuit be disposed of during interruption. Interruption takes place at a normal current zero, at which time the stored magnetic energy is zero. A quaiitative understanding of the mechanism whereby such overvoltages are generated will be useful. Of first consideration is the amount of voltage change which would tend to appear across the switching contacts if they were switched open. For example, in Fig. 5.8, a line-to-line short-circuit condition between phases A and B is illustrated. With the circuit breaker still closed, the potential of a' and b' must be common and will lie midway between potentials e, and ea, as indicated in the vector diagram. With the vector relationships shown in the figure, the current in the faulted circuit will be going through zero, which affords an opportunity for the circuit breaker to make an interruption if the contacts have parted. If current flow is interrupted at this current zero, the potential of a' tends to return to e. while that of point b' tends to return to eb.
OVERVOLTAGE IN CLEARING A LINE- TO- LINE CIRCUIT FAULT

SHORT CIRCUIT

;-,

- , \

,, " ,

VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP WITH SHORTCIRCUITON AT THE T I M E OF A CURRENT ZERO IN THE SHORT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT e.' = eb' (VOLTAGE mob AT MAX VALUE1

'

"

- ___-

MAX e.'DR

IF CURRENT INTERRUPTION OCCURS AT THIS CURRENT ZER? THE POTENTIAL OF POINTS 0 AND b WILL TEND m SNAP BACK TO ea AND Ob RESPECTIVELY BUT DUE TO PRESENCE OF L AND C I T WlLL TAYE THE FORM OF h TRINSITORI OSCILLATION W l C H WlLL OVERSHOOT END

POINT
eb'' 113 PERCENT OR
73 PERCENT OVERMLTAGE

FIG. 5.8

Overvoltages due to interruption of

( I

line-to-line short circuit at current zero.

SYSTEM O V E R V O L T A G E S - C A U S E S A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

291

There will inevitably be inductive capacitive constants which cause this return to take the form of an oscillation of relatively high frequency; this causes the potential of points a' and b' to overshoot their final value by about a n equal amount. In this illustrative example, the potential of point b' would transitorily swing t o a value of 1.73 times normal crest voltage in the positive direction while that of the point a' would make a corresponding swing to 1.73 times normal crest value in the negative direction. Circuit breakers which introduce substantial resistance drop during current flow tend to reduce the magnitude of switching transient voltages. As a result of the higher power factor of the short circuit, the point at which a current zero is reached will approach more rlosely to the point at which a voltage zero would also he reached, which thus lessens the magnitude of voltage that tends to appear across the contacts immediately following current zero. Another form of switching transient which develops overvoltage primarily on the utilization machine on contact closing is illustrated in Fig. 5.9. Here illustrated is a n open-cycle autoPOSSIBLE SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES ON CLOSING L I N E BREAKER WITH OPEN CYCLE AUTOTRANSFORMER START

ASSUME0 VOLTAGE RELATlONSHlP JUST PRIOR TO CLOSING L I N E BREAKER IAUTOTRANSFORMER STARTI

4e,
c,

CBPOLENOI ISTHE FIRST TO CLOSE MOTOR TERMINAL B W I L L TEND TO ABRUPTLY JUMP TO e BUT OUE TO .

MAX TRANSLTORI VOLTAGES-MOTOR TERMINALS TO GROUND TERMINAL B - 2 5 0 PERCENT 1150 PERCENT OVERYOLTAGEI TERMINALS A 8 C - 325 PERCENT'1225 PERCENT OVERVOLTAGE1

FIG. 5.9 Possible switching overvoltage when motor running breaker closes lopen-cycle autotransformer start).

292

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

transformer starting arrangement. It has been assumed that 65 per cent voltage has been applied on the starting connection and the machine rotor brought up to near synchronous speed. The motor was then disconnected from the starting tap preparatory to reconnection across full-line voltage. During this interval it is possible that the internal generated voltage within the motor has dropped to 50 per cent of rating and has slipped back in angle so as to he 180' out of phase with respect to the supply system. At this point, the potential difference appearing across each of the three line-switching contacts is one and a half times normal line-to-neutral voltage as indicated by the vector relationships. Suppose that the line-switching unit is now closed and that pole 1 is the first to make contact. The potential of motor terminal R would tend to abruptly assume the potential e,, but the inevitable transitory overshoot would carry it on up to 250 per cent normal with respect to ground. The potential of the motor terminals A and C would tend to be carried along and suffer a transitory excursion to 325 per cent voltage with respect to ground unless contacts 2 and 3 close at almost the same instant as contact 1. Closed-cycle starting arrangements such as reactor starting or Korndoerfer autotransformer starting minimize the overvoltages which may be developed in this manner. One of the most severe sources of switching overvoltages is associated with the separation of two system sections which have become unsynchronized and are switched apart when the generated voltages in the two sections are nearly 180' out of phase. The elements of this case are illustrated in Fig. 5.10, which shows a synchronous motor t h a t has pulled out of step and the internal generated voltage of which is 180' out of phase with respect to the system. The main supply system on the left is considered to be operating with grounded neutral and contains a much smaller reactance than the motor circuit shown on the right. All three poles of the switching interrupter have been maintained in a closed position up to the time indicated by the vector diagram. It has been assumed that, in the course of pull-out operation, the demagnetizing reactive current which has been flaming in the motor stator windings has caused the internal generated voltage ahead of transient reactance in the motor to he depressed to 50 per cent of normal value. With the vector system in the position shown, the current in the A phase is going through zero, which affords an opportunity for interruption if the contacts have parted. If the current in the A-phase conductor is interrupted at this point, the potential of the motor A-phase terminal (point a2) will tend to jump to the right to its new steady-state position E,. The inevitable transitory overshoot will cause its potential to swing about an equal distance the other side of point E,, as shown hy the dotted line. At the

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

293

maximum of this transitory excursion, the potential of point a2 mould reach about 3% times normal crest t o ground in the positive direction. I n coutrast t o the examples just cited, the more usual switching operation which is involved in separating a normally operating rotating machine or composite system of rotating machines involves very little switching surge voltage. The systems on both sides of the switching interrupters contain internal sourres of generated voltage which are of almost the same magrrihde and very close t o the same phase position. Very little change in potential tends to occur on either side of the switching device at the time interruption takes place. Arc-furnare circuits can be sources of rather severe overvoltage if switched off while an arc is in progress within the furnace. As the priS

e

.

d

.

5

\i,
c2

.. . .... .. A L L C B POLES S T I L L CLOSE0
ASSUME C B TRIPPED AND POLE I (PHASE A 1 IS THE FIRST TO INTERRUPT AT T H I S CURRENT ZERO
0 1W I L L T E N 0 TO JUMP TO e0,AND

e,.... i

Q p T O T H E NEW EA WITH .TRANSITORY EXCURSIONS SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES

FIG, 5.10

Possible overvoltager when interrupting o synchronous motor during out-of-

step conditions.

294

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

mary circuit-breaker contacts part, current at the breaker contacts can be forced to zero while current still continues to flow in the furnace arc. Thus the circuit breaker accomplishes a n interruption of line current with current flow still Continuing in the secoudary circuit. As the furnace internal current diminishes, the potential across the furnace arc increases in accordance with the normal inverse volt-ampere characteristic of an arc. The arc voltage progressively increases as the current dimiuishes and can result in a substantial voltage drop as the arc snaps out. While this voltage may not be high as referred to the arc-furnace anode, it still may be many times normal operating voltage and will be reflected to the primary side of the transformer by the turn ratio. The voltage developed at the transformer high-tension terminals may be dangerously high and sufficient to produce flashover. Special consideration is given to arcfurnace transformers, and preventative measures take the form of shuntcapacitor applications at the transformer terminals on older uuits or internal Thyrite* shunting resistors across sections of the winding 011 iiew units.

FORCED-CURRENT-ZERO INTERRUPTION

The discussion of switching overvoltages so far has considered interruption only a t a normal current zero. The term forced current zero or interruption of of current zero is used to describe an interrupting mechanism (be it a fuse, switch, section of small wire conductor, etc.) that has the property of developing a large countervoltage in opposition to rurrent flow which can force current to zero value at a time quite different from the normal inherent current zero of the rircuit. Should any element in an electric circuit have the ability to develop a high potential drop during current flow, the potent,ial so developed would appear on connected circuit conductors. The overvoltages so developed would persist until the stored energy in the inductive elements of the circuits has been dissipated (a current zero has been forced). A high rurrent short circuit created through a length of small wire conductors can be responsible for developing dangerous overvoltages in this manner. As current builds up in such a circuit, stored magnetic energy is heing accumulated in all inductive elements of the circuit. When the fusing point of the conductor is reached, the conductor copper tends t o separate into a loiig string of tiny globules of molten copper with a small arc between adjacent globules. The total voltage drop across the entire section of conductor may be several times the normal operating voltage of the circuit. During this interval of overvoltage, the magnitude of current is being diminished;

* Registwed

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

295

however the overvoltage will persist until the magnitude of current has been returned t o zero value. Because of the overvoltage problems, the vacuum contact switch finds little applicatioii. The vacuum switch tends t o shut off current completely the instaiit that the contacts part. Unless suitable overvoltage suppressors are associated with such an interrupter, high voltages will be developed if applied in inductive circuits. The overvoltages so produced may he sufficient t o sparkover the outside of the vacuum switch unless some other portion of the circuit breaks dowu a t a lower voltage. Current-limiting fuses constitute an example of a forced current interrupter. They possess the property of being able t o reduce the rurrent t o zero value ahead of a normal current zero. Overvoltages are developed during the operation of such an interrupter. As supplied by reputable manufacturers, the design of the internal elements contains special features mhirh rontrol the magnitude of such overvoltages, and full-srale tests are applied to prove the resulting performance t o ensure that overvoltages so developed d l be within the safe withstand value of the electric insulation of the voltage class t o which it is t o be applied. Because of the overvoltage problem, current-limiting fuse interrupters of a particular voltage rating should not be applied t.o electric systems of lower operating voltage. I n other words, a 7500-volt rated currentlimiting fuse should not he applied on a 2400-volt operating system because overvoltages developed iu its operation will be dangerous t o a 2400-volt insulation level.
AUTOTRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS

Autotransformers for interconnecting two electric systems of different insulation level should be avoided in industrial systems unless both are solidly neutral grounded. The common metallic interconnection between t,he two systems which is formed by the autotransformer windings tends t o subject the lower voltage system t,o nearly the same transitory voltages as would be expected on the higher voltage system. There are some exceptions, and a specific example mill serve t o illustrate the nature. Should a system be planned which is to operate initially a t 2400 volts and later be converted t o 4160 volts with all equipment therein contaiuing insulation levels commensurate with 4100-volt operating potential, i t would be sitisfactory t o employ a suitable autotransformer for interconnecting this 2400-volt system with another 4160-volt syst,em. An unusual var'ation of autotransformer action which has been responsible for system overvoltages in a number of instances is represenled by a transformer with extended windings operating on an ungrounded-neutral system such as illustrated in Fig. 5.11. Applications of this sort are most

296

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N 0 PROTECTIVE MEASURES

often found in test areas or developmental areas which contain multipurpose transformers with a multiplicity of taps to permit a wide variety of output voltages to be obtained. If operated with system line voltage impressed across a fraction of the total winding, the vector voltage at the end of the winding extension will be as illustrated in Fig. 5.11 because the volts per turn developed in the winding extension will be exactly the same as the volts per turn in the excited winding. Should the end of the winding extension be inadvertently connected t o ground or develop a short circuit to ground, the point of ground potential would tend to move away from the center of the voltage triangle to the potential of the extreme end of the winding extension resisted only by the high system-to-ground capacitance coupling. It will be evident that, as a result of this action, the presence of any extended winding would cause the potential of one phase conductor to be elevated to more than 173 per cent of normal operating potential. The degree of overvoltage may be much more severe if greater amounts of winding extension are present. It is important to realize that these overvoltages would be carried to all apparatus connected to the same metallic system. Thus, a ground short circuit on a winding extension of a transformer in a small test area at one corner of a building might impose overvoltages on all equipment fed from the same load-center substation which might include half the productive machinery in that building. As has been true so many times before, grounding of the electric supply system neutral will cure this type of potential overvoltage also. A system grounding equipment which makes available a ground-fault current which is equal t o or greater than the short-circuit current resulting from short circuit of the extended winding portion of the offending transformer will keep the system line-to-ground potentials within safe bounds. It is quite generally true that transformers of this
a
4 8 0 V WH 60 CY Q

I
I

"

PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS

\ \ \

I

i

'"' b
DIAGRAM

I

FIG. 1 1 1

Overvoltage on ungrounded systems due to a ground connection on the winding former.

of an autotrans-

RESULTING (IOLTAGE

vEcmR

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

1P7

character to be found in test areas are of relatively small physical size and do not impose restrictive requirements on the necessary system grounding equipment. As a matter of fact, on all low-voltage-system equipment (GOO volts and less) it is the standard practice to ground the neutral solidly. The application of three-phase transformers or three-phase banks of single-phase transformers, mhich do not incorporate a closed-delta winding in their make-up, should in general be avoided or quite rarefully examined to ensure that the resulting operation will be free of damaging overvoltages. This would be equally true of Y-connected autotransformers (see reference 4). Berause of the nonlinear shape of transformer magnetizing curves, the required transformer magnetizing current to produce a fundamental frequency sine wave of voltage will contain rather prominent amounts of harmonic currents. In a Y-connerted transformer system energized from a three-phase supply in the absence of a deltaconnected winding, the transformers are unable to obtain a sourre of third-harmonic current or multiples thereof because these are of zero sequence. As the result of the inability to obtain a third-harmonic exciting current, there will appear a third-harmonic voltage whirh may be as much as 50 per cent of the normal operating potential. Should the neutral of such a transformer system become grounded intentionally or accidentally and the supply system be ungrounded or high-resistance grounded, this third-harmonic voltage will be imparted to and appear on the system phase conductors and represent a sustained source of overvoltage. Even though the transformer system neutral is ungrounded, some fraction of the third-harmonic voltage will appear on the phase conductors, depending on the ratio of capacitance to ground within the transformer structure to the distributed capacitance to ground of the rest of the system. Core-type three-phase transformers present a fairly low zero-sequence magnetizing reactance which would hold the zero-sequence voltage to much lower levels than shell-type three-phase transformers or banks of three single-phase transformers and are thus much less susceptible to overvoltage difficulties. If operated with grounded neutral on an ungrounded-neutral system, a careful check should be made to ensure freedom from neutral instability, as treated in reference 3. While grounding the electric system neutral may not solve all the troubles of the Y-Y transformer connections, it will eliminate appearance of overvoltage on the phase conductors of a system to which such a bank of transformers might be connected. Overvoltage Example. A great many specific cases of system overvoltages have been analyzed, identified, and catalogued. All types are well represented. Space will not allow a lengthy treatment of these

298

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

A B C

DISTRIBUTION BUS (UNGROUNDED SYSTEM)

1
FUSE CUTOUTS

-

Q Q

I

PT2

PHYSICAL CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS

(A1

POWER SYSTEM EOUIVALENT CIRCUIT

PROTECT1V E EOUIPMENT CIRCUIT

A-PHASE FUSE OPEN

EOUIVALENT CIRCUIT FORMED BY OPENINGOF T H E A- PHASE FUSE
( FJI

FIG. 5.1 2

Circuit conditions responsible for an orenoltoge experience on an ungrounded power system.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

299

specific overvoltage cases. However, it will be interesting to review one case. The one here described has been selected because it discloses how obscure may be the basic overvoltage cause. Note that the series resonant circuit created by the opening of one fuse might very easily fail to be identified, leaving the overvoltage source to remain a mystery. A metal-products plant in the North Central section of the country had made application of a set of rotating-machine protective capacitors and arresters a t the main bus of a medium-voltage distribution system through a set of fuse cutouts. To monitor the fuses, two potential transformers and voltmeters had been applied on the load side of the fuses, as illustrat,ed in Fig. 5.12A. As a result of opening of the fuse unit in the A phase it was observed that voltmeter V , went off scale, potential transformer 1 overheated and melted out the compound, the gap shunting resistor 011 the A-phase arrester was destroyed, and phase-to-ground overvoltages appeared on the phase conductors of the service system. Not until the resulting circuit is redrawn as in Fig. 5.12B is it apparent that the overvoltages result from series resonance (probably of ferroresonance character). System-neutral grounding is to be adopted to ensure freedom from overvoltages on the distribution system conductors. (Additional corrective measures are needed to ensure freedom from overvoltage trouble in the local protective equipment circuit-potential transformer and capacitor shunting arrester.) PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS AGAINST THE OVERVOLTAGES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING The highest overvoltages to which industrial power systems are subjected are those caused by lightning. Limiting these overvoltages by suitable protective measures is essential if costly equipment failures and service interruptions are to be avoided.
NATURE

O THE OVERVOLTAGES F

A lightning stroke to earth represents the sparkover of a highly charged condenser, a cloud forming one plate, the earth the other, and the air between the dielectric. The initial charge has been estimated to be as high as 1 billion volts, and stroke currents as high as 200,000 amp have been measured. Although lightning may strike directly a t the terminals of outdoor electrical equipment, this can generally be avoided by proper shielding. Thus, the overvoltages usually reach the equipment (both indoor and

300

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

outdoor) through exposed overhead lines which often bring power t o the plant or, in some cases, distribute power withiu the plant. Direct Strokes and Induced Surges. Lightning may produce an overvoltage on a transmission line either by a direct stroke to the line or by electrostatic induction from a stroke t o earth iri the vicinity of the line. The probable maximum voltage appearing ori a liiie by a direct stroke is 15 million volts and for an induced surge, 500,000 volts. These voltages appear between conductor and ground. Wave Shopes. Although the voltage surges produced hy lightning have high magnitudes, their duration is very short. I t is measured in microseconds (millionths of a second). Typically, the voltage rises very rapidly (in 1 t o 10 psec) t o the maximum or “crest,” value and theu decays more slowly, reaching 50 per cent of the crest value in 20 t o 150 psec. As illustrated in Fig. 5.13, the shape of a voltage or current, surge produced hy lightning (and those produced artificially for test purposes) is customarily expressed by two numherç. The first, is the time from the “virtual zero” of t,he wave front t o the time the wave reaches crest value, while the second numher is the time from the virtual zero t o the time the voltage or current has decreased t o 50 per cent of the crest value. The

-WAVE-FRONT

-

WAVE - TA1 L -CREST VALUE

f

t

.
I I
ZERO TIME O F CURRENT WAVE ZERO TIME O F VOLTAGE WAVE

I I
I

I

&tut 3

4

b

-

T i a N MICROSEMXIDS

1.

_ I

WAVE- SHAPE OF VOLTAGE WAVE ti X 12 CURRENT WAVE t 3 X t e

FIG. 5.13

Termr ured to dercribe voltage cind current waves.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

301

virtual zero of a wave front is the intersection with the zero axis of a straight line drawn through the points on the front of the wave which are 30 per cent and 90 per cent of the crest value for a voltage wave and 10 per cent and 90 per cent of crest value for a current wave. Both times are usually expressed in microseconds. To illustrate, a 95-kv lf.5 X 40-psec wave is one that has a crest value of 95 kv, rises to crest value in 134 pser from the time of virtual zero, and decays to 50 per cent of crest value (47.5 kv) in 40 psec from the time of virtual zero. Traveling Waves. The voltage surge produced on a transmission line by lightning does not appear simultaneously at all points on the line; instead, it appears at successively later intervals of time as the distance from the point of the st,roke increases. Furthermore, the magnitude and shape (voltage vs. time) of the surge remain approximately the same at all points of a uniform line, but are simply displaced in time phase. In effect then t,he surge which appeared as a voltage-time wave on the line where the stroke occurred becomes two identical voltage-distance waves on the line which travel at uniform velocity in oppvsite directions from the point of origin. Keglecting all resistances, it can be shown that 1. The voltage waves travel along the conductor without change in magnitude or shape with a velocity equal to l / d T C fps, where L is the inductance in henrys per foot of line and C i s the capacitance in farads per foot of line. 2. A current wave accompanies the voltage wave and is of exactly the same shape, that is, a t any instant at any point on the line, the current flowing in the conductor is directly proportional to the voltage from conductor to ground. 3. The ronstant of proportionality between the current and voltage is called t,he surge impedance Z and is equal to 4 r C ohms, where I, i s the inductance in henrys for any unit length of the line and C is the capacitance in farads for the same unit length. The current in amperes is equal to the voltage in volts divided by the surge impedance in ohms. The inductanre and caparitance of an overhead line are such that the velocity of a current or volt,age wave (called velocity of propagation) is equal to the velocity of light in free space, which is 984 ft per psec. In most ralrulations the round number 1000 is used. The propagation velority in a cable varies with its construction, but a typical value is 600 f t per psec. The surge impedanre of an overhead line varies with the size of the ronductor and its height aboveground, but is usually between 400 and 500 ohms. A typical value for a cable is 30 ohms. Reflection of Traveling Waves. A change occurs in a traveling wave when it reaches the junction between two conductors of different surge

302

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

impedance, for example, an overhead line and rahle. The original wave, called the inrident wave, gives rise to two waves at the t,ransition point, namely, a “refracted” wave whirh rontinues on through the second conductor and a “reflected” wave which starts traveling hack over the first conductor. If, at any instant, E is the voltage of the incident wave at the junction, then E X (Z, - Z,)/(Z, ZJ is the voltage of the reflected wave, where Z, is the surge impedance of the first rouductor (over whirh the surge arrived) arid Z , is the surge impedaure of the second ronductor. The voltage of the refracted wave at the junrtiorr is the sum of the voltages of the incident and reflected waves, that is, it equals E X (222)/(Z2 Zi). Reflected and refracted current waves accompany the corresponding voltage waves, the constant, of proportionality being t,he surge impedanre ZI Z2 of the conductor the wave is traveling oil. A reversal of dirert,ion or of a voltage wave, without change i n polarity, reverses t,he direction of flow of current. As indirated by t,he equations, if Z 2 is greater than Z,, a voltage wave reflects positively at, the junctioo and the voltage a t the junrtion (equal to the voltage of the refracted wave) is greater than the vokage of the incident wave. In the limiting rase if 2%is infinite (the line is open), the voltage at t,he junction is double the voltage of the inrident wave. On the other hand, if Z,is less than Z , , the wave reflerts negatively and the refracted wave is less than the incident wave. For the limiting rase of Z2 equal t o zero (the line is shorted t o ground), the volt,age a t the junrtion is, of course, equal t o zero. The current t o ground will equal twire the current of the incident wave. Although neglecting all resistances represents an idealized condition, the simplified relations this makes possihle are useful in many practical situations.

+

+

INSULATION CHARACTERISTICS

It is characteristic of most insulations that t,he maximum voltage which they can successfully ivithstatid varies inversely with the duration of the voltage. Since power systems are subject t o various types of overvoltage, some of long and some of short duration, power distribut,ion equivment is usually required t o withstand at least tivo different types of dielect,ric tests. The first are the so called “lorn-frequency” (00-cyrle) tests, usually of 1-min duration, that cstahlish the ahility of the insulation t o withstand moderate overvoltage of relatively long durat,ion. The others are the “impulse” tests which prove that, the insulation will not break down on vokage surges of high magnitude but short duration. Since the overvoltages produced by lightning are surges of high magnit,ude and

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

303

short duration, it is the impulse tests that are important as far as protection against these overvoltages is concerned. Basic Impulse Insulation levels. The impulse test which is most commonly used consists of the application of a 155 X 4O-psec full-wave voltage surge of a specified crest value to the insulation of the equipment involved. The crest value of the wave is called the basic impulse insulation leuel (abbreviated BIL) of the equipment. T o simplify the design and appliration of elertrical equipment, the Joint Committee on Coordination of Insulation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), and the Xational Electrical Manufacturers Association (KEMA) have established a series of Standard Basic Impulse Insulation Levels. These are listed in Table 5.1. It was the intent that the impulse level assigned t o any equipment should he taken from the standard series. This has generally been done, but in some cases the value adopted for a given insulation class is that shown in Table 5.1 for a different reference class.
TABLE 5.1
Standard Basic ImDulse Insulation Levels
Boric
Reference

<. I, .
kv

impulse in."lation led. kv

Reference

<. I, .
kv

~

1.2 2.5 5 8.7

30
45 60 75 95* 110

15

23 34.5 46 69 92 115

150 200 250 350

138 161 196 230

650 750 900 1050 1300 1550

*The 95-kv BIL was estahlished for rertain types of equiprnrnt in t h e 15-kv class.

The standard BII, of most pover distribution equipment whose insulation class is 23 kv or higher is the value assigned to the corresponding reference class, as shown in Table 5.1. This is true for oil-immersed transformers, oil-immersed induction- and step-voltage regulators, oilimmersed reactors, instrument transformers, apparatus bushings, air switches, and bus supports. However under special conditions, equipment having lower impulse ratings may be furnished. For example, on high-voltage systems (115 kv and above) that are very well grounded, transformers having a RIL one step below the standard value have been successfully applied. These are referred t o as reduced-insulation transformers, while those having a BIL in accordance with Table 5.1 are called fully insulated.

304

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

The standard RII, of distribution a n d power transformers, reactors and voltage regulators (all oil-immersed), and instrument transformers whose insulation class is 15 kv and below are given in Table 5.2.
TABLE 5.2 Standard Impulse Tests
Oil-immersed power transformers and current-limiting reactors

Oil-immersed distribution transformers and "Oltage regulotorl; in.trument trondormers' lnlUlotior

.% I , . kv

Chapped-wore test

5 6

X 40

!

Chopped-rare test

Crest, kv

Min time to Rashover,

"II-r.Yc tell
3-11,,

,mat,

kv

crest, kv

Min time to Ro-rhovar. p*oc

I .2 2.5 5.0 8.66 15

30
45 60 75 95

ii
69 88
110

1
I
I

1 .o 1.25 1.5 1.6 1.8

45 60 75

1 %i I

I .5 1.5 1.6

* Thr YSIUP

ivm for the 15-kv insulation rlass apply to instrument transiormers oi the 151.-kv ulatiou PLSS. the 1511-kv class thc full-wavr test is 110 kv and For the rlropp~rl-wnrrt p s t is 130 kv with 2.0 ~ S C C flashover. to

S o industry standard impulse levels have been established for drytype transformers, hut present practire is to use the following combinations of insulation class arid UIL, both in kv:
I".Yl.ti." Class

I .2
2.5
5

811 10

20
25
~~

8.66

I5

35 50

The impulse levels of power circuit breakers, switchgear assemblies, and metal-enrlosed huses for the various voltage ratings, in kv, are as
fOllO\VS

:
Voltage Roting

811

Voltage Roting

2.4 4.16 7.2 13.8 14.4 23 34.5

45 60

75' \$ 3 110 150 200

46 69 92 115 138 161 230

811 250 350 450 550 650 750 900

* 95 ior rnctal-rlnd gear with

oillcss hreakcrs.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

305

Impulse testing of rotating machines has not been adopted. I t is generally considered that their impulse level is the crest value of the 60-cycle dielectric test. The rms value of the latter is twice rated line-toline voltage plus 1000 volts. Chopped-wave Tests. In addition to the 145 X 40 full-wave test, oilimmersed transformers (reactors and voltage regulators) and instrument transformers are given a “chopped-wave” test. In this the applied voltage is built up at a predetermined rate and then reduced substantially to zero by sparkover of an air gap. The crest voltage reached and the minimum time to sparkover of the air gap for the chopped-wave tests are given in Table 5.2 for equipment having an insulation class of 15 kv or below. For the higher voltage insulation classes the crest value of the chopped wave is approximately 1 per cent higher than the BIL and the minimum . 5 time to sparkover of the air gap is 3 psec.
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The protection of electrical equipment against the overvoltages caused by lightning depends primarily upon the proper application of lightning arresters. How lightning Arresters Operate. Lightning produces overvoltages between the line conductors of a power system and ground. A lightning arrester limits the overvoltage by providing a conducting path of relatively low impedance betmeen the line and ground. The resulting current flow to ground, through the surge impedance of the line, limits the line-to-ground voltage. But this low-impedance path must not exist before the overvoltage appears, and it must be broken immediately after the voltage has returned t o normal. This is accomplished in a lightning arrester by (1) an enclosed gap, or several gaps in series, which will withstand the normal operating voltage but sparkover and become conducting a t some higher voltage; and (2) a device which in conjunction with the gaps interrupts the flow of currentfrom the power system, called “follow current,’’ after the lightning surge has passed. Two different principles are used to interrupt follow current, and arresters may he classified according to which of these they use. Expulsion-type and Valve-type Arresters. As the term implies, expulsion-type arresters interrupt the Row of follow current by expulsion action. The gap is arranged so that upon sparkover the arc must pass over the surface of gas-evolving material; for example, the gap enclosure may he a gas-evolving fiber tube or the gap may he filled with celofiber spheres. As the gas is emitted it rushes out through a suitably placed opming in the arrester case, blowing out the arc. Interruption takes

306

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

place as the a-c current goes through zero. The action is similar t o the operation of an expulsion fuse. I n the valve-type arrester, on the other hand, interruption of follow current depends upon having in series with the gaps a column of material whose resistance varies inversely a s some power of the voltage applied. Hence, this “valve ” material exhibits a relatively low resistance when the overvoltage due t o lightning exists, but as soon as the voltage returns to normal its resistance increases t o a high value. This reduces the magnitude of the follow current to a value which can be interrupted by the series gaps. Xormally interruption takes place the first time the a-c current goes through zero. The construction features of one design of valve-type arrester are shown in Fig. 5.14. Expulsion-type arresters have assigned current interrupting ratings

FIG. 5.14
construction.

A valve-type lightning arrester with section removed to show features of

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

307

slid should not he applied to systems whose fault current exceeds such ratings. Furthermore since some of the gas-producing material is destroyed each time the arrester operates, there is a limit t,o the number of operations t o which they can he safely subjected. Valve-typc arresters have ueither of these limitations. The expulsion arrester also has a higher sparkover voltage, although following sparkover it exhibits a lower resistanre t,o the flow of lightniug discharge current than does the valve-type arrester. Finally the gaseous disrharge from an expulsiorrtype arrester makes it uusuitable for moiiriting wit,hin equipment enclosures or in close proximity to other elertrical apparatus. For these reasons the valve-type arrester is used almost exclusively for the prot,ection of equipment on industrial power systems. Voltage Rating of Arresters. The voltage rating of an arrester is defined as the highest a-c voltage (rms value) hetween its line and ground terminals a t which it is desigued t o perform its operating duty cycle. I n effect it represents the highest voltage at, which it is guaranteed to interrupt the follow current after sparkover on a voltage surge. It does not represent the voltage at which the arrester sparks over; in fact, industry standards specify that an arrester shall not sparkover at any 60-cycle voltage less than 150 per cent of its rating. As n.ill be shown (see Application Proredure) the proper voltage rating of a n arrester for any system depends not only on the syst,em voltage but also on how the system is grounded. Protective Characteristics of Arresters. The two characteristics of a lightning arrester which determine the degree of protection it can provide are (1) its impulse sparkover voltage and (2) its discharge voltage, i.e., the voltage which appears across its terminals during the passage of discharge current. The latter is sometimes referred t o as the I R voltage drop or simply I R drop. Two different sparkover voltages are usually published by the arrester manufacturers. One is the “critical sparkover voltage” with a l!i X 40psec wave, i.e., it is the crest value of the 1>6 X 40 wave which will cause sparkover on 50 per cent of the applications of this wave. Sparkover occurs on the tail of the wave. The other is the average voltage at which front of wave sparkover occurs with the voltage wave rising at the rate specified in the AIEE standards for arrester tests, namely, 100 kv per psec for each 12 kv of arrester rating. This sparkover voltage is generally higher-as much as 50 per cent higher for some arresters-than the crit,ical sparkover voltage for a I f 5 X 40-psec wave. Arrester discharge voltages usually published are the average crest values of the voltage appearing across the arrester terminals when discharging a 10 X 20-psec current wave having various crest values such as 1500, 3000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 amp.

300

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters xyhivh are puhlished, the masimum values can be determined h y means of iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires. As shown in Table 5.3, these give the amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of a n arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values. The various types of arresters listed in Table 5.3 are defined under the heading (:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs.
TABLE 5.3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters

Type of Arrester

1

ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent

I Sparkover voltage
Distribution. Line Stotion.

Discharge voltage

.......... ................. .............

25
20

20 15
10

I5

Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected t o maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 t o 12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t . Classification of High-voltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000 voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charact,eristirs and field of application as follows: 1. Distribution-type arresters 2. Line-type arresters 3. Station-type arresters Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of dist,ribut,ion transformers, they are also used to protect other equipment such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units t h a t are readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective rharacteristics, and are very low in cost. Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40, 50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moderate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the mediumvoltage range.

309

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters xyhivh are puhlished, the masimum values can be determined h y means of iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires. As shown in Table 5.3, these give the amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of an arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values. The various types of arresters listed in Table 5.3 are defined under the heading (:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs.
TABLE 5.3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters

Type of Arrester

1

ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent

I Sparkover voltage
Distribution. Line Stotion.

Discharge voltage

.......... ................. .............

25
20

20 15
10

I5

Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected to maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 to 12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t . Classification of High-voltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000 voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charact,eristirs and field of application as follows: 1. Distribution-type arresters 2. Line-type arresters 3. Station-type arresters Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of dist,ribut,iontransformers, they are also used to protect other equipment such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units that are readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective rharacteristics, and are very low in cost. Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40, 50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moderate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the mediumvoltage range.

310

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

t,he arresters must withstand is 100,000amp for thestation typeand 65,000 amp for the distribution and line types.
TABLE 5.4 Industry Average Protective Characteristics of Valve-type Lightning Arresters
A v e r a g e impulse rporkover voltage on AlEE test wove, kv

V0ltog

Average discharge oltage with 10,00O-~mp 10 x zo-psec CUrlent
wave, kv

rating, kr

__
Distribution
OrreSler.

~

~

3
6 9 I2 I5 18

I8 34 48 61 71 84
Line
Or,e.te,S

13 23 35 43

I5
30
44 55 69 78
Line
O,,&e,*

...

53

11 22 33 44 54

20 25

30
37 40 50 60 73 97 I09 121 145 169 195 242

75 93 110 136 147 183 220 267

72 89

92 Ill

I06
131 136 178 214 261 345 388 430

I35
I64

I77
222 271 328

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

51s
602 691 860

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

72 90 108 132 144 179 217 262 349 394 438 523 610 698 872

Arresters and Capacitors for Rotating-machine Protection. A variant of the station-type arrester designed particularly for rotatingmachine protection is offered by some manufacturers. One version (see Fig. 5.16) has characteristics similar t o that of standard station-type arresters but differs mechanically in that it has a porcelain top with the line-terminal connection brought out through the center. This allows placing the three arresters of a three-phase installation close t o each other, thus reducing space requirements to a minimum. The arresters are available in voltage ratings of 3 t o 27 kv with the 3-, 4 . 5 , 6-, 7.5-, 9-,

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

31 I

12-, aiid 15-kv rat,ings of particular interest for industrial npplicat,ions. The 4.5- and 7.5-kv voltage ratiirgs are not, available in t h e standard station-type arresters. They are iiicliidrd in this line to give bet,ter protection to 1.16- and 6.0-kv machines tliaii rim be provided by t h c standard 6- aiid 9-kv arrest,ers. Tlic latter ~vouldotherwise be required where the paver syst,cnis are riot, sufficiently well grounded to permit t,lie USC of 3- and ti-kv arresters on 4.16- and G.!bkv rnachiiics ( Arrester T’oit,age Ratings). The coristructioii fcatorcs niid additioiial voltage ratiiigs available make these arresters dcsirahle for iit,her app1ii.atioiis such as t.he protection of switchgear. Surge protective capacitors are also available for rotatiiig-mii~hiiie protection. They are used to reduce tlic stcepriess of the wdve front of lightning surges aiid arc available in ratirigs of OM50 volts with 1 .O pi per pole, 2.1, 1.16, 1.8, arid 6.9 kv with 0.5 pi pf’r pole, and 11.5 and 13.8 k v with 0.2.5 pf p t pole. l’liese capacit,ors differ from thc staridad ~ porver-fact,or impr(iviiig capacitors i i i that they are designed t o withstaiid higher test, voltages and have low interrid inductance. A typiciil unit is shovii in Fig. 5.17. Low-voltage Arresters. For thc prntectiou of etluilimixit on circuits whose line-to-ground voltage is iri the 110- to 125-volt range, a 175-volt

FIG. 5.16 Rotating-machine form of station-type lightning arrester rated 6 kv.

FIG. 5.17 Surge protective capacitor rated 6900 volts, 25 to 60 cycler, 0.5 ilf.

312

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES--CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

liglituing arrester is avsilal-lie. This is built in a two-pole lorm; so a single unit will provide protect,ioii to the common 1 15i230-volt siriglephase tliree-wire grounded-iieutral circuit,. A t y p i d iiistallation is showii in Fig. 5.18. For a two-wire circuit, grounded o r 1 oiie side, the two poles of the wrcster arc generally roniiecied in parallel between the uiigrouiided h i e arid gruund. For three-phase circuits such as those supplied from a208Yjl20-volt grounded-imitral system, t x o arresters arc required. For the protection of equipmerit on higher voltage circuits-up t o 600 volts-~-~twu forms of arresters areavailahle, both rat,cd 650 volts. One has a port:elaiii housing (see Fig. 5.19), is for oiitdoor service oiily, arid is availablein a singlepoleaiidatno-poleform. T h e other has t i niet,al enclosure (see Fig. 5.20), is suitable for either indoor or outdoor service, axid is availsblc in one., two-, arid t,lirce-polc forms. This unit also has better prok c l i v e characteristi(,s and so FIG, 5.18 lnrtallotion of two-pole 175-volt is t,hc oIic usually selected for lightning orrester on o 115,'230-volt single-phore protection of indust,rial plaiit three-wiro circuit. equipmeti t. Arresters for D-C Systems. .krrcst,ers designed for use on a-c power systoms are iiot getierally suitable for service on d-c employed t o interrupt follow r'urrrirt is not cffectiv diics not periodir:ttlly go through zero. Arresters, hinrevcr, arc availrtiilo for d-? scrvicc. The moderir forms arc simply capacitors having iiot less tiinti 4 pf of capnt,itaricc. Tiicy are coiiriected from line to ground arid limit, tlit. tw:st, - i d t i e of a volt,age surge by absorbing the current as a charge o i i ttic capwitor. fleiice llie effectiveiiess of the arrester in limit,irig the \-oltnge of ail iticwmitig surge depends upon the duration as i\-ell as the magriitude of the surge. lrmvever, it, also ser t o slope t,he froiit of tiit? ivavc a r i d tliiis reduce the turii-to-turn voltage sircss on the d-c rotating mnr.liities. 'I'hc arresters are available i i i three voltage classes, iiamely, Obi30 volts (illustrated iii Fig. 5 . 2 ! ) , 751-2000 v o h , and 2001:?&00\-o1ts.
( I

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

313

FIG. 5.19

Single-pole lightning arrester

FIG. 5.20 Three-pole lightning orrester in metol core roted 650 volt>. f r indoor o outdoor service, o r

with porcelain housing roted 650 volts, for outdoor service.

FIG. 5.21
cirwiti.

Capacitor-type lightning orrerter rated 0 to 750 volts, 4 rrf f r w e on d-c o lnruloting cop and sleeve removed ot one end to show terminol.

314

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

APPLICATION PROCEDURE

Every exposed overhead line distributing power within or supplying power t o an industrial plant represents a possihle sourre of destruitire overvoltages. Lightning arresters should be so applied that a voltage heIoi\- the surge from any of these sources will be reduced to a ralue ~ v e l l impulse strength of all apparatus involved. The application procedure consists of (1) selecting t,he voltage rating of the arresters t o he used, (2) choosing t,he types of arrest,ers needed, and (3) determining where the arresters should be located to ensure adequate yet economical protection. Selection of Arrester Voltage Ratings. The protective characteristics of an arrester are hetter and, in general, its cost, is lower, the lower its voltage rating. On the other hand, if the line-to-ground system voltage after sparkover of a n arrester should exceed its voltage rating, the arrester may not interrupt follow current and then iI-ill fail very quickly. This makes it important t o determine the maximum lilie-to-groutid system voltage at the point at which the arrester is applied. 111 so doing it is necessary t o consider all abnormal conditions which ran exist, particularly those conditions which are likely t o exist when the arrest,er sparks over. Under normal balanced operatirig conditions, the voltage from each line t o ground on a three-phase system is the syst,em line-to-line voltage divided by the square root of 3. This applies vhethcr the system neutral is grounded or ungrounded. There are, however, many abnormal rotiditions which can occur that result in higher t,hari normal line-to-ground voltages. Hut the one that is most likely t o exist a t the time of arrester sparkover is a line-to-ground fault. For example, if a lightning stroke causes flashover and hence a fault on one phase of a transmission line, the voltage indured on the sound phases is apt, t o cause sparkover of the arresters connerted t o these phases. These arresters must then interrupt, follow curreut, with a line-to-ground fault on the system. The voltage ratings of arresters are, therefore, generally selected 011 the hasis of the system voltage t o which they arc subjected under line-to-ground fault condi t,ions. The voltage from sound conductors t o grouud with a line-to-ground fault 011 a system depends upon how the system neutral is grounded. For the usual ungrounded or resistailre-grounded system, t,his vokage will be essentially equal to the system line-to-line voltage, and the lightning arresters used must be selected 011 this basis. Thcse are siimetimes referred to as ‘‘ 100 per cent arresters.” However, for solidly grounded or reactance-grounded systems the sooiid-rotidurtor-to-ground voltage with one line grounded may be as low as the system line-to-neutral volt-

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

315

age. It depends upon the relation between the zero- and positivesequence impedances of t,he syst,em. For example, if the ratio of zerosequence reactance X Ot o the positive-sequence reactance X I is positive and less than 3 and the rat,io of the zero-sequence resistance R , t o the positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1, the voltage from sound conductors to ground will not exceed 140 per cent of the system liue-toneutral voltage or about 80 per cent of t,he system line-to-line volt,age. Such a system is said to he “effei.t,ivelygrounded,” and t,he arresters used are referred to as “80 per rent arrest,ers.” Some syst,ems are grouudcd so that arresters of even lower voltage rating can he used as far as the orervoltage caused by line-to-ground f a u h is concerued. This, however, should he done only after a careful check of the possible overvoltages from all sources t,o make sure that v o h g e s in excess of t,he arrester rating are not likely to occur at the time of sparkover. Table 5.5 lists the voltage ratings of arresters usually selected for (1) ungrounded or resistauce-grouuded systems and (2) “effectively grounded” systems. Selections are show1 for all system voltages likely to he encountered in industrial plants. As shown in Table 5.5, 3-kv arresters are often used on 2.4/4.1C,Y-kv grounded-oeutral systems and 9-kv arresters on 7.2/12.47-kv grouridedneut,ral syst,ems, akhough in t,hcse cases the arrester rating is only 125 per cent of t,he nominal system line-to-neutral voltage. Before using these lmi-er rat,ed arresters, the maximum operating voltage and the rise iu soulid-conduct,or-to-ground rokages with a linn-t,o-grouud fault, should be determitied t o make sure that under these conditions the voltage applied to the arresters will not exceed their rating. I n geueral they should not be used on industrial pmver systems unless (1) the ratio of zero-sequenre reart,ance X o to the positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1.5 and (2) the ratio of the zero-sequence resistance Ro t,o t,he positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 0.5. Even though a system meets the qualifications of an eflectively grounded system at the power source, it may not a t other points in the system because of the impedance of intervening lines. Furthermore, the system may be “effectively grounded” under uormal operating conditions, but certain faults or other emergencies may result in the opening of switches which leaves a portion of the system ungrounded but still energized either from generators or from mot,ors whirh can temporarily act as generators. Such possibilities should he considered before selecting the voltage rating of arresters to he applied on what appears t o be an effectively grounded system. Choice of Arrester Type. Where the arrester voltage ratiug required is 3 t o 15 kv, a choice must be made between the distribution-type and the station-type arrester. Similarly, if the rating required is hetween 20

316

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

TABLE 5.5

Voltage Ratings of Arresters Usually Selected for Three-phase Systems
Voltage roting of arrester, kv

Nominal system
voltage, kv

Sy*tom "e"Ir.1 ungrounded or 'eiirtonce groundeq

System neutral effectively grounded

0.120/0.208Y 0.240 0.480 0.600 2.4 2.4/4. I6Y 4.16 4.8 6.9 12 7.2112.47Y 13.2 (or 13.81

0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65

0.175 0.65 0.65 0.65

3
4.5. or 6 4 . 9 or 6 6 7.5*or9

t 4.5,;

3

or 6 4.5. or 6 4.5* or 6

6

I5
15 15 25 37 50 73 121 145

12
9 t o r I2

12
20 30 40

23
34.5 46 69 115

I38

60 97 121

;he station type. 1 less than that necessary to make the system "effectively grounded" (see accompanying text)

* The 4.5- and 7.5-kv arresters are available only
t The use of these arresters requires an X o / X ,

I

and 73 kv, either the line-type or the station-type arrester must he selected. The value of the equipment protected and the importance of uninterrupted service in an industrial plant generally warrants the use of stationtype arresters throughout their voltage range. However, for the smaller (liquid-filled) transformers and substations, say 1000 kva and less, distribution- or line-type arresters are frequently used. Similarly, for the protection of short lengths of cable joining overhead lines and apparatus, these lower cost arresters are generally chosen. They are also used to protect small breakers, disconnecting switches, and similar outdoor switching equipment. Finally, distribution-type arresters are often used in the protection of rotating machines, thereby supplementing the protec-

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

317

tioii provided h y statioii-type arresters (sec l'rotcrtioii of h-C Iliitatiiig hlarhiiirsj. Location of Arresters. The ideal location of lightiiiiig arrestcrs, from the staiidpoi~rt,:if the prutrrtioii whirh they provide, is directly at the terminals of t h e apparatus heiiig protwted. .kt this location, aiid with the arrester groutid leads i.oiinerted direi.tly to the tank, framc, or other metallii, strnctiire h i r h supports the iiisrilated parts, thc surge voltage applied to the itisrtlatioti will he limited to the sparkover vultage aiid the discharge voltage of the arresters. Iii some cases, howe\-er, it might I)P quite costly or aivk\\-ard t o muiiiit the arresters at tlie apparatus tcrmiiials. Furthermore, i i i somc iiistatlations, if the arresters are mo\-cd away from the trrmitials 11f the protected equipme~it.a single set of arresters caii he lorated \\-here they will intercept all lightiiiiig surges to two or more pieres of apparatus. H o ~ e v e r such separation hetwecti lightning arresters alid thc eqriipme~it, does mean some itiiwase i n the magiiitude of the voltage surge 11-hivh is applied t o t h r eiluipmmt. First, the equipmelit protevted will ofteir have a highrr surge impedtilice than that iif the h i e or mhle over \\-hich the lightiiiiig srirge arrives. This means that thc voltage wave will refle1.t positix-ely nt the equipmetit termiiials aiid the 1-oltage rearhed at this poiiit n-ill al\\-ays he lriglrcr than the sparkover v d t a g e of the arrester. T h e amoriiit of the itirvmse will depend upoii ( I ) the steepiirss of the froiit of the srirgc viiltagr, (2) the relative surge impedance of the eqnipmeiit aiid the circuit hetiweti the arrester and the protected equipmeiit. (3) the sparkowr \-iiltnge of the arrester, and (4) the length of the rirt,nit hrtivreli the arrester and the protwtrd eiluipmeiit. The greatest i i i i ~ r a s riii voltage wciiss if the cirruit is iipeir at the protected eiluipmetit (iiititiite surge i m p d a t i w j . 111 this rase tlie voltagr will IK dinible the arrester sparko\-er voltagr if the sepitration distairre is such that parko over ownrs before tlic voltage wave reflected from the eiliiipmriit arrives hack at the arrestrr, U'ith less separatiiiii the voltage will iiot iiirreasr a s miidi. This is showi h y the iwrves of Fig. 3.22. Citrve ;I applies if the overhead liiie. over \\-hirIi the surge arrives. estends past the arrester to the priitri,tid eqiiipmetrt, i\-hile curre B applies i f a i,ahle of typical chnravteristiis forms the cirruit het\\-eeti the arrester aiid t h r proterted equipment. The voltage whirh appears arross an arrester after spnrkovrr, i.e., its disrharge voltage. is also magnified by separation atid priidrwrs ii Iiighrr voltage at the protevtcd equipmeiit. Fnrthermiirr. if thew is ail? appreriable lciigth of lead hetween t h e h i e rolidrii~tiir atid the arrester or het\\-een the arrester atid griiulid, the voltage drop wross surh a lead adds to the discharge voltage of the arrester aiid is also itiiwased by separation betxi-eeii the arrester and the protected eqiiipmrtit. Finally, if a11 arrester located away from the protected equipment has a11isolated co~iiicctioii to

318

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

ground, the additional voltage drop resulting from discharge current flowing through the ground resistance also adds to the line-to-ground voltage a t the arrester and a magnified addition appears a t the protected equiqment. Certain installation practices help to reduce the difference between arrester discharge voltage and the corresponding voltage a t the pro-

FIG. 5.22 Effect of reparotion between a lightning arrester and the protected equipment on the rotio of the maximum voltage a t the equipment to the sparkover voltage of the arrester (doer not include any effect of the voltage at the arrester following its sparkover).

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

319

tected equipment. For example, where an arrester is connected between an overhead line and ground, the leirgth of the line and ground leads can both he reduced to a minimum by use of the V connection. The arrest,er is placed a t ground level, and the line coriductor is brought down to the arrester and then back up, forming a V. The angle hetween the two sides of the V should not be less than 30" to minimize their mutual inductance. The effect of high ground resistance a t the arrester ran be minimized by interconnection of the arrester ground terminal with the tank or enclosure of the protected equipment, the station steelwork, and the ground mat. Finally, where the circuit hetween an arrester and the protected equipment consists of cable having a contirruous metallic sheath, the arrester ground terminal should he connected directly to the cable sheath and the sheath connected to the equipment tank or enrlosure. In this may arrester lead lengths can he kept to a minimum and the effect of ground resistance eliminated. More specific recommendations covering the application of arrest,ers for the protection of various types of equipment,, including suggested maximum separation distances, are given in the remainder of this chapter.
PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

Transformers generally constitute one of the must important elements of any industrial power system. Furthermore they are frequently connected directly to exposed overheadlines and so are suhject to destructive overvoltages unless properly protected by lightning arresters. A liquid-filled (oil or askarel) transformer having arresters mounted a t its terminals is well protected against the overvoltages produred hy lightning, with the possible exception of those result,ing from severe direct strokes to the transformer terminals or to the conneitcd lines close t,o the transformer. Furthermore, the possibility of such direct strokes can he essentially eliminated by proper shielding. Often, howerer, in order t o protect (with the same set of arresters) switching and other equipment located between the transformer and the exposed lines, or to protect two or more t,ransformers connected to the same line, it may appear desirable to mount the arresters some distance away from the transformer terminals. The maximum permissible separation distanres depend, among other things, upon the magnitudes and rates of rise of the voltage surges which can he expected to reach the arresters. Until more statistical data on these surges are available, no determination of permissible separation distances can be considered final. Hou,ever, making That appears to he reasonable assumptions, a Working Group of the AIEE Suhcommittee on Lightning Protective Devices (of the AIEE Committee on Protective Devices) proposed the maximum separation distances shown in Table 5.6.* The installation conditions on which these distances are

* Ser AIEE Misccllaneous Paper 51-285.

320

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESS-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

based arc that ( 1 ) the transformer is fully insulated (liquid-filled), (2) statioii-type arresters are used, (3) arrester lead lengths are zero (V r~~nncctioir eqnivalent), (4) ground resistance is negligible, and (5) the or transformer is a t the elid of a single overhead line (the worst condition) with the arresters located on the line directly in the path of incoming sr1rgcs.
TABLE 5.6
Separation Distance Permissible between Station-type Arresters and Transformer Bushings
Separation diitonce, ft
Tiomformer
i"lYl.ti0"
CI.I.,

Botic impvke inrvlotion

kv

IWel, kv

System neutral
ungrounded or esistance grounded 1100% arrosten)

System neutrd
effectively grounded

180% arresters)

-___
25 34.5 46 69 92 115 138

I50 200
250 350 450 550 650

25 25 25 ~. 25

30 30 35

70 70 70 70 75 85
95

For transformcrs of lower volt,age ratings (15-kv class and below) which are not covered i t t Table 5 . 6 , permissible separation distances have not becti estahlished. Severtheless it appears that for these ratings any apprecialile scparatiott should be avoided, that is, the arresters should he mounted 011 t,he transformer itself or closely adjacent to it. In ratings of 15 kv and helow, transformers are often connected t o exposed overhead lines through a length of cable. I n this case fully insulated liquid-filled power transformers ronnerted t o the overhead line through a cable having a continuous metallic sheath will be adequately protcvtrd by statioii-t,vpe arrestcrs located at the junction of the cable and the overhead l i t e. Thc arrester ground terminals must he connected directly t o thc catilc sheath, and at the transformer the cable sheath must lie rotinerted t o the transformer tank. If the transformers are of the distribution rathcr thaii the po\ver rlass or if distrihution-type rather than station-type arresters are provided at the junction of the cable and overhead line, it may he necessary to add a set of arresters at the t,ransforme,r terminals to eiisurc adequate protection. Dry-type transformers, \\-hose impulse level is ahout half that of the

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

321

liquid-filled type, are not generally recommended where connection t o exposed overhead lines is required. If used they should definitely be protected by station-type arresters located at the transformer terminals regardless of whether the connection t o the exposed overhead h i e is direct or through a cable. If a liquid-filled transformer is connected t o an exposed overhead line only through another transformer which is adequately protected by lightning arresters, no additional protection is required. In the same situation a dry-type transformer should, preferably, have station-type arresters mounted a t its terminals since analysis iiidicates that the surges that come through the other transformer can have magnitudes greater than the recognized impulse level of the dry-type units.

PROTECTION

O F

Metal-clad switchgear (used on 2.4 t o 13.8-kv circiits) is often connected t o an exposed overhead line either directly from roof bushings or through a moderate length of cable. In either case it is esseiitial that adequate lightning protection be provided. If the switchgear is connected directly t o the overhead line from roof bushings, lightning arresters should always be provided a t the gear. Although the arresters are sometimes mounted on the first structure away from the gear which supports the overhead h e , the resulting separation between the arresters and the protected equipment substantially reduces the effectiveness of the protection. Heiice locating the arresters at the gear is definitely recommended. They may be mounted on the roof of the switchgear enclosure adjacent t o the bushings or inside the enrlosure but on the line side of the breaker. Since the former arrangement generally requires an extra ground bus, the inside mounting is usually selected. The arresters should preferably be of the station type (rotating-machine form), but space limitations may sometimes make i t necessary t o use the distribution type. The voltage rating selected should he the lowest that is consistent with the system voltage and method of grounding. If the metal-clad switchgear is connected by cable t o the exposed overhead line, the first requirement is that arresters be provided a t the junction of the cable and the overhead line in order t o protect the cable. Then if the cable does not have a continnous metallic sheath, a second set of arresters should be provided at the switchgear. I n this case dis-

* Adapted from Dillow, Gittings. Halherg. Hoffman. Howard. and Hontrr, Lightning Protection of Mptalclad Saitchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Overhead Lines, Gen. Eke. lieu., March, 1949.

322

SYSTEM OVERVOtTAGE5,-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

tribution-type arrcsters are usually used a t the junction, but those at the switchgear should preferably be of the station type (see Fig. 5.23). If the cable eoiiiiectiiig niet,al-clad gear t o an exposed overhead line does have ii coritiiiiious metallie sheath, the set:orrd set, of arresters at the gear may or may not be rec.]uired. It depends upon (1) tho iiisulation level of the gear, ( Z j the type and ... . . . .. voltage rating of the arresters provided at the junction, aiid (3) the length of the cable. An analysis of this ease was made on t,he basis of the followiiig assumptions : 1. The arrestors at the jiinctioii maintain a voltage at, this point which does not exceed the sparlrover voltage of the arrester as given in Table 5.8. 2. The maximum voltage at the switchgear must be limited to 80 per cent, of its BIL. 3. The volt,age waves which appear on the overhead liue arid reach the cable junction have a const,ant rate of rise which does not exceed 1000 kv per psec. 4. The surge impedance of the overhead line is 500 ohms, and t h a t of the cable is 30 ohms. FIG. 5.23 Stofion-type lightning orresterr 5 . The velocity of propagat,ion (rotating-mochine form) mounted in metalof the surge iii the cable is GOO f t clad switchgear. per \$see. The r e s u k of the analysis are shown in Table 5.7. I n all cases the grouiid terminal of the junction arrester should be coriiiected to t,lre cable sheath as me11 as t o ground, aiid at the switchgear the cable sheat,h should he eonri d to the ground bus (see Fig. 5.24A). This is essential if no arresters are provided in the gear aiid is desirable in any case. Where large single-coiiductor cables are used, it may not be desirable t o ground bot,b ends of the sheath because of excessive sheath curreiit. I n this case the lightning-arrester ground terminal should still be coririected directly t o the cable sheath arid the sheath grounded at the switchgear, hut the connection t o ground at the arrester should be made through aii isolatiiig gap, as shown in Fig. 5.24R.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

323

TABLE 5.7

Protection of Metal-clad Switchgear Connected to Overhead lines through Continuous Metallic Sheath Cable
System voltage

Voltage
roting m d

811 of switchgear. kv

effectively grounded, kv

Neutral ungrounded
or

Voltoge rating of
.2,T&*,S

Arresters in witchgeor (required or not requiredl

resistance grounded, kv

iundion, k?

With dirtribution-typo
arresters 01

the iunction

With station-Wpe arresterr rrt the junction

4.16

2.4or4.16

160 811)

2.4 4.16 4.16

3.
4.5 6 4.5

Not required

t
Required

Not required Not required
(55 h)f

13.8

I95 8111

4.8 4.8 or 6.P 11.5 13.8

....
4.8

t
(75 tilt

6
7.5

6.9
6.P 11.5 13.8

t
Required Required Required

P

arresters on a 4.16-kv system requires an X d X , ratio IPSS than that necessary t o make the system “effectively grounded” (see Selection of Arrester Voltage Rating). t The 4.5- and 7.5-kv arresters are available only in the station type. t Arresters required in snitchgesr if length of cable exceeds this value.
Y

’The use of

-

12 15

Not required Not required Not required Not required (30 ftlt Required*

TABLE 5.8

Sparkover Voltage of Arresters Used in Analysis of Protection Rewired for Metal-clad Switchgear
Sparkover voltogs. k r

V0lt.go rating of arraters, kv

Distribution-type
.r,der*

Stofion-type
.lr,e*t*r*

-I
3
6

I
15
25 37 52 64

22
42.5 60 74 81.5

P
12

15

324

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGLS-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

type arresters and a set of protective capacitors (as used for rotatingmacliitie protection) at the junction of the rable and overhead line. The ground terrniual of both the arresters aiid the caparitors should be connected to the rable sheath as \yell as t o ground (directly or through a n isolating gap), aud the (.able sheath should he eoiniected t o the ground bus a t the switchgear.

11,

a l l - P ~ ~
I ?

CABLESHEATH

THIS ARRESTER MAY NOT BE REQUIRED

4

-

.
1

-<4p

T

q&2 ’

4
-

~

PROTECTION OF SUBSTATIONS

Outdoor substation equipment should be protected against direct strokes of lightning by proper shielding. This may take the form of steel

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

325

masts (see Fig. 5.25) or extensions of tlie steel structure arrarrged so as t o divert, t o themselves all lightning strokes which might otherivise strike a bus, disconnecting switch, bushing terminal, or other exposed currentcarrying part,. The mast,s, or eqiiivaleiit, are designed so as t o form a “protective zone” ivithin which all vulnerable parts will lie. JVith a single mast the protective zone is usually corrsidered to be a cone hax-ing its apex at the top of the mast and whose sides make an angle with the vert,ical of 30 t o 15”. With two or more masts the protective zotie of each is iricreased somewhat in the area betweeir t,hem. 1‘his may be considered as an iiicrease in the angle (made with tlie vertical) of the side of each protective cone which lies bet,rveeii two masts. With the usual spacings between masts, this angle may iiicrease to 60’. It is also desirable t,o shield the inc,omiiig lines, by ovcrhead ground wires, for a distarice of a t least 2000 ft out from the statiou. This r e d i m s the possibility of direct strokes t,o tlie lines i l l t,he riciiiit,y of the statioir and thus limits both the Inagnitude arid rate of rise of the voltage surges which reach tlie station. The overhead ground wire should lit: grounded. with as low a ground resistarrce as it is practicable t o obtain, at each p o k , and i t should he connected to the ground bus a t the substat,ion. Loir ground resistance is particularly important for the ground rotinertion at the first few Doles adjacent to t,he substation.

FIG. 5.25 Substation with lightning masti for direct stroke protection and station-type lightning arresters far protection agoinrt surges entering the station over the incoming liner.

326

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

In addition to proper shielding against direct strokes, substation equipment should be protected against voltage surges entering over the incoming lines by the proper application of lightning arresters. The type, voltage rating, and location of the arresters should he selected (by the methods that have been described) so as to protect all the equipment in the substation. Typically, a set of arresters is required on each exposed overhead line as it enters the station to provide protection to disconnerting switches, buses, etc. Whether or not these arresters will also protect the transformer depends upon the system voltage, method of grounding, and circuit distance between the arresters and the transformer (see Protection of Transformers). It may prove necessary to install an additional set of arresters at the transformer. Although the feeders from an industrial-plant substation are usually underground cahle circuits with no lightning exposure, occasionally overhead feeders are used. These represent additional sourres of voltage surges from whirh the suhstation equipment should he protected by the proper application of lightning arresters.
PROTECTION

O F

AERIAL CABLE

The best protection that can he provided for aerial cahle against direct lightning strokes consists of grounding the messenger and sheath a t every pole and securing as low a ground resistance as possible. This is to allow a lightning stroke to the messenger to drain off by current flow to earth without causing the voltage of the messenger and sheath to rise excessively above the voltage of the cable conductors. If an aerial cable joins a n open-wire line, lightning arresters should be installed at the junction to protect the cable insulation against lightning surges which arrive over the open line. The ground terminal of these arresters should be connected directly to the cable messenger and sheath as well as to ground. Since the voltage and current surges produced in the messenger of aerial cable by a lightniug stroke to the messenger result in voltage and current surges in the cable conductors, it is generally recommended that aerial cahle be considered the same as open-wire lines as far as the protection of terminal equipment is concerned.
PROTECTION OF A-C ROTATING MACHINES

Rotating machines present a special problem in lightning protertion. First the insulation of the stator windings of a-c rotating machines has a relatively low impulse strength. The highest test voltage it must with-

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

327

stand is simply the crest of the fi0-cycle high-potential test whose rms value is twice rated (line-to-line) voltage plus 1009 volts. This means that special effort must be made to limit the magnitude of the surge voltage which reaches the terminals of the machines. Secondly, the steep front of the voltage surge produced by lightning may damage the turn insulation even though the magnitude of the surge is limited t,o a value which can be safely withstood by the major (ronductor-to-ground) insulation. Such damage is avoided by reducing the steepness of the voltage wave which reaches the machine. Finally, as a result of the above limitations, lightning protertive equipment must be considered even though the machine is connected to the exposed overhead line through a transformer whose line side is adequately protected by a lightning arrester. A voltage surge of a magnitude and a steepness of front u,hich will damage machine insulation can be t,ransmitted through a transformer by electrostatic and electromagnetic coupling. The scheme of protection recommended differs somevhat for (1) machines connected direct,ly to exposed overhead lines and ( 2 ) machines connected to exposed overhead lines through transformers.
Protection of Machines Connected Directly to Exposed Overhead lines. First to protect the turn insulation, the maximum rate of change

of voltage (steepness of wave front) applied to the machine must be reduced to a value which will limit the resultant turn-to-turn voltage to a safe value. This is accomplished by (1)connecting a protective capacitor between each line and ground in the path of the incoming surge (preferably a t the terminals of the machine) and ( 2 ) connecting a distributiontype arrester from line to ground a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t out on each directly connected exposed line. Then to ensure reliable protection of the major insulation, a station-type arrester should be connected in parallel with the protective capacitor. When located at the terminals of the rotating marhine, the ground terminals of both the arresters and capacitors should be connected directly to the machine frame, which of course should be connected to the plant ground bus. When the protective devices cannot be located directly at the terminals of the machine, it is preferable to bring the incoming lines to the terminals of these devices and then on to the rather than use separate leads from the machine, as shown in Fig. 5.26A4, machine terminals to the protective devices, as shown in Fig. 5.2CR. For additional improvement in the protection provided, the exposed lines should be shielded by overhead ground wires for a distance of approximately 2000 ft out from the plant, This reduces the possibility of direct strokes terminating on the circuits close to t,he station. It also ensures that a voltage surge originating on the line, beyond the arrester which is installed 1500 to 2000 f t from the station, will have its amplitude limited

328

SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.-CAUSES

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

to the sparkover voltage and I R drop of this arrester regardless of the arrrst,er grouiid resistarice. The overhead ground mires should be directly ronnerted to the arrester grounds; they should he mel1 grounded a t each pole strurture; and they should be eoniiected to the plarit ground bus. l'he complete protective scheme is shown in Fig. 5.27. Where overhead groiind-wire shielding of lines does riot give effective protertion against direct strokes (hecause of inadequate line insulation

r3 J
3'I
PREFERRED METHOD

n

L
INFERIOR METHOD

(AI

(01

FIG. 5. 5 Allernaiive methodr of making connertions to rototing-machine protective equipment where thir equipment cannot be located directly a t the machine terminal%

MACHINE

t---DISTRIWTION-TYPE ARRESTER

' 6 f+t

I

-

Ls
I

ARRESTER

c GROUND
CDNNECTION

t

1500-2000 FT

-I
< I

FIG. 5.27 Arrmgement of lightning protective equipment for nected directly 10 on exposed overheod lhe.

rototing mochine com

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

329

in relation t o the resistance of the pole structure grounds), an alternative method is availahle. This roiisists of installing a sperial ronrentrated inductanre of about 200 mirroheiirys, and of suitable ampere rating for the line rurrent, i l l earh phase b e t ~ e e i the exposed lines and t,he paralleli connected statioir-type arresters and protective capacitors. 111 addition a distribution-type arrester should he installed on the line side of each ronreiitrated itidnctanre.
Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead Lines through Transformers. In this case no arresters are reqnired out on the

line, hut instead a station-type arrester should be installed on the line side of the t,ransformer (see Fig. 5.28). In addition, to give the most reliable protection to both the major and the turn insulation of the rotating machine, a set of station-type arresters and protective caparitors should be installed between the transformer and the machine, preferably a t the machine terminals. The roniiertions t o this protective equipment should he as outlined for machines connected directly to exposed overhead lines.
Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead lines through Reactors or Regulators. The protection provided in this case

should he the same as for marhines roiinected dirertly to exposed lines. I n addition a11 arrester should be applied dose t o the line terminals of the reactor or regulator, as sho\vn in Fig. 5.29, t o protert this equipment. Protection of Machines Connected Both Directly and through Transformers to Exposed Overhead lines. As shown in Fig. 5.30, the protection in this rase is provided by a combination of the arrangements described above; that. is, a station-type arrester should he provided on the line side of the t,ransformer, a distribution arrester 1500 t o ZOO0 ft out on the line t o which the machine is ronnerted dirertly, and a station arrester and protective capacitor at the machine terminals.

FIG. 5.28

Arrmgemenl of lightning protective equipment for nected to on e.,,ored overhead line through a transformer.

D

rotating machine con-

330

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES MACHINE REGULATOR O R

AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

r-------7----ARRESTER *GROUND 'CONNECTION

CONNECT ARRESTER AND CAPACITOR GROUND T E R M I N A L S T O MACHINE FRAME AND TO RELIABLE STATION GROUND

f7

-.ARRESTER
CONNECTION

1500-2000F T

FIG. 5.29 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for o rotating machine connected to an exposed overhead line through a voltage regulator or through a currentlimiting reactor.
ARRESTER GROUNDCONNECTEDTO TRANSFORMER TANK OVERHEAD GROUND WIRE MACHINE DISTRIBUTION-TY PE ARRESTER

OONNECTYM
TO MACHINE FRAME AND TO RELIABLE STATION GROUND

1500 -2000 FT

FIG. 5.30 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for a rotating machine connected to exposed overhead lines both directly and through a transformer.

Effect of Cables and Switching Equipment between Rotating Machine and Exposed Overhead Lines. There will normally be one or more

lengths of cable as well as switching equipment between the rotating machine and the exposed overhead lines. For the lengths of cable normally encountered in industrial plants, this does not affect the application of rotating-machine protective equipment. However, the cable and switchgear should also be provided with adequate lightning protection (as previously described), and it may be found that some of the devices used can also serve in the rotating-marhine protective scheme. Protection of low-voltage Machines. As indicated by their GO-cycle high-potential tests, low-voltage machines (600 volts and helow) have relatively higher dielectric strength than the higher voltage machines. Where such machines are connected only to exposed overhead lines

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

331

t,hrough transformers which have adequat,e lightning protection on their primary, w additional lightning protective equipment is generally warranted. However, where Ion-voltage machines are supplied direct,ly from exposed overhead lines, lightning prot,ection shonld he provided. l y p i r a l installations of t,his t,ype include motors installed in oil fields and in quarries. Protection of Machines Having Single-turn Coils. Rotating machines above a certain size (lower limit varies wit,h speed and voltage rating) are generally built with single-turn coils in which the coil insulation also serves as the turn insulation. For 3GOO-rpm turbine generators, typical lower limit,s are 2500 kw a t 2400 v o k , 5000 k w at 4160 volts, and -10,000 k w a t 13,800 volts. For such machines, protective raparitors are essential only if they are required t o limit the rise of volhage at the neutral of the machine due t o positive reflection of the surge voltage wave a t t,his point, Hence t,hey are not required if the machines (having single-turn coils) are connected t o the exposed overhead lines through delta-Y or Y-delta transformers. Xeither are they essential if the machine neutral is grounded t,hrough a neutral resistor of 25 ohms or less or through a neutral reactor of 0.1 ohm or less (on a 60-cycle basis). Protection of Two or M o r e Machines on the Same Bus. The installation of station-type lightning arrest,ers and p r o t e h v e raparitors at t,he terminals of each rotating machinc is always an ideal arrangement as far as the protection provided is concerned. However, where two or more machines in a plant are connected t,o the same exposed overhead lines, there are obvious economies in plaring t,he protective equipment, on a rommon bus or a t some other point where it will be in the path of the lightning surges t o all machines. Where there are a number of machines involved, a set of protective equipment on each incoming line may he the most economical arrangement,. In such inst,allations, if the protective equipment is not over 500 ft from the rotating machines and is placed directly in the path of t,he incoming surges, there is relatively little loss in protection. A compromise arrangement places the protective capacitors a t the terminals of each machine with a single set of arresters at the common point. If the protective equipment is not located at the machine terminals, careful grounding of the arrester and capacitor sod a n interconnection between this ground and the marhine frame is quite important. If the circuit between the protective equipment and the machine frame consists of continuous metallic-sheath cable or the cable is run in metallic conduit, the arrester and capacitor ground terminals should also be connected t o the cable sheath (or conduit) and the latter should be joined t o the machine frame.

332

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

Ratings of Protective Equipment Recommended. Table 5.9 shows the ratings of the lightning arresters and protective capacitors recommended for protection of three-phase rotating machines of the popular voltage ratings. The ratings of the arresters required on the line side of any transformer between the rotating machine and an exposed overhead line are not shown. Such arresters must he selected to match the voltage and method of grounding of the line-side system. For single-phase machines the same recommendations apply except that only two single-pole units are required if neither line is grounded and only one (on the ungrounded line) if one line is grounded. However, for TABLE 5.9 Protective Equipment for Three-phase A-C Rotating Machines
For instoilofion IS00 to 2000 ft out on directly connected exposed overhead lines

For indallation mt machine tsrminoli or on mochine bus

Protective capacitors Mochine

st.tion-type

orrester,

1
~

Distribution-type orrc~tcrs
~

- -

~

*olt.ge
rating

Voltage rating
~

Voltage rating i"gleUnpole units grovnde< iff&i"*l: or regroundoc "ired rnidonca system ground=< Singlepole ""it. required

Iphose-to phase1 Voltw e di"(
MiUO

Single p01e
""it. re.

quire.

Effective1 groundec system

system

- 0-650 2,400 4.160 4.800 6,900 11.500
13.800

~

0-65 2.40 4.16 4.80 6.90 11.50 13.80

I

.o

I650 3,000 650 3,000
3 3

~

3'

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25

3* 3*
3

3
3 or 6 3 or 6

650 3,000 4,500 6,000 7,500 12.000 15.000

3,000\$ 4,500 6,000
9,000

I.0 200

3 3 3

6,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000

3,0001
6,000 6,000 9,000 12,000

3 3 3 3 3
3

3

-- - - - * A single three-pole

--

unit is commonly used. units (0.5 pf per phase) where both of the following conditions apply: (1) Maehinc IS directly connected to t h e exposrd overhead lines. is connected through a n autotransformer. or is eonnectcd throneh a Y-Y transformer with both Y's grounded. (2) Machine is ungrounded, is neutral grounded through a resistance greater than 50 ohms, or is neutral grounded through a reactance greater than 5 ohms (60-cycle basis). In all other cases three capacitor units (0.25 pf per phase) will suffice. \$The use of 3000-volt arresters on a 4160-volt system requires s n X o / X Iratio less than that newssary to make the system "effectively grounded." (See Selection of Arrester Voltage Rating.)

t Use six capacitor

~~

~~0~~~~

~

~~~

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

333

CkG5O-volt marhines a t,hree-pole protertive caparit.or is commonly used in any rase. T\\-o-pole 2400-volt capacitors and two-pole GO-volt arresters are available for use on single-phase systems i n which neither line is grounded. As shown, the voltage rating of the protective capacitors rerommended matches the system phase-to-phase vokage for both effectively grounded and ungrounded systems. They arc generally designed so that t,hey rail be used on any marhine whose voltage rating does not exreed 110 per rent of the capacitor voltage rating. Where the voltage rat,ing of a marhine falls between the voltage ratings of the prot,ertive raparitors available, one of the next higher voltage rating r a i l alivays be used.
PROTECTION OF D-C ROTATING MACHINES AND RECTIFIERS

D-C motors and generators connected to exposed overhead lines should be proterted hy suit,ahle d-r arresters, snrh as the capacitor type. They may he installed at the machine terminals, on the bus, or at the station on each outgoing feeder. Mercury-arr rectifiers and t,heir transformers (Fig. 5.31) may be protected hy a set of station-type or distribution-type arresters on t,he supply side of the transformer and, if the d-r feeders are exposed, suitable d-r arresters a t the d-c terminals of t,he rertifier, on the d-r hus, or on the exposed d-c feeders. In addition t o this protection, rectifier transformers are often supplied with built-in nonlinear resistors or “surge eliminators” installed on one of the secondary Y’a or zigzags, and also installed across

1

AC SUI

RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER

ANODES MERCURY CATHODE

I

~

+
T I

DC

I/

4
I L L
FIG. 5.31

THYRITE SURGE ELIMINATORS (BUILT IN AS INHERENT PART ff GENERAL ELECTRIC RECTIFIER TRANSFORMERS I

4
Typical scheme of lightning prokction for a mercury-arc rectifier.

334

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

the interphase transformer winding, to absorb the high peaked surges of small energy associated with mercury-arc phenomena.
PROTECTION OF COMPLETE POWER SYSTEM

The protection of a complete power system is accomplished simply by providing adequate protection to each component of the system by the methods which have been described. In some cases it will be found that the protective equipment required for one piece of apparatus will also serve to protect other pieces. The effect of separation between arresters and protected equipment must, however, be considered. Typical arrangements of protective equipment for an industrial power system are illustrated in the one-line d i a g a m of Fig. 5.32. As shown,

FIG. 5.32
ryrtern.

Typical arrangement of lightning protective equipment on on industrial power

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEMURES

335

lightning arresters are provided on the high-voltage incoming line. It is assumed that the distance between these arresters and the transformer terminals is short enough so that no additional protection is required for the transformer. The generator and large motor are provided with both lightning arresters and capacitors a t their terminals, while the smaller motor has the capacitors only. Lightning arresters are also provided on the line side of the breakers to which the overhead feeders are connected. Arresters are also required a t the junction of the overhead line and cable, but it is assumed that the length of this cable is such that these arresters do not give adequate protection to the switchgear. Finally, arresters are installed a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t nut on each overhead feeder to complete the protection required for the rotating machines. In all cases the type and voltage rating of the arresters would be selected as outlined under Application Procedure. No attempt has been made to show the details of the connections to the arresters. These should be made in accordance vith the recommended practices that have been outlined.
REFERENCES
1. Modern Conwpts of Lightning ProtPetion for Transmission and Distribution Circuits, Ocneral Electric Company Publication GET-I720A, 1948. 2. Lightning Protective Equipment for Rotating Machines, Gerieral Electric Company Puhlication GEA-l743H, 1953. 3. Shott. €1. S.. and H. H. Peterson, Critoris. for Xeutral Stability of Wye-Grounded Primary Ijroken Delta Secondary Transformw Circuits, Tmns. A I E E , vol. 60, November, 1941. 4 Blrmie, L. F., and A. Bwajian, "Transformer Engineering," 2d ed., John Wiley . & Sons, Ine.. New York, 1951. 5. Schroeder. T. W., The Cause and Control of Somr Typcs of Switching Surges, Tions. A I E E , vol. 6 2 , November, 1943. 6. AIEH Committee Rcport, Poner Systmn Overvoltages Produccd by Faults and Switching Operations, 1948. 7. AIEE Committee Rcport, Corrdation of System Overvoltagcs and Pystem Grounding Impedance, 1943. 8. Lewis, W. W.."The Protection of Transmission Systems Against Lightning," John UIIPy & Sons, Inc., New l-ork, 1950. 9. Brwley. L. V., "Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems," 2d ed., John WilQy & Sons, Inc., New York. 1951. 10. Joint Cornmittcc on Coordination ai Insulation of AIEE, E E I , and KEMA, Standard Basic lmpulsc Insulation l,evels, EEI Publication No. H-8, NEMA Publication No. 109, 1941. 11. National Clcetrieal Manufacturers Association, Standards of Lightning Arresters, Publiention Kos. LAl-1852 to I,A5-1952, 1952. 12. "American Standard for Lightning Arrestprs for Alternating Current Power Circuits," ASA Standard C62.1, 1944. E. 13. Hunter, E. M., Pragst, and P. H. Light, Dctermination of Ground-fault Current and Voltages on Transmission Systrrns, Cen. Elec. Rev., August and November. 1939.

336

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

14. Wagner, C. F., G. D. McCann, and C. M. Lear, Shielding of Substations, T ~ a n s . A I E E , vol. 61. February, 1942.

15. Boehne, E. W., Voltage Oscillations in Armature Windings under Lightning Impulses, Trans. A I E E , vol. 49, 1930. 16. Rudge, W. J., R. W. Wiesernan. and W. M. Lewis, Protection of Rotating A-C Maehinps Against Traveling Wave Voltage Due to Lightning, Tians. AZEE, vol. 52, 1933. 17. Hunter, E. M., and N. E. Dillow, Surge Protection of Rotating Machines, Gen. Eke. Rev., May, 1950. 18. General Electric Application Committee, Lightning Protection of Metalclad Switchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Overhead Lines, Gen. Elec. Re"., March, 1949. 19. Towne, H. M., Lightning Protection of Substations. supplement to Dist7ibulion Magdzine, July, 1951. 20. Allen, E. J., Protecting Meter Equipment from Lightning, supplemmt to Distribulion Magazine, July. 1952. 21. Rudge, W. J., W. A. MeMorris, S. B. Howard, and T. J. Carpenter, The New Thyrite Mrtgne-Valve Ststion Arrester, AIEE Conference Paper, 1954.

Chapter 6

by

L.

J. Carpenter and L. G. Levoy, Jr.

System Grounding'
About midafternooil one day i l l a West Coast manufarturi~igplant, normal operations herame suddenly disrupted. The first evidenre of trouble came in the form of a motor failure 011 the 480-volt system, then another, and still anot,her in close succession. h i i inspertion of switchboard voltmeters (measuring line-to-line volts) and ammeters indicated no unusual conditions. System equipment continued to fail. A test voltmeter W:LS rigged up having a full-srale ralihratioti of 1200 volts. Upon coiiiiecting it phase-to-ground, the pointer went o f srale. A phaseto-ground potential on a 480-volt system of more t,haii 1200 v o l h existed! At once the inroming service t,raiisformers were snsperted of iiiternal breakdown hetween high- and Ion-voltage windings, As the last of these transformers was isolated and individually tested, it hemme evident that they mere not at fault. System equipment rontiiiued t o fail, and the situation was desperate. A frantic group went into a huddle aiid derided that, t,he only way out, was t o trip the main inroming service breaker n-hich would deenergize the entire system. A t this point one of the workmeii noticed a small wisp of smoke coming from a motor-starting autotransformer and, upon approaching, could hear a buzzing noise inside. This circuit was switched rlear of the system, and the overvoltages disappeared. During the two-hour period that this arcing fault existed, hetween 40 and 50 motor windiiigs had failed. Finally it was found that the autotransformer enclosing case had been bashed in and was practically in contact with the coil. The spot where arcing had taken place was evident although not badly burned. An attempt mas made t o show the plant engineer what had been the trouble. A solid connection was made between the frame aiid the burned

* Crrdit for much of the original analytical work on this srhjcat is duc to IV. I i . Roire, who was formerly a mcmher of the Industrial EnginPcring Srction. Orrwral Electric Company. 337

338

SYSTEM GROUNDING

spot on the coil. Much to the bewilderment, of the operating men and according to the expectations of the plant engineer, no mnre than the 73 per cent increase in the voltage to ground on the other two phases occurred. The main ingredient of the overvoltage (discontinuous conduction) had been omitted. This is an actual case of severe prolonged experience of overvoltage of repetitive restrike origin on a 280-volt ungrounded system. This story is spectacular because of the magnitude of the disturbance and consequential damage. Similar occurrences of lesser extent are not uncommon, however, and there is evidence that they are more frequent than realized. It is a characteristic of ungrounded systems that they are subject to relatively severe transient overvoltages. This trouble can be avoided by proper grounding of the system, and other importaut benefits are also obtained. For a detailed explanation of the nature and causes of these overvoltages, refer to Chap. 5 . System grounding has been practiced since the beginning of electric power systems. This method of operation has not been universally uniform even within a given voltage class of systems or between various operating companies. On the other hand, rertain systems are nearly always grounded, for example, 120-volt lighting circuits. The problem of whether or not a system neutral should be grounded, and how it should be grounded, has sometimes not had the complete understanding and engineering analysis which it deserves. As a consequence, the grounding of many systems has heen hased on past experience or opinion, and therefore system grounding practice is found to vary widely on existing systems. On the other hand, most new systems conform to modern grounding practices. A comprehensive review of the problems involved in grounding the neutrals of industrial power systems clearly shows that it is generally advantageous to ground all power-system neutrals regardless of voltage or of process in the plant. The application in practical systems, however, must be tempered by the availability of standard a p p a r a h s for new systems and the equipment and practices in an existing plant.
DEFINITIONS

The word “grounding” is commonly used in electric power system work to cover both “system grounding” and “equipment grounding.” To avoid confusion or possible misunderstanding, this chapter is devoted exclusively to the subject of system grounding. The following chapter (7)is devoted to equipment grounding. These terms are defined by the National Electrical Code as follows:

SYSTEM GROUNDING

339

System Ground: A system ground is a connection to ground from one of the current-carrying conductors of a distribut,ion system or of an interior wiring system. Equipment Ground: An equipment ground is a ronnertion to ground from one or more of the non-current-carrying metal parts of the wiring system or of apparatus connected to the syst,em. As used in this sense, the term equipment includes all such metal parts as met,al conduit,s, metal raceway, metal armor of cables, outlet boxes, cabinets, switch boxes, motor frames, and metal enclosures of motor controllers. The following definitions are taken from AIEE Standard S o . 32. Seutral Grounding Devices. System Neutral Ground: A system neutral ground is a connection to ground from the neutral point or points of a rircuit, transformer, rotat,ing machine, or system. The neutral point of a syst,em is that point whirh has the same potential as the point, of junction of a, group of equal nonreactive resistances if connected at their free ends t o the appropriate main terminals or lines of the system. (Except where specifically stated to be otherwise, the srope of this chapter includes and relates t o neutral grounding of three-phase a-r systems in industrial plants.) Grounded Sydern: A grouuded system is a system of conductors i n which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded, either solidly or through a current-limiting device. KOTE:Grounded systems may be subject to various steady-stat,e and transient overvoltages depending upon the ratios of X o / X , and R o / X , as viewed from the fault location. Elo, X o , and X,are, respectively, the zero-sequence resistance, the zero-sequence reactanre, taken as positive if inductive and negative if capacitive, and positive-sequence subtransient reactance. Ungrounded: Ungrounded means without an intentioual connection to ground except through potential-indicating or measuring devices. Solidly Grounded (Directly Grounded) : Solidly grounded means grounded through an adequate ground connection in whirh no imcedance has been inserted intentionally. Resistance Grounded: Resistance grounded means grounded through impedance, the principal element of which is resistance. Reactance Grounded: Reactance grounded means grounded through impedance, the principal element of which is reactance. Resonant Grounded (Tuned Grounded) : Resonant grounded means reactance grounded through such values of reactance that, during a fault between one of the conductors and earth, the rated-frequency current

340

SYSTEM GROUNDING

flowing in the grounding reactanres and the rated-frequency capacitance iwrrent flowing between the unfaulted condurtors and earth shall he substantially equal. In the fault, these two components of the fault current will be substantially 180’ out of phase. Ground-fault Neutralizer: A ground-fault ueutraliaer is a grounding device which provides an inductive component of current in a ground fault that is substantially equal t o and therefore neutralizes the ratedfrequency capacitive component of the ground-fault current, thus rendering the system resonant grounded. Grounding Transformer: A grounding transformer is a transformer intended primarily t o provide a neutral point for grounding purposes.

CHARACTERISTICS

O UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS F

The term ungrounded system is used t o identify a system in which there is no intentional connection betneen the system condurtors aud ground. However, in any practicalsystem, therealmaysesists a rapacitive coupling between the system conductors aud ground. Consequently, the so-called “ungrounded system” is in reality a “capacitively grounded” system by virtue of the distributed rapacitanre from the system rondurtors t o ground. When the neutral of a system is not grounded, it is possible for destructive transient overvoltages, of several times normal, t o appear from h i e to ground during normal switrhing of a circuit having a line-to-ground fault. Tests have shown that overvoltages may be developed Sy repeated restriking of the arr during interruption of a line-to-ground fault, particularly in lom-voltage systems. Experieiice has proved that these orerUNFAULTED CIRCUIT UNGROUNDED POWER SOURE

1 4 ,

4

)TRANSIENT

t

-

clb-

,
~

-SINGLELINE- TO GROUND FAULT

+I MAY CAUSE

f I

OVERVOLTAG ES SECOND FAULT

I

I HERE

POTENTIAL

BREAKER FIG. 6.1

INTERRUPTING FAULT

Transient overvoltages due to ground-fault interruption on ungrounded system

may cause other faults to occur on system.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

341

voltages may cause failure of itisulat,ioii at other lo(.atiotis on the system than t,hc point of fault,. Thus, a litie-t,o-ground fault 011 one circuit may result ill damage t o eiluipmeiit aud interruption of service on other rirruit,s. The same condition will result from the repeated restrike of the arc: in at1 arcing fault from line t,o ground. The condit,ion described is illustrated ill Fig. (i.1. In aii uiigrouiided-neutral system, a serond ground fault 011 another phase may occur heforc the first fault, is removed. The second fault may he on the same cirruit as t,he original fault or OII another. In any event,, the resulting line-to-line fault will avtuate relays or circuit breakers and

i SECChD ' I
GROUNC FAULT

F G 6.2 I.

Double line-to-ground faults on ungrounded system result in outages of two circuits and high-level fault currents which can cause severe damage to equipment.

FIG. 6.3

One ground foult on

an ungrounded ryrtem may cause ground foultr in other

connected apparatus.

FU LL LIN E -T O LINE VOLTAGE NEUTRAL NORMAL GROUND VOLTAGE

-:;i::: VOLTAGE

*
Y

GROUND P O T E NT I A L

(A) NO FAULT ON SYSTEM (N E U TR A L FL O A T S AT GROUND POTENTIAL)

(01 SINGLE-LINE-TOGROUND FAULT ON SYSTEM (ONE LiNE AT GROUND POTENTIAL1
( I

FIG. 6.4

Effect on line-to-ground voltages of

single line-to-ground fault on an un-

grounded neutral system.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

343

cent higher than normal. Figure G.4 illustrates the increase i n line-toground voltage due t o a ground fault. Usually the insulation het,ween each line and ground is adequate t,o withstand full line-to-line voltage. However, if this voltage is applied for loug periods, it may result in failure of insulation which may have deteriorated hecausc of age or severe service conditions. Line-to-ground faults on ungrounded-iieutral systems muse a very small ground-fault current t o flow through the raparkanre of cahles, transformers, and other electrical equipment ou t h e system. This current may have a magnitude from a few amperes t o 25 amp or more 011 larger

LA r
J

1
T

1 Y

1 Y

T

I

h
Y

s
5 s

I

- ~.

2 Y

3 "

T

P

5

FIG. 6.5

Location of ground faults m a y be troublesome on ungrounded neutral systems.

344

SYSTEM GROUNDING

systems. This is not, in general, enough to actuate protective devices, bnt it may do considerable damage if allowed to flow for a long period. Ground detectors on an ungrounded-neutral system will indicate the existence of a ground fault but will not give its location (see Fig. 6.5). Several dt vices are available for determining the approximate location of ground faults. Such devices are admittedly helpful, hut they do not provide the complete answer. Some time is still required to locate and remove the faulty feeder from service for repair. These devices do nothing to prevent the occurrence of the fault.

SWITCHES

hll.
G K g
FIG. 6 6 Ungrounded low-voltage system with single line-to-ground fault in one circuit. .

SYSTEM GROUNDING

345

The problem of locating a fault on an ungroiuided-iieutral system is illustrated in Fig. R.G. While it is easy to see where the fault is iii the diagram, it is not easy to locate it i n the artual ungrounded system. The first step is to opeti the secondary feeders one at a time. This will tell on whirh feeder the fault is. After finding vhirh feeder the fault is on, then the branch cirruit,s are opeired one at, a time and finally the motors and loads taken off one at a time. If this is done during produrtion hours, it rail readily he seen how much production loss there may he just t o find a ground fault iir an ungrounded system. This is contrasted with a grounded-neutral system where only t,he motor A , Fig. 6.6, would have been tripped out and no other produrtion marhines iuterfered with. A second ground may occur on the same phase, but at a different location than the first. This is more diffirult t o find bemuse the operator must then open all circuits a t once and dose them one a t a time t o find the ground fault. Often it is argued that with an ungrounded system one ground fault cau be left on the system uutil it is convenient to locate it without interfering with production. Experienre has shoivn that double ground faults are rery common in ungrounded systems simply because the first ground is left on, hoping that the operator will find it before the serond ground fault occurs.

The advantages of operating an industrial power system grounded compared with operatiug it ungrounded may be one or more of the following : 1. Reduced operating and maintenance expense a. Reduction in magnitude of transient overvoltages b. Improved lightning protection c. Simplification of ground-fault location d. Improved system and equipment fault protection 2. Improved servire reliability 3. Greater safety for personnel and equipment The relative weight of these advantages varies with system voltage classes and t o a lesser degree with installation conditions. Wheii the system is grounded at the neutral by a low value of impedance, grounded-neutral lightning arresters may be used which give hetter lightning protection, other things being equal, than do ungroundedneutral arresters required for ungrounded-neutral systems or for groundedneutral systems which are grounded through a relatively high neutral impedance. I n general, circuits below 15 kv are not exposed to lightning within the industrial plant, so that the advantage gained from better

346

SYSTEM GROUNDING

light,ning protection through the use of <rounded-neutral arrest,ers is not too often an important factor. When industrial plants use voltages above 15 kv, these circuits are often exposed to lightning so that low impedance syst,emneutral grounding to allow the use of grounded-neutral arresters is definitely advantageous. Voltages below 15 kv are most commonly used in industrial plants and are the highest voltages to which rotating machines are ordinarily connected. It is in these systems that the advantages of system neutral grounding are ohtained in the greatest degree. Minimizing damzge at, the point of fault is usually more important than improved lightning protection. The reasons that the advantages are obtained stem from the operating characteristics of grounded-neutral vs. ungrounded-neutral systems. Better protection can he ohtained in a grounded-neutral circuit because differential-relay protection of motors, generators, and transformers is improved in grounded-neutral systems. If the neutral of the system is not grounded, protection against grounds in the machine minding by percentage differential relays is provided only upon t,he occurrence of a second ground in another phase of t,he system, whereas in a groundedneutral system, percentage differential relays will operate for single ground faults in the protected zone. Phase-overcurrent relays in power systems are set at a value of current above the full-load circuit rating, since load current flows through the samc current transformers and relays as does the fault current. Homever, ground-fault relays may he set to operate at considerably less than full-load currelit, since load current does not pass through them in the normal three-phase industrial power systems with t,hree-phase loads. It is this characteristic of ground relays that permits the use of low groundfault current associated with resistor grounding. Phase overcurrent relays usually have tap settings from 4 to 16 amp, whereas ground relays have tap settings as low as 0.5 to 2.0 or 1.5 to 6 amp for this reason. Slightly lower system costs can sometimes he obtained hecause cables designed for grounded-neutral service are appreciably less expensive than those designed for ungrounded-neutral service for (1) systems at 13.8 kv and above and (2) where automatic ground-fault relaying is used. I n other rases the cost of the grounded-neutral system may be increased by the cost of the grounding equipment which, in most cases, in the 2.4- to 13.8-kv range, is a grounding resistor. This cost is not generally significant. It is often advantageous to operate low-roltage industrial power systems, four-wire, three-phase. Thus, 208Y/120-volt systems may be used directly for three-phase motors and single-phase lighting. Likewise 480Y/277-volt four-wire systems may be used for 480-volt motors and

SYSTEM GROUNDING

347

277-volt fluorescent lighting without lighting transformers. I n each case, the neutral is solidly grounded. It has been the experience of operators who have used both groundedand ungrounded-neutral systems that the failure rate is substantially lower and the time the system is out of service is less on the grounded system. This results from the fact that transient overvoltages are greatly reduced on a grounded-neutral system. Because grounding reduces these overvoltages, the life of electric insulation will he increased and service interruptions will be minimized. Even though the overvoltages of a n ungrounded-neutral system may not he high enough to cause multiple failures, every time a ground fault occurs, the repeated application of these overvoltages will weaken the insulation and cause a higher failure rate than in a grounded-neutral system.
TABLE 6.1
Summq
f

of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral 480-volt System
Grounded-neutral system

I

Ungrounded system

Safety.

... . .. . . ...

Service rdiobility.

Maintenonce cost..

.. Fin1 coil. . . .. ......

High-vollage Rvoresce lighting

SAFESTOnly 277 voits to ground Normolly 277 volts to ground when at m y time (assume good ground no around on sydem. 480 vdti 10 and 480 volts maximum line to line1 ground on two conductors when one phore i s grounded SAFESTVoltage on system limited Voltage on recondory system may be to obout 277 volts when primary to as high as primary voltage for secondary failure OCCUR in Ironsbreakdown between primary and rocondory Ironsfarmer windings former supplying system SAFESTGround fault in ~ontroi Control circuit ground fault likely to wiring cmn put only 58 per ~ e n line put full v ~ l t o g e cantactor closing f on volloge on line-to-line connected coils LO"t.dO, closing coil. HIGHEST-Ground faults ore mod- Port or 011 of system must be taken out of service to Rnd ground faults ily located and repaired; syitem need not be taken out to Rnd Subject to severe transient overvoltground faults age* HIGHEST-Ground foults arc locd- Ground faulh if not removed may upon occurrence of a second ired and trip off immediately ground foult cause N o circuits to HIGHEST-h%nimizes Irondent overgoout atonce, thus causing 0 lossof voltages on the system twice (IS much production equipment HIGHTEST-Flooting grounds are Floating or arcing grounds likely very unlikely LOWEST-Ground faults arc easily Time must be spent hunting ground located fault, delta-connected About same (IS substation and ground detector Provides 277 volts for direct opera- Mud use step-down handormen lion of fluorescent lights. resulting from 480 to 277 volts or lower in a cod roving by lhe elimination of lighting Ironsformers and a reduction in copper

348

SYSTEM GROUNDING

A summary of the advantages of grounded-neutral operation on a 480volt system is given in Table 6.1. In general, the same advantages are applicable to other system voltages of 600 or lower. A summary of the advantages of grounded-neutral operation on systems of 2.4 to 15 kv is given in Table 6.2.
TABLE 6.2 Summary of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral System (2.4 to 15 Kv)
Grounded-neutral system

I

Ungrounded system

..... ....... Somice roiiobllity . ....
Safely.

... First C o l t . . . .... .....
Maintenance cost..

SAFEST: Single line-to-ground faulh Subject lo severe troniient overare tripped off immediocly voltages HIGHEST: Ground faults are readily Part or 011 of system must be taken out of service to find fovltr located and repaired Ground foulh, i f not removed, may HIGHEST:Limited fault current C(IUSFI upon occurren~e ( second ground of I a minimum of damage to equipment [with conventional resistonce fault C W S ~ two circuiti to go out at once, lhur couiing the 1 0 s of Wice grounding) as much production equipment HIGHEST: Minimizer transient over- High fault current assdated with two line-to-ground, faulh moy result in voltages on lhe system more damage to equipment LOWEST: Ground fauih ore easily Ground faulh ore more diticult lo locote locoled ABOUT SAME: Adds cost of resistor Requires ground-detector and faultlocator equipmentto be comparable and nwtral relaying

HOW TO OBTAIN THE SYSTEM NEUTRAL
The best way to obtain the system neutral is to use source transformers or generators with Y-connected windings. The neutral is then readily available. Such transformers are readily available for practically all voltages. On new systems, 208Y/120 or 480Y/277 volts may be used to good advantage instead of 240 volts. For 2400- or 4800-volt systems, special 2400Y- or 4800Y-connected source transformers may be purchased or grounding transformers used.

GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
System neutrals may not be available, particularly in many old systems 600 volts or less and many existing 2400-, 48On-, and 6900-volt systems. When it is desired to ground existing delta-connected low-voltage systems (0-600 volts), grounding transformers are used to form a neutral which is then connected solidly to ground. I n like manner, 2.4- t o 15-kv

SYSTEM GROUNDING

34P

systems having only delta-connected equipment may he grounded by adding grounding transformers and neutral resistors. Grounding transformers may be either of the zigzag or Y-delta type.
ZIGZAG GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS

The t,ype of gromrding transformer most rommonly used is a threephase zigzag transformer with no secoudary winding. The internal cotinection of t,his trausformer is illustrated in Fig. G.7. The impedance of the transformer to three-phase currents is high so that, when t,here is no fault on the system, only a small magnetizing current flo~vs the transin former windings. The transformer impedance t o ground current,, h o w ever, is low so that it, allows high ground currents to floxv. The transformer divides the ground current iuto t,hree equal componeuts; these currents are in phase with each other and flow i n the three windings of the grounding t,ransformer. The met,hod of wiuding is seen, from Fig. 6.7, t o he such that when these t,hree equal currents flow the current i n one section of the winding of each leg of the core is i n a direction opposite to that in the other sertion of the n\$iding on that lea. The only magnetic flus \\-hich results from the zero-sequence ground rurrents is the leal e field about earh XI-inding
~

I

1 7 1 1

1 t-

_ ) .

>
OF DIAGRAM CONNECTIONS

I (0) WINDING SHOWN ON CORE

-

(b) SCHEMATIC

FIG. 6.7

Zigmg three-phore grounding transformer.

350

SYSTEM GROUNDING

section. This accounts for the low impedanre of the transformer to ground current. The short-time kva rating of a grounding transformer is equal t o rated line-to-neut,ral vokage times rated neutral current. h grounding transformer is designed to carry its rated current for a limited time only, such as 10 sec or 1 min. Hence, it is normally about one4enth as large, physically, as an ordinary three-phase transformer for the same rat,ed kva.
Y-DELTA GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS

A Y-delta transformer ran also be utilined as a grounding transformer. I n this case the delta must he closed t o provide a path for the aerosequenre current, but the delta can be made up at any ronvenient voltage level. It may or may not be used to serve other loads. The Y nindiug must be of the same voltage rating as the circuit mhirh is to he grounded. The connections of the transformer are shown in Fig. G.8.
APPLICATION

A grounding transformer should he connected t o the system in such manner that the system mill always he grounded. Figure G.9a shows a grounding transformer with an individual line breaker for connection directly to a main bus of the system. Figure G.9b shows a means of COIInecting a grounding transformer t,o a system without an individual line breaker. In this case, the grounding transformer is connected between the main t,ransformer bank and its hreaker. If grounding t,ransformers are connected as shown i n Fig. G.Yb, there should be one grounding transformer for each delta-ronnerted bank supplying power t o the system, or enough t o assure a t least one grounding transformer on the system at all times.

FIG. 6.8 Connections and current dirtribution in CI Y-delta grounding tranrformer when line-to-ground foult occurs on a three-phare system.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

351

A

A

A

Y

~

L
\$

FIG. 6.9

GROUNDING TRANSFORMER

-

GROUNDING R E S l STOR

{Jq3GROUNDlNG A N SFORMER TR

i

GROUNDING RESISTOR

(b)

Methods of connecting grounding transformer to system.

352

SYSTEM GROUNDING

In applying grounding transformers, the first step is to review the system voltage and fault current level to determine whether the system should be grounded solidly or through a resistor.
METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING

In grounding the neutral of a power system, the advantages outlined will be achieved provided that proper attention is given to the impedance of the circuit from system neutral t o ground. This circuit is illustrated in Fig. 6.10 for the commonly used grounding methods. These methods are referred to as solid grounding, rpsistance grounding, reactance grounding, and ground-fault-neutralizer grounding. Kote that each method is named in accordance with the nature of the external circuit from system neutral to ground. In each case the impedance of the generator, or transformer, whose neutral is grounded is in series with the external circuit. Characteristics of the various methods of system neutral groundiug are given in the following text and summarized in Table 6.3. Application limits and guides for the various methods are outlined with reference to the following: 1. Effect on development of transient overvoltages 2. Damage a t the point of fault due to magnitude of ground-fault current 3. Application of standard relays and circuit-interrupting devices for selective ground-fault tripping 4 Lightning protection .
SOLID GROUNDING

A power system is solidly grounded when a generator, power transformer, or grounding transformer neutral is connected directly to the station ground or to the earth, as shown in Fig. 6.11. Because of the reactance of the grounded generator or transformer in series with the neutral circuit, solid grounding cannot be considered a zero-impedance circuit. If the reactance of the generator or transformer is too great, the objectives sought in grounding, principally freedom from transient overvoltages, will not be achieved. Thus, it is necessary to determine how solidly the system is grounded A good guide in answering this question is the magnitude of ground-fault current as compared with the system threephase fault current. The higher the ground-fault current in relation to the three-phase current, the more solidly is the system grounded. For nearly all solidly grounded systems (also reactance-grounded sys-

SYSTEM GROUNDING

353

tems) it ia neecusary for the ground-fault current to he in the range of 25 t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault rurrent to prevent the development of high transient overvoltages. This may mean symmetrical rms ground-fault currents in the order of 10,000 t o 40,000 amp.
CIRCUIT

0
I

EOUIVALANT DIAGRAM

UNGROUNDED

Y I

5?

3.

RESISTANCE GROUNDED

c p

5

GROUND F A U L T NEUTRALIZER

XG-REACTANCE

OF GENERATOR OR TRANSFORMER USED FOR GROUNDING

XN-REACTANCE O F GROUNDING REACTOR RN-RESISTANCE OF GROUNDING RESISTOR

FIG. 6.10

System neutiol circuits and methods of grounding.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

SYSTEM GROUNDING

355

Direct grounding of a generator without external impedanre may cause the grouiu-fault current from the generator t o exceed the masimum three-phase fault rurrmt which the generator can deliver aud t,o e x r e d the short-rirruit rurreiit for which its vindings usually are hraced. Consequently, i n rases where solid grounding of a system is indirated, generators should be grounded through a react,or having a l o w ohmic value whirh d l limit fault current t o a value no greater than three-phase fault rurrent. 111 the case of three-phase four-wire systems, limitation of ground-fault current t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault current, is usually practical n-it,hnut interfering with normal four-wire operation. Lightning arresters for grounded-neutral systems may be applied when the system is grounded through a low impedance to prevent displacement, of t,he system neut,ral d h respert t o ground beyond specified limits. In this rase, the maximum impedanre may he espresscd in terms of minimum ground-fault current. This cnrrent should be at least 60 per cent of the three-phase short-circuit current for appliration of grounded-neut,ral-type lightning arresters. I

GENERATOR SOLIDLY GROUNDED

POWER TRANSFORMER SOLIDLY GROUNDED

GROUNDING TRANSFORMER SOLIDLY 7

T

FIG. 6.1 1

Methods of solidly grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.

RESISTANCE GROUNDING

In resistance grounding, the neutral is connected t o ground through one or more resistors, as shown in Fig. 6.12. In this method, with resistor ohmic values normally used, the line-to-

356

SYSTEM GROUNDING

ground voltages which exist during a line-to-ground fault are nearly the same as for an ungrounded system (except transient overvoltages). This is illustrated in Fig. 6.13. A system properly grounded by resistance is not subject to destructive transient overvoltages. For resistance-grounded systems at 15 kv and

I

\$ 9
Y
GENERATOR NEUTRAL
POWER TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL

GROUNDING TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL

-

FIG. 6.12

Methods of resistance grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.

NORMAL LINE-TO-, NEUTRAL

+'
A) SYSTEM NEUTRAL UNGROUNDED

POTENTIAL

VOLTAGE DROP IN GROUNDED PHASE,DUE TO GROUND CURRENT

8) SYSTEM GROUNDED BY RESISTOR
(All voltage5

FIG. 6.1 3

System voltage diagrams during single line-to-ground faults.

a t operating frequency-transient voltages not shown.)

!+

SYSTEM GROUNDING

357

below, such overvoltages will not ordinarily be of a serious nature unless the resistance is so high as to limit the ground-fault current t o a small fraction of 1 per cent of the system three-phase fault current (i.e., to less than the system charging current). This much ground current (usually well below 50 amp) is far less than is uormally used with resistor grounding. Systems grounded Ghrough resistors as described in this chapter should use lightning arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits, where lightning arresters are required. The reasons for limiting the current by resistance neutral grounding are as follows: 1. T o reduce burning aud melting effects in faulted electric equipment such as switchgear, cables, and rotating machines 2. To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and apparatus carrying fault current 3. T o reduce electric shock hazards t o personnel, caused by stray ground-fault currents in the ground return path 4. To reduce the momentary line-voltage dip occasioned by occurrence and cleariug of a ground fault
REACTANCE GROUNDING

The term reactance grounding describes the case in which a reactor is connected between the machine neutral and ground, as shown in Fig. 6.10. The magnitude of reactance in the neutral circuit determines how “solidly” the system is grounded and therefore what its characteristics will be. Since the ground-fault current which may flow in a reactancegrounded system is a function of the neutral reactance, the magnitude of ground-fault current is often used as the criterion for the various system Characteristics rather than referring to neutral reactance directly. In practice, reactance grounding is generally used only in the case cited under Solid Grounding, in which a generator neutral is to be connected directly to ground. In this event, it may be necessary t o add a low-value reactor to limit the available ground-fault current through the generator to a value no greater than the three-phase fault current contributed by the generator. The characteristics of a reactance-grounded system, which are dependent 011 the magnihde of ground-fault current, at any point in the system are summarized it1 Table 6.3. It will be seeu that, if a system is to be grounded through a reactor, the available ground-fault current should be a t least 25 per cent of three-phase fault current. This is considerably higher than the minimum fault current desirable in a resistance-grounded system; therefore, reactor grounding is usually not considered an alternative of resistance grounding.

358

SYSTEM GROUNDING

GROUND-FAULT NEUTRALIZERS

A ground-fault neutralizer is a reactor connected between the neutral of a system and ground and having a specially selected, relatively high value of reactance. A line-to-ground fault causes line-to-neutral voltage t o be impressed across the neutralizer, which passes a n inductive current, I , (Fig. 6.14). This current is 180' out of phase and is approximately equal in magnitude (when the neutralizer is tuned to the system) t o the resultant of t,he system charging currents from the two unfaulted phases l a and I , . The inductive and capacitive components of current neutralize each other, and the only remaining current i n the fault is due to resistance, insulator leakage, and corona. This current is relatively small, and as it is in phase with the line-to-neutral voltage, the current and voltage pass through a zero value at the same instant. Hence, the arc is extinguished without restriking and flashovers are quenched without removing the faulted line section from service. For systems on which faults in air are relatively frequent, ground-fault neutralizers may be very useful because they reduce the number of circuit-breaker operations required t o remove faults, thus improving service continuity. They have been used primarily on syst,emsabove 15 kv consisting essentially of overhead transmission lines. A f e n ground-fault neutralizers have been used t o limit ground-fault current t o substantially zero when a ground fault occurs in a large 6900-volt ungrounded-neutral system such as in steel mills. Overvoltages are reduced also in comparison with an ungrounded system. This, however, is secoiid choice to resistor grounding, which provides ground-fault relaying to disconnect the faulted circuit. It should be noted, however, that failures in solid insulation, such as paper, varnished cambric, and rubber, are not self-healing as insulator flashovers are and are not extinguished by use of t,he ground-fault neutralizer as flashovers on an open line would be. I n some cases where it has not been deemed desirable by the plant
Transformer
-Ib

FIG. 6.14 Giound-fault-current pattern in ryrtem grounded b y means of neutralizer.

( I

ground-fault

SYSTEM GROUNDING

359

operators t o trip a circuit 011 the occurrence of a ground fault, special arrangements have been used t o limit the damage due t o the flow of charging current and yet he able to locate the faulted feeder easily. One scheme is to use a ground-fault neutralizer in the neutral t o limit the ground-fault current and t o reduce switching surges t o safe values. A resistor is arranged t o be connected in parallel with the neutralizer when it is desired t o pass enough ground-fault current t o rause relays t o give a signal or trip the breaker of the faulted feeder, as illustrated in Fig. 6.15. Because of the current t o be switched, a power circuit breaker should be used for switching the resistor. The resistor and relaying are selected as if the resistor only were used. Such a scheme is expensive arid is used only in very special rases.

POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER REOUIRED GROUNDING REACTOR)

FEEDERS

3 CT’S

FIG. 6.15 Three-current transformers and ground relay required for each circuit in special ground-fault-neutralirer application.

Ground-fault neutralizers alone have heen used t o a limited extent in systems having the following characteristics: 1 . Large existing systems having only two current transformers per circuit 2. Where the switchgear is such that the addition of a third current transformer and residual overcurrent relay involves considerable expense 3. Systems having heavy charging current, in which case damage t o machines may result in the event of a ground fault if the system is left ungrounded 4. Systems which are susceptible to arcing grounds, for example, overhead lines

3 bQ

SYSTEM GROUNDING

A ground-fault neutralizer plus grounding resistor is also applicable for systems having the above conditions except that three current transformers and a residual relay are mandatory. One of the characteristics of resonant-grounded systems is that care should he taken t o keep the ground-fault neutralizer tuned to the system capacitance to minimize the development of transient overvoltages. Thus, when sections of the systems are switched on or off, it may be necessary to adjust the neutral reactance by changing the neutralizer taps. This operation may be readily performed by providing in the powerhouse an ammeter and control switch for remote control of a motordriven tap changer on the neutralizer. Thus, when parts of the system are switched, the neutralizer may be readjusted a t the time.
SUGGESTED GROUNDING METHODS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Various types of impedances for system neutral grounding have been used for many years. A review of the various methods and their features has indicated that the desirable practice for industrial plants is as follows: 1. Systems rated 600 volts and below: solid grounding 2. Systems rated 2.4 to 13.8 kv: resistance grounding in most cases; solid grounding in a few cases 3. Systems rated 22 kv and higher : solid grounding A summary of grounding methods a t various voltage levels is covered in the following text and tabulated in Table 6.5.
SYSTEMS
Mx)

VOLTS AND LESS

The grounding of 208Y/120-volt systems has been almost universally adopted. Grounding the neutrals of 480- and 600-volt systems has previously been impractical because of the fact that most three-phase transformers supplying these voltages have heen historically delta-connected. Now standard load-center unit substations are available with Y-connected secondary windings rated 208Y/120,480Y/277, or 600Y/346 volts, which enables lowvoltage system neutral grounding to be used. This provides a safer, more reliable system with lower operating cost. These substations are available with delta-connected primary windings. The new standard Y-connected secondary windings for the 480- and 6OC-volt substations enable these units to he used for either groundedneutral or ungrounded 480- or 6OO-volt systems, respectively. The lowvoltage neutral is brought out through a hushing. When grounding is desired, the terminal of the neutral bushing is connected to the low-voltage ground bus. When grounding is not desired, this connection is left off. Therefore, one line of unit substation transformers now provides al!

SYSTEM GROUNDING

361

the voltage ratings commonly required, plus the advantage of being able to operate the low voltage either grounded or ungrounded. Substations rated 240 volts are normally delta-connected. To obtain groundedneutral operation in this voltage class, either the 208Y/120-volt substations or 240-volt delta substations with grounding transformers may be used. Relatively high ground-fault currents are usually required to operate the standard overcurrent protective devices in circuits 600 volts or less. Thus low-voltage systems are solidly grounded to assure sufficient fault current for operation of protective devices. Three levels of fault current are of interest in considering grounding methods for low-voltage systems. These are (1) ground-fault currents greater than three-phase fault current, (2) ground-fault currents equal to three-phase fault currents, and (3) ground-fault currents less than threephase fault current. I t is desirable to design toward condition 2. Therefore, systems supplied only by transformers are grounded solidly, in which case condition 2 will obtain. However, if generator neutrals are grounded solidly, condition 1 will obtain. Since the generator may not be braced for the values of ground-fault current which can flow, it is necessary to use a low-value neutral reactor t o bring the ground-fault current down to three-phase fault-current value. For all practical purposes. this is thought of as “solid” grounding rather than “reactance” grounding because the resulting ground-fault current remains high. Where grounding transformers are required to establish a neutral, it is usually desirable to limit the ground-fault current to less than three-phase fault current to keep the transformer size within practical limits. In this case it is necessary t o investigate the tripping characteristics of interrupting devices and establish a transformer reactance which will assure adequate current for tripping. Condition 3 romes about in actual practice, either with transformer solidly grounded or generator grounded through a neutral reactor, because of the resistance of the ground return path. In medium-voltage systems, this resistance has little effect. Referring to Table 6.4, 0.1 ohm in a 13.8-kv system neutral has practically no current-reducing effect. However, in low-voltage systems this resistance has a considerable effect. Thus, 0.1 ohm in the neutral of a 240-volt system reduces the current by as much as 95 per rent. Also, the system voltage is low enough that the hazard from shock due to the flow of ground current through thestructure of a building is minimized compared with higher voltage systems. All air circuit breakers and fused knife switches must have three overcurrent elements for application on three-phase grounded-neutral circuits. These devices will trip for the same value of current whether the fault is three phase or single phase t o ground. Hence, special ground relays are not

362

SYSTEM GROUNDING

TABLE 6.4

Approximate Symmetrical Rms Ground Currents with Solidly Grounded Transformer Banks

-

Approximate ground currenl

ramformer

Ground
,e.i.lo"Ce, 10 ohm .
~ ~ ~

Ground
,&.lo"Ce.

bonk kva

0 1 ohm .
~

Amperes

Per cent'
~ ~

Amperes

Per cent'
~

Amperes?

13,800 7,500 I5.000 30,000 3,750 7,500 15,000 2,500 5.000 7,500
1,500

3,900 6,000 7,300
3,000 3.650 3,900

87 67 41 67 4 1 22 43 23 16 26
13

4,500 9,000 17,500 4,500 8.800 16,400 4,900 9,200 12,700 4,900 8.300 11,500 2,660 3.100 3,400 3,500 2,450 2.680 2,750 2,770

100

100 97
100

4,500 9,000 18.000 4,500 9,000 I8.000
5,000 10.000 I5.000

6.900

98 91 98 92 85 94 81 56

4,160

2,160 2,320 2,360

2,400

3,000 6,000
600
300 500

1.330 1,370 1,380
350 350 350 350 280 280 280 280 I40 140 140 140

7
8 5 3 I

5,200 10,300 20,600 4,200 7,000 14,000 28.000 5,200 8.700 17.300 34,600 5,200
10.300

l00 .0 2.000
480

63 44 24
I?

300 500
1,000 2,000

5
3 2

I
3
1

47 3 1 16 8 26
13

240

150 300 500 l00 .0

1 0.5

1,330 1,370 1.380 1.380

8 4

17.300 34,600

* Per cent means per cent

-- --three-r,
;e fault eurrcnt urrent is 100 per cent of three-phase fault

current in all cases. Norm: 1. Voltage assumed sustained on high-voltage side of bank. 2. 7 per cent reactance assumed for bank. 3. Bank assumed to he only source of fault current. 4. Ground resistance of 1 ohm is maximum recommended for main substation grounds. Well-bonded grounded return connections in buildings usually have resistance of 0.1 ohm or less.

t For

eero ground resistance, grounc

SYSTEM GROUNDING

363

used in low-voltage circuits when the neutral is grounded. However, it should be noted that all three poles of a circuit breaker open simultaneously for a single line-to-ground fault but that in the case of the fused knife switch the faulted phase opens first and the remaining fuses may or may not open, depending upon the degree of overload imposed on them by the remaining single-phase circuits.
MEDIUM-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS 12.4 TO 15 KVI

As noted in Table 6.5 medium-voltage systems are usually resistancegrounded. In this range of system voltages, limited ground-fault current is highly desirable, in the usual industrial power system. Connection of rotating machines directly a t these voltages is common; hence resistance grounding is used to reduce the damage which may result because of a grouud fault in the machine windings. In the case of small systems supplied by generators, reactor grounding (to produce not less than 25 per cent of three-phase fault current) may be used in the interest of economy and berause ground-fault currents are not too large. If the system is small and supplied by transformers, they may be grounded solidly for the same reasons. Arresters for grounded-neutral circuits discharge a t lower levels of surge voltage and, hence, limit overvoltages to values about 20 per cent lower than arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits. The use of grounded-neutral lightning arresters, to obtain better lightriing protection for equipment connected directly to overhead lines, is the principal reason for ever selecting reactance or solid grounding in place of resistor grounding for an industrial power system of 2.4- to 15-kv class. Reactance grounding at this voltage level is preferred only when all the following conditions exist: 1. Overhead circuits directly connected to rotating equipment are snhject to lightning exposure. 2. This type of grounding does not result in excessive ground-fault current. In such cases the neutral reactor of a generator must be selected so that X , / X , is equal to or greater than 1 for the generator alone, and X , / X , for the system must be equal to or less than 3 to permit the use of groundedneutral lightning arresters. If high ground-fault current is acceptable and the systems include suitable power-transformer banks, solid grounding may be preferred in some cases because neutral reactors or resistors are not required and lineto-ground lightning arresters may be used.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

Condition

Grounding practice

Remorks

D. If Y-connected generators on system

Use resistonce grounding

1. Ganaroton used for grounding should be of odequate sire bee Toble 6.61 2. When severe lightning exposure is present, gen. erator may be grounded through 1ow-vobe reactomc to permit use of g'~vnded-nevtml-t~pOlightning
orrede.,

Grounding reiistor-

3. Small systems. where the resulting ground-fault currant would not be excessive, may be reactance
grounded, if desired, in the interest of economy
v)

Do not ground solidly

G !
Y
-~

<

-

___-

E. If Y-connected transformers on system Use redstance grounding

a

[we tronsformen which supply power to

the system, ovoid transformen which are

P

Resistor-

1. Capacity of transformen used for grounding should be of odequote size (see Toble 6.61 2. Smell systemr, where the resulting growd-fault cur- 0 ' c rent would not be excessive, may be solidly grounded. z 0 if desired, in the interest of economy 2 0

-

-~

-_---__

_ _ __-

__
I. In m o l l systems. where the r e d l i n g ground-fault current would not be exesrive, lhe growding transformer may be solidly grounded in the intorest of
economy

F. If no Y-connected generators or tronr- Use one or more grounding transformers with resistors

formers on system

-

-to

bur

366

SYSTEM GROUNDING

HIGH-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS (ABOVE I5 KV)

Systems above 15 kv are nearly always solidly grounded, because these are usually transmission circuits with open lines in which, in most cases, grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters are desirable for better overvoltage protection and lower cost. In addition, rotating equipment is seldom connected directly to these systems; hence, limited ground-fault current, to prevent burning of laminations, is a less important factor than in the medium-voltage systems. In addition, voltages above 15 kv are not usually carried inside buildings; hence shock hazards due to high fault currents are not a factor. Finally, the cost of grounding resistors at these voltages is high. TABLE 6 6 Minimum Ratings of Generators and Power Transformer .
Banks for Grounding
Maaimurn System
Mi"im"m

Short-circuit

K"0
Rating

K"0
1,000,000 500,000 250,000

l50,OOO
ioo,000 50,000 25,000

7500 3750 1750 1000 750 375 187

NOTES: 1. If a smaller rating is used, system may he subject to transient overvoltages during clearing of ground faults. 2. Tahle assume8 7 per cent for power transformer hank reactance or generator zero-sequence reactance. 3. System short-circuit kva is maximum value possible when generator or hank to he grounded is only source of ground current, all other grounded power sources being out of servioe. 4. Tahle iS based on the criterion that the reactance of the grounded apparatus dhould he no more than ten times the equivalent three-phase short-circuit reactance. For example. B system having 250,OWkva three-phaso short-circuit duty has B reactance of 100 per cent on a250.000-kva. base. The grounded apparatus may then have a reactance of ten times this or 1000 per cent on a 250,000-kva hxse. If the apparatus has 7 per cent reactance on its own base, then its kva rating may he
7 100o - X 250,000 = 1750 kva

INDUSTRIAL VS. UTILITY PRACTICE

The characteristics and operation of industrial power systems differ in some respects from those encountered in utility systems; therefore, it may be expected that grounding practices would also be different. Such is the case, although the basic principles of neutral grounding are followed in both types of systems. A comparison of the pertinent characteristics of the two types of systems is given helow and summarized in Tahle 6.7.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

367

Utility practice in recent years has favored solid grounding. This method permits the use of grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters with the resulting reduced lightning-arrester investment and improved level of protection. In addition, solid grounding offers savings in the use of graded insulation in transformers at 115 kv and above. A large percentage of ground faults on utility systems occurs by means of insulator flashovers; and the high ground-fault current due to solid grounding does not cause expensive damage to equipment at the point of fault. In the case of industrial power systems, resistance grounding is preferred for voltage levels from 2.4 to 13.8 kv. The principal reason for this practice is to ensure reduced magnitudes of ground-fault current and consequent reduction in possible damage at the point of fault. This is a particularly important factor in the case of ground faults in the windings of motors and generators. Although a ground-fault of limited magnitude and duration may cause sufficient damage to require the replacement of several coils, the desired result is obtained when the damage is confined to the coils and the machine laminations are left intact.
TABLE 6.7 Industrial vs. Utility Grounding Practice
lnduitriol Utility

Derimbiiity of high ~ o n t i n ~ i t y power. of Yes Predominant method of conducting power.. Cable Per cent of system subject to lightning hazard.. Smoil Investment in lightning orresten. Small Predominmce of voltage levels above 15 k v . . Few ~ y i t e m r Rotding equipment at diitribvlion and tranrmisdon leveis. Yes in most core!

.............. ........... ........ ....................
........

Yes

SELECTION OF SYSTEM GROUNDING POINT
GROUND AT EACH VOLTAGE LEVEI

As illustrated in Fig. 6.16, it is necessary to ground each voltage level to achieve the protection and advantages of neutral grounding. For example, if the 4.16-kv system in this diagram were not grounded, this level would have all the characteristics of an ungrounded system; at the same time, the 33-kv and 480-volt levels would have the characteristics of grounded-neutral systems. Each voltage level may be grounded a t the neutral lead of a generator, power transformer bank, or grounding transformer. Any generator or transformer used for grounding should, as far as possible, be one which is always connected to the system. Alternatively, a sufficient number of

368

SYSTEM GROUNDING

I10 K V SYSTEM

Y 0

-

GROUND R E Q U I R E 0 HERE TO GROUND NEUTRA L OF 33 K V S Y S T E M

8 K V SYSTEM 3

hl

fi

n

GROUND REOUIRED H E R E TO GROUND N E U T R A L OF 4.16 K V SYSTEM

4 16 K V S Y S T E M

n " f
N
480 VOLT S Y S T E M

GROUND REQUIRED HERE TO %ROUND N E U T R A L OF 4 8 0 V O L T S Y S T E M

FIG. 6.16

Each voltage level is grounded independently.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

369

generators or transformers should be grounded to ensure at least one ground on the system at all times.
GROUND AT THE POWER SOURCE AND NOT AT THE LOAD

When a power system is grounded at the neutral of Y-connected motors, or at primaries of Y-delta stepdown transformers, it is necessary to ground a number of these points simultaneously to ensure that the system will remain grounded when one or more of these loads are out of service. Consequently, ground-fault current may he excessively high when all grounded points are in service. Since power sources are fewer in number than loads and are less likely to be disconnected, they are preferred as grounding points, as shown in Fig. 6.17. Other disadvantages of grounding a t the load are:

GROUND AT L O A D

FIG. 6.17

Grmnd at the source and not at the load.

370

SYSTEM GROUNDING

1. Standard load-center unit substations have delta-connected primaries; therefore special transformers are required if the primaries are to he used as grounding points. 2. Since the ground-fault current is dependent on the number of feeders or grounding points in operation, it may vary widely depending on system operating conditions. This makes selective relaying more difficult and may require additional directional ground relaying to avoid false tripping of healthy feeder circuits.
GROUND EACH MAJOR SOURCE BUS SECTION

When there are two or more major source bus sections, each section should have a t least one grounded neutral point, since the bus tie circuit may be open, as shown in Fig. 6.18. If there are two or more power sources per bus section, there should be provisions for grounding at least two sources at each section. NEUTRAL CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT When the method of grounding and the grounding points have been selected for a particular power system, the second question to consider is how many generator or transformer neutrals will be used for grounding arid whether (1) each neutral will be connected independently t o ground or (2) a neutral bus with single ground connection will be established. The factors involved in this determination and recommended practices are given below.

GROUNDING RESISTOR

GROUNDING

RESISTOR

(MAY BE OPEN)

FIG. 6.18 Grounding independently.

CI

system consisting of two or more sections which may operate

SYSTEM GROUNDING

371

SINGLE POWER SOURCE

When a power system has only one sourre of power (geuerat,or or transformer), grounding of the neutral of this sourre may he arcomplished as shown in Fig. 6.19. Provision of a switrh or rirruit breaker to opeu the neutral rirruit is not necessary berause (1) neutral rirvuits have prartirally zero poteutial with respect t o ground exrept duriug the short interval of a fault; heuw breakdowns are unlikely; (2) it is not desirable to operate the system ungrounded by haviug t,he ground ronnertiou open while the generator or transformer is in service; (3) uenbral si7-itrhing equipment greatly increases the cost of grounding. I n the event that some means of disrounertiug t,he grouud (.ounertion is required in a particular rase, a metal-rlad rircuit hreaker should he used rather than a n open disconnert s\vit,rh for indoor iustallatioirs. The latter is hazardous t o personnel if a ground fault should orcur at the time the switch is opened or closed. The merit of metal-rlad equipment over open wiring and open devices is generally rerognised for all types of electric equipment notwithstanding the iurreased rost for metal-clad switehgear.
MULTIPLE POWER SOURCES

When there are only a few generators or power transformer banks at a station, individual neutral irnpedIndividual Neutral Impedances.

4% \$ Y Y 8
S I N G L E GENERATOR

SINGLE TRANSFORMER

( 0 )
FIG. 6.19

(b)
Grounding CI single power source.

372

SYSTEM GROUNDING

ances are frequently used. With this arrangement, the neutral of each generator or main transformer bank is connected directly toits neutral impedance without intervening switching equipment, as illustrated by Fig. 6.20 ( a ) t o ( c ) . No special operating instructions are required since each impedance is automatically connected whenever the corresponding power

EiTHER OF THESE TWO GENERATORS WILL ALWAYS,BE ON BUS W i N BUS IS ENERGIZED J E

9
Y

\$

EITHER OF THESE TWO SOURCES WILL ALWAYS BE

Q \$
v
FIG. 6.20 Grounding of multiple-source system with individual neutral impedances.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

373

source is in use and is deenergized mhenever this source is disconnected. Whrn oiily two sourres are invoived, this arrangement is preferahle to the use of a iieutral biis. When several sources are invoived, howrver, the ground rurrent is increased each time a source is added and may be raised t o levels whirh are undesirably high. In the case of resistance grounding, earh resistor must he rated for suffirient current to assure satisfactory relaying mhen operating independentiy. Consequentiy, the ground current mith several resistors will be several times the minimum required for effective relaying. Wheii individual resistors are used, cirruiation of harmonic current betweeii paralleled gerierators is iiot a problem, since the resistance limits the circulating current t o negligible values. Neutra1 Bus and Switchgear. When there are more than two or three generators or power-suppiy traiisformer banks at one station, it is commonly drsirable to use only oiie resistor. Each power source is then connected t o the resistor through a neutral bus and neutral switching equipment as showii by Fig. 6.21. This arraiigemerit keeps the grouiidfault current t o a practical minimum, since the ground current from the station is never greater than can be supplied through a single resistor. It also assures the same vaiue of ground current regardless of the numher of generators or transformers iii use and simplihes ground relaying. The primary purpose of the neutral breakers is to isolate the generator ar transformer neutral from the neutral bus mhen the source is taken out of servire, because the neutral bus is energized during ground faults. Breakers are preferred t o discorinecting switches for indoor installations
GROUND BUS

A
v

A
v

A
v
GROUNDING RESISTOR

FIG. 6.21

\$
Y

Y

(d)

\$
Y

Neutra1 grounding b>i rneonr of neutrd bur and switchgear.

374

SYSTEM GROUNDING

to assure safety to personnel. If disconnecting switches are used (as with some outdoor installations), they should be elevated or metal-enclosed and interlocked in such a manner as to prevent their operation except when the transformer primary and secondary switches or generator line and field breakers are open. As shown in Fig. 6.21, it is necessary to provide only two neutral breakers, and only one of these is closed, although all generators may he in operation. This will eliminate any circulating harmonic zero-sequence currents. When the generator whose neutral is grounded is to be shut down, the second generator is grounded by means of its neutral breaker before the line and neutral breakers of the first one are opened. This procedure will assure that the system is grounded a t all times. I n the case of multiple transformers, all neutral breakers may he normally closed because the presence of delta-connected windings (which are nearly always present on at least one side of each transformer) minimizes circulation of harmonic currents between transformers. Selection of Arrangement. When total ground-fault currents with several individual resistors would exceed about 4000 amp, it is suggested that neutral switchgear and a single resistor be considered for reuistancegrounded systems. When only one source is involved hut others may be added to the station, it is suggested that space be allowed for neutral switchgear to be added if this will be necessary later. For similar generators with reasonably equal load division, circulating currents are negligible, and it is often found practical to operate with neutral breakers of two or more generators closed. This simplifies operating procedure and increases assurance that the system will be grounded at all times.

CALCULATION OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT

The magnitude of current which will flow in the event of a ground fault on a solidly grounded system is usually determined hy the impedance of the grounded apparatus, plus the impedance of the lines or cables leading to the fault and the impedance of the ground return path. For interconnected systems, calculation of the rurrent may he rather complicated. For simpler cases, an approximation of the available fault current may be obtained from Table 6.4. This table applies only for faults near the transformer terminals when power is supplied by a single transformer hank wit,h its neutral directly connected to earth and with the primary connected to a system of relatively large short-circuit capacity.

S Y S T W GROUNDING

375

RESISTANCE GROUNDING

When a single line-to-ground fault occurs on a resistance-grounded system, a voltage appears across the resistor (or resistors), nearly equal to the normal line-to-neutral voltage of the system. The resistor current is equal t o the current in the fault. Thus the current is practically equal to line-to-neutral voltage divided by the number of ohms of resistance used. For example, consider a 13,800-volt three-phase system grounded by a 4-ohm resistor. Normal line-toneutral voltage for this system is 13,800/-\/3, or 8000 volts. The ground current is, therefore, very nearly equal to 8000/4, or 2000 amp. If two such resistors were used on the system, the ground current would be approximately 4000 amp. Resistors have a voltage rating equal to line-to-neutral voltage and an ampere rating equal to the current which flows when this voltage is applied t o the resistor. Thus, for example, a maximum ground-fault current of approximately 2000 amp will he obtained on a system when using a 2000-amp resistor. This very simple method of calculating the ground-fault current is not suitable except when the ground-fault current is small compared with the three-phase fault current for a fault a t the same location. Horucver, it is usually suitable for systems grounded by resistance of ohmir values normally used. The method just outlined applies to faults on lines or buses, or at the terminals of machines or transformers. If the fault is internal to a rotating machine or transformer, the ground-fault current will be less. The reduction in current is primarily due to the internal voltage of the apparatus. I n the case of Y-connected equipment, this internal voltage is a t full value a t the terminals and is zero a t the neutral. If the fault occurs a t the neutral of any apparatus, no voltage will appear across the system grounding resistor; so the fault current will be zero. At intermediate points in the winding between the neutral and a terminal, the fault current will he intermediate between zero and the current to a terminal fault, as shown in Fig. 6.22. For example, at a point 10 per cent of the winding length from neutral, the ground-fault current will bc approximately 10 per cent of the value for a terminal fault. For a fault anywhere between this point and a terminal, the current will be more than 10 per cent of the amount for a terminal fault. In the case of delta-connected machines the internal voltage to neutral may he considered to he 100 per cent a t the terminals and 50 per cent a t the mid-point of the windings, as shown in Fig. 6.22(c). The mid-points have the lowest potential with respect to the electric neutral of any d h e r

376

SYSTEM GROUNDING

UNGROUNDED GENERATOR NO.1 FAULT OCCURS ÇOMEWHERE IN WINDING E E TWEEN NEUTR AND L I N E TERMINAL

GROUNDED - N E U T R A L GENERATOR NO.2

GROUNDING RESISTOR _íGROUND)

( o ) FLOW OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT FOR I N T E R N A L FAULT IN WYE-CONNECTED GENERATOR
b

N0.I

b

N0.2

" " ' ~ " ~ ' ~ '~ ~ ' ~ " "'
t
t

-

(GROUND P O T E N T I A L )

-

IF

PHASE

(0)

O F EUS -VI]

VI Vr
I F

R

I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE T E R M I N A L VOLTAGE FAULT C U R R E N T GROUNDI NG RESIÇTANCE

IF =

VT -(V, R

= -V I
R

( b ) MAGNITUDE OF CURRENT FOR INTERNAL GROUND FAULT I S PROPORTIONAL TO I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE

INTERNAL VOLTAGE

100%

@
REACTANCE GROUNDING

VOLTAGE FROM ELECTRICAL NEUTRAL TO ANY POINT ON WINDING I S EETWEEN 50% AND 100%

INTERNAL VOLTAGE 50% (c)MINIMUM GROUND-FAULTCURRENT FOR DELTA CONNECTED APPARATUÇ IS 50% OF MAXIMUM GROUND-FAULT C U R R E N T

( I

FIG. 6.22 Magnitude of currenl for interna1 g m m d faulb in maichinei connected to ryrtem having a rerirtance-grounded neutial.

part of the windings. Therefore, a ground fault at any point in the winding w i l l produce a ground-fault current of 50 per cent or more of the resistor current rating.

In a rractance-grounded system with a single line-to-ground fault, the ground-fault current may he compiited from the formula

SYSTEM GROUNDING

377

(6.1)

(resistance may usually be neglected) where X I = system positive-sequence reactance, ohms per phase X , = system negative-sequence reactance, ohms per phase X o = system zero-sequence reactance, ohms per phase X , = reactance of neutral grounding reactor, ohms E = line-to-neutral voltage, volts I , = ground-fault current, amp An illustration of the method of calculating the ground-fault current in a reactor-grounded system is given under Selection of Reactor Rating (see page 381 of this chapter).
SOLID GROUNDING

In a solidly g r o u n d 4 system with a single line-to-ground fault, the ground-fault current may be computed from the formula

RATING OF GROUNDING EQUIPMENT
Grounding resistors, reactors, and transformers are normally rated to carry current for a limited time only. The standard time-interval rating usually most applicable for industrial systems, with relays arranged to protect the grounding equipment, is 10 sec. The voltage rating of a grounding resistor should be the line-to-neutral voltage rating of the system. The insulation class of a reactor is determined by the circuit line-toneutral voltage. The voltage rating may be less than line-to-neutral voltage, it being cakulated by multiplying the rated current by the impedance of the reactor. The voltage rating of a grounding transformer should be system line-toline voltage. Grounding resistors are rated in terms of the initial current which will flow through the resistor with rated resistor voltage applied. Conventional cast-grid or corrosion-resistant steel resistors will average approximately 7 per cent increase in resistance for each 100 C rise in temperature. The rated current of a grounding reactor is the thermal current rating. I t is the rms neutral current in amperes which the reactor will carry for its rated time without exceeding standard temperature limitations. The rating establishes an rms current which is assumed to be constant during

378

SYSTEM GROUNDING

rated time for purposes of design, ralrulation, and test. In service it is expected that the current may be greater than rated value during the initial cycles of the fault. If a grounding transformer neutral is solidly connected t o ground, the current which will flow during a ground fault is primarily determined by the reartance of the grounding transformer. When a resistor is used between neutral and ground, the current rating of the grounding transformer is based on the resistor rated current. I n either case the transformer israted t o carry the required current for rated time nithout exceeding its rated temperature limits. Ratings of neutral grounding equipment are summarized in Table 6.8.
TABLE 6.0
Equipment

Ratings of Neutral Grounding Equipment
Reactonce

Time, sect

......................... ......................... ............

I

.............

I
10

* Insulation rlass is drtrrrnintd hy circuit line-to-neutral v a l t a g ~ . t Tcn sxonds is ntlrquate ior the conventional system. Standard ratings oi 1 mi",
10 mi", and continnous are svailablc.

SELECTION OF RATING OF GROUNDING EQUIPMENT
RESISTOR RATING

The determination of the resistor ohmic value, thus the magnitude of ground-fault cnrrent, is based on (1) providing suflicient current for satisfactory performanre of the system relaying scheme and ( 2 ) limiting ground-fault current t o a value which will produce minimum damage at the point of fault. 111 most cases, the ground-fault current may be limited hy the iieut,ral resistor t o a value from 5 t o 20 per cent of that which would flow for a three-phase fault. T o determine the minimum ground-fault rurrcnt required, a diagram of the system must be available giving ratings of current transformers and types of relays for each circuit. This diagram should include Consideration of future changes. The magnitude of ground-fault current innst, he sufficient for operation of all relays. In general, if the current is high enough t o operate the relays on the larger circuits, it will he adequate for the smaller circuits. The ground currents required for satisfactory operation of various types

SYSTEM GROUNDING

379

TABLE 6.9

Selection of Grounding Resistor
cent

(Values given ore minimum recommended sround-fault current in per
tronrformcr.)'

OF rrrred current of current

Type of relay Equipmsnt protected

per Cent

Y-connected generators. motors, ond transformer.. Delta-connected gcncraton, motors. ond t r m s ,

........................... former,... ......................... Foeden and tie liner.. .................. B",e* ................................
t If

40
100

...
501

40

...

Pilot wire-100% Current b d m c e - l 0 0 %

0. ground differential is a d d d to the generator, the ground-fault current may be lirnitzd to lower values (if othw systzrn requircmmts permit). \$ Based on current differential. If voltage differential is providcd, the groundfault current may be limited to lower values.

* For further discussion and analysis of ground-fault rdsying. ser Chap.

of relays, expressed in terms of current-transformer rating, are given in Table 6.9. Note that the ground-fault current under all system operating conditions must equal or exceed the minimum required for relaying each circuit connected to the system. This value is established by selecting the highest of those currents which meet the requirements of the several conditions set forth in Table 6.9. An example of the proper use of Table 6.9 for the system shown in Fig. 6.23 follows: Determine from Table 6.9 the ground-fault current each generator must produce when it is the only pover source. The larger machine must produce a ground current of at least 1200 amp (100 per cent of the rating of the current transformers for differential overcurrent protection in the larger generator circuit). This ground current of 1200 amp is higher than is required by Table 6.9 for any other circuit, in the system. With the larger generator disconnected, the smaller machine must provide a ground current of only 800 amp for its own relaying requirements (again 100 per differential overcent of the rating of the current transformers for its 01~11 current relays). The 1200-amp circuit need not be considered under this operating condition, and the 800 amp needed in the smaller generator circuit is found from Table 6.9 to be adequate for relaying requirements in all the other circuits. If all sources are grounded, it can be show1 that

380

SYSTEM GROUNDING

there will always be sufficient ground current for relaying requirements as long as each source produces what is needed when it is the only supply source. For Fig. 6.23 it is correctly concluded that the larger machine needs a 1200-amp resistor and the smaller oue only ao 800-amp unit. If ground differential relaying were added to the two generators, a

P \$
T i € CIRCUIT

1200 AMPERE GROUNDING RESISTOR

1200/5 C T

FEEOERS

8 0 0 / 5 CT

I

\$
FEEOER

T

400/5C.T.

FIG. 6.23 Selectim of grounding rerirtor bcired on cvrient-tronrforrner rotingr

SYSTEM GROUNDING

381

further analysis might be made. I n this case other system requirements may determine the rating of the resistor. The largest feeder circuit demands a t least, 400 amp, but 800 amp is required t o satisfy pilot-wire relaying on the tie circuit, if present. This would establish a minimum rating for both resistors. If this value also satisfies the requirements of adequate gcnerator differential protection of the larzer generator, the rating of both resistors may be 800 amp.
REACTOR RATING

The reactance of a neutral grounding reactor should be chosen to limit theground-fault current and the current in the faulted phase t o the desired value. As previously stated, in order t o minimize transient overvoltages the ground-fault current must not he less than 25 per cent of three-phase fault current. This corresponds to a ratio of X o / X 1 equal to 10. For reartance grounding of generators the current in any winding must not exceed the three-phase fault current. This corresponds t o a ratio of X , / X , equal t o 1 . This establishes the criteria for maximum and minimum values of neutral reactance. It can be shown that under the condition of X , / X , equal t o 1 for any given generator on the system the current contribution in one phase winding of this generator t o a line-to-ground fault any place on the system (external t o the generator) cannot exceed the three-phase fault current of the machine. However, the neutral current may exceed this value, as shown later. The calculations concerning momentary duty (which is of interest for mechanical strength and transient overvoltages) are made using suhtransient values of machine reactance. The calculations concerning the thermal rating of apparatus are made using transient values of machine reactance. I n calculating the reactance of a neutral reactor, the positive-sequence reactance XI is taken t o equal the machine subtransient reactance. The calculation for determining the required reactance in the neutral t o limit the current in the machine winding to three-phase fault current becomes a very simple procedure, as illustrated below:
lo =

XI

+ x2 + xo + 3x8
=

3E

I (three-phase)

E

~

x 1

where I, = ground-fault current, amp (for a single generator this also equals the fault current in the machine winding) E' = line-to-neutral voltage, volts

382

SYSTEM GROUNDING

X , = positive-sequence reactance of generator, ohms per phase Xp = negative-sequence reactance of generator, ohms per phase Xo= zero-sequeiiw reactance of generator, ohms per phase 5,= reartance «f neutra1 reaitor, ohms
If I,,
=

I (three-phase) and X ,
3E

=

X,,

ZX, 2x,

+ xo + 3x.v _ -xi

a

(6.5)

+ x o+ 3X." = 3x1
3xx=

x,-x.

The rated riirreiit of a iieutral groundiiig reactor is the thermal current rat,iiig. It is the rms iieiit,ral curreiit iii amperes which the reactor will rarry uiider staiidard conditioris for its rated time without exceeding staiidard ternperature lirnitatioiis. T h e rating establishes an rms current xhich is assumed to be eoiistant duriiig the rated time, for purposes of dcsigii, calculatioti, aiid test. I n service it is expected t h a t the current may he grcatcr thaii the rated value duriiig the initial cycles of the fault. The ixrreiit ratiiig of a iieutral groundiiig reactor is equal t o the rms symmctrical vurreiit (deulated i)y usiiig the t,ransient reactaiice t o represent syiii'hroiious ma(.hiiie positire-sequeiice reactaiice and the proper negative- aiid zero-sequenre reactanie values of the system. The mrreiit whirh will floiv throiigh a generator iieutral reactor is iiot iiidepeiidrnt of systrm coiistaiits, hut mil1 vary mith the number and siae

N0.I

N0.2

x'd =

13%

x0 = 7%

x'd = 26% x'h = I3 % xo = 7 %

KVA

A

& I000

KVA

-

480 VOLTS-60 CYCLE

-

TOTAL CONNECTEO SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR LOAD 1 0 KVA 00

1)
FIG. 6.24
volt ryrtem.

Xh = 31% Xd = 2 5 %

Reectance-grounded generotorr and rolidly grounded tranrformer on 480-

SYSTEM GROUNDING

383

of power sources. Thus the current rating of a neutral reactor is determined by the number and characteristics of system sources and whether they are grounded or ungrounded. The following example illustrates the calculation of ratings for generator neutral-grounding reactors to limit the fault current in generator windings t o three-phase fault current. Assume a system as show1 in Fig. 8.24. To determine the reactance of each grounding reactor from Eq. (6.6), XI is taken as the subtransient reactance X y of the related generator and Xuas the zero-sequence reactance of the related generator

X (ohms)
No. 1:

=

x(% base kvz __ kva

lo

(ohms per phase)

(6.7)

No. 2:

0'482 lo = 0.0129 ohm 1250 0.0239 - 0.0129 = o,oo37 ohm XN = 3
To calculate the current rating of each reactor, it is first necessary t o calculate the total ground-fault current le from Eq. (6.3). The positivesequence reactance of the system X , is calculated using the transient reactance X : of synchronous machines and the negative-sequence reactance of the system X 1 is calculated using the subtransieut reactance of synchronous machines.

x = u

No. 1:

304

SYSTEM GROUNDING

No. 2:

2'0

3

0'482 1250

lo = 0.0129 ohm

Transformer:

x,= x,= x o= 5'5

0'482 1000

lo = 0,0127 ohm

x 2

=a

25

x

0.4s2 x 10 = 0.0575 ohm 1000

An equivalent circuit with values indicated is illustrated in Fig. 6.25. From Eq. (6.3)

I '

0.00803

+ 0.0063 + 0.00705
CONN. LO40
,0713 .00803

3 (480/d%)

* - = 39,000 amp 830

0.0214

N0.I

N0.2
,0479

TRANSF

XI

,0920

,0127

x2

.0479

,0239

,0127

,0575

,0063

XO

.02 5 8

,0129
.0111

,0127

.00705

3%
FIG. 6.25

:022I

Connection of positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence impedance networks for calculating ground-fault currents for system shown in Fig. 6.24.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

385

From inspection of the equivalent circuit it is evident that this total ground-fault current will divide through the paths to ground in inverse proportion to the impedance in the path.

No. 1:

I,,
No. 2:

= 0'00705 l o =
~

0.0479

0.147 X 39,000 = 5900

I,,

=

~~

0.007051 o - 0.294 X 39,000 = 11,500 0.024

To complete the picture, the ground-fault current a t the transformer will be

IDT = ~

0.00705 ~ = 0.555 X 39,000 I o 0.0127

=

21,600

The reactor for generator No. 1 must be rated for a t least 5900 amp, and for No. 2 a t least 11,500 amp. This serves to indicate the method of determining the reactor current rating and proves that this rating is determined by system characteristics. The rating may be considerably greater than the three-phase short-circuit current of the related generator, as shown shove.
GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS

The electrical specifications of a grounding transformer are as follows: 1. Voltage. The line-to-line voltage of the system. 2. Current. The maximum neutral curyent. I n a resistance-grounded system, this current is determined by the neutral resistor. I n a solidly grounded system, the current is determined by the grounding transformer impedance and the system impedance. 3 . Time. Usually designed to carry rated current for a short time, such as 10 see or GO sec. 4. Reactance. This quantity is a function of the initial symmetrical system three-phase short-circuit kva (use Fig. 6.26). The theory behind the determination of grounding transformer reactance is discussed in the following. When the grounding transformer is resistance grounded, the criteria for limiting transient overvoltages is equal to or greater than 2. either Xo/X, equal to or less than 10, or R o / X o It should he noted that Ro as it appears in this relationship is equal to 3 times the resistance of the neutral kesistor. When the grounding transformer is solidly grounded, the criterion for limiting transient overvoltages is X , / X , equal to or less than 10. The criterion for using groundedneutral-type lightning arresters is that X , / X , should be equal to or less

386

SYSTEM GROUNDING

than 3, and R o / X , should be equal to or less than 1 (see Chap. 5 ) . A summary of criteria for selecting neutral reactance is shown in Table 6.10. In a system having a grounding transformer, its reactance is the principal part of X, in the above criterion. Also, the positive-sequence reactance XI is equal to the reactance of the system to initial symmetrical rms three-phase short-circuit currents. Thus, the grounding-transformer reactance is a function of the initial symmetrical system three-phase short-circuit kva. On a system otherwise ungrounded, the groundingtransformer reactance required to provide any specified X o / X 1ratio is given by the following formula:
10 0

%
I
4

50

a W a

30
20-lf

10

\
5

,

I

.5

,1 10

31 00

MAXIMUM SYSTEM SHORT CIRCUIT MVA CALCULATED USING SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCES OF ROTATING MACHINES F G 6.26 Maximum allowable reactances of grounding transformers l limit ground-fault I. o current to 25 per cent of three-phase fault current.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

387

(-Y,,/.YJ x kv' x x , = system symmetrical three-phase 1000 , short-rircuit kva
(masiniom ohms prr ]>haw)
((i.8)

Taking the specific case X d X , = 10, the desired grounding-transformer reactance may lie idriilated Ily thr fiirmula
10,000 X kv' xo, = system initial symmetrical three-phase sh;rt-rircuit kva
~

(lj.!))

Curves shoiving typical values of groniidiiig-transformer rrartaiire for this condition are shown in Fig. 6.2(i. For example, it is desired t o apply a groundirig transformer i n thr folloning system: 2400-volt 50,000 itiitial s y m m e t r i d short-ririwit Iivn. The grounding transformer reactatice should be
X T = -~ C

10,000 x 2.4% - = 1.15 ohms per phase (mas) 50,000

Grounding Transformer Grounded Solidly. The gri)rtiidiiig-traitsformer voltage, reactatwe, and time are determined as outlined al>ove. When grounded-neutr&type lightning arresters arc t o IIC applied, ttie grouiiding-transformer reactatice may tie determitied by
90, =

_ 3000 X kv? _ _ __ ~ system initial symmetrical three-phase short-rircuit k v s

(li.10)

When grounding transformers are solidly grounded, care should lie taketi that the reactanre is selerted at a value 1011- enough to provide sufficient fault current for tripping relays, Tuses, and circnit tjreakers. Grounding Transformer Resistance Grounded. I u this CBSP it is not necessary t o provide less groiiiiditig-tratisformer reactanre than t,hc values giveu in Fig. 6.26 siiice groiuidcd-tteotral-type lightning arrrsters are not applicable in resistailre-grounded systems. The values of reactatire given in Fig. (j.Z(i are equal t o ten times the system reavtatm t o threephase initial symmetrical rnis short-circuit current. This is cqnivalent to the ratio Xo/XI equal t o 10. Where the ratio of Ro/Xo is equal to or greater than 2 , the ratio of X , / X , may be greater than 10 without the dsirger of severe transient overvoltages. However, I?, must be low enough to permit sufficient current for good relaying. On systems of 600 volts or lo\\-er it is usually desirable to permit currents of magnitude considerahly greater than 25 per rent of initial symmetriral rms three-phase short-circnit current in order to assure positive tripping of protertive devices. 111 such systems the grouuding transformer is connected solidly t,o ground. The minimum current required for tripping is determitied by esamination of the system aud the ground-

388

SYSTEM GROUNDING

ing-transformer reactance selected t o permit at. least that much current t o flow in the event of a ground fault.
TABLE 6.10
Summary of Criteria for Selection of Neutral Reoctavce
For application of grounded-neutral lightning arresterr

For limiting transient
OVerYOltoge

XdX,

Ro/Xo

XdX,

_____
R e o d m C e grounding.. Grounding transformer solidly grounded.. Grounding transformer resistance grounded'.

........................ ......... ......

10 or leis I 0 or leis
10 or leis

........ ........
2 or more

30, 1. 1 . 3 or less

* Either criterion

is mtisfactory.

OTHER METHODS OF GROUNDING
LINE GROUNDING

I n lorn-voltage systems (600 volts and below) which in the past have almost universally been connected in delta, it was sometimes advocated that one line be grounded, as illustrated in Fig. 6.27. This was done i i r order t o obtain some of the advantages of grounding at minimum expense. Because of its limitations and disadvantages it is strictly a compromise method and is rarcly encountered in modern industrial systems. Staudard load-center unit substations are now readily availahle with Y-connected secondaries at 480 and 600 volts i n all standard kva ratings. For

( A ) N E U T R A L GROUNDING

( 8 ) CORNER- OF- THE- DELTA GROUNDING

FIG. 6.27

Two melhodr of grounding a low-voltage power system.

SYSTEM GROUNDHG

389

existing 480-volt delta systems dry-type zigzag grounding transformers provide a relatively inexpensive method of establishing a neutral. One of the outstariding disadvantages of corner-of-the-delta grounding is the necessity for positive identification of the grounded phase throughout the entire system. Instruments, meters, and overload relays should not be connected in the grounded phase.
MID-PHASE GROUNDING

Where existing systems at 600 volts and below are supplied by three single-phase transformers with midtap available, it is possible to gain some of the advantages of neutral grounding by grounding the midtap of one phase. This method is illustratrd in Fig. 6.28.

FIG. 6.28

One phore of grounded ot the mid-point.

( I

delta system

THE INFLUENCE OF GROUNDING METHOD ON CONTROL-CIRCUIT SAFETY IN SYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND BELOW Frequently the safety of a control rirruit is offered as a reason for a particular method of grounding. In all cases where motor-starter control eircnits are set up without control transformers, it becomes evident that there are problems with regard t o circuit arrangement which must be considered in order t o minimize operating difficulties and persolinel hazards. Accidental motor starting due t o faulted control circuits may be associated with ungrounded systems as well as most types of grounded systems. During such times as accidental motor starting may constitute a hazard, it should be standard practice to open the discomiiecting means whether the system is grounded or not, and regardless of the method of grounding. Analysis of the fault performance of motor control circuits from the standpoint of safety reveals that hazards may exist with all types of ungrounded and grouuded systems. Three methods quite commonly used are described. A similar analysis should be made with any other contemplated arrangement. Figure 6.29 shows a direct,ly connected control circuit on a n ungrounded system. A ground fault on any phase will remain unnoticed, and protective devices will not trip. Assume that a ground exists on either phase

390

SYSTEM G-ROUNDING

a L.

44
FIG, 6.29
Control circuit on ungrounded system without control power transformer.

A L 6

.

0. . L

A

L

B

C

SYSTEM GROUNDING

391

2 or 3. A subsequent ground fault,at point R will impress full line-to-line voltage across the coil arid close thc contactor. A ground fault a t point C will pick up the coiitact,or, and the stop button will not stop the motor. Figure 6.30 shows a system wit,h solidly grounded neutral. A ground fault on any phase x i l l cause circuit tripping, and the fault mill be isolated. A ground fault a t point R or C will impress liiie-to-neutral voltage (58 per cent) amass thc coiitactor roil. This will usually not pirk up the contactor, but it will prohably burn out the (.oil. If the “start” button is closed during t,his period, full fault curreiit Xi-ill flow until interrupted by a protert,ire devirc. . ground fault a t C ii-hilc t,hc motor is running ivill I prevent stoppitig the motor from the stop button if the contactor fails t o drop out on 58 per rent voltage. Furthermore, the stop button may be called upon t o interrupt a fault, current in excess of its capability. Figure 6.31 shows one method of connecting a control circuit on a line grounded system. Here a ground fault on any phase except 1 d l cause circuit tripping. A ground fault a t R or C ivill not pick up the contactor and remain unnoticed. Closing the start hutton under this condition will cause full fault current t o flow through the start button. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
AUTOTRANSFORMERS

Poiver autotransformers are quite frequently used in public-utility poiyer transmission and distrihutiori systems; however, their use in industrial power systems as a part of the power distribution system is relatively infrequent. Autotransformers are quite common, however, in control and utiliaatioii equipment. Systems using autot,rausformers may be subject t o dangerous fundamental frequency overvoltage during system faults or from high-frequency or steep wave-front transient overvoltages on the lines, originating from lightning or switching surges. Since the magnitude of these overvoltages depends in part upon the method of grounding the system and autotransformer, the nature of these overvoltages will be explained. Consider the case of a n ungrounded system using an autotransformer as represent,ed in Fig. 6.32. Lines a , b, c represent the loiv-voltage system normally operating at line-to-line voltage and points d , e , f represent the terminals of a step-up autotrarisformer normally operating a t line-to-line voltage E2. 111the event of a line-to-ground fault on the line connected t o terminal d, thc loiv-voltage phases b and c are elevated aboveground by the amount

392

SYSTEM GROUNDING

8:dc =

Ed,

= -dE,2

1

4 3

+ E,2 + h,,E*

(6.11)

For example, in the case of an autotransformer rated 13.8/34.4 kv operating ungrounded on an ungrounded system, a line-to-ground fault on one of the high-voltage lines will impress a voltage t o ground on two of the loii.-voltage lines of

0.58

m+ + (13.8)(34.4) = 25 kv 34.4'

Obviously, this is an undesirable situation and cannot be tolerated. Solid grounding of the autotransformer neutral eliminates this type of overvoltage. Another type of overvoltage called transient inversion can occur in a n autotransformer, as illustrated in Fig. 6.33. Steep wave-front transient overvoltages produced by lightning or slyitching surges coming in over lined and arriving a t point, .J are impressed across a portion of the aut,otransformer winding .IK, point K remaining a t it,s normal frequency value until C , can he rharged. The result is that the port,ion of the ivinding J K has impressed upon it practically the entire voltage disturhance. Since the port,ion of the winding K N is closely coupled t o J K , the voltage ivill be stepped up in K N by t,he turn rat,io of K.V t,o K J . Since the initial disturbance may he several times normal voltage, and since this may be stepped up tivo t o twenty times or more by inversion (depending upon the winding ratios), it, is evident that a serious overvoltage may be experienced. The hazard due t o transient inversion is greatest for autotransformers in which the high- t o lowvoltage ratio approaches unity. This type of overvoltage can be eliminated by solidly grounding the neutral. I n cases where this is not feasible, a lightning arrester or Thyrite* resistor connected between the neutral and ground can he used t o minimize this voltage. The presence of a tertiary delta on the autotransformer also tends t o minimize transient overvoltages of this hature. Another system autotransformer connection which is subject to both normal frequency inversion and transient inversion is operation with the supply system neutral grounded and the autotransformer neutral isolated, as shown in Fig. 6.34. A line-to-ground fault on the high-voltage line 2onnected t o terminal h forces the voltage of point h t o that of N , . This inverts the phase of winding hd by impressing voltage N , , from point h t o d . The hd portion of the winding induces in the d N , portion of the winding a voltage of corresponding phase and of a magnitude depending upon the turn ratio

* Registwed

SYSTEM GROUNDING

393

a

T O HIGH VC LTAG E UNGROUNDED SYSTEM

FIG. 6.32
Ground fault on ryrtem with autotransformer connecting ungrounded systems.

(1

;ca

I

TO UNGROUNDED HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM

FIG. 6.34 Autotransformer neutral isolated, supply-system neutral grounded.

of the two parts of the winding. This results in a shift of point Nz,as shown in Fig. 6.35. Note that phase voltages N P j and N 2 k are far above normal for the case

394

SYSTEM GROUNDING

illustrated, where the step-up ratio was 2 : l . If the step-up ratio had heen 1 . 1 : 1, that is, the autotransformer normally boosting the low voltage hy 10 per rent, the faulted phase would be overexcited by ten times normal, resulting in a much more severe shift of N 2 and overexcitation of the other phases. That is, the closer the autotransformer ratio is t o unity, the more severe is the overvoltage from this type of fault. Overvoltages from this cause can be prevented by solidly grounding the neutral of the autotransformer. The resultiirg voltage magriitudes are given by the following relations:

For example, in the case of a n autotransformer stepping up 10 per cent
=
E.V%h=

1

E Z = 1 . 1 Der unit 1.1 = 6.35 per unit d T ( l . 1 - 1)
= 7.32 per unit

S o t e also in this rase that only the high-voltage lines and connected apparatus are subject t o overvoltage. The lorn-voltage lines are not subjected to any ahnormal voltages in this case. The foregoiiig examples illustrate the nature of the overvoltages which ran be obt,ained with autotransformers. I n general, solidly grounding the neutral of t,he autotransformer is a satisfactory means of eliminating

h

t
1 -

EZ
b

t
El

FIG. 6.35 Vector diagram illustrating normal frequency inversion of clutotmnrformer.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

395

overvoltages. The disadvantage of solid neutral grounding is that thirdharmonic currents aiid telephone interfereiice may heromc excessive iii rertaiii cases. These harmonic problems ran usually he eliminated h?, use of a tertiary delta 011 the ant,otransformer. See referetire 5 for a more romplet,e discussion of this s n b j w t .
SYSTEMS WITH PUBLIC-UTILITY SUPPLY

Some iiidustrial systems are directly roiinerted at t,heir operat,iiig voltage t o public-utility systems. The scheme of grounding the industrial system should be properly coordinated \\-it,ht.hat, for the utility system. If two systems are interconnected by means of a transformer bank, at least one \\-inding of t,he bank will normally be roiinevted i t 1 delta, and t,his delta-rotiiierted i~iiiding will make grorindilig of earh systrm itidepetident of grounding of the other.
GENERATOR-TRANSFORMER UNIT INSTALLATIONS

Figure (i.36 shorn an arrangemelit using a distrihut,ioti-t,ype t,raosformer, loading resistor, and relay in the gciierat,or neutral. This scheme may he provided x i t h a 5- or 10-miti ratiiig t o permit time for traiisferriiig load off the atrected mavhiiie before it is takeii out of service. The distribut.ioii transformer will usiially have a rating of 25 t o 50 h a , aiid the relay may be connerted t o operate on resistor current, or volt,age, depeiidiiig 011 the particular illstallation. This system is used bei,aose sometimes the rost of the resistor and distribntioii-type transformer is less than the vost of + high-voltage Ionrurreiit resistor roiiiiertrd dirwtlv hetween the neutral and ground.
DISTRIBUTION TRAN 5 F O R M E R

RELAY

-I

Y
( I

FIG. 6.36

Grounding the neutral of distribution transformer.

396

SYSTEM GROUNDING

This results in a n effective high-resistance ground which, because of the limited system and the absence of switching devices, is satisfartory from the standpoint of transient overvoltages, and since no problem of relay coordination is involved, the relaying problem is simple.
THREE-PHASE FOUR-WIRE SYSTEMS

I n these systems, single-phase loads are connerted between phase cotiductors and the neutral conductor. The neutral conductor is insulated over its entire length except where it is grounded at its source of supply. The neutrals of such systems should be grounded so solidly that during a ground fault the voltage between any phase conductor and ground does not appreciably exceed normal line-to-ground voltage; otherwise, abnormally high voltage t o ground mill be impressed on the unfaulted circuits. T o be adequately grounded, therefore, four-wire systems must use solid or reactance grounding with ground-fault currents approximately equal to three-phase fault currents. This is usually accomplished by direct connection of transformer bank neutrals t o ground.
FAULT DUTY MAY BE INCREASED BY SOLID GROUNDING

Solid grounding of the service transformer neutral can be responsible for fault currents exceeding the three-phase values. This may i n some cases necessitate larger circuit breakers than would be dictated by threephase faults. Here is another advantage of limiting the ground-fault magnitude. A specific example (Fig. 6.37) incorporating a representative arrarigement will serve to explain what factors contribute t o a greater line-toground duty. The positive-, negative-, and zero-sequelire impedance diagrams for the system in Fig. 6.37 are shown in Fig. G.38. Three-phase fault-momentary duty :

I,,

=

x- (IJ(l.5)
El

=

1.0 (1040)(1.5) 0.0832
~

=

18,750 amp asymmetrical

Interrupting duty:

I,,,

=

\$ (Id(1.0)
3E,

=

0.0985

~

(1040)(1.0)

=

10,570 amp symmetrical

Line-to-ground fault-momentary duty :

I",,

=

Xi'

+ x,+ xo

(IB)(l.5)=

0.0832

+ 0.0832 + O.OF (1040)( 1.5)
=

3

20,650 amp asymmetrical

SYSTEM GROUNDING

397

Interrupting duty:
lint

=

X;

E 3 +3X I, + Xu (zB)(l'o) = 0.0985 + 0.0832 + 0.06 (1040)(1.O)
=

12,900 amp symmetrical

Ratio of line-to-ground t o three-phase fault duty: Momentary:

Interrupting :

The key t o this problem is the fact that three-phase fault current is coutrolled by the factor l / Z 1 while line-to-ground fault is controlled hy thc factor 3/(Z, Z, Zo). If Z,, Z?, and ZU\yere all equal, the two fault currents would be equal. Any system condition uhich acts to reduce

+ +

A

7 5 0 0 UVA X = 6 PERCENT

IND MOTORS 3000 K V A X- 25 PERCENT

SYN MOTORS 2000 KVA X " / X ' = 2 0 / 2 5 PERCENT

X" = 6 2 . 5 PERCENT
ON 7500 KVA

X ' ? X ' = 7 5 / 9 3 . 7 5 PERCENT ON 7 M 0 K V A

FIG. 6.37 Typical system where ground-fault current may be greater than three-phore fault current.

398

SYSTEM GROUNDING

POSITIVE SEQUENCE X" N

, 1 ~ BASE CURRENT(IB)= 4 7500 6 1040 bMP
I /O.Il 9.09 110.75 1.33 1 / 0 . 6 2 5 = ~ 12.02

-

if
0.625

1/12.02= 0 . 0 8 3 2

X" EQUIVALENT

0.0832
N

*

IF

x ' ( FOR

.eF
INTERRUPTING DUTY )

1/0.9375='9.09 I/O.lI

10.16
0.9375 I/I0.16=0.0985

X ' EQUIVALENT

El

N

-

0

F

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE X 2 (SAME AS POSITIVE SEQUENCE X" EXCEPT OMlTTlhO E l ) X, EQUIVALENT N ZERO SEQUENCE XO N
-2AN\r

2NLh/L.

IF

0.0832

IF

0.06

F G 6.38 I.

Sequence impedoncer expressed in per-unit on 7500-kva 4160-volt threephase bare, for circuit shown in Fig. 6.37.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

399

Z, or Z, or any condition which tends to increase Z, mill make the line-toground fault current greater than the three-phase value. In the example the utility service line coutaiiis a fair amouut of reactance ii-hic,h becomes iiicluded i n the positive-sequence uct\vork but, riot in the zero-sequence netn-ork. Thus, referred to the 4I6O-volt bus Xo is smaller than X , and XI. Had the iiwomiug h i e shortkiri.uit dut,y been 500 mva instead of I50 mva (lower X , slid X2),there wor~ldbe scarcely auy difference hetween line-to-ground and three-phase fault-currrnt values. 111 the case of load-renter suhst,ations for inataiii,e, the highvoltage supply system reactanre \ d l he very small compared il-ith the transformer rcactauce; thus solid ueutral groundiug i n prarhically all cases results i i i 110 iircreased short-riruuit duty. In passing it is iuterest,ing t o note that grountliug any other ueutrals of 4160-volt equipment i n the esample would redwe %,, and (.&useline-togrouud fault rurrciit to be elevated.

EXAMPLES

O PRACTICE F

Example 1. Consider the syst,em of Fig. 6.39. ;\pplirat,ion proredure is as follows: I . All necessary data are giacit oii the diagram. 2. Select groundiug method. From Table (i.5, voiiditioti d , resist,anre grounding is suggested. 3. Select all three generator urutrals as grounding point,s, to assurr that the system \\-ill alij-ays he grounded. 4. Review system rclayiiig. a. Ground-fault curretit required for relaying is as follo\vs, from Table 6.9: Generators.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 amp Feeder irsiug (iOO;5 current tmisformers.. . . . . . . GOO amp Smaller freders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.ess than (i00 amp

h. Ground-fault protection is available 011 every circuit esvcpt the bus, which can be protected by neutral back-up rdays. 5 . Select neutral circuit arrangement. Resistors should be rated at least GO0 amp. Three iudividual rcsistors would provide a maximum total ground-fault curretit of only 1800 amp. Therefore, individual resistors are selei.ted, as suggested uuder Seiitral (:iri,uit Arrangements. 6. Select neutral grnuilditlg equipment. Since gtwerator breakers may be used for back-up protwtion, a IO-sei. timc interval rating may hc used. Resistors for iudoor mounting are suggested. 7. The oiily additional devices needed arc three iirwtral current transformers and three neutral overr.urrent relays.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

51

PHASE OVERCURRENT RELAYS(TH0SE ON GENERATORS HAVE VOLTAGE RESTRAINT) GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAYS GENERATOR PHASE DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS(NEUTRAL CT'S NOT SHOWN) GROUND OVERCURRENT BACK-UP RELAYS
FIG. 6.39
Circuit diagram tor Example 1.

@)
07

@

Consider the system of Fig. 6.40. Procedure is as follows: 1. All necessary data are found on Fig. 6.40. 2. Select grounding method. From Table 6.5, condition R. 3. Select location of grounding point, as the neutral of the main bank. 4. Select neutral circuit arrangement, as a direct connection to earth (from Table 6.5). 5 . Review system relaying. We shall consider in turn each breaker used for system protection. a. Transformer primary breaker. This breaker will operate on trans-

Example 2.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

401

former secondary faults. For such faults the ground-return path will be so short that its resistance will be negligible, if the transformer case is properly bonded to the system neutral. From Table 6.4,a ground-fault current of about 17,300 amp may flow to a terminal fault. This is over ten times the circuit rating and hence is sufficient for operating phase overcurrent relays in the primary circuit. 21. T r a n s f o r m e r secondary breaker. This breaker is primarily for bus faults. Since the maximum ground-fault current is only about ten times the circuit rating, fast tripping may not be 1600 AMP .) I 480 V provided by the breaker, but the primary breaker will give satisfactory protection, as discussed for transformer faults. G. Feeder breakers. Since the FIG. 6.40 Circuit diagram for Example 2. maximum . mound-fault current , (17,300 amp) is a t least twenty times the rating of the largest feeder breaker, these provide adequate ground-fault protection. 6. No neutral grounding equipment is required. The transformer neutral must, of course, be available for grounding.
OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Case 1. The following is quoted from theexperience of an engineer of a large glass-manufacturing company as related to an AIEE group recently. “ A few years ago in one of our large plate glass plants two feeder grounds occurred on two different phases about 2000 feet apart in two departments. When the fireworks and excitement had subsided the two departments involved were shut down for several hours until repairs could be made. Within a few hours after this trouble happened a number of motors, seven altogether, were brought into the electric shop with burnt out or grounded windings. This, we believe, is an important effect of the system surges that occur during very bad fault conditions such as this., The loss of production and damage on that occasion amounted to several thousand dollars. “With continuous process operations the hunting of ground faults is very difficult, and two grounds on the same phase but on two different feeders are exceedingly difficult to trace. This is because all the feeders must be opened a t once and closed one at a time to find the trouble. Our

402

SYSTEM GROUNDING

experience is that the first ground remains on the system because we cannot open the feeder breakers to hunt it. The result is that the system operates with two phases a t line-to-line voltage to ground, and the operating electrician hopes that no other grounds occur before he has an opportunity t o find the first one. “It was because of our experiences, such as I have mentioned, and the need in our operations for the highest possible service continuity, that we began to seriously consider the use of grounded neutral low voltage distribution systems. “The cost of a grounded neutral low voltage system is slightly higher than an ungrounded system. The additional transformer neutral bushing and connections, the neutral bus and wiring are items that add t o the cost. These are first costs that do not add more than one per cent t o the total cost of a unit substation. “Two of our plate glass plants are now operating 100 per cent with 600 volt grounded neutral systems, and t.wo other works are about 50 per cent cut over. Two window glass plants, operating a t 460 volts, are completely changed over t o grounded neutral and a third is in the process of being changed. Several new plants, one paint plant and two fabricating plants were built with 460 volt grounded neutral systems. Our total transformer capacity operating a t 600 volts or 460 volts grounded neutral is now 40,000 kva, consisting of 30 units. “Our experience with these systems has been very satisfactory. There is no question that the service reliability has greatly improved. A majority of the faults occur on branch feeders and are cleared by the local branch protection devices such as fuses. Troubles are localized and promptly repaired. As the electricians become used t o the new systems they are more enthusiastic and quickly learn, for instance, that a single blown fuse probably indicates a ground. None of them has expressed any desire t o return to nongrounded systems.” Case 2. An engineer from a large steel company reported as follows on experiences with a grounded-neutral 6900-volt system which was placed in operation in 1947: “The operating record of the system since the grounded neutral was installed is most gratifying. The ground faults experienced show a marked reduction in number and severity. For instance, during the year 1944, the number of ground indications recorded totaled 34. Of these 34 indications, 19 resulted in equipment failures such as grounded motor coils or flashed-over bushings. During the year 1951, there were two ground relay operations resulting in one equipment failure, and the first fifty weeks of 1952 show a similar record. Particular attention has been paid t o the severity of the damage caused by these ground faults. I n each instance i t appears that the relaying has been fast enough t o clear the fault before any destructive burning resulted.”

SYSTEM GROUNDING

403

REFERENCES
1. Concordia. C.. and H. A. Peterson. Arcine Faults in Power Svstems. Trans. A I E E . , , vol. 60, pp. 340-346, 1941. 2. Concordia, C., and W. F. Skeats, Effect of Restriking on Recowry Voltage, Trans. AIEE, vol. 58, 1939.
I

3. AIEE Standards No. 32, “Neutral Grounding Devices.” 4. National Electrical Code. 5. Blume. L. F.. “Tranaformer Eneineerins.” John Wilry & Sons. Inc., 1951. 6. Allen, J. E., and S. K. W a l d o r f , k n g Ground Tests i n a Normally Ungroundcd 13-Kv, 3-Phase Bus, Tmns. AIEE, 1946, p. 298. 7. Shott. H. S., and H. A. Peterson, Criteria for Neutral Stability of Y-Grounded Primary, Broken Delta Secondary Transformer Circuits, Tiann. AIEE, 1941. p. 997. 8. Clarke, Edith, “Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems (Symmetrical Components),” John Wiley &Eons, Inc., New York, vol. I, 1943, vol. 11, 1950. 9. Application Guide for the Grounding of Synehronoua Generator Systems, AIEE Committee Report, Power Apparatus and Systems KO. 6, June, 1Y53, pp. 517-526. 10. Quinn, R. F., Should the High Voltage Neutral of a Wye-delta. Stepdown Transformer Bank Be Grounded? Gen. Elm. Rev., June, 1945.

chapter 7

by L. J. Carpenter, Shelby C. Cooke, Jr.,

R. H. Kaufmann, and David Stoetzel

Equipment Grounding
STATIONARY EQUIPMENT, BUILDINGS, AND STRUCTURES
OBJECTIVES OF EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Equipment grounding consists of the connecting to ground of noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the wiring system or apparatus connected to the system. This includes all metal conduits, metal raceway, metal armor of cables, outlet boxes, cabinets, switch boxes, motor frames, transformer cases, switchgear enclosures, metal enclosures of motor controllers and other frames, and metallic enclosing cases of all electric equipment and electrically operated equipment. One objective of equipment grounding is to limit the potential between non-current-carrying parts of the plant and between these parts and earth to a safe value under all conditions of normal and abnormal system operations. To accomplish this objective, a plant grounding system is required. The purpose of this is t o seek to achieve a uniform potential in all parts of the structure and apparatus, as well as to provide that operators and attendants shall also be a t the same potential a t all times. By achieving more nearly a uniform potential throughout the grounding system, the chances of large differences of potential within reasonable reaching distance of a person, great enough to shock or injure an attendant when short circuit or other abnormal occurrences take place, are reduced. A grounding system is very likely called upon to function very infrequently, and inadequacy may become evident only a t that time. It is like the gun that nobody thought was loaded until someone pulled the trigger. When a ground fault occurs on an electric system, lives may depend on an adequate equipment-grounding installation.
404

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

405

A second objective of equipment grounding is a low-impedance return
path for ground-fault current. The hazard to personnel exists a t the time a ground fault occurs. Forcing the current to flow through a highimpedance grounding connection may create a dangerous potential difference. Also, high impedance a t joints and connections or insufficient cross section in grounding circuits may cause arcing and heating of sufficient magnitude to ignite nearby combustible material or explosive gases.

IMPORTANCE OF EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

The published data of the Division of Industrial Safety, Department of Industrial Relations, State of California, states that in the year 1952 there were 909 recorded electrical work injuries, of which 40 were fatal. For comparison, similar figures for several previous years are listed in the accompanying table.
Iniuries
Year
Total Fatal

Rdio

1946 1947 1948 1949 1950

:;:: : ;

I I I ;;:;

305 572 755 693 690

28 57 48 42 33

10.9 10.1 15.7 16.5 20.9

Of the 909 recorded injuries, 153 could be related directly to contact with frame case or non-current-carrying metal parts. It was found that in these 153 recorded injuries either no grounding or inadequate grounding could have been responsible for the injury. Typical injury descriptions are as follows. “Refrigerator Repairman. Electric drill shorted out-severe shock; employee knocked out for about fifteen minutes.” “Carpenter. Operating portable electric hand-saw on wet groundreceived shock and dropped saw. Laceration, severe, dorsal surface a t base of distal phalanx, third finger left hand.” “Cabinetmaker. Ground wire broken off in drill. Hot wire grounded to frame, took hold of another grounded drill-unconscious about one minute.”

406

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Inasmuch as adequate equipment grounding tends to keep the potei tial difference between equipment frame and ground within safe limits, it can he safely said that these 153 accidents, or approximately 17 per cent of the total, were attributable to inadequate equipment grounding. The National Fire Protection Association consistently reports that about 10 per cent of all fires, representing about 10 per cent of losses from fires, are specifically attributed to “Electrical, fixed services, fires due to misuse or faulty wiring and equipment.” They also report that another 10 per cent, representing about 30 per cent of losses from fires, is of unknown origin. I t is inevitable that many of these fires were caused by inadequate equipment grounding and insufficient attention given to return paths for ground-fault currents. The increased use of system-neutral grounding has focused attention on the necessity for good equipment grounding systems to obtain lowimpedance return paths for ground-fault current. For safety to personnel, it is generally recognized that equipment grounding is required but is often provided as an afterthought and, consequently, may or may not he adequate-for the purpose intended. With a little careful consideration, it becomes apparent that a well-planned equipment grounding system must be provided whether the system neutral is grounded or not. Ungrounded neutral systems often operate for extended periods with a single-phase faulted to ground. During such periods, a contact between another phase conductor and a metallic enclosure raises the enclosure to full-line potential aboveground. Failure to provide a suitable connection between enclosure and ground presents a serious hazard to personnel. Also, the flow of fault current through a high-impedance connection during a double line-to-ground fault may create differences of potential of dangerous proportions.
COMPONENTS OF AN EQUIPMENT GROUNDING SYSTEM

Definitions. For the purpose of further explanation of the grounding system the following definitions are established (see Figs. 7.1 and 7.2). Grounding electrode is a conductor embedded in the earth, used for maintaining ground potential on conductors connected to it and for dissipating into the earth currents conducted to it. Ground bus is a protective ground network used to establish a uniform potential in and about the structure. I t is tied solidly to the grounding electrodes. h typical ground network is illustrated in Fig. 7.3. Grounding conductor is a conductor used to connect equipment frames or wiring-system enclosures to the ground bus. The distinction between a neutral conductor (white) and a grounding conductor (green) is illustrated in Fig. 7.4.

FIG. 7.1

Typical grounding system

for on outdoor substation.

c Y 0

408

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

FIG. 7.2
building.

pical grounding system f r a building and heavy electric opparatvr in the o

GROUNDING

ELECTRODES

CONNECTlON TO WATER PlPiNG

JOINT

CONNECTIONS TO BUlLDlNG STEEL E A C H SlDE OF EXPANSlON .IOlNT

FIG. 7.3

Typical ground bur.

410

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Types of Grounding Electrodes. A continuous underground waterniping system provides a very satisfactory grounding electrode (Fig. 7.5). Consideration should be given t o the size of pipe arid the extent of the system if this is t o be the sole means of connection t o earth. Table 7.1 tahulates the size of wat,er pipe in terms of equivalent grounding conductor or bus. Artiiicial grounding electrodes should also be used. Such electrodes may be rods, pipes, plates, or conductors embedded in the earth. They should be of noncorrosive metal, such as copper or copper-hearing steel. They are embedded in the earth by bring driven or by burial. The Ground Bus. The importance of a continuous metallic circuit of low FIG. 7.5 ~ ~ method of grounding i~npedarice in the returo path for ~ i ~ ~ l to o large w o t e i pipe. ground-fault currents is illustrated in Fig. 7.G. Fig. 7.Fa shows a 120/240-volt single-phase system with transformer neutral connccted to ground through a grounding electrode ivhich measures 10 ohms resistauoc to earth. The conduit is connected t o earth through a separate grounding electrode which measures 20 ohms t o earth. h fault oc(?urs lictween conductor B and the conduit.

Ground-fault current =

20

120 in

+

=

4 amp

Voltage drop from conduit to earth equals 4 X 20, or 80 volts. Figure 7.iib shows the same system with both transformer neutral and conduit connected to a common ground network which is connected t o earth through a single grounding electrode which measures 25 ohms resistance. A fault occurs between coilduotor B and t h e conduit. A high fault current will flow through the low-resistance ground-return path causing fault interrupting devices t o operate. Little, if any, current flows through the 25-ohm resistance, and therefore the conduit will remain very close t o earth potential. It should not be inferred from the above t h a t 80 volts potential is necessarily fatal. T h e example used simply ,illustrates t h a t appreciable resistance in the ground-return path results in a difference in potential during a ground fault which may be great enough t o be fatal t o a person

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

41 I

stepping or reaching from one point t o another. A continuous path of low impedance i5 effeoted by means of a properly designed ground hus. The size of the ground bus is determined by the magnitude of current and the time of flow, based on the maximum allowable temperature rise. For bolted joints the temperature rise should be limited t o 250 C , and for brazed joints t o 450 C:. While ground buses and connections must be adequately braced t o withstand the mechanical stresses due t o the initial asymmetrical line-to-ground fault current, the heating effect of such current can generally be disregarded because of its short duration. The following equations may be used in determining the size of ground bus when copper is used for conductors. For bolted joiuts with initial temperature of 26 C and temperature rise of 250 C,

For brazed joints with initial temperature of 26 C and temperature rise
of 450 C,

1
FIG. 7.6

0 VOLTS

Illustrating the importance of a continuous metallic ground-return path of low imc-edance.

412

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

where A = cross section, circular mils I = ground fault current,, amp S = time of floy, see For ungrounded, impedance-grounded, arid solidly grounded systems it is usually easy t o determine the magnitude of fault current t h a t could flow in the ground hus. For uiigrouiided arid impedaiice-grourided systems this will approximately equal line-t,o-line fault current,, a i d for solidly grounded systems i t will approximately equal three-phase fault current. For the average grounded or ungrounded power distribution system wit,h adequate (auk protective devices, a time of flow of current of 10 sec is conservative atid may be used in thc above calculation. Aside from the theoretical considerations t,here are practical limits which may finally determine the maximum or minimum size of ground bus. For mcclianical st,rength the ground bus should not be smaller t h a n S o . 2/0-.4~vgconductor. It is not usually necessary t o exceed 500 MCM or equivalent for large generating stations and substations, or S o . 4/0 Awg for small stations and industrial plants. However, it may he desirable t o exceed these values where exceptional precaihon is required or where extremely high ground-fault currents are expected. A ground bus of adequate size for the installation should be run completely around the periphery of the building (see Fig. 7 . 3 ) . Grounding conductor material should he soft-drawn or medium-hard-draxn copper wire or copper bar. For steel-frame buildings the ground bus should be conneoted t o each outside building column (Fig. 7.7). In large buildings a network should he provided t o include internal buildiiig columns. The around bus should he connected t o electrodes a t int,ervals of 200 f t or less. If the building consists of more than one floor, each floor should have its own ground bus, these floor ground hnses in turn should be connected by a number of condiictors t o the main ground bus 011 the first floor. In buildings having no steel frameivork, a grouiid network equiualent t o the above should be provided. Where no steel framework is available, all grounding conductors must he taken directly t o the ground bus. Better aocessihility is obtained if an exposed bus is provided in the upper structure, and often it is inore economical t o install it in this FIG. 7 7 connection ground bur to . of building column. manner.

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

413

T h e gronnd hos may be installed in the form of a loopoiilsidetlie boundaries o the buildings, biiried in the f backfill for the columii footings arid foundation wall. The loop ground bus should be installed a minimum of 18 in. orit,side &hebuildiiig wall and 18 in. below the finished grade. Where exposed to mechanical injury the conductor should be suitably prot.ectcd by pipes or other Siibstaritial guards. If guards are iron pipe or other magnetic matcrial, the conduct,or should be electrically coiiiiected t o both erirls of the guard t,o prevent, inductive choke ef- S,G,7,8 Codwe,d-type buried groundfcct. ( h i d a c t o r s laid iiiidergroii~id ing connection, " should, urilcss other\\ protected, he laid slack t o prevent their being readily broken. 811 hiiritd grounding corinectioiis should be made by brazing or (:nd\\-eld-t,ype joiiit (Fig. 7.8). All ot,her grouridirig comicctions may be ma& by brazing, Cad\reld, or with approved pressure terminals. Steel-to-copper coririectioiis should he made abovegrouiid wherever possible. The ground bus should he coiiiie , at least at two points. to a continuous uiidcrgroiirid vater-piping ciri or t o suitable grouiiding e k trodes (Fig. 7.9).

FIG. 7.9

414

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Grounding Conductors. Grounding conductors should he large enough to carry the ground fault current safely. Where the grounding conductor is insulated (green wire), it should be the same size as phase conductors. Where the conductor is bare, the temperature rise is limited to the same as the ground bus except that where exposed or adjacent to inflammable materials the total temperature is limited to 100 C. Although neutral conductors may be grounded a t the source, they should not be used for equipment grounding. Separate conductors should be used for neutral conductors and for equipment grounding. Equipment-grounding conductors must be identified with green color code. This is distinguished from neutral conductors which should be white color code. An illustration of this requirement is shown in Fig. 7.4. limiting Values of Resistance from Ground Bus to Earth. In large stations the resistance of the ground bus to earth should not exceed 1 ohm and should be made as much lower as can be realized economically. In small substations a resistance from ground bus to earth of higher values than that in large stations is generally permissible because the ground-fault currents are relatively smaller and they are in general only accessible to qualified personnel. Preferably, however, it should not exceed 5 ohms and should be as much lower as can be realized economically. For residential customers it is common practice to ground one side or the neutral of electric services on the premises. In cities this connection is ordinarily made to a water pipe, which usually provides a very lowresistance grounding connection. I n rural locations water systems may not be accessible, requiring that a driven pipe or rod must be installed for the grounding connection. The National Electrical Code requires that such grounding connections shall have a resistance not to exceed 25 ohms. Methods of measuring resistance 60 ground are discussed later.

TABLE 7.1

Minimum Size Water-pipe Electrodes
Sire of water Pipe,
Inches I.P.S.

Size of Grounding Conductor
or Bus, Awg

8 6
A

\$5
I 1 >i 1% 2
2%

\$/a

2 1 /o 2/0 4lQ

EFFECT OF IMPEDANCE IN EQUIPMENT-GROUNDING CIRCUITS

Of course, no one would contest the fact that reactance as well as resistance influences the return path taken by ground-fault currents. Recent tests, however, indicate that reactance his a much more marked effect than has been previously appreciated. This is particularly true

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

415

where circuit conductors are enclosed in magnetic materials such as steel conduit or husways. I t was found that, when the enclosing conduit and a return coiiductor (of about equal resistance) outside the conduit were paralleled, the current divided approximately 20 parts in t.he conduit to 1 in the conductor at low current,s and 10 parts in the conduit t o 1 in the conductor at high rurreiits. About the same ratio also held true when the rurrent was allowed to divide hetween the conduit and a very low-resistauce steel-frame huildiirg structure. When the path by may of the eonduit was opened, a substantial voltage appeared between conduit and ground. With this same ret,rirrr conductor iriside the conduit., the current tended to divide about equally hetween conductor and corrduit. that the 60-cycle reactance of any groundThis leads to the conr~lusion return circuit remote from the outgoirig circuit conductor will likely be high compared ivith its resistance and limit the magnitude of groundreturn current which i t will carry. It may also he concluded that t,he conduit or enrlosing metallic structure will tend to carry an appreciable port,ion of thc fault rurrent and that failure to provide a continuous path will result i n arcing and heating, which may cause fires in combustible materials whirh may he rrear. This may account for the many fires that are reported tiy insurance statistics as caused hy faulty electrical circuits or of unkiioirii origin.
POWER PLANT AND DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

The frames of stationary or permanently located rotatirig electric equipment and the frames and enclosures of static equipment such as transformer t,anks and associated equipment permanently lorated should he grounded by dirert roniieotion t o the building grouiid b u s through a grouudiug condurtor equal in size t o the largest conductor in the line connected t o the equipment hut not less than No. 6 Amg nor greater than S o . 4/0 Awg (Figs. 7.10, 7.11, and 7.12). Driven ground electrodes should be employed a t earh outdoor substation. To provide a vorrvenient method of grounding switchgear, a ground hus should be provided as part of the equipment for structures or panels contaiiring such primary apparatus as current transformers, potential transformers, pon-er circuit breakers, and disconnecting switches and such other apparatus as relays, instruments, and meters which require grounding. Each of these metal structures, metal panels, or metal supports should lie individually connected to the switchgear ground hns, which must not he smaller in current-carrying capacity than 25 per cent of the highest rontinuous-current rating of any piece of primary apparatus t o which it is connected. Usually a 2- by >&in. bar is used.

416

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

FIG. 7.10 Grounding connection-utdoor circuit breaker

FIG. 7.1 1
former tank.

Grounding connection-tronr-

FIG. 7.12

Grounding connection-motor

frame to building column

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

417

This switchgear ground hus should, in turn, be connected t o the common station ground bus by suitable conductors having a current-carrying capacity equal t o t h a t of the switchgear ground bus (Pig. 7-13). I n many cases ( f o r example, i n metal-clad switchgear or other metal strue,ture) apparatus may be considered adequately grounded through their mountiiig on the structure. In some suhstatioii installations, where all connect,ioris are underground and there is no possibility of energizing t,he enclosing FIG. 7.13 Switchgeor ground bur. fence by falling overhead wires, it i s desirable t o keep <.he fence serrarated from the stat,iori ground bus. The reason for t,liis is t h a t during a ground fault the suhstatioii grouiid bus may he elevated in potential above true earth and may constitute a hazard t o personnel who come in contact with the fence.

STATIONERY UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT

The frames arid metallic eiiclosiiig cases of all electric equipment a n d electrically operated equipment not grounded through bus drop cable may he considered adequately grounded if bolted or welded t o the st,eel framework of a structure which has been suitably grounded. I this condition f does not exist, aii individual grounding conductor should be run from the equipment t o t.he ground bus. A rigid conduit system may riot, coiistitut,c an adequate grounding circuit. However, because of the high reactauce of pat,hs provided outside the conduit, the conduit will carry a large percentage of t,he current, arid therefore i t should be made adequate if possible. If it is necessary t o run a conductor for equipment grounding, it sliould he inside the conduit which carries the corresponding phase conductors. A grounding coririectiori run inside the conduit or raceway through which poGer is brought t o the equipment must be an insulated conductor equal in size to the largest, conductor in the line feediiig the equipment but riot larger than No. 4/0 hwg. r l 1he frames and metallic eiiclosiiig cases of all electric equipment and

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

419

The lead sheaths, shields, and armor of power cables should he grounded a t both ends, with the exception of single-conductor cables as noted helow. I n long cables it is sometimes desirable that sheaths also be grounded a t several intermediate points. The lead sheath, shield, and armor of large single-condurtor cables (500 MCM and above) should he grounded a t one end only to prevent rirculating currents. The sheath, shield, and armor of such a cable should he insulated from ground throughout the remainder of its length unless the cable is too long, in which case insulating joints must he provided to permit grounding a t a sufficient number of points to keep sheath voltagrs down t o desirable limits. For examplc, the mutual reactance bo neut,ral X , for a 500-MCM standard-strand cable, varnished cambric insulated, lead sheathed (approximate outside diameter, 1.5 in,), wit,h equivalent, spacing between cables of 3 in., is approximately 0.0525 ohm per 1000 ft. Assuming a current I , of 400 amp in t,he conductor, the induced vokage to neutral per 1000 ft can be calculated from the formula P, = I , X , (7.3) = 400 X 0.0525 = 21 volts

For lead-sheathed cable in duct, sheath voltage should be limited to 12 to 15 volts. For jacketed cable, sheath voltages of 40 to 50 volts may be permitted, because the jacket acts as an insulator. Conduits, wireways, busways, junction boxes, etc., should be grounded by adequate connection to the ground bus. The minimum requirements for these connections are established by the National Electrical Code.
SMALL APPARATUS AND DEVICES

Small apparatus and devices present a very serious problem because of their diversity and because they are usually associated with low voltage and relatively small blocks of power which are inclined to be considered as innocuous. The need for proper grounding is even greater on these applications, however, because equipment in this category is widely used by personnel unfamiliar with the potential hazards, and it is usually not so carefully protected. This is emphasized with radher startling clarity by the figures from the Division of Industrial Safety of the State of California. Of the 153 reported injuries attributable to inadequate equipment grounding, 82 were associated with portable electrically operated tools and 33 more with “cords, plugs, portable extensions, etc.” In other words 115 out of 153, or nearly 75 per cent, were directly related to relatively small, so-called “harmless” devices. Incidentally, 699 nut of the total of 909 reported electrical work injuries, over 77 per cent, weredirectly related to circuits and equipment of 600 volts or less.

420

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

In many cases where portable tools and equipment are connected through a plug and receptacle, a grounding connection can be made by using special three-pole outlets with a third, or grounding, conductor in the connecting cable. It i s now standard practice in many plants to use only three-pole outlets throughout the factory area where portable equipment is apt to be plugged in. This has not become an effective solution to the problem as yet, because portable tools are often supplied with a two-conductor cord and a two-pole plug, and i t is difficult to convert to a three-conductor cord and get the third conductor connected to the metallic case of the tool. Furthermore, the three-pole plug will not enter the conventional two-pole outlet, which tends to discourage its use until such time as a complete conversion can be accomplished. Other methods have been used to a limited extent, for example, a three-conductor cord with a clamp-type terminal dangling a t the plug end. This method does not present an effective solution because there is seldom a good place to fasten the terminal to ground, and it is too much bother to fasten it even if there is a good place. There appears to be a trend toward the adoption of the “green” conductor in wiring systems and the three-pole plug and receptacle, as standard. However, there are practical objections which must be overcome by education and manufacturing standardization. One of the important objections to the adoption of the green conductor in wiring systems is the danger of making a wrong connection in the box or in the tool, and by so doing connect the exposed metallic case to the ungrounded circuit conductor. This condition is more likely to occur in the small shop or the home where the inexperienced amateur electrician does the job than in a large industrial plant where experienced labor, adequate supervision, and intelligent safety practices are employed.
LIGHTING FIXTURES

The minimum requirements for grounding of lighting fixtures should be those specified in the National Electrical Code. The Code states that every metal fixture shall be grounded unless all the following conditions exist: 1. The fixture is on a circuit operating a t 150 volts to ground or less. 2. The fixture is on an outlet wired with knob and tube work or nonmetallic sheathed cable. 3. The fixture is not mounted on a metal or metal lath wall or ceiling, or if so mounted is insulated from its support and from the metal lath by the use of insulating joints or fixture supports and canopy insulators. 4. The fixture is not installed within 8 ft vertically or 5 ft horizontally of laundry tubs, bathtubs, shower baths, plumbing fixtures, steam pipes, or other grounded metalwork or grounded surface.

420

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

In many cases where portable tools and equipment are connected through a plug and receptacle, a grounding connection can be made by using special three-pole outlets with a third, or grounding, conductor in the connecting cable. It i s now standard practice in many plants to use only three-pole outlets throughout the factory area where portable equipment is apt to be plugged in. This has not become an effective solution to the problem as yet, because portable tools are often supplied with a two-conductor cord and a two-pole plug, and i t is difficult to convert to a three-conductor cord and get the third conductor connected to the metallic case of the tool. Furthermore, the three-pole plug will not enter the conventional two-pole outlet, which tends to discourage its use until such time as a complete conversion can be accomplished. Other methods have been used to a limited extent, for example, a three-conductor cord with a clamp-type terminal dangling a t the plug end. This method does not present an effective solution because there is seldom a good place to fasten the terminal to ground, and it is too much bother to fasten it even if there is a good place. There appears to be a trend toward the adoption of the “green” conductor in wiring systems and the three-pole plug and receptacle, as standard. However, there are practical objections which must be overcome by education and manufacturing standardization. One of the important objections to the adoption of the green conductor in wiring systems is the danger of making a wrong connection in the box or in the tool, and by so doing connect the exposed metallic case to the ungrounded circuit conductor. This condition is more likely to occur in the small shop or the home where the inexperienced amateur electrician does the job than in a large industrial plant where experienced labor, adequate supervision, and intelligent safety practices are employed.
LIGHTING FIXTURES

The minimum requirements for grounding of lighting fixtures should be those specified in the National Electrical Code. The Code states that every metal fixture shall be grounded unless all the following conditions exist: 1. The fixture is on a circuit operating a t 150 volts to ground or less. 2. The fixture is on an outlet wired with knob and tube work or nonmetallic sheathed cable. 3. The fixture is not mounted on a metal or metal lath wall or ceiling, or if so mounted is insulated from its support and from the metal lath by the use of insulating joints or fixture supports and canopy insulators. 4. The fixture is not installed within 8 ft vertically or 5 ft horizontally of laundry tubs, bathtubs, shower baths, plumbing fixtures, steam pipes, or other grounded metalwork or grounded surface.

EQUIPMWT GROUNDING

421

Grounding of the fixture is permissible in a11 cases. TheNationalEleetricalCodealsos b t e s that fixtures shall he considered as grounded when mechanically connected in a permanent and effeetive manner to metal raceway, the armor of armored cahle, the grounding conductor in a nonmetallic sheathed cable, a separate grounding conductor not smaller than No. 14 Awg, or to gas piping, provided that the r a c e way, armor, grounding conductor, or gas pipe is grounded in an approved manner. Grounding of hook-suspended uuits supplied through a disconnecting plug should be accompliihed by means of a separate grounding conductor in the connecting cable equal in currentcarrying capacity to the liie conductors. Connection shouid be made through separate grounding contacts in the plug aud receptacle. The grounding of high-intensity mercury lighting fixtures and fluorescent lighting fixtures should he accomplished hy running an individual grounding conductor to the ground hus or ik equivalent. A continuous row of ktnres may be considered as one fixture if the mechanical connection hetween a 1 sections i such that electrical continuity is assured. 1 s
LIGHTNING AND LIGHTNING-ARRESTER GROUNDS

For lightnjng arresters, a local grounding connection should be made by driving rods into tbe earth near the arresters (Fig. 7.15). In addition, the lightning-arrester grounding conductor should be connected into the common station ground bus. For the average case, an arbitrary upper limit of 5 ohms resistance to ground has been estahlished. Lower values may be desirable, depending on the degree of proteotion required. The eonnection from arrester to ground should be as ehort and as straight as possible. The National Electrical Code states that a lightniagarrester ground wire shaii not be maller than No. 6 Awg. A larger siee conductor is required as thesystem voltage increases. For instance, a minimum of No. 2 is suggested for 4160-, 6900-, and 13,800-volt distrihution circuits. Properly made ground connections are an ewential feature of a lightpiug-rod system for protection of buildings. It appears to be more
RG. 7.15
nectim Lighhing-arreiter p r m d m-

422

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

important to provide ample distribution of metallic contact in the earth than to provide low-resistance connection. Low-resistance connections are desirable, however, and should be provided where practicable. Ground connections should be made at uniform intervals shout the building, avoiding as much as possible the grouping of connections on one side. Each down conductor should have a ground connection. Ground electrodes should be at least 2 f t away from and should extend below the building foundation. They should make contact with the earth from the surface downward to avoid flashing at the surface. Interior metal parts or structures of a building should he grounded independently, and if they are within 6 f t of metallic roofs, walls, or down conductors, they should be securely connected thereto.
METHODS OF MEASURING RESISTANCE TO EARTH

For new installations of grounding electrodes it is desirable that test electrodes be placed at the site for 60 to 90 days before tests are made in order that the earth around the electrode may become stabilized. By so doing, a more accurate indication of resistance to earth will he obtained. Theoret,ically it is possible to calculate the resistance of any system of grounding electrodes. However, soil resistivity is dependent on soil material, moisture content, and temperature. It has been found that the range of soil resistivity usually encountered varies between 500 and 50,000 ohms per cu cm. Also, a considerable variation in soil resistivity at a given location may he expected because of normal seasonal changes. Obviously, formulas for calculating the performance of grounding connections hecome so romplicated and involve so many indeterminate factors that they are of little value. Many such formulas have been developed, and they are useful as general guides, but the resistance of any given installation can be determined only by tests. Several methods of testing have been devised, all of which result in approximations of varying degrees of accuracy. It is important, that the measurement of grounding connection resistanre be made a t the time of installation and at periodic intervals thercafter to determine the adequacy and permanence of the grounding connection. Usually preiision in such measurements is not required, as it is necessary to know only whether the resistance is of the order of 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ohms. These values are indicative of whether the ground is satisfactory for the particular inst,allation or whether improvement is necessary. The commonly used methods of measuring and testing the resistance of a grounding connect,ion make use of two auxiliary electrodes in addition to thc one under test. The rcsist,ance may b i measured by the use of a voltmeter and ammeter, a Wheatstone bridge &h a slide-wire potenti-

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

423

ometer, or hy self-contained instruments which give direct readings in ohms. Portahle ground-testing instruments provide the most convenieut and sstisfactory means for measuring the resistance of grounding connections. The common instrument used for measuring insulation resistance is not suitahle for measuring grounding-connection resistance, however, becanse it does not measure the iow values. Three methods of measuring and testing grounding connections are descrihed helow. Three-point Method. The connections and measurements of the resistance of grounding connections 5y the three-point method are illustrated in Fig. 7.16. Either alternating curreiit of commercial frequency

A U X I L I A R Y NO.1

f.y

'11.
i

A U X I L I A R Y N0.2

{Rz

RI = R x t R y
Rp = R x + R z

Ra = R y t R Z
Ry

R 3 - RZ

RX = RI
RX
i

Rp

- Ry - RZ
2Rx

= RI = Rp
i

- Rg t R Z
-RZ

RI

RX =

+ Rp - R 3 RI + R p - A 3
7

FIG. 7.16

Three-point method of mearuring rerirlonce of earth connoction.

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

425

potential across the resistance. The connections for this method using alternating current for test are illustrated in Fig. 7.17. A current of known magnitude is passed through the electrode under test and one of the auxiliary electrodes. The drop in potential betweeu the electrode under test and a second auxiliary electrode is then measured, and the ratio of this voltage drop to the known current will indicate the resistance to earth. By using a voltage-measuring device which has a high impedance, the resistance of the auxiliary potential electrode will have no appreciable effect on the accuracy of the measurements.

L -

DETECTOR FOR MEASURING P O I N T OF BALANCE

S L I D E WIRE POTENT1 O M E T E R

R X t R y I S MEASURED B Y MEANS OF A WHEATSTONE BRIDGE OR OHMMETER

IS

DETERMINED

RAtRB

FIG. 7.18

Ratio method of m e o w i n g resistance of earth connection.

426

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Ratio Method. The ratio method of measuring and testing the resistance of grounding electrodes is illustrated in Fig. 7.18. In this method the resistance of the electrode under test in series with an auxiliary electrode is measured by means of a Wheatstone hridge or ohmmeter. A slide-wire potentiometer is connected across the same two electrodes with the sliding contact connected to a second auxiliary electrode through a detector for determining the point of balance. The point of balance on the potentiometer fixes the ratio of the resistance of the test electrode to the total resistance of the two in series which was determined in the first measurement.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH AS A CONDUCTOR

The characteristics of earth as a conductor are generally variable and unpredictable. They are even difficult to measure with any degree of accuracy. The various methods of measuring resistance previously described are valuable to the extent that they give a magnitude of resistance in the earth circuit which is relatively accurate and will indicate whether ground connections are satisfactory or not. It should not he expected that current magnitude in earth circuits can he calculated by conventional formulas. Current values in earth circuits have been found to vary with the frequency of applied voltage, in some instances inversely. Earth resistance varies with applied voltage. A-C and d-c resistances of driven ground rods have heen found to differ greatly. Furthermore, the resistance of an earth connection varies with earth composition, moisture, temperature, season of the year, depth and diameter of rod, and other reasons. Because of the nature of earth circuits, it is difficult to determine the shock hazard from measured resistance in event of a ground fault. Likewise, the effectiveness of ground-fault protective devices which depend on current return in the earth is not easy t o determine. Metallic return paths for ground-fault currents ensure a safe and adequate means of providing a level of safety which is predictable. They should be used in industrial systems wherever possible.
GROUNDING LARGE PORTABLE MACHINERY FOR SAFETY

Large portable machinery, such as electric shovels and machines of a similar nature, are not located on permanent foundations and normally receive power by flexible trailing cable a t a relatively high voltage. Voltage levels of 2400 or 4160 volts are common. Such machines as these present serious problems with respect to the safety of operators and

426

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

Ratio Method. The ratio method of measuring and testing the resistance of grounding electrodes is illustrated in Fig. 7.18. In this method the resistance of the electrode under test in series with an auxiliary electrode is measured by means of a Wheatstone hridge or ohmmeter. A slide-wire potentiometer is connected across the same two electrodes with the sliding contact connected to a second auxiliary electrode through a detector for determining the point of balance. The point of balance on the potentiometer fixes the ratio of the resistance of the test electrode to the total resistance of the two in series which was determined in the first measurement.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH AS A CONDUCTOR

The characteristics of earth as a conductor are generally variable and unpredictable. They are even difficult to measure with any degree of accuracy. The various methods of measuring resistance previously described are valuable to the extent that they give a magnitude of resistance in the earth circuit which is relatively accurate and will indicate whether ground connections are satisfactory or not. It should not he expected that current magnitude in earth circuits can he calculated by conventional formulas. Current values in earth circuits have been found to vary with the frequency of applied voltage, in some instances inversely. Earth resistance varies with applied voltage. A-C and d-c resistances of driven ground rods have heen found to differ greatly. Furthermore, the resistance of an earth connection varies with earth composition, moisture, temperature, season of the year, depth and diameter of rod, and other reasons. Because of the nature of earth circuits, it is difficult to determine the shock hazard from measured resistance in event of a ground fault. Likewise, the effectiveness of ground-fault protective devices which depend on current return in the earth is not easy t o determine. Metallic return paths for ground-fault currents ensure a safe and adequate means of providing a level of safety which is predictable. They should be used in industrial systems wherever possible.
GROUNDING LARGE PORTABLE MACHINERY FOR SAFETY

Large portable machinery, such as electric shovels and machines of a similar nature, are not located on permanent foundations and normally receive power by flexible trailing cable a t a relatively high voltage. Voltage levels of 2400 or 4160 volts are common. Such machines as these present serious problems with respect to the safety of operators and

428

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

a voltage difference between the frame and ground due to the contact resistance between the two. In the case of a portable machine, the electric connection between the frame and the surrounding earth is a poor one, and, hence, a dangerous voltage can he developed when ground current is flowing. This voltage, approximately equal to the product of the ground current and the frame-to-ground resistance, produces a definite shock hazard to personnel. Personnel in the vicinity of portable machines may come in contact with this frame-to-ground voltage in various ways. Workmen during idle moments frequently sit on the ground in the shade of the machine with their backs against the “cats.” In making adjustments or repairs to the dipper, the workmen usually will be standing on the ground a t some distance from the base of the machine and will be touching the metal parts of the dipper as shown in Fig. 7.20. The frame-to-ground voltage will be transmitted along metal, such as compressed-air, fuel, or water lines, drag chains, tow cables, or other metal parts connected to the frame.
FACTORS IN SHOCK HAZARD

The factors which affect the shock-hazard problem are illustrated in Fig. 7.20. The physical arrangement is shown in Fig. 7.20A and the equivalent electrical diagram in Fig. 7.20B. The two most important factors with respect to the shock hazard are 1. Magnitude of ground-fault current 2. Resistance from machine frame t o ground (R,) The ground-fault current which will flow upon the occurrence of a ground fault is determined by the power-supply voltage acting on the fault circuit impedance. The normal power-system impedance composed of the substation-transformer, transmission-line, and drag-cable impedances Z,, Zf, and Z, are of necessity relatively low t o permit proper performance of power equipment connected to the system. The fanlt current might be in the order of thousands of amperes if i t were limited only by these impedances. A protective system designed to handle such large ground currents without creating dangerous shock voltages would require a very extensive and costly low-resistance grounding circuit for the portable machine. However, another means of limiting the shock voltage is by limiting the current which will flow on a ground-fault occurrence. This can be done with no sacrifice in the power-machinery performance by introducing a neutral grounding impedance Zo,Fig. 7.20. A resistor, rather than a reactor, is used as the neutral grounding impedance for two reasons: (1) to avoid the twice normal transitory current magnitude encountered with high reactance, which would be required to

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

429

limit the ground-fault current to 50 amp and (2) to avoid the relatively high switching and arcing ground transitory overvoltages which would be permitted by such high-reactance grounding. The portable-machine frame-to-ground resistance is very indefinite. Even under favorable circumstances, the ground resistance will not be low, and it may be 100 ohms or more on rock formations. Even a gr0u.p o driven ground rods at the line end of a trailing cable may have a ground f resistance of 10 ohms or more unless the installation is carefully made and maintained. (Kote that a 10-ohm ground and a ground-fault current of 100 amp would produce a shock hazard potential of 1000 volts between the machine and ground.) Available shock-hazard information and data indicate that the possible voltage from frame to ground should not be allowed to exceed 100 volts and that adequate relaying should be provided to deenergize the circuit immediately upon the occurrence of a ground fault. A ground-fault current of 50 amp and a portable-machine ground-return-path resistance of 2 ohms have proved successful as a satisfactory compromise. A reliable ground-circuit resistance of 2 ohms requires a ground-return conductor from the frame of the portable machine back to the electric-supply substation, as represented by impedances Z, and Z, in Fig. 7.20B. This ground-return circuit alone is designed t o come within the 2-ohm limit since other ground paths are so variable. This practice assures adequate safety even if the ground resistance of these other ground paths is very high. For example, even if the resistance of the other path is infinite and the ground-fault current is limited to 50 amp, the maximum voltage which can occur between the frame and ground is 100 volts. In most cases it will be found that the ground-return-conductor resistance is appreciably under 2 ohms, thereby limiting the maximum frame-toground voltage to a value under 100 volts.
CIRCUIT PROTECTION

To remove circuit elements which have experienced insulation failure and the resulting ground fault, circuit breakers should be located t o isolate the faulty circuit elements. Since it is not normally desirable t o shut down the entire system because of a ground fault in one of the shovels, circuit breakers should be located so that the system can be switched in smaller sections. A common arrangement is that of having circuit breakers at the main substation feeding individual pole-line circuits which go out to the portable-machine areas. Along the pole lines at the point a t which feeders are tapped off to supply portable equipment, portable switch houses are commonly used which include circuit breakers. From the portable switch houses, or cable skids, feeder cables are run to

HIGH TENSION

I

1

L

.

A

:

S

b

\

V

-

MAIN

GROUND

SUB.

?

1

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER BANK

1

PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT

-

-

GROUND

A.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF CIRCUIT

SHOVEL FRAME IS AT T n E POTENTIAL O F rnis POINT

z2

R2

B

25

8.

EQUIVALENT ELECTRIC CIRCUITARROWS INOICATE CONTINUITY OF CIRCUIT ONLY

-

-

=

T

\$ 2

z
0

0

FIG. 7.20

Simplified circuit showing the factors involved in the shock hazard of portable machines.

TRANSFORMER

23A

-

ZPA

-

t

I

, h

L I N E TO GROUNO FAULT SHOVEL # I

t

GROUND FAULT SHOVEL U 2

-

m

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

433

individual shovels. Therefore, by proper detecting means, selectivity in circuit-breaker tripping can be attained so that upon the occurrence of a grouiid fault only the faulted portion of the circuit is deenergized and the remainder of the system continues to operate as normal. As mentioned before, upon the occurrence of a ground fault the possibility of shock hazard makes it essential that the grounded feeder be disconnected from the system immediately. If the grounded feeder cannot be isolated, then this entire system should be immediately deenergioed. This can be accomplished by means of back-up relaying equipment operating the circuit breaker located a t the substation.
SlMULTANEOUS GROUND FAULTS

Should two line-to-ground circiiit faults evist simultaneously on different phases a t different, locations, current of line-to-line short-circuit magnitude will flow in the protective ground circuit between the two fault locations. This current flow is not limited by the neutral grounding impedance (Fig. 7.21) and could produce unsafe voltages on the protective ground circuit. To avoid this possibility, automatic switching equipment must be applied which will function immediately if a ground fault occurs and isolate that part of the system. Thus each individual ground fault is automatically removed as soon as i t occurs. On an ungrounded system, ground-detector equipment can be employed to detect the first ground fault and to operate to clear the entire system since with such operation there is no way of telling upon which feeder circuit the ground fault has occurred. This in most cases is not acceptable as an operating procedure.

II/

POWER SUPPLY UNGROUNDED

I 1 1
FEEDER TO PORTABLE MACHINES

FIG. 7.22

Ground-detector system for an ungrounded power supply.

434

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

For maximum service reliability and safety, large portable machines should not he operated on power-supply systems which do not have their neutrals grounded for the reason mentioned in the previous paragraph and also because : 1. If for any reason the feeder breaker is not tripped open upon the occurrence of a ground fault (relays sometimes are blocked), the development of a second ground would permit dangerous voltages to appear where they could produce shock hazards. 2. Ungrounded systems are subject to higher transient overvoltages, as a result of circuit switching or restriking faults, which increase the possibility of simultaneous line-to-ground failures. When the source transformer is not Y-connected, it is still possible to ground the neutral of the system by the use of a zigzag connected grounding transformer in combination with the resistor. When applying a grounding transformer, it is necessary that care be used in its selection, as outlined in Chap. 6. Large portable machines often receive power from the same system which supplies the mill load. Because of relaying limitations, it is necessary that the ground-fault-current level for the mill power system be considerably higher than that recommended for the portable-machine power system. I n order to meet the requirements for both of these types of load, a 1: 1 ratio delta-Y connected isolating transformer is recommended for installation in the feeder supplying the portable machines. The use of such a transformer permits grounding each system separately at the proper level.
RELAYING

The portable-machine power system should incorporate relay protection against phase and ground faults. Relays should be applied a t all circuit-breaker locations and in the grounding connection, as outlined in Chap. 9 and shown in Fig. 7.24. Because of the low value of groundfault current involved, extra-sensitive relays are often required. Careful attention must he given to the selection of current transformers to be sure that their characteristics are satisfactory a t the operating burden imposed by the protective relay. The current transformer and relay combination should ensure positive operation a t currents well below the 50-amp level. It is recommended that all relaying equipment used in connection with ground-fault protective system for large portable machinery and shovels be sensitive to current magnitudes of about one-third the solid groundfault value (15 amp when a 50-amp neutral resistor is used) so &s to assure adequate current for relay operation.

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

435

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

The light,nirig protective equipment at the main substation should consist of the protective devices which would normally he applied t,o a substation of the same size and voltage ratings (see Chap. 5 ) . It is recommended that lightning arresters be applied at the junction of the trailing cable and the pole-line feeder to limit the maximum linr-to-ground voltage. Surge protective capacitor equipment should be applied on the load side of the circuit breaker, within the portahle machine, to reduce the slope of the wave front for the protection of rotating machines. h good driven ground should be established a t the tap-off station, to which the protective ground circuit as well as the lightning-arrester ground leads should be connected (see Fig. 7 . 2 0 A ) . The shork hazard associated with a direct lightning stroke to a portable machine is a real one and extremely difficult to eliminate. Sumerous possible protective systems have been investigated, but all are hopeless to attain in practice. Often a thunderst,orm means a temporary shutdown of operations anyway. Thus during the danger period of the storm the personnel should seek shelter in Ihe metal cab of the machine or at a spot well removed from the machine. To stand on the ground near a portahle machine is about as dangerous as st,anding under a h e .
GROUNDS AT SUBSTATION

One important point concerning the design of the main suhstation should be mentioned here. The ground-fault current, which may be supplied by the high-voltage supply system, is not cont,rolled by the l(ica1 electric-system design and may often be quite large. Any line-to-ground flashover at the main substation will allow the high-voltage-system ground current to flow into the main substation ground in the manner illustrated in Fig. 7.23. This current would persist for a time interval governe:l by the switching time of the high-voltage protective circuit breaker. A 5000-amp ground-fault current (which might easily be equaled or exceeded) in combination with the main substation ground resistance of 2 ohms (which would be considered as a good station ground) would cause the entire main substation structure to be elevated 10,000 volts with respect to ground and remain at this potential until the high-voltage-system protective circuit breaker operated (probably % to I see). If the portablemachine circuit protective ground were physically interconnected with the main substation ground, it is obvious that this high potential would he distributed t o the frames of all portable machines and thus constitute a serious hazard.

A36

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

r- - - - - - - I
I
TRANSFDRMEF

STATION STRUCTURE-

-__

1

I

I

RC S HT

E C R,

POTENl'IAL

2.
FIG. 7.23 Fault diagram for high-tension system.

As a result of these considerations, it is recommended that the protective ground circuit, originating a t the step-down transformer low-voltage neutral, be insulated from the main substation ground system with the same insulation level as applied t o the low-tension line circuit, and grounded a t an adjacent separate grounding connection. The voltage gradient in the earth surrounding the main substation diminishes very rapidly as one moves away from the substation. In general a 50-ft separation between the two grounding terminals is sufficient to avoid any substantial coupling between the two ground beds. It is important to avoid any direct interconnection between these two grounds such as would be produced by buried metal pipelines, etc.
TYPICAL POWER SYSTEM

A typical power system for supplying portable-machine loads and illustrating the points discussed in this chapter is shown in Fig. 7.24.

T T - - - MAIN

----- --- 1
SUB STATION STRUCTURE FEEQER CB

ER FEEDERS

NEUTRAL)

I I
I
i C T TO SWITCH nousE :H

@Y+!+2L
FIG. 7.24

SURGECbP PROTECTIVE TRAILING CbBLt SURGE PROTECTIVE CbP

Typical distribution system for supplying power to portable machines.

430

EQUIPMWT GROUNDING

REFERENCES

1. Eaton. J. R.. Grounding Electric Circuits Effectively. Gen. Eke. Rev.. June.. July. ., ., ~Ugust, i94i. 2 Groundinv Princides and Practice. a consolidated remint of five srticles Dublished . in Eleelrical Efi'nginewing.January to May, 1945. 3. Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication L i n q National Bureau of Standards Handbook H32. 4. Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Utilization Equipment, National Buresu of Standards Handbook H33. 5. National Electrical Code. 6. MeCall, M. C., and I,. R. Harrison, Some Characteristics the Earth as a Conductor of Electric Current, U.S. Bur. Mines Repl. Inuesl. 903,September, 1952. 7. Electrical Work Injuries in California Industries Year Ended December 31, 1952. Depsrtment of Industrial Relations, State of Califomin. 8 Code for Protection Against Lightning, National Bureau of Standards Handbook .

Is'

46. 9. Accident Facts, National Safety Council, 1952 edition. 10. Kaufmsnn, R. H., Some Fundamentals of Equipment, Grounding Circuit Design, AIEE Paper 54-244, 1954.

Ch-apter 8

by W.

C Bloornquist .

Power-factor Improziement *
Why are power engineers interested in plant power factor, what causes low power factor, and how can it be improved? The objectives of this chapter are to answer these questions briefly and to include handy application information for power-factor problems. More complete information on this subject can be found in the book from which parts of this chapter were reproduced. * In summary, the effects of low plant operating power factor may be any or all of the following: overloaded cables, transformers, etc.; increased copper losses; reduced voltage level, resulting in sluggish motor operation; reduced illumination from lighting, especially where incandescent lamps are used; and increased power costs where a power-factor clause, or its equivalent, is part of the rate structure and is enforced. Generally, low power factor is due to partially loaded induction motors. Frequently drives are “overmotored,” i.e., the motor is selected to handle the largest load but usually operated at less than full load. There are also other factors contributing t o lower power factor, such as replacement of incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps; use of rectifiers instead of synchronous motor-generator sets for d-c power supply; and increased installation of various induction devices, electronic eqrripments, air-conditioning units, etc. Most of these changes or replacements are in the interest of worker comfort and efficiency, lower manufacturing cost, and technological advances; the fact that they contribute to lower plant power factor is of secondary importance. As plants become motorized it can be expected that the plant power factor will become poorer unless some corrective measures are taken. Improvement of power factor can reduce power costs, release electrical capacity of the power-distribution system, raise the voltage level, and

* P a t s or this chapter are reproduced, with permission. from “Capacitors f o r Industry,” hy W. C. Bloomquist and R. C . Wilson, copyright General Electric Company, John Wilcy & Sons, h e . , XPWYork, 1950.
439

440

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

reduce the system losses. However, the two main reasons for improving the power factor are (1) to reduce the power bill when there is a powerfactor incentive in the rate clause and (2) to increase or release electrical capacity of the power-distribution system. Although the first is still of primary importance, the second is becoming more important as engineers recognize the economics. This is especially true when capacitors are used for power-factor improvement because the electrical capacity released is valued at several times the cost of capacitors. The two most common methods for improving power factor are shunt capdcitors or synchronous motors. Each has its own application; usually the capacitor method is most economical and practical for existing plants, while the synchronous motor finds its main application when a new and large motor drive is added.

POWER-FACTOR FUNDAMENTALS
The usual definition of power factor in terms of the phase relationship of voltage and current in a sine wave is intentionally avoided because it is abstract and difficult to translate into a simple physical concept. The concept used here-hased on the fact that there are two types of current in an a-c circuit--is particularly helpful in understanding the effect of power factor on system operation and understanding capacitor applications. Although the following discussion on fundamentals is written around the use of capacitors because they generally are the most practical and economical means for improving the power factor, these fundamentals also apply to other met,hods, such as synchronous motors and condensers. The current required by induction motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, induction heating furnaces, resistance welders, etc., may be considered to be made up of two separate kinds of current: magnetizing current and power-producing current. Some loads, such as incandescent lights, require only power-producing current. Power-producing current (or working current) is that current which is converted by the equipment into useful work such as turning a lathe, making a weld, or pumping water. The unit of measurement of the power produced is t,he kilowatt (kw). Magnetizing current (also known as wattless, reactive, or nonworking current) is that current which is required to produce the flux necessary to the operation of induction devices. Without magnetizing current, energy could not flow through the core of a transformer or across the air gap of an induction motor. The unit of measurement of magrietizing volt-amperes is the IMovar (kvar). Total current is the current that is read on an ammeter in the circuit. It is generally made up of both magnetizing current and power-producing

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

441

current. The unit of measurement of total volt-amperes or “apparent power” is the kilovolt-ampere (kva). Most a-c power systems require both kilowatts and kilovars. 2 2 Does Not Equal 4! The arithmetic applicable to everyday life 2 = 4. It is unfortunate that instead of follows the simple rule that 2 following such a simple rule the addition of kilovar current and kilowatt current follows a principle of geometry. If the kilowatt and kilovar components of current are each 2 amp, Fig. 8.1, the total current may be found from the right-triangle relationship as follows:

+

+

(Kilovar current)2

+ (kilowatt
22

+ 22 = (total current)?

=

(total current)z

4

+ 4 = (total current)2
v‘ = 2.83 amp ‘%

Total current =

Therefore, 2 2 does not equal 4. The following useful formulas apply when kw, kvar, and kva are substituted for their respective currents: kva = d ( k w ) * (kvar)z kw = 4 ( k v a I 2 - (kvar)z kvar = 4 ( k v a I 2 - (kw)*
2 AMP.

+

+

(8.1)

(8.2) (8.3)

KVAR CURRENT

TOTAL

CURRENT
Diagrom showing cornponent currents in a-c circuits.

FIG. 8.1

2 AMP.

2.83 AMPS.

WHAT IS POWER FACTOR?

Power factor may be expressed as the ratio of power-producing current in a circuit t o the total current in that circuit. Another definition of power factor, which is generally more useful, is the ratio of kw or working power t o thb total kva or apparent power. Thus

442

POWER.FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Power factor

kw kva kw = kva X pf kw kva = Pf
= -

(8.4) (8.5)

Stated another may, the power factor is that factor by which the apparent power must be multiplied in order to obtain the working power. For the case illustrated in Fig. 8.2 the power factor is SO/lOO, or 0.8, or, as it is commonly expressed, 80 per cent. The angle included between the kva and the kilowatt components is called the power-factor angle and is designated by the symbol 8. The cosine of this angle (cox e) is the power factor.

100 K V A

\

6 0 KVAR

\
1000

Right-triongle relationship for power-factorcoldotions in a-c circuits.

FIG. 8.2

The actual calc.ulation of power fact,or is illustrated hy the following example. Example 1. What is the power factor of the load on a 460-volt threephase system if the ammeter indicates 100 amp and the wattmeter reads 62 kw? Since in a three-phase circuit kva =

4 3 volts x amperes 1000 1.73 X 460 X 100 = 79,6 -_
=

Power factor = kw/kva 78 per cent.

62/79.6

=

0.78, or, as it is often expressed,

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

443

The terms leading and lagging power factor are apt to be confusing, and they are meaningless unless the direction of both kilowatt and kilovar flow is knoivn. Generally, however, in industrial plants only the load power factor is considered, in which case the following rule may be helpful in differentiating between leading and lagging power factor: " The power factor is lagging if the load requires kilovars and leading if the load furnishes kilovars." Thus, an induction motor has a lagging power fartor
TABLE 8.1
Power Factor of Load and Source
Direction of flow
I

Figure

I

Kw

I I
Kwr

Power factor'

Kw

Kvar

Power factorl

-___
Log

8. a 8. b 8. c

Induction Synchronous motor (overexcitedl Synchronous motor

In In

In
Out

Out
Out

Out
In Out

Lag

Lag

lundereidtcdl

In

In

I

out

lag

t Power factor measured at the generator

* Power factor measured at the load.

INO. MOTOR

z gAG)

[ (LAG1

SYN. MOTOR (UNDER EXCITED 1
(C)

FIG. 8.3

Diagram for use with Table 8.1.

444

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

berause its magnetizing requirements must be supplied by the power source or other sources. On the other hand, an overexcited synchronous motor can supply kilovars (from t,he motor d-c field action); so such a synchronous motor has a leading power factor. Table 8.1 and associated Fig. 8.3 indicate the power factor for common operating conditions for both loads and supply sources based on the direction of kilowatt and kilorar flow. It is obvious from this table that the terms leading and lagging are apt to be confusing. I n order to avoid this confusion, varmeters are replacing power-factor meters. The varmeter has a zero center point with scales on either side, one labeled “ i n ” and the other “out.” In most industrial circuits the kilowatt flow is in only one direct,ion, e.g., to a motor load; so single-scale wattmeters are customarily used. However, in a t,ie line or transfer circuit a wattmeter with a center point should be nsed. Kilovar readings are generally more useful than power-factor readings as they indicate t,he actual magnitude of the magnetizing components. However, if the power-factor value is needed, it can he computed from the kiloir.at,t and kilovar values or read directly from the alignment chart, Fig. 8.9.
POWER FACTOR OF A GROUP OF LOADS

The power factor of an individual load is generally known or can he estimated quite closely. The poiver factor of a group of different loads should generally be calculated. This can he done quite simply by means of t,he relations explained previously. Example 2. Figure 8.4 shows a substation supplying three different kinds of loads: incandescent lights, synchronous motors, and induction motors. The substation power factor is obtained from the total kilovars and kilowatts of the various loads, and from these the total substation k r a and poiver factor may be found as follows:
1. Find the kilowatts and kilovars of each load

a. 5 0 - k ~ a lighting load: Since incandescent lights are primarily a unity poiver-factor load, all the current is kilowatt current; so kva = kw. b. 300 hp of connected induction motor loads: Assume kva load = 0.75 X (connected motor horsepower) with an operating power factor of 80 per cent lagging.
kva = 0.75 X 300 = 225 kw = (0.75 X 300) X 0.8 = 180 kvar = 4 ( 2 2 5 i z - (180)2 = 4. 0 . 6 2 5 - 32.400 5 ,
=

(8.5) (8.3)

482= / , 5 12

135

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

445

c. 75 hp of 0.8 leading power-factor synchronous motor: At full load assume kva = motor-horsepower rating = 75 kva

(8.5) (8.3) 2. Find the kilowatts and kilovars that the substation must supply,
=

X (0.8) = 60 kw = 75 kvar = -\/(75)* - (60)2= 4 5 6 2 5 - 3600

-\/m 45
=

SUBSTATION

INCANDESCENT LIGHTS 50 KVA 10 PF .

INDUCTION MOTOR LOADS 225 KVA 0.8 PF (LAG)

1 5 KVA

SO KVAzKW

-

180 KW

/t
60 K W

45 KVAR

135 KVAR

(b)
290 K W 90 KVAR

FIG. 8.4

Construction of load diagram for Example 2.

44b

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

a. Kilowatts: = 50 Lights Induction motor load = 180 Synchronous motor = 60 Total = 290 kw

b. Kilovars: Lights Induction motor load Subtotal

=

o

= 135 = 135 kvar

(Since an overexcited synchronous motor has the ability t o supply kilovars, the net kilovars that must be supplied by the substation is therefore the difference between the kilovars supplied by the synchronous motor and the kilovars required by the induction motor loads.) Induction motor loads require Synchronous motor supplies Substation must supply
135 kvar 45 90 kvar

3. Find the substation kva and power factor.
d ( k i v ) 2 (kvar)2 d(290)' (90)' = 484,100 8100 = d 9 m O = 303 290 Power factor = - = 0.956 lagging 303
= =

kva

+

+ +

(8.1)

(8.4)

Since the substation must supply some of the kilovar requiremei1t.s (the synchronous motor is riot large enough to supply all the load kilovar requiremeuts), the over-all p o w r factor is lagging. The various loads are added diagrammatically as shown in Fig. 8.4.
HOW TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR

When the kilovar current in a rircuit is reduced, the total current is reduced. If the kilowatt current does not change, as is usually true, the power factor will improve as kilovar current is reduced. When the kilovar current becomes zero, all the current is kilowatt current and therefore the power factor will he 1.0 (unity) or 100 per cent. For example, in Fig. 8.2, if a capacitor is installed t o supply the total or 60 kvar, the line power factor xi11 he 1.0. Thus, the power factor may be improved hy supplying the load kilovar requirements by a capacitor.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

447

This is shown pictorially for another example in Fig. 8.5a and b. The working load requires 80 amp, but because o the motor magnetizing E requirements of GO amp, the supply circuit must carry 100 amp. After a capacitor is installed to supply the motor magnetizing requirements, the supply circuit needs to deliver only 80 amp to do exactly the same work. The supply circuit is now carrying only kilowatts; so no system capacity is wasted in carrying nonworking current. From the right-triangle relationship the following important fact can be drawn: the simple subtraction of kilowatts from total kua never equals the kilovars ezcept at unity power factor. In actual practice, it is generally not necessary or economical to improve the power factor to 100 per cent; capacitors or synchronous motors are used to supply part of the load kilovar requirements and the supply system the remainder.

(0)

(b)

FIG. 8.5

Schematic arrangement showing how capacitors reduce total line current by supplying magnetizing requirements locally.

In the example of Fig. 8.2, suppose that the power factor is to be improved from 80 to 90 per cent with capacitors. How much of the load magnetizing requirements is furnished by capacitors? (See Fig. 8.6 for diagram construction.) Without capacitors a t 0.8 power factor km = 80 kvar = 60

Example 3.

448

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

IVith capacitors and 0.9 power factor kw = 80 same 80 kva = = 88.9 0.9 Line kvar = ~ ‘ / ( 8 8 . 9 )- (SO)z ~ = 47903 - 6 4 5 = 38.7
~

(8.6)

(8.3)

Since the line supplies 38.7 k m r hiid the load requirement is 80 kvar, the capacitor supplies tho difference, or 80 - 38.7 = 21.3 kvar.

FIG. 8.6

Diagram for Example 3.

CONVENIENT CALCULATION METHODS

FR O

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

The calculating method described previously mas primarily intended t o show how kilorars influence the power factor and that in a-c circuits the total kva is obtained by using the right-triangle relationship and not just by arithmptical addition of the kilowatts and kilovars. It is evident from these ralrulations that the right-triangle method is rather laborious for pover-factor calculations. From the right-triangle relationship several simple and useful mathematical cxpressions may he written: cos 0 = pf = kva kvar tan 0 = ~kw kvar sin 0 = kva Because the kilowatt component usually remains constant (the kva and

kw

POWER4ACTOR IMPROVEMENT

44v

kvar components change with power factor), Eq. (8.8) involving the kilowatt component is the most convenient to use. This expression may be rewritten as kvar = kw X tan e (8.10)
For example, assume that it is necessary to determine the capacitor rating to improve the load power factor.

kvar a t original pf kvar a t improved pf ckvar*
=

=
=

kw X tan 8 , km X tan O2

Therefore, the capacitor rating required to improve the power factor is kw X (tan 8 ,
=

- tan

02)

(8.11)

For simplification (tan O1

-

tan Sz) is often written asA tan. Therefore, kw X A tan
(8.12)

ckvar

All tables, charts, and curves which have a “kw mu1tiplier”for determining the capacitor on synchronous motor kilovars are based on the above expression.
Table 8.2 lists the “kw-multiplier” values for a wide range of operating conditions; various trigonometric functions useful in power-factor applications are included in the Appendix. Example 4. Determine the capacitor rating for Example 3 by using Table 8.2. The “kw multiplier” or A tan as read from the table is 0.266. Substituting in Eq. (8.12), ekvar
KllOVAR GENERATORS =

80(0.266) = 21.3

Capacitors. The concept of a capacitor as a kilovar generator is helpful in understanding its use for power-factor improvement. A capacitor may be considered a kilovar ‘generator because it supplies the magnetizing requirements (kilovars) of induction devicen. This action may be explained i d terms of the stored energy. When a capacitor and an induction device are installed in the same circuit, there will he an exchange of magnetizing current between them, i.e., the leading current taken by the capacitor neutralizes the lagging current taken by the induction device. Because the capacitor relieves the supply line of supplying magnetizing current to the induction device, the capacitor may be considered to be a kilovar generator, since i t actually supplies the magnetizing rkquirements of the induction device.

The prefix “ c ” in ckvar is used to designate the capacitor kvar in order to differentiate it from load kvar.

Desired improved power factor, COI 92
Originol power factor cos 8 ,
~~

0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99

1.0

0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73

0.982 1.0081.034 1.0601.0861.112 1.1391.165 1.192 1.220 1.248 1.2761.3061.3371.3691.403 1.440 1.481 1.529 I 589 1.732

I'

0.9370.9620.989 1.015 1 0 1 1.0671.0941.120 l.1471.1751.2031.231 1.261 1.2921.3241.358 .4 0.8930.9190.9450.971 0.9971.023 1.050 1.0761.1031.131 1.1591.1871.217 1.2481.280 1.314 0.8500.8760.9020.9280.9540.9801.0071.033 1.0601.0881.116 1.1441.1741.2051.237 1.271 0.8090.8350.861 0.8870.9130.9390.9660.992 1.019 1.0471.075 1.1031.133 1.164 1.196 1.230 0.7690.7950.821 0.8470.8730.8990.9260.9520.979 1.007 1.035 1.063 1.093 1.124 1.156 1.190

1.395 1.4361.484 1.5441.687 1.351 1.392 1.4401.5001.643 1.308 1.3491.3971.4571.600 1.2671.308 1.3561.4161.559 1.227 1.268 1.3161.3761.519

5

<

0.7300.7560.7820.8080.8340.8600.8870.9130.9400.9680.9961.024 1.054 1,085 1.1171.151 1.188 1.229 1.2771.337 1.480 j : 0.6920.7180.7440.7700.7960.8220.8490.8750.9020.9300.9580.9861.0161.0471.0791.1131.1501.191 1.2391.2991.442 2 0.6550.6810.7070.7330.7590.7850.8120.8380.8650.8930.921 0.9490.979 1.0101.042 1.0761.1131.lS41.202 1.262 1.405 0 0.6190.6450.671 0.6970.723 0.749 0.7760.802 0.8290.8570.8850.913 0.943 0.974 1.006 1.040 1.077 1.118 1.166 1.226 1.369 ? 0.583 0.609 0.635 0.661 0.687 0.713 0.740 0.766 0.793 0.821 0.849 0.877 0.907 0.938 0.970 1.004 1.041 1.082 I. I30 I. I90 1.333

F

5

0.5490.575 0.601 0.6270.653 0.6790.70610.732 0.7590.7870.8l50.8430.8730.9040.9360.970 1.007 1.048 1.096 1.156 1.299 2 0.5160.5420.5680.5940.6200.6460.6730.6990.7260.7540.7820.8100.8400.8710.9030.9370.974 1.015 1.063 1.123 1.266 0.483 0.5090.535 0.561 0.5870.6130.6400.6660.6930.721 0.749 0.7770.8070.838 0.8700.904 0.941 0.982 1.030 1.090 1.233 f 0.451 0.4740.5030.5290.5550.581 0.6080.6340.6610.6890.7170.7450.7750.8060.8380.8720.9090.9500.998 1.058 1.201 0.4190.4450.4710.4970.5230.5490.5760.6020.6290.6570.6850.7130.7430.7740.8060.8400.8770.9180.9661.0261.169

3 2

0.388 0.414 0.440 0.466 0.492 0.518 0.545 0.571 0.598 0.626 0.654 0.682 0.712 0.743 0.775 0.809 0.846 0.8870.935 0.995 1.138 0.358 0.384 0.410 0.436 0.462 0.488 0.515 0.541 0,568 0.596 0.624 0.652 0,682 0.713 0.745 0.779 0.816 0.8570.905 0.965 1. 108 0.3280.3540.3800.4060.4320.4580.4850.511 0.5380.5660.5940.6220.6520.6830.7150.7490.7860.8270.8750.935 1.078 0.299 0.325 0.351 0.377 0.403 0.429 0.456 0.482 0.509 0.537 0,565 0.593 0.623 0.654 0.686 0.720 0.7570.798 0.846 0.906 1.049 0.270 0.296 0.322 0.348 0.374 0.400 0.427 0.453 0.480 0,508 0.536 0.564 0.594 0.625 0.6570.691 0.728 0.769 0.817 0.877 1.020
0.242 0.268 0.294 0.320 0.346 0.372 0.399 0.425 0.452 0.480 0,5080.536 0.566 0.597 0.629 0.663 0.700 0.74 I 0.789 0.849 0.992 0.21 4 0.240 0.266 0.292 0.3 I8 0.344 0.37 I 0.397 0.424 0.452 0.480 0,508 0,5380.569 0.60 I 0.635 0.672 0.71 3 0.761 0.82 I 0.964 0,186 0.21 2 0.238 0.264 0.290 0.31 6 0.343 0.369 0.396 0.424 0.452 0.480 0,510 0.541 0.S73 0.607 0.644 0.685 0.733 0.793 0.936

I

'

I

'

I

0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80
0.81 0.82

0.159 0.185 0.211 0.2370.263 0.289 0.316 0.342 0.369 0.397 0.425 0.453 0.483 0.514 0.546 0.580 0.617 0.658 0.706/0.7660.909 0.1320.1580.1840.2100.2360.2620.2890.3150.3420.3700.3980.4260.4560.4870.5190.5530.5900.6310.6790.7390.882
0.1050.1310.1570.1830.2090.2350.2620.2880.3150.3430.3710.3990.4290.4600.4920.5260.5630.6040.6520.7120.855

0.0790.1050.131 0.1570.1830.2090.2360.2620.2890.3170.3450.3730.4030.4340.4660.5000.5370.5780.6260.6860.829
0.052,0.0780.1040.1300.1560.1820.2090.2350.2620.2900.3180.3460.3760.4070.4390.4730.5100.5510.5990.6590.802 0.0260.0520.0780.1040.1300.1560.1830.2090.2360.2640.2920.3200.3500.381 0.4130.4470.4840.5250.5730.6330.776 0.0000.0260.0520.0780.1040.1300.1570.1830.2100.2380.2660.2940.3240.3550.3870.421 0.4580.4990.5470.6090 750

0.83 0.84
0.85

0.86 0.87
0.88

0.89 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99

..... 0.000 0.026 0.052 0.078 0.104 0.131 0.1570.184 0.212 0.240 0.268 0.298 0.329 0.361 0.395 0.432 0.473 0.521 0.58110:724 ..... .....0.0000.0260.0520.0780.1050.1310.1580.1860.2140.2420.2720.3030.3350.3690.4060.4470.4950.5550.698 ..... ..... .....0.0000.0260.0520.0790.1050.1320.1600.1~~0.2160.2460.2770.3090.3430.3800.421 0.4690.5290.672 ..... ..... ..... ..... 0.0000.0260.0530.0790.1060.1340.1620.1900.2200.251 0.2830.3170.3540.3950.4430.5030.646 ..... . .... ..... ..... ..... 0.000 0.027 0.053 0.080 0,108 0.136 0.164 0.194 0.225 0.257 0.291 0.328 0.369 0.417 0.477 0.620 0 5 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 0,000 0.026 0.053 0.081 0. I09 0. I37 0. I67 0.I98 0.230 0.264 0.301 0.342 0.390 0.450 0.593 ..... ..... ..... ..... .......... ..... 0.0000.0270.0550.0830.1110.I4l0.1720.2040.2380.2750.3160.3640.4240.567 & ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....0.0000.0280.0560.0840.1140.1450.1770.2110.2480.2890.3370.3970.540 5 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....0.0000.0280.0560.0860.1170.1490.1830.2200.261 0.3090.3690.512 m ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....0.0000.0280.0580.0890.121 0.1550.1920.2330.281 0.341 0.484 5 ..... ..... , ..., ..... ..... , .... ..... , .... ..... ..... ..... 0,0000.030 0.061 0.093 0.127/0.1640.205 0.253 0.313 0.456 0 ..... ..... ...., . .... , .... ..... ..... . .... ..... ..... ..... ..... 0.000 0.031 0.063 0.097 0.I34 0.I75 0.223 0.283 0.426 3 ..... ..... ..... ............... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 0.0000.0320.0660.103,0.1440.I920.2520.395 9 ..... _.... _.... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 0.0000.0340.0710.1120.1600.2200.363 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...., ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... _.... .._.. ..... 0.0000.0370.0790.1260.1860.329 ..... ..... ...., ..... ., ... , ., .. ..... ..... ..... .., .. ..... ..... ..... ..... ..., , ..... 0,0000.041 0.089 0.149 0.292 0.000~0.048~0.1080 251 _......... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 0.0000.06~0:203 ..... ..... ..... ............... ............... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....,.......... ..... .....0.0000.143 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..........
~

m

io

+

1 1

10.000

ckvar = kw X multiplicr = 5on x 0.691 = 345.5

IS?

POWER-FACTOR IMFROVEMENT

Synchronous Motors and Synchronous Condensers. Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers may also act as kilovar generators. They generate kilovars in the same manner as a conventional generator does. Their ability to generate kilovars is a function of excitation and, in the case of synchronous motors, it is also a functioii of load. When underexcited, they do not generate sufficient kilovars to supply their own needs and consequently must take additional kilovars from the system. When overexcited (normal operation), they can supply all their own kilovar requirements and in addition can supply kilovars to the system. Thus, they may be considered as kilovar generators. Synchronous motors are widely used for power-factor improvement. The kilovar output that t,hey are capable of supplying to the line is a function of excitation and motor load. The curves of Fig. 8.7 show the

FIG. 8.7
excitation.

Curves showing approximate kilovan supplied by synchronous motors with rated

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

453

kilovars that a synchronous motor is capable of delivering under various load ronditions with normal excitation. A t high overloads (not shown on these curves) a synchronous motor may take magnetizing current from the line. The two powr-factor ratings of synchronous motors most commonly used in industry are unity power factor and 0.8 power factor. These ratings refer t o t,he operating power factor at full load and with normal field excitat,ion. In the case of the 0.8 power-factor motor, this always means 0.8 power-factor leading. Synchmnous condensers are rarely economical for industrial plants; so no further reference will be made to them.
INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS FOR POWER-FACTOR STUDIES

When power-fartor studies are made, it is essential that sufficient and useful data be availahle or taken in order t o select the proper value and loratioti of capacitors. If the study is for rate purposcs, t,hen the power bills usually furnish sufficient information to determine the kilovars rcquired. Most rates are based on a “billing” demand which is determined from the actual dcmaiid and power factor. Actual kilowatt demand is usually obtained from a demand register attachment on the watthour meter or by rerording- or prititing-type instruments. Power fartor may he measured directly or obtained from other indications such as from kilowatt, kilovolt-ampere, or kilovar values or from kilon-atthours and kilovar-hours. If power factor is measured directly, it is almost, always measured at the time of average or normal conditions. Measurements by recording or graphic instruments are most desirable and useful because t,hey provide a permanent record. Indicating instruments are satisfactory for spot checking, such as for indiridual feeder circuit,s or loads. They can be used also to good adrantage in place of rerording instruments if readings are taken at frequent intervals. The preferred measurements are kilo&atts, kilovars, and volts; from these the kva and pover factor can be calculated. Vokage readings are especially desirable if automatic capacitor control with a vohge-responsive master elemcnt is contemplated. There are many t,ypes of meters and instruments available for pomerfactor studies. Generally, portable devices are preferred because of their convenience. Accuracy, while desirable, is not as important as portability, and accuracy within a few per cent is generally acceptable for the purpose.

454

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

There is now availahle for operatiori on circuits up to ti00 volts the hook-on t,ype of ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter and varmeter, and powerfactor meter. These instruments provide a convenient means for obtaiuing the data normally required for plant studies; their main advantage is that the circuit does not have to be broken t o measure t,he current component-the instrument is merely hooked over the conduct,or. Figure 8.8 is useful for obtaining the power factor wheri wattmeter readings are available. Fig. 8.9 is handy when kw and kvar or kmhr and kyar-hr values are known; this latter method is frequently used by utilities to obtain t,he power factor of small industrial plank where the

R VALUES

F G 8.8 I.

R,V' W, Curve for obtaining power factor from ratio o f wattmeter readings (applicable

-

only for balonced loodl.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

456

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

more expensive types of power-factor measuremeirt are not economically jnstilird. The power factor can be read directly from Fig. 8.9 by suhstituting kwhr for kw and kvar-hr for kvar values. LOCATION OF CAPACITORS AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
All the benefits that shunt capacitors and synchronous motors provide stem from the redurtion of kilovars. This is true of power-bill savings, releasr of system capacity, voltage improvement, and reduction of losses. 3Iauimum henefit is obtained when they are located at the load. The concept of a kilovar generator as described previously is particularly helpful in understanding this point. Whenever possible, capacitors should be located at or near the load on 180- or GOO-volt systems III order t o obtain the minimum cost and maximum benefits. These locations are shown in Fig. 8.10. The most effcctive locatioii is a t the load, as shown by C1, next ‘22, etc. In the case of synrhronous motors the same freedom of electrical location is not always practical or economical. Vsually synchronous motors
INC SUPPLY

c3

&(

I

0

c2

.

c2
Locate

FIG. 8.10 Electrical location of shunt capacitors on indurtriol power systems. copacilori 01 load, such (IS C or C2, for maximum over-all benefits. I

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

457

arc of larger horsepon.cr rating than is ecooomical for operation at 2-10 or 480 volts, the common utilization voltages of industrial plants. 1 1 0 ~ cver, the samr principle applies, i.c., connection t o t,hr load bus whose power fact,or is to be impro\wl. Typical iris(al1:rtions of capacitors and synchronous motors arc shown in Figs. 8.11 to 8.13.

FIG. 8.1 1

Installation showing capacitor locoted near the motor ond connected (15 shown

in C1 of Fig. 8.10,

FIG. 8.12 Installation rhowing copocitor Flex-A-Plug and connected as shown in c2 of Fig. 8.10.

ECONOMIC CONSlDERATlONS

Although maximum o v e r 4 operating bendita are obtained when eapacitom are located at the load, it is not always practical or economical to locate capacitors at each load. M& industrisl plenta contain a number of small loads;Since capacitors are made in etandard sises it would be imprsetical to apply the m m t capacitor Hovara a each load. Then, too, in the genersl caae all thwe t I d sre not on sll the time, EO it is poesible to take advantage of the central loek divemity by instslling a single capacitor equipment at ~ o m e tion. For example, if only 60per cent of the total motor load is in o p e n tion at one time, then a group capacitor need be only h l the kilovar af ra&g of the total number of kilomra connected at individual loada T h e syetem operating voltage infIuenced the economic Considerations aesoeisted with location of apaeitora and motora For example, 23O-vdt capscitor equipmta c& more than twice lls much es 460-or 575-volt equipmenta. Ah, economic c0m-m should include a enitable switching device, For example, although 24Wvdt capacitor units are the most economical, yet theae equipmenta with the proper switching

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

459

device usually cost more than 460- or 575-volt equipments for prartically all industrial applirations because of the higher cost of siritrhing devires for 2400-volt service. ADVANTAGES OF IMPROVED POWER FACTOR Improved power factor may give economir or system advantages or both. The largest economic advantages are usually obtained where power rates include a monetary incentive for improved power factor. This advantage ran be readily determined by ralculating power costs a t various plant power factors. Power rates are too varied to permit more than mention of that point here. The system advantages of improved power factor usually are (1) released system capacity, (2) reduction of power system losses, and (3) improved voltage conditions.

POWER-BILLING SAVINGS

The main use of capacitors in industrial plants and often a deciding factor in the selection of synchronous motors is to reduce purchased power costs when the rate contains a power-factor clause or its equivalent. Generally, the return on these investments is many, many times the return obtained from straight business investments. It is common for capacitors to pay for themselves in 56 to 3 years. This represents an annual gross return of 200 to 3355 per cent. The estimated mean return is in the neighborhood of 65 per cent. This figure is based on a study of the power-factor clauses of a number of utilities distributed throughout the country. The rate of return will depend upon the cost of capacitors, which in turn depends somewhat upon the voltage class. However, the above figures are applicable to most industrial installations, the major exception being 230-volt installations, for which the return will be about half of the above values. The amount of power-factor improvement depends upon the original power factor and the type of rate structure, and each case should he studied individually. However, it is generally economical to improve the power factorJo take advantage of the full amount of the penalty and bonus. A rough rule that has been used is improvement to 90 to 95 per cent. The best way t o determine the capacitor kilovars t o use is t o calculaGe the rate of return and actual dollar savings for various final power-factor values.

460

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Practically every size of plant having the usual type of power-fartor rate structure cau justify capacitors. I t is the rafe of retzcrn 011 the capacitor investment which is the important factor. Actually, the rate of return will usually be greater for small plauts herause of the higher demand and energy charges for small loads.
RELEASE O F POWER-SYSTEM CAPACITY BY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Kilowatt-limited Apparatus.

(8.12)

Some apparatus such as turbine-genera-

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

461

= = =

750

(8.10)

(8.10)
(8.6)

1000 750

+ 105 = 855
0.935

+ 170 = 1170

The minimum operating power factor for a load of 1170 km and not exceeding the kva rating of the generator is

cos e

= -=

1170 1250

The maximum load kvar for this condition is kvar = 1170 X 0.379 = 444

(8.10)

where 0.379 is the tangent corresponding to the power factor of cos 0 = 0.935. Therefore, the capacitors must furnish the difference between the total load kvar and the permissible generator kvar, or ckvar = 855

- 444

=

411

461

POWECFACTOR IMPROVEMENT

AMOUNT O CAPACITY RELEASED BY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT F

OC

+ Tc
+

=

OE

=

OB

where OC = origirial load O B capacitors OF or BC. Although the follo\ving data and figurrs ha1.e bren prepared specifically for caparitors, they a,lso apply t o synchronous motors for the same output of leading kilovars. These data are prcseiited in various forms, Figs. 8.15 to 8.17, for convenience. Figure 8.15, which includes an example for its use, shows the electrical capacity released for a specific value of capacitors. For estimating purposes and when there is not a large charige in powerfactor improvemerit, i.e., cos 0, to cos &, the followirig equation may be used: T C (in kva) = ckvar X sin 0, (8.13) Figure 8.15 is also valuable in that it may be used to shew the incremen-

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

463

tal gain in capacity released per kilovar of capacitors added. If, in the example in Fig. 8.13, t,he value of capacitors is doubled, the capacity released will increase from 28.5 t o 42.5 per cent, or a gain of 50 per cent. However, this 50 per cent gain in capacity requires a 100 per cent increase in capacitors. Even t,hough there is a gain in the total capacity released, the incremental gain may not necessarily be economically attractive. T, in Terms of Power-factor Improvement (cos 8 , to cos &). Often it is more convenient t o work in terms of the original and improved power factor rather than actual values of ckvar. In such cases Fig. 8.l(i, which also contains additional useful information, should be used
F

A 8 : LOAD KVAR BC: OFzCKVAR

\

Basic load diogrorn for determining r e l e ~ r e system electrical capacity by of power-factor improvement.

FIG. 8.14

0
60

1 0
40 70

20

30

SO

SO

90

10 0

I10

120

130

140

CAPACITOR W A R I N PERCENTAGE OF INITIAL KVA

EXAMPLE

IF A PLANT HAS A LOAD OF 1000 KVA 4 T 70 PERCENT POWER FACTOR AND 480 KVAR OF CAPACITORS ARE ADDED. THE SYSTEM ELECTRlC CAPACITY RELEASED 1 APPROXIMATELY 28.5 PERCENT: T H A T IS. THE SYSTEM 5 CAN CARRY 2 8 . 5 PERCENT MORE LOAD (AT 10 PERCENT POWER FACTOR1 WITHOUT EXEEDING THE KVA BEFORE THE POWER FACTOR WAS IMPROVED T H E F I N A L POWER FACTOR ICOS 831 OF THE ORIGINAL LOAD P L U S THE ADDITIONAL LOAD I S APPROXIMATELY 90 PERCENT

FIG. 8.15 Per cent electrical capacity released by capacitors and the approximate Rnol power factor ( O CI of the combined load.

081

POWER.FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

465

= E
IF THE LOAD POWER FACTOR (GO5 e,1 OF A SUBSTATION IS IMPROVE0 FROM 70 TO 95 PERCENT, THE SVSTEM ELECTRICAL CAP&CITY RELEASED IS 28.5 PERCENT; THAT IS, THE SYSTEM CAN CARRY 28.5 PERCENT MORE LOAD IAT 70 PERCENT POWER FACTOR)

WITHOUT EXCEEDING THE KVA BEFORE THE POWER FACTOR WAS IMPROVED. THESE CURVES ALSO SnOW THAT IT IS MORE ECONOMICAL TO OBTAIN THIS AMOUNT DF SVSTEM CAPACITV 81 POWER-FACTOR WPROVEMENT WITH CAP4CITORS THAN BY ~ D D I T I O N A LSUBSTATION AND DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES FOR A L L SIC VALUES GREATER THqN 17 IOBTAINED BV INTEPPOLATION. . THE FINAL POWER FACTOR (GOSe,I OF THE ORIGINAL LOAO PLUS THE ADDITIONAI. LOAD IS 90 PERCENT.

FIG. 8.16 Per cent electrical capaciv released by improvement of load power factor (COI81 to COI BJ and the relative economics of capacitors for increasing the electrical
capacity.

EXI\*PLL
IF THE ORIGIN#.L LOAD POWER F4CTOR ICOS S,I 1 70 PERCENT b,ND THE FIN4L POWER 5 FACTOR lCOS 93) OF THE COMBINED LOAD (ORIGINbL LOLID PLUS THE ADDITIONAL LOAD ALSO 4 1 70 PERCENT POWER FACTOR1 1 90 PERCENT, THE SYSTEM ELECTRICAL CAPACITY RELEbSED 5 IS 2 8 5 PERCENT, THAT 15,TWF SYSTEM GAN CARRY 2 8 5 PERCENT MORE LOAD (AT 70 PERCENT POVER FACTOR1 WlTHOUT EXCEEDING THE K W BEFORE THE POWER FACTOR WAS IMPROVED THESE CURVES ALSO SHOW TH41 IT 1 MORE ECONOMICAL TO OBT4IN THIS AMOUNT OF 5 SYSTEM CAPACITY BV POWER-F4CTOR IMPROVEMENT WITH CAPaCITORS TH4N BY 4DDITION4L SUBSTATION by0 OlSTRlBUTlON F4CILITIES FOR ALL S/C WLUES GREATER THAN.17 (OBTAINED BV INTERPOL4TlONL

FIG. 8.17
lcos 8 , to capacity.

COI

Per cent electrical capacity released by improvement o load power fador f BJ and the relative economics of capacitors for increasing the electrical

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

467

Example 7. (Original load power factor improved to a specified value. See Fig. 8.16.)

Substation rating = 500 kva and operated a t full load Original power factor = 70 per cent (cos 8 , = 0.70) Average kilon-att load = 0.7 X 500 = 350 km (8.5) System voltage = AGO volts Improved pover factor of original load = 95 per cent (cos = 0.95) From Fig. 8 . l F it is found that improving the power factor of the load from 70 to 95 per cent releases 28.5 per cent capacity; i.e., 28.5 per cent of 350 kw or 99.8 km load at the original 70 per cent power factor can be added without increasing the load on the 500-kva substation; or, in terms of kva. this is 0.285 X 500 = 142.5 kva.
.oo j
~

AS.. -.=I

:: . . . . . ..!::. .! ,. . . . .

......
D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF CKVAR TO G I V E D E S I R E D I M P R O V E M E N T OF W O V E R A L L POWER

:: : : : -: : .. --

"

S"

SAPACITOR

K V A R I N T E R M S OF O R I G I N A L

KW L O A D

FIG. 8.18 Graph for determining the value of capacitors required for improvement in load power factor (COI 61to cos 6a). There doto are for use only with Fig. 8.17.

460

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

From Fig. 8.16 it will also be noted that. the resultant power factor (cos &), i.e., the over-all power factor of the original load and capacitors, plus the additional load, is 90 per cent. Thus, this curve gives both the per cent load that can be added (or capacity released) and the final or over-all operating power factor. Tc in Terms of Final Power Factor (cos 8 , to cos OS). I n those cases where it is desirable to know the capacity released for a specific final ouer-all power factor cos R3, use Fig. 8.17. The value of capacitors required to release T c for this condition must be obtained from Fig. 8.18: the required ckvar value cannot,be obtained from any of the expressions, tables, or curves given elsewhere in this chapter. Use of Figs. 8.16 and 8.17. The difference between Figs. 8.16 and 8.17 should be clearly understood for a proper interpretation of T c . For example, Fig. 8.16 is used when the power factor of the original load is improved to a definite value, cos 82. The resultant power factor cos B3 is of secondary importance. On the other hand, Fig. 8.17 is used when the final power factor of the combined load, i.e., original load plus the additional load, is required to be a definite value, cos 03, is often true in conas nection with power-factor rate studies. The examples in Figs. 8.16 and 8.17 show that the per cent capacity released is the same; the reason is that in both cases the original and final power factors (cos 03)are also the same. These charts can be used interchangeably only when the original and final power factors are the same for each case.
ECONOMICS O F CAPACITORS FOR RELEASING SYSTEM CAPACITY

System load current-carrying capacity can he increased by power-factor improvement or by additional substation and distribution facilities. Actually there are several other factors in favor of power-factor improvement which should be given consideration. I n addition to releasing capacity, improvement of the power factor reduces losses and raises the voltage. Then too, in the case of capacitors, their installation need not he so permanent as substation and distribution facilities; so they can he more easily moved as changes occur in system loading or arrangement. If the allied benefits are neglected, the comparison is dependent upon the cost relationship between new substation and distribution facilities (8) the cost of capacitors ( C ) . I n order to get a true comparison, all and costs should he on an installed basis. Where actual installed cost data of substations and capacitors are not available, Table 8.3 may serve as a guide.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

469

TABLE 8.3
IS1
System
"oltoge

Installed Costs (1954)
(Cl
Capacitors, dollars per k v m t SIC

Substation and distribution facililie,. dollars per kvo*

Id-ccntcr system ineludina primary and secondary switchpear. cable. and transi rncrs. (The load-center svstem 1s thc most economical method of distrihution.) ' t Installed cost of capacitors with a manually operated switching device.
of a I

* Instslled cost

-

240 480 600

40-50
30-40 25-35

18-20 8-10 8-10
I

2-2.8 3-5 2.5-4.4

,ewer

These data are also applicable to synchronous motors; for thc C value use the cost of the leading kilovars output in dollars per kilovar. Once the ratio S / C has been obtained, it is a simple matter t o det,crmirle the relative economics since, in Figs. 8.16 and 8.17, lines of various S / C ratios have been plotted. The cost relationship applies t o anu case, whether it is for an entirely new substation or for addit,ional feeder circuits, etc., for an existing substation or plant. In all cases, the appropriate S costs should be used. I t should be specifically noted that the values to use for S arid Care their unit costs, i.e., dollars per kva and dollars per kvar, respectively, and not the total dollar cost; to use total dollars in Figs. 8.16 and 8.17 irill give erroneous answers. For all points under an S/C curve (or for all S/C values greater than that established by the power-factor points) it is more economical to release system capacity by power-factor improvement, with rapacitors than by expanding substation and distribution facilities. Example 8. Are capacitors economical for releasing the amount of system capacity stated in Example 71 Assume that new substation and distribution facilities cost \$30 per kva installed and capacitors cost \$10 per kvar installed. The S/C ratio is 30/10, or 3. From Fig. 8.16 i t will be found that t,he intersection of the power-factor points (cos = 0.70 and cos .Q2 = 0.95) lies undcr an S,'C value of 3. Therefore, the capacitor method is more economical than expanding substation and distribution facilities for handling this amount of load. This can be checked in actual dollars as follows:

470

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

The value of ckvar required t o improve the power factor from 70 t o 95 per cent is ckvar = kw X multiplier (8.12)
= =

350 X 0.691 242

Installed cost of capacitors = 242 X \$10 = 52420 Substation capacity released = 142.5 kva Installed cost of substation and distribution facilities = 142.5 X \$30 = \$4275 I n this case, additional system capacity obtained by use of capacitors costs only 56 per cent as much as new substation anddistrihutionfacilities. Not only can capacitors be used economically t o release the capacity of existing facilities hut, where the load power factor is low, it is economical t o use capacitors in new installations. This fact was recognized during World War 11, and many plants incorporated capacitors as part of the power-system design.
POWER-SYSTEM LOSSES

The reduction in electrical losses due t o power-factor improvement results in an annual gross return of as much as 15 per cent on the capacitor investment. Although the return from loss reduction alone is seldom sufficient to justify t h e installation of capacitors, it is an attractive additional benefit. I n most industrial plant power-distribution systems, the kilowatt ( P R ) losses vary from 2.5 t o 7.5 per cent of the load kilowatthours, depending upon hours of full-load and no-load plant operation, wire size, and length of main and branch feeder circuits. Capacitors are effective in reducing only that portion of the losses that is due t o the kilovar current. Losses are proportional t o current squared, and since current is reduced in direct proportion t o power-factor improvement, the losses are inversely proportional t o the square of the power factor. kw losses
cc

original pf improved pf original pf

(8.14) (8.15)

Loss reduction = 1 -

The capacitors have losses, but they are relatively small-only onethird of 1 per rent of the kvar rating. Example 9. Determine the savings in losses due t o improved power factor for the following conditions:

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

471

Total kilowatthours per year = 150,000 Origiiral power factor = 0.75 Improvcd power fartor = 0.95 Assume losses as 5 per cent of the total kilowatt hours, or 7500
1,oss reduction
=

1 - 1 - 0.623

(E)*

(8.15)

=
=

0.377 or 37.7 per cent

ltedurtioii i n losses = 0.377 X 7500 = 2828 kwhr Assuming a net realization of GO per rent, then the actual reduction in losses = 2828 X 0.60 = 1697 kwhr. VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT* The disadvantages of low voltage are so well known that they will not be rcit,cratcd here exrept to state t h a t they are economic and operational liabilities. Akhough caparitors raise voltagelevels, it is rarely economical t o apply them in industrial plants for voltage improvement alone. Voltage improvement may therefore be regarded as an additional benefit of capacitors.
HOW CAPACITORS RAISE VOLTAGE LEVEL

'l'hc follo\ving simplified expression is usually used to ralculate the voltage drop of a circuit:
e
=

R I ros 8

X I sin 8

(8.16)

where thc ( f ) value is used for a lagging power factor and the ( - ) value for a leading power factor. When the total current, and power factor are known, the component rurrents may he 0t)taiired from the right-triangle relationship.

k w current
kvar current

= =

I,,,,,, cos 8 I,,,,,, sin 8
X X (kvar current)

(8.17) (8.18)

Thus the above equat,ioir for voltagc drop may b e rewritten:
e
=

IT'X (kw current)

(8.19)

From this expression it is evident that kilorar rurrent operatcs only on
* Also
S<T

Clrap. 4.

472

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMEN1

reartanre, and sinre raparitors reduce t,he kilovar current they reduce t,he voltage drop and by an amount equal t o the rapacitor rurrent times the reartance. Therefore, it is neressary only t o know the capacitor rating and system reartanre t,o predirt the voltage change due to caparitors. There is some misunderstanding regarding voltage replalion when shunt rapacitors are used. Capacitors do not redure the voltage regulation uiiless they are automatirally switched. The voltage regulation wit,h unswitched rapacitors is prartirally the same as without capacitors, hut the voltage leuel is raised.
MAGNITUDE OF VOLTAGE RISE DUE TO CAPACITORS

There is generally a good deal of misapprehension regarding “high voltage” due to caparitors. Actually, in most cases where the voltage a t light load is high it will be found t h a t most of the voltage variation is in t,he incoming supply source and is not primarily due to the variation or regulation mithin the plant. As far a s the voltage rhangedue t o capacitors is concerned the ralculations are simple; generally Eq. (8.21) or (8.22) is acrurate enough for this purpose. The volt,age rise due t o capacitors in industrial plants with modern poiver-distrihotion systems and one t,ransformation is not very great and is rarely more than 4 or 5 per cant. The greatest gain in voltage improvement, will be i n plant-distribution circuits having high reactance and low system voltage, such as is true of 240-volt systems having long runs o open wire, and where the spacing f between phase wires is large, such a s 0 t o 10 in. When the load-center method of distrihution is used for 480- and 600-volt systems, the voltage improvement will be small.
WHY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IS SO EFFECTIVE IN

REDUCING VOLTAGE DROP

From Eq. (8.19) above it is seen that voltage drop is made up of two parts, one part due t o the kilowatt current and resistanre, which is usually called the resistance component, and the other part due t o the kilovar current and reactance, which is usually called the reactance component. I n industrial power systems the reactance is usually much larger than the resistance and in the order of two t o four times for distribution circuits and five t o ten times for power transformers. It is evident, then, that a change in the kilovar current has a larger effect than the kilowatt current in reduring the total voltage drop. Also, since the resistance component is tixed for a given kilowatt load, and the rircuit reactance is fixed, the practical way t o reduce the voltage drop is by reducing the kilovar cur-

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

473

rent. The kilovar current is reduced when the power factor is improved. For example, if a circuit has a resistance of 1 per rent, a rcartatire of j per cent,, and au operating power factor of 0.70, t,he voltagc drop is 4.3 per cent. The major part of t,he drop is due to reactanre mid is 3.(i per cent. If the power factor is improved to 0.90, the voltage drop is 2.4 pcr cent; if improved to unity (no kilot-.ar current): the drop is niiiy 0.7 of 1 per cent.
CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE RISE DUE T O CAPACITORS

There are many calrulating methods for determining the voltage rise due to capacitors (or voltage change due to stvitchiirg blocks of capacitors in and out of service), but the per cent method is perhaps the most practical and simple; occasionally data in terms of actual values of volts, amperes, and ohms are used. The following few expressions are gcnerally sufficiently accurate, for practical purposes, to determine the voltage change due to capacitors or the leading kilovars from a synchronous motor or condenser. ,i few formulas from other sections are repeated here for convenience.
Formulas for Voltage Change

v, = ICX
% %
vc =

(8.20) (8.21) (8.22)

ckvar X (% X,) base kva ckvar X yo transformer reactance transformer kva rating

vc =

Other Useful Formulas

% ohms

=

% x*=

X X base kva 10 X (kv)z base kva X ( % X,)
kva, base kva X 100 system short-circuit kva

(8.23) (8.24) (8.25)

% xs
Nomenclature

=

ckvar = capacitor rating, kvars

I,

=

capacitor current, amp

kv = line-to-line voltage, kv kva = kva selected as a base for calculations

474

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

kva,

= =

kva rating of equipment, such as a t,ransformer, on its own base voltage change, volts (line-to-neutral) per cent volt,age change or rise due to capacitors reactance, ohms
of a transformer,

I',

% Vc

=
=

X

70X b = per cent reactance of equipment, such as that
on selected common base

%X,

=

per cent react,ance of system. Actually, Eq. (8.25) gives per cent impedance, but reactance may be assumed equal to impedance in computing voltage rise for this purpose pcr cent reactance of equipment such as that of a transformer on its own kva rating

%X,

=

Reactance data necessary for calculating the voltage rise or change in transformers, cable, open wire, or busway are included in Chap. 1. It is generally sufficiently accurate to assume that the transformer reactance is the same as the impedance for this type of approximation. Equation (8.22) is derived from Eq. (8.21) and is based on the assumption that the primary-system reactance is negligible as compared with the transformer reactance. The error introduced by this assumption is generally small. When the available short-circuit kva at the transformer primary is less than 100 times the transformer rating, the system reactance should be added to the transformer reactance. The following example illustrates the use of the simplified voltage-rise equation. Example 10. A 360-kvar bank of capacitors is connected t o the secondary of a 1000-kva transformer having an impedance of 5.5 per cent. The short-circuit duty of the primary system is 100,000 kva. What is the approximate per cent voltage rise due to the capacitors? (8.22)

SELECTION A N D APPLICATION OF M O T O R S A N D CAPACITORS
INDUCTION-MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS

Power-factor improvement of induction-motor loads by means of shunt capacitors has been a common practice for many years. A recent development is the practice of connecting the capacitors directly at the motor

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMM

475

;~~ FIG. 8.19

5 k
&

Installation of a dkvar 4W-volt three-phase capacitor Iacated on the motor starier. Capacitor is switched with the motor and el&ically connected as shown in (A) in Fig. 8.21.

476

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

net kvar is low and varies only a little with load. For example, the net kvar at no load is zero and at full load only 2.0: kvar, which compares with j and 7.6 kvar, respectively, for operation without capacitors. Therefore, since the kvar load with qapacitors is so small in respect to the kw load, the kiv and kva are almost eyual, which means that the operating power factor is almost unity. The addition of capacitors for power-factor improvement does not change the motor performance characteristics, as the operating speed and shaft output depend upon the motor load and applied voltage.
100

90

KVAR KVA 1 6

KW

80

70
0:

14

60
0

12

a
LL

: 5 0

1 0

:
P I-

40

8

z
Y

0
0:

w n

30

6

20

4

1 0

2

0

0 -

0

I 4

I 2

3 -

4-

4 4

FIG. 8.20

Motor characteristics for a typical medium-rile and speed induction motor.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT LOCATION OF MOTOR CAPACITORS

477

Capacitors may he connected t o each motor and switched with the motor, as shown in Fig. 8.21A or B , or capacitors may bepermanentlyconnected to the feeder circuit a t selected starters for convenience, as shown in Fig. 8.21C. The preferred and most advantageous electrical location from an over-all standpoint is that of Fig. 8.21.4 or B. In either easethecapacitor and motor are switched as a unit by the motor starter; so the capacitor is always in service when the motor is in operation. The connection of Fig. 8.21.4 may be used for new installations, as the motor overload relay can he selected, a t the time of purchase, on the basis of the reduced line current due to the capacitors. This connection also has the advantage that the short-circuit current is less hecause of the impedance of the overload relay. Figure 8.21B may be preferred for existing installations as no change i n the overload relay is required because the current through the overload relay is the motor current. (Reduhon of current due to capacitor stems from the electrical location hack through the power syskm; therefore the current through the overload relay is not reduced in this case.) The arrangement shown in Fig. 8.21C is used when capacitors are permanently connected to the system. Its main advantage is the elimination of a separate switching device for the capacitors.
LIMITATION OF CAPACITOR AND MOTOR WHEN SWITCHED AS A UNIT

Capacitors have been applied to induction motors and switched with the motor as a unit with good results except in a few cases. Experience has shown that when difficulties are encountered it is because too large a capacitor bank is used or the capacitors have been applied on jogging or quick reversing service. The two factors which limit the value of capacitors to be switched with a motor are (1) overvoltage due to selfexcitation and (2) transient torques. These limitations apply when the capacitor is connecled to the load side of the motor starter, as shown i n Fig. 8.21A and B , and the capacitor and motor are switched as a unit. These limitations also apply to that type of induction motor which has an auxiliary winding in the stator (transformer action) for connection to an external capacitor. Overvoltage Due to Self-excitation. A capacitor can supply part or all of the motor magnetizing requirements. Thus, when the motor line switch is opened &nd the motor disconnected from its power source, the capacitor furnishes the motor magnetizing current and the motor will “self-excite,” i.e., act as a voltage generator. The magnitude of the

470

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMEM

generated voltage will depend upon the value of the capacitor current, motor speed, and type of motor. However, as a bench mark, the resulting overvoltage with capacitor values to improve the full-load motor power factor to unity will range from 35 to 75 per cent. Self-excitation can he measured by connecting a voltmeter across the motor terminals and reading the voltage after the motor-starter switch is disconnected from the power source. In the usual motor application, the motor slows down rapidly after the switch is opened; so the voltage rapidly decreases. A 15 to 20 per cent reduction in speed eliminates self-excitation sufficientlyto cause the voltage to collapse in a few seconds. However, in a few cases with highinertia loads the voltage of self-excitation has been sustained for several minutes. Transient Torques. Transient electrical torques of twenty times fnllload motor torque have been obtained in tests when too large a capacitor w&s switched with a motor. These transient torques may occur when a motor is transferred to the line from the reduced-voltage tap of an autotransformer-type starter or when a running motor is temporarily disconnected from its line and the starting switch is reclosed while the motor is still running and maintaining voltage a t its terminals by self-excitation due t o capacitors. To produce transient electrical torques, the motor voltage developed
POWER SOURCE

CONTACTOR

RELAY CAPACITOR
MOTOR

(A)

(8)

(C)

FIG. 8.21 Electrical location ot capacitors when used with induction motors for powerfactor improvement.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

479

by self-excitation must be of appreciable magnitude and out of phase with the line voltage when the switch is closed. This torque is similar to that caused by connecting two synchronous generators which are out of phase.

SELECTION OF CAPACITOR RATING FOR INDUCTION MOTORS

480

POWER-PACTOR IMPROVEMEN1

TABLE 8.4

Suggested Maximum Capacitor Rating When a n Induction Motor and Capacitor Are Switched as a Unit

For Normal Starting Torque, Normal Starting Current, and NEMA Classification Design B Motors*
Nominal motor speed in rpm and number of poles

Induction
m0tW

horsepower rating

3600 2

1800 4
.-

1200 6

900
8
~

720 10

600 I2

"0

- -

- - - _.
:"or
~

%
4R

~K"a,

-

'b K"W r, IR ,R% - 14 I2 I1 10 9 9
9 8 8 8 8
8

%
1R

K"W
~

%
AR

thr

%
4R

I .5
2 3 3.5 5 6.5 7.5 9

2 3 4 5 6.5 7.5 27 25 22 21 18 16

- 2.5 4 5.5 6.5 8 9
11

3.5 4.5

41 37 34 31 27 25 23 22 20 I9 I9 18
17 16 15 14

3 5 7t
10

15 20 25
30

1. 2 2. 3 4 5
6 7 9 I2 I4 17 22 2 7

1.5 2 2.5
3

5 3 2
I

2 0
I7 1 5 14
13

35
32 30 27 23 21 20 18 16 15 15
14

6
7.5 9.5

4 5 6 7 9
11

0 0 0 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8
7

I2
I1 I1 10 10 10

I2
14 16 20 24

40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

II
13

14 16 21 26 30 37.5 45 52.5 60 65 67.5 72.5

I5
18

10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 10 12 15 18 21 27 31.5 37.5 47.5 57.5 65 75 85 92.5 97.5

I5
14 13 12
11

10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9

12 15 19 22 26 32.5 40 47.5
60

27 32.5
40 47.5 52.5 65 77.5 87.5 95 I05

32,
10
50

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

25

3 0
35

12.5 52.5

13 13 12 12
I1 I1 10

57 55

ro
75

77

7 7 6 6 6

\$0
57.5

rs

30
82.5

70 80 87.5 95 100 107.5

13 12
11 I1 11 10

-

- -

- -

-

-- --

lo 9 9

110
115

NOTE: 50-cyclp-operation the following representative data may be used: For 1. For standard 60-cyelc motors opwating a t 50 cycles: kvsr = 1.4 to 1.7 of the kvar values listed yo A I l = 1.35 to 1.8 OF the Yo A R values listed
2. For standard 50-cycle motors operating s t 50 cycles: kvnr = 1 . 1 to 1.4 of the kvar values listed % .4R = 1.05 to 1.4 of the '3 A R values listed . (The larger multipliers apply to motors having the higher speeds.) Far standard OO-cycle wound-rotor-type motors operating a t 60 cycles, the following representative data may be used: kvar = 1.1 of the kvar vslurs listed % A R = 1.05 of the % AIi values listed For explanation of *, t, and i, footnotes to Table 8.5. see

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

481

TABLE 8.5

Suggested Maximum Capacitor Rating When an Induction Motor and Capacitor Are Switched as a Unit

For High Starting Torque, l o w Starting Current, and N E M A Classification Design C Motors*

I
Induction~

Nominol motor speed in rpm and number of poles

mOlOI

horsepower

1800 4

1200 6

720
10

~

600 12

%

~

%
AR
K"or

%
AR
~

W
3 5 7%
10

K"0,

K"0,

,"k
40 36 34 32 28 25

~

Kvor

%
AR

-

2 2.5 35 . 4 5 5 6.5 8 9 I2
16

- ~26 2 1 16 18

4 5 6.5 8 4.5 6.5 8 9.5 13 17 5 1 46 41 39 36 35

.... ..
2 2.5 3.5 5 6 7.5 15
13

3 4 5
6

15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75
100

13 12 12

13 I4

8 9.5 I1 13 16 20 23 27.5 35 42.5 50 60

3 1 29 27 25 2 1 19 17 17 16 16 15 14 13 13 13 13

10

12 14 16 20 25 27.5 35 42.5 50 55

13

I2 12 11 11
11 11

19 24 32.5 40 45 55

12 12 I1 11 11 11

,': ;: 22 30
19 19 19 55

1

33 32 30 29 27 25
24

125 I50 200

28 35 42.5 50

11 11 11 11

11
II

I1

* These data apply when a capacitor and motor are electrically connected RS shown in Fig. 8.21A or B. These data are representative for three-phase 60-eyele general-purpose open- or splashproof-type motors of 220-, 440-, 55&, or 2300-volt rating. The operating power factor, for capacitor ratings as listed, will range from 95 to 98 per cent a t full load and 95 to 100 per cent a t partial loads. t Kvar is the rating of the capacitors in kilovars. This v d u c is approximately equal to the motor no-load magnetizing kilovars. i % A R is the per cent rcduetion in line current due to espaeitars and is helpful for selecting the proper motor-overload relay. If a capacitor of lower kilovar rating is used, the actual percentage reduction in the line current ( % AR) will be approximately proportional to Actual capacitor rating kvsr value in tables The relay selection should be based o n t h e motor full-load name-plate current reduced by the % A R value.

-

I1

482

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

When capacitors are connected to the motor terminals, they supply some of the motor magnetizing requirements so that the actual line current is less than it would be without capacitors. If the capacitors are connected to the motor starter on the load side of the thermal-overload device, as shown in Fig. 8.21A or B , the overload relay will not provide proper protection to the motor if it is selected for the uncorreeted motor full.load current. The relay should be selected for a smaller current rating commensurate with the reduced line current due to the effect of the capacitors. The percentage of this current reduction is shown in Tables 8.4 and 8.5. For the low-speed motors this reduction in line current is rather Iarge, particnlarly for the motors of lower horsepower rating. If the motor rating is not included in these tables, the reduction in line current due to capacitors may be obtained by measuring the line current witb and without capacitors a t full motor load or by ealculation.
PRECAUTIONS IN APPLYING BUS CAPACITORS FOR A GROUP OF MOTORS

Wben capacitors are connected to a bus serving a group of motors, their effect can be similar to that of switching a capacitor and motor as a unit since overvoltages and excessive transient torques can result. However, if the power factor of the bus is improved to about 95 per cent under fullload conditions, there will seldom be harmfnl overvoltages or transient torques. Overvoltages and excessive transient torques will seldom occur if Tables 8.4 and 8.5 are followed in applying capacitors to single motors or groups of motors where a11 motors remain connected to the same bus as the capacitors. However, special precautions should be taken when applying large banks of capacitors in systems with fast reclosing high inertia loads, or where a major portion of Lhe load may be switched off leaving a small group of induction motors on tbe same bus with a large capacitor bank.
INDUCTION MOTORS AND CAPACITORS VERSUS SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

Where power factor has been an importmt consideration in the past, the synchronons motor has often been selected on the basis that it will give “free” power-factor improvement. Actnally, it is often more economical to purchase an induction motor plus capacitors than asynchronous motor.
Factors Affecting Selection of Synchronous Motors or Induction Motors and Capacitors. First cost is one factor, and often the deciding

factor, in the selection between a synchronous motor and an induction

POWER.FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

483

motor with capacitors. In some cases the type of drive or inherent characteristics of the motors dictate the selection. Synchronous motors have the advantage that they are capable of supplying smoothly varying values of kilovars, and the number can be readily changed by adjusting the motor field rheostat. The net kilovar output increases as the load decreases. However, there is little difference in the net kilovar output for load changes between a synchronous motor with fixed and rated field excitation and an induction motor with capacitors selected for the same kilovar output as the synchronous motor at full load. From the standpoint of losses, the two are about equal. Synchronous motors are generally more efficient than induction motors, but when the exciter losses are included with the synchronous motor losses, the totals are about the same. The synchronous motor has the disadvantage that it must be in operation to produce its kilovars; in the induction motor and capacitor comhination, the capacitors do not have to be connected and switched with the motor but can be permanently connected to the power system. This can be important from the loss standpoint if the synchronous motor must be operated just to produce kilovars. Maintenance is apt to be higher on the synchronous motor with its exciter and more complicated control than on the induction motorcapacitor combination. To obtain the same power-factor improvement from the induction motor and capacitor arrangement that can be obtained from an 0.8- or unity-power-factor synchronous motor, more capacitors must be used than can safely be switched with the motor. The cost of an extra switch a t low voltage is small, but above 600 volts it becomes appreciable.
Price Comparison of Induction M o t o r and Capacitors vs. Synchronous Motors. Initial cost is perhaps the most important guide in making the

selection between the induction motor with capacitors and the synchronous motor. Surely, it is the easiest to evaluate. Tables 8.6 and 8.7 show the motor ratings where the cost of an induction motor plus capacitors (including a separate switching device for the capacitors) and motor starter is less than an 0.8- or unity-power-factor synchronous motor, exciter, and starter. For these comparisons, the capacitor rating was selected on the basis that the induction motor and capacitor Combination will furnish the same amount of power-factor improvement a t full load as an 0.8- or unitypower-factor synchronous motor of equal horsepower rating. For 2300- or 4006volt service the synchronous-motor equipment costs less than the induction-motor equipment over the entire horsepower and speed range if a power circuit breaker is used for switching the capacitors. However, if the capacitors can he located on the 480- or 600-volt systems,

484

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

and that is where they mill give the maximum benefit, then the inductionmotor arrangement becomes attractive. In that case the motor ratings will he approximately the same as listed in Tables 8.6 and 8.7. There are many cases where the induction motor-capacitor method is economical for much higher motor-horsepower ratings than those indicated in Tables 8.6 and 8.7. Often it is necessary only to improve the power factor of the motor to around 95 per cent, as that is generally accepted as a high operating power factor. In such cases the capacitor kilovars required are considerably less than those required to equal the full-load kilovar output of a unity-polver-factor synchronous motor. The kilovars required to improve a load whose power factor is already high increase much faster than the improvement in power factor. For example, it requires just as many ckvar to improve a load power factor from 95 to 100 per cent as it does to improve a load power factor from 80 to 92 per cent or 85 to 96 per cent. The full-load operating power factor of induction motors for the capacitor values suggested in Tables 8.4 and 8.5 ranges from 95 to 98 per cent, and these values can be switched directly with the motors. Therefore, where an operating power factor in the order of 95 per cent is all that is required, the induction motor with capacitors will he au economical selection for motor horsepower ratings much higher than those listed in Tables 8.6 and 8.7.
TABLE 8.6 Horsepower Ratings Where an Induction Motor and Capacitors Cost Less Than a 0.80-power-factor Synchronous Motor
440- and 550-volt 60-cycle Equipment
Motor Speed, Rpm

(Full-voltage motor starter1 Motor Rating, Hp 1800 250 and less 1200 I 5 0 and less 900 150 m d less M)O 200 and loss

TABLE 8.7 Horsepower Ratings Where an Induction Motor and Capacitors Cost Less Than a Unity-power-factor Synchronous Motor
440- and 550-volt 60-cycle Equipment
Motor rating, hp
Motor speed.

rpm

Wilh fullvoltage ,toner

dtage

Wilh reduced.tarter

I
I800
t 200 900
600 750 and less 350 and leu 300 and less 300 ond less

I
400 350 300 300 and and and and
lers

INS
leu
leis

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

485

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

Synchronous motors are available in a wide range of horsepower and speed for various types of drives and for the common utilization voltages. General-purpose synchronous motors are available in standard ratings a t 1.0 and 0.8 power factor. For driving a given mechanical load, the unity power-factor motor is the lower in price, the more efficient, and draws no lagging or leading current. The 0.8 power-factor motors operate a t leading power factor and are used t o improve the power factor of the power line t o which they are connected, as well as for delivering rated horsepower output. If full-load excitation is maintained while the motor operates a t part load, the motor-will operate a t a more leading power factor, giving more than rated power-factor improvement. Figure 8.7 shows the approximate amount of corrective leading kvar delivered by the synchronous motor a t any load, provided the excitation is maintained a t its rated fullload value. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR SWITCHING DEVICE AND CABLE SIZE I n low-voltage circuits, i.e., 600 volts and below, air circuit breakers or fused safety switches are used for manual switching and air circuit breakers or contactors for electrical switching of capacitors. In medium-voltage circuits, 2400 t o 13,800 volts, power circuit breakers are almost always used.
AMPERE RATING

Circuit breakers, contactors, disconnecting devices (except safety switches), and all other current-carrying parts should have a current rating of a t least 135 per cent of the rated capacitor current; safety switches, either fusible or nonfusible, should have a current rating of not f less than 165 per cent o the rated capacitor current according to NEMA Standards for Shunt Capacitors. When contactors are used and they are housed in an enclosure, the rating should be taken as 90 per cent of the open rating. The standard ampere rating for molded-case air circuit breakers is based on 25 C ambient. Tables 8.8 and 8.9 include the appropriate derating factor for 40 C ambient and for installation of the breaker in an enclosure. Table 8.8 lists the recommended minimum ampere rating of safety switches, contactors, and air circuit breakers for standard ratings of lowvoltage capacitor equipments.

equipment ,oti"g.

Mognetic-

Molded-

15

30
45 60

50 100 150 200

90
180 270 450 630

300
600

I000 I600 3000

100 150 300 300 600 900 1350 2500 2500

100 200

70 150
225

200
400 400

300
450

800

For 4MI-mlt Copocitors
~ ~ ~

30
60

50

I00
150 200 300 600

100 150

90
120 180

300
300
600

100 200 200

400
400 800

70 150 225 300 450

360
540

900
1350 2500 2500

I000
1600

900
1260

3000

~

__
30 60 90 I20

For 575-volt Capacitors

I
70 125 175 225 350

50

90
I25 I75 250

300

I80 360
540 900 1260

300
600 900 .. . 2500 2500

500 800 I200
2000

1I

I

200 440 600

Table 8.9 lists the appropriate capacitor kilovar multiplier for selecting the sivitrhing device for nonstandard hank ratings or various comhinations of capacitor units.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

487

I n high-voltage circuits, 2400 t o 13,800 volts, the breaker continuous ampere rating is rarely the determining factor in the breaker selection because at these voltages the line current per kilovar is low arid for the usual capacitor ratings the current is well below the breaker ampere rating.
TABLE 8.9 Approximate Capacitor Kvor Multipliers to Obtain Ampere Rating of Switching Device Three-phase Service
[Enclosed Rating end 40 C

1

1 FI Ambientl
copocimr "oltoge

Switching device

230
~~

460

575

Magnetic-type circuit breoken.
contoctor.. Safety switches.. Molded-case ~ i r ~ ubreakers. it

.......... .......................... ..................... ...........

3.38 3.76 4.14 4.68

1.69 1.88 2.07 2.34

1.35 1.5 1.65 1.87

INTERRUPTING RATING

The switching device should also he selected for the short-circuit duty of the system on which it is to operate. Since a circuit breaker has a relatively high interrupting ability, it is well suited for such service. Most contactors have a limited interrupting ability; so short-circuit protection should be provided externally.
REPETITIVE DUTY OF SWITCHING DEVICES

Repetitive duty of the switching device is seldom a factor unless switcbing is automatically controlled. Even then the number of switching operations which occur in practice is relatively small and rarely exceeds five to ten per day in industrial service. Contactors are designed for an exceedingly large number of operations before requiring maintenance of mechanical parts. The number of operations for which low-voltage air circuit breakers and oilless power circuit breakers are designed is not so great as for contactors hut is entirely satisfactory for this type of switching duty.
SELECTION OF CABLE -SIZE FOR CAPACITORS

In selecting cables for capacitor applications, allowance must be made for the 35 per cent factor plus any additional factors, such as the decreased rating of a cable if it is operated at higher than rated 30 C (86 F) ambient.

488

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Sinre most capacitors for industrial service are designed for use in an ambient of 40 C (104 F) maximum, the cables should also be selected for that ambient operation unless it is definitely known that the ambient temperatures are less. More care should be given in selecting the cable size for capacitors than for usual distribution feeder circuits because the load factor of a capacitor when energized is 100 per cent. H A R M O N I C S A N D RESONANCE AS AFFECTED BY CAPACITORS There are probably more imaginary difficulties associated with capacitors than with any other electrical equipment. Almost invariably these imagined difficulties concern harmonics and resonance. These fears are often based on the fact that theoretical calculations indicate such possibilities; anu circuit having inductance and capacitance has a resonance frequency, but in power systems such resonant combinations rarely occur. So many articles have been written on the theoretical aspects of the subject that they have contributed to fear, doubt, and misunderstanding of capacitors. Allied is capacitor fuse blowing, which invariably is blamed on harmonics and in many cases without any basis of fact. From a practical standpoint the subject can be dismissed; over 20 million kvar of capacitors are now installed in this country, and there have been relatively few cases of difficulty. If difficulties do arise, they can be overcome with knovn practical remedies. Capacitors do not generate harmonics, but they may reduce or increase harmonics, depending upon the particular circumstances. The major sources of harmonics are transformer-magnetizing current, rectifiers, arc furnaces, and generators. Harmonic voltages and current exist on all systems hut generally go unnoticed because of their small effect on operations. On rare occasions they may affect telephone communication service or cause capacitor fuses to blow. The reactance of a capacitor decreases as the frequency (harmonic) increases ( X , = 1O6/24' ohms). This means that for a given harmonic voltage Eh the harmonic current Ihincreases. However, in practical power applications the harmonic voltage decreases with increase in harmonic frequency; so from an over-all standpoint the current is small. Although any combination of capacitance and reactance has a resonant frequency, that fact is not important unless a harmonic voltage of that frequency and of sufficient magnitude is also present. A good practical rule for industrial applications is as follows: the kvar rating of the capacitor hank should not be greater than two-thirds of the transformer kva rating; if more capacitors are required, they should he automatically switched.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

489

Capacitors have a large margin for harmonic currents and voltages. They are designed in accordance with KEMA requirements to carry 135 per cent of rated kilovars, including that of the fundamental and harmonics. This means that they can carry considerably more than 135 per cent of current, depending upon the magnitude of harmonic voltage. I t was recognized long ago that high harmonic currents were unusual; therefore, the NEMA standards pertaining t o the rating of switching devices, wire sizes, and other thermally rated devices prescribe their selection on the hasis of 135 per cent current rather than kilovars. Unless such a practical approach were taken, it would he necessary that each installation be checked for harmonic content before the switching device and wire sizes could he selected. In summary, it may he stated: i f the voltage i s approximately normal, i t i s practically impossible to overload a capacitor by harmonics.

AUTOMATIC SWITCHING OF CAPACITORS
Automatic switching of shunt capacitors is seldom necessary in industrial plants, but when used is generally for one of the following reasons: 1. To reduce plant voltage or losses during light-load conditions 2. To control current or circuit loading 3. To meet the requirements of a rate clause 4. To comply with utility requirements 5. To prevent instability of generators during light-load conditions
TYPES AND SELECTION OF CONTROL

Although many types of automatic controls are available, the ones most suitable for industrial spplications are Time clock Current, single-step Voltage, generally single-step Kilovar, generally multistep I n general, the master element should be responsive to the quantity to be controlled or regulated. For example, if capacitors are to be switched off a t light load, then a load-responsive master element would normally he selected. One exception to the above rule is the power-factor control, which is not recommended even though capacitors are used for power-factor improvement. The reason is that for constant power factor the load kilovars vary directly with the kilowatts, and such a control would have to be made inoperative when the load kilovars are equal t o capacitor kilovars of the largest step to avoid pumping action of the control equipment.

490

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Table 8.10 iiidicates the preferred types of controls t o use. I n general, i t is desirable t h a t the master element obtain its signal from a point of measurement which includes the effect of the capacitor. One exception is the current control where the uncorrected load measurement must be used. The multistep voltage- and kilovar-responsive controls should always obtaiii their signal from the corrected load measurement. Table 8.10 and Fig. 8.22 indicate the point of signal measurement for various types of controls.

Most attention in automatic switching is directed t o the problem of overvoltage during light-load conditions in a plant. However, before purchasing automatic controls for this purpose, one should be certain t h a t the overvoltage is due t o capacitors. Ofteii most of the voltage variation is in the incoming supply source and is not due t o the voltage variation or regulation within the plant. Automatic switching of capacitors in such a case would be of little help. If there is any question regardiiig the magnitude of voltage rise due t o capacitors, t h a t can be easily checked by direct measurement or by calculation using the simple formulas (8.21) or ( 8 . 2 ) . If automatic switching is required, the simpler controls are preferred. The time-clock control is especialiy applicable where plant working hours are regular, e.g., capacitors are switched off at the end of the working day. In most industrial applications involving single-step capacitar switching, a current-responsive control usually results in better over-a11 operation than a voltage-responsive control because the operation of a current-respousive control is practically independent of system voltage
SUPPLY . " . :

y

va (BUS)
r POINT OF SIGNAL

FEEDER CIRCUIT

u u l

T

Va

BUS

n
CAPACITOR
(0)

LOAO

ib)

FIG. 8.22

Electrical location of capaciton ond point of signo1 meaiurement.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

uuu
3 3 3 " U " U 3

U 3
L

U
3

\$ 2 5

, .
O U

uu3

O

U

uu3

uu

. .: u : = . .; u . .uu3 ..

U

3

u: ;

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

: U

492

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

fluctuations: also, the capacitors are switched off in accordance with the plant load, so a t light load the capacitors are off, which is desirable in reducing the voltage. A current-responsive control is also better than a voltage control when capacitors are located on adjacent feeders. In that rase, switching capacitors on one feeder affects the voltage level on the other feeder, thus requiring the O N and OFF settings of a voltage-responsive master element to he much wider than desirable. If a voltage-responsive control is used, the O N and O FF settings must be wide enough to avoid unnecessary operation due to voltage fluctuations in the supply source. Also, a voltage-responsive control may switch the capacitors independently of the actual load requirements and thus switch them off when they are needed most. Furthermore, in some plants, most of the voltage variation is in the incoming supply source and is not due to variation or regulation xvithin the plant. If there is any question regarding the magnitude of voltage rise due to capacitors, that can be easily checked by direct measurement or by the calculations. Single-step current and kilovar-responsive controls have the same general application. However, the current control is generally used because it costs less and requires only a current transformer for signal indication.

SERIES CAPACITORS

It is the purpose of this section t o familiarize the reader briefly with the series capacitor and its functions. Complete information on its applications, limitations, and operating benefits is available elsewhere. * The main applications of series capacitors have been to individual resistance welders, the main power supply for welder services, graphitizing furnaces, high-frequency generators, and to the main power system to reduce voltage variation for fluctuating or flicker-producing loads.
WHAT I A SERIES CAPACITOR? S

The term series capacitor is an ahhreviation and is the engineer’s terminology for a series-connected capacitor. Similarly, a shunt capacitor is a shunt-connected capacitor. It is the type of connection and not the type of capacitor which is implied. These are shown in Fig. 8.23. Although the difference between the shunt and series capacitor is the manner in which they are connected in the circuit, they perform different functions. The shunt capacitor is simply a capacitive reactance in shunt

* Ser Chap. 13 in “Capacitors for Industry,” hy W. C. Bloamquist and R. C. Wilson, copyright General Electric Company, John W h y & Sons, Ine., New York.
1950.

LINE LINE

9 ORIGINAL POWER FACTOR ANGLE 8' POWER FACTOR ANGLE WITH CAPACITORS

B

2 ?

2

i

5 F
I'

z
= I =I ,

2

7

I

Ec

(0)

SHUNT CAPACITORS

(b) SERIES CAPACITORS

FIG. 8.23 (Upper] Typical shunt and rerier connections of capacitors. showing how power-factor improvement is obtained.

(Lower) Vector diagram

c w 0

494

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

with the load or system and is fundamentally for power-factor improvement. The benefits of improved voltage level, released system capacity, reduced system losses, and the reduction in the power bill all stem from the improvement in power factor. Unswitched shunt capacitors do not improve voltage regulation caused by load changes, but they do increase the normal voltage level. A series capacitor may be considered a nrgative (capacitive) reactance in series with the line. The voltage rise across the caparitor, a function of the circuit current, is automatic and practically instantaneous; so the series capacitor may be thought of as a voltage regulator. However, it differs from an induction or step voltage regulator in one very important respect-it cannot compensate for voltage variations originating in the supply source. A series capacitor at rated load provides power-factor improvement to the same degree as do the same kilovars of shunt capacitors. It provides power-factor improvement by an out-of-phase component of voltage, in contrast to the shunt capacitor, which accomplishes this by an out-ofphase component of current; these relationships are shown in Fig. 8.23. I n the usual application for power service, the series-capacitor kilovar rating is too low to improve the power factor significantly.
WHAT THE SERIES CAPACITOR DOES

If a series capacitor is thought of as a negative reactance to neutralize the system reactance, rather than a device producing a voltage rise 180 degrees out of phase with the system reactive drop, its function in the system performance may he more readily understood. Principle of Operation. The voltage across a series capacitor is a function of its reactance and current, or

Ec

=

IXc

(8.26)

However, the effect of the series capacitor on the circuit voltage depends upon the power factor of the load current and is
ec =

I X , sin 0

(8.27)

The basic voltage-drop formula, Eq. (8.16),for three-phase service may be rewritten to inrlude series capacitance as follows:
e
=

I R cos 0

+ Z(X,

-

X , ) sin 0

(8.28)

where P = circuit roltage drop or change, volts ec = circuit voltage rise due to series capacitor E , = voltage across series capacitor only

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

495

I

=

total current, amps

0 = power-factor angle

X c = capacitive reactance, ohms X , = inductive reactance, ohms ( X , is positive and X C is negative in accordance with accepted terminology.
Convention also defines the effect of a lagging power-factor current through a n inductive reactance as voltage drop.) Equation (8.28) indicates that the voltage drop and, therefore, the voltage regulation are reduced by reducing the reactive drop I X , which is usually the largest portiori of the voltage drop on industrial power systems. The effect of the negative reactance of a series capacitor on voltage regulation is illustrated hy the vector diagram of Fig. 8.24, using the voltage at the receiving end or load, Ex,as the reference. The voltage regulation of a system without a series capacitor is large, as indicated by the relative lengths of the voltage vectors En and E,. However, with a series capacitor of X , = X,, the capacitor completely neutralizes the system reactance; so the regulation is reduced considerahly as indicat,ed by vector E S I . This may be improved even further by overcompensation as indicated by E,,, which is the case for zero regulation. As far as the power-system operation is concerned, the less the voltage regulation, the “stiffer” the system is electrically, i.c., it is equivalent t o one with a higher iriterrupting duty. A system with zero voltage regulation is equivalent t o an infinitely large power system. I t is practical t o compensate for all the react,ancc i n many iirdustrial systems; so the voltage regulation is only that due t o the resistance component, vtrirh is usually only a few per cent. Thus, a series rapacit,or stiffens the system, which is especially beneficial for starting large motors from ail otherwise weak power system, for reducing light flicker caused by large fluctuating loads, ctc. Even though a series capacit,or stiffens the system, it docs not increase the interrupting duty herause of the control scheme associated ivith the series-capacitor protect,ive equipment.
W H E N TO USE THE SERIES CAPACITOR

h good test for the application of series capacitors for line-rractance compensation is: “Would the problem be satisfactorily sol\wl by an induction or step regulator that could automatically and almost instantaneously correct the voltage drop for the new load rendition:"' If the answer is “yes,” theii it is very probable that a series rapacitor is applicable. (Voltage regulators arc riot applicahle for flui,tuatiiig loads siiice the voltage drop itself is used to initiate the voltage correction.) Because of the instantaneous aud automatic response of the serics

496

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

capacitor, it is admirably suited to compensate for voltage drop or fluctuation assoriated with intermittent, fluctuating, or suddenly applied loads, such as n-elders, arc furnaces, and motor-starting conditions; or fluctuating motor loads, such as sawmills, rubber mills, elevators, and shovels. The rlne to the applicahility of a series capacitor lies in an examination of the voltage-drop formula
F =

I R cos 0

+ I ( X L - X , ) sin 8

and the relative values of the resistance I R and reactance [ X companents. I n most industrial power systems, the reactance is much higher than the resistance, with the ratio of X r / R ranging from 3 to 10. If the power fart,oris low (sin 0 is large), as is true for motor starting, then the I X drop will be the largest portion, and a series capacitor mill be helpful in reducing the voltage drop.

\

\

\

ES

ESI

Esz

I ,
ES XsONLY

I

9

III

r;, X C ' X S
ESp
FIG. 8.24

xc ) xs

Diagram showing now o series copocitor reducer voltoge regulation.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

497

FIG. 8.25

Voltage charts on

( I

system with a highly fluctuating rowmill motor lood.

Chart

B shows the effectiveness of the series capacitor for improving the voltage.

The series capacitor is effective when 1. The reactance is greater than the resistance. 2. The load power factor is low. The ideal application is that in which the capacitive reactance completely neutralizes the inductive reactance, leaving only the small resistance component. Thus, fluctuating loads, regardless of changes in the load power factor, will have very little effect on the voltage drop. The resistance and reactance of cables, lines, transformers, etc., given in Chap. 1, will he useful for preparing data for predicting the performance of a system with capacitors. Figure 8.25 shows actual voltage charts for a highly fluctuating motor load. Note how flat the voltage is with the series capacitor. The capacitive reactance can be selected greater than the inductive reactance and will thus compensate for part or all of the resistance drop a t a given power factor, as indicated in Fig. 8.24. However, if the power factor varies appreciably, overcompensation may cause a voltage rise a t

498

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

SERIES-CAPACITOR LIMITATIONS

There are several limitations of series capacitors relating to circuit performance; so a word of caution is mentioned here. The prediction of circuit performance during transient conditions, i.e., loads suddenly applied or removed, such as motor starting and welder operation, is not so simple as for steady-state conditions as expressed in Eq. (8.28). The difficulty arises when the circuit constants become nonlinear. Although the performance can be predicted, a great many data are necessary, and even then prediction is usually difficult without the aid of a network or differential analyzer. Therefore, the practical solution for most applications of this type is based on experience. Some of the difficulties which may occur are self-excitation of induction and synchronous motors during starting, causing motors to lock into step a t suhsynchronous speed, vibrate excessively, or produce large current pulsations; hunting of synchronous motors during normal operation; and ferroresonance in transformers. Even though such abnormal operations can be eliminated, it is well that each series-capacitor application be thoroughly checked. CAPACITOR RATINGS AND OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
KILOVAR R A T I N G S

Standard ratings of individual shunt capacitor units are listed in Table 8.11 and of capacitor equipments in Table 8.12. Although the standards list only a limited number of ratings for low-voltage service, some manufacturers have additional ratings, usually in unit sizes from 1 t o 10 kvar,

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

499

to cover applications of small motors. There are no S E M A standards for two-phase caparitors, although manufacturers are often able to supply low-yoltage units in standard kilovar raliirgs.
TABLE 8.11 NEMA Standard Ratings for 60-cycle Shunt Capacitor Units*

1
Kilovor ratings

I

Indoor enclosed ""it.

lndaor nonenclosed ""it.

Phase
Outdoor
units

230 460 575 2,400 4,160 4,800 7,200 7.960 12,470 13,800 0.5. I , 2.5.5, 7.5 1, 2, 5, 10. 15 1. 2, 5, 10, 15

I
5, 7.5 10.15 10.15 15. 25 15.25 15.25 15, 25 IS, 25 15 15

I
2.5, 5, 7.5 5, 10, 15 5, 10, 15 15, 25 15, 25 15.25 15. 25 15, 25 15 15

I
Single, three Single, three Single, three Single, three Single, three Sngle,threet Single, threet Single

.............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. ..............

Single Single

* From KE41.4 Standard CA1-1949.

t Three-phase ratings outdoor only.

It will he noted from Table 8.11 that the standard capacitor voltages generally correspond t o the system operating voltages. The capacitor voltage ratings mere selected that way for very sound reasous. For example, take a nominal 480-volt system; motors for this service are rated 440 volts, supply transformers are usually rated 480 volts secondary a t no load, and generators are rated 480 volts. The actual plant operating voltage is less than the supply voltage by the voltage drop from the supply point to the load. Generally, industrial plant voltages under normal load conditions are about 460 volts, which correspond to the capacitor voltage rating for that service. The capacitor then operates a t or near rated voltage and output which contributes to long life.
VOLTAGE

Because shunt capacitors are designed for operation a t comparatively high electrical stresses and continuous full load, definite overvoltage limits must be established. Most other electrical apparatus has an allowance for a duty cycle or load factor, taking advantage of partial-load or noncontinuous operation to allow for short-time overload or overvoltages. Capacitors are suitable for operation a t a terminal-to-terminal voltage

500

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

TABLE 8.12

Standard Kilovar Ratings of Indoor and Outdoor Types of Capacitor Equiprnents for 60-cycle Operation

230

1 46iLld 1
15

Copocitor d t a g e rating

2,400 and 4,160

~

4.800-13.800

Kilovor rating of units
~ ~

15 25

7%

15
~ ~

25
~

15 30 45 60 90 180 270 450

30
45' 60 90 120 180 360 540 900 1.260 90' 135. 180.

....
....
600
900

PO*

630

.... .... .... ....

180'

1,200 1.800 2,700 3,600

.... .... .... ....

900 1,800

2,700 3,600 4,500 5,400

* Outdoor equipments may be pole or base mounted.
(including harmonics) a t a maximum of 110 per cent of rated voltage for either continuous or short-time operation, but exclusive of transients.

KlLOVAR MARGIN

From a practical standpoint it is necessary to allow some kilovar margin in capacitors for increased output due to operation above rated voltage, harmonic currents if present in the power system, and the plus kilovar tolerance in manufacture. This kilovar margin, an industry standard, is 35 per cent; i t is a rare application where this margin is not ample.

TIME OF DISCHARGE

When a capacitor is disconnected from its power source, it will retain its charge (voltage) and therefore be a hazard to personnel unless some

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

501

means is provided to discharge it. All modern capacitors have built-in discharge resistors, which usually discharge a unit in less time than is required by the National Electrical Code. The NEC requires capacitors to he discharged to a residual voltage of 50 volts or less in 1 min for capacitors rated 600 volts or less and in 5 min for capacitors rated more than 600 volts.

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

Voltage. While the operating voltage should he vithin the voltage limits discussed previously, it may not he the same as the name-plate voltage and the actual kilovar output will be different from the rated value as follows:

Actual ckvar = rated ckvar X

operating vo~tagc rated voltage

)'

(8.29)

Frequency. Capacitor kilovar output is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied voltage. Thus (for a given voltage)

Actual ckvar = rated ckvar X

operating frequency rated frequency

(8.30)

USEFUL DATA FOR CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS

Nomenclature

C Xc f kvar E kv I

=
=

= =
=

= =
=

kva

capacity in microfarads reactance in ohms frequency in cycles per second kilovars, reactive kilovolt-amperes line-to-line voltage line-to-line voltage in kilovolts amperes kilovolt-amperes

Formulas

Capacitor connected in parallel:

c = c1+

c 2

+ C3 +

502

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Capacitor connected in series:

x, = 2653 xc =

at 60 cycles C (1 ,if = 2653 ohms) 1000(kv)2 kvar
106

(2d)xc C' = 1000 kvar 2rf( kv) * 2lrfC(kv) * kvar = 1000 1000 (kv)* kvar =
kvar
=

c=-

X, G E X I (three phase) 1000
(kv) X I
phase)

=

4X
13I
1000 (kv) I

kvar

= -(single =

Capacitor Constants

Single-phase capacitors:
Capacitor volts

230 460 575 2,400 4,160 4,800 7,200 7,960 12,470
13.800

50.15 12.54 8.025 0.4606 0.1534 0.1151 0.05118 0.041 87 0.01 706 0.01393

52.9 211.6 330.6 5.760 17.300 23,040 51,840 63.360 155.500 190,400

* To find microfarads for other kvar values m n l l i p l y by t h c number of kvar. t To find ohms for other kvar valucs divide hy t h e number of kvar.

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

503

Three-phase, Y-ronnerted caparitors: Line-to-neutral microfarads per kvar and line-to-neutral ohms for 1 kvar are same as single-phase values. Three-phase, delta-roiruerted capacitors: Line-to-line microfarads are one-third of the single-phase values; line-to-line ohms are three times the siugle-phase values.

Chapter 9

by Francis P. Brightman

Svstem Overcurrent Protection
Fault-current (also designated overcurrent or short-circuit-current) protective devices-fuses, circuit breakers, and relays-are the watchmen of a power system, whose job it is to detect trouble and get rid of it as expeditiously aspossible. Thedesign of surh a protective system iuvolves two separate although iriterrelated steps: 1. Selection of the correct devices to do the job 2. Choice of correct current and time settings for the adjustable devices that \rill enable them to function selectively with other adjustable and nonadjustable devices to disconnect that portion of the system in trouble with as little disturbance to the rest of it as possible The two steps are interrelated in that the devices selected for a given system must be capahle of the required range of current and time settings needed, or inherently have the desired characteristics incorporated in their design. The objectives of this chapter are twofold. First, to describe the various types, rharacteristics, and principal uses of the fault-current protective devices commonly used ou industrial plant electric power systems as a guide to the reader in selecting suitable protective devices for his system. Second, to evplain how the time-current operating characteristics of the various devices should be selected initially i n the case of nonadjustable devices, or subsequently set on the adjustable ones, to obtain the selective operation essential to good system performance. BASIC TYPES OF SHORT-CIRCUIT DETECTION DEVICES There are three fundamental types of devices designed to detect overcurrents due to short circuits somewhere on the system. These basic devices are: 1 . Relays 2. Direct-acting trips on circuit breakers 3. Fuses
504

S Y S T u l OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

505

RELAYS

Relays are devices installed on the system to detect trouble and complete a circuit to electrically trip their associated circuit breakers, or eontactors, when necessary to isolate the trouble spot. Relays may be simple nvercurrent devices responsive to current magnitude only, or they may have a combination of current and voltage, or current and current coils, to detect the direction of current flow, current balance, differences in the current a t two ends of a circuit, distance, etr. The majority of relays in modern power systems operate from the secondaries of current and potential transformers rather than from series current coils or line voltage. Relays provide the best protection. They can he built to a much higher degree of accuracy than fuses and direct-acting trips, and they are adjustable both as to time and current. Also they can be designed to operate on only one direction of power flow to the point of fault or t o locate the fault by measuring the line impedance (distance) from the relay to the trouble spot.
DIRECT-ACTING CIRCUIT-BREAKER TRIPS

Direct-acting trips are mounted directly on the circuit breaker they are associated with and trip it by direct mechanical action in response to current magnitude in the circuit. The direct-acting trips on low-voltage (600 volts and below) air circuit breakers are almost always actuated by the current in the circuit, but direct-acting trips on high-voltage (2300 volts and above) circuit breakers are usually energized from the secondaries of current transformers. Most time-delay direct-acting trips on low-voltage air circuit breakers are adjustable in the field, but some of them and many of the instantaneous trips are preset a t the. factory to operate a t a given multiple of the trip-coil rating of the breaker. Although direct-acting trip coils are much less accurate than relays, they are good enough for most low-voltage power system applications and for the small medium-voltage systems where t.hey are occasionally used. The justification of their use is strictly economic.
FUSES

Fuses are thermally operated devices that combine the functions of fault detection and circuit clearing in one device. They are used on both high- and low-voltage systems. Refer to Chap. 3 for further discussion of the economics and other factors involved in their application. Fuses are subject to the disadvantages of being nonadjustable and

506

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

quite slow in operation on moderate values of short-circuit rurrent. They are less accuratc than relays, but comparable n i t h direct-acting lomvoltage cirruit-breaker trips on high-current and superior to them on lowcurrent short circuits. Fuses also have the disadvantage that only one may be hlown, thereby leaving the circuit operating on single phase, which may cause trouble if the circuit is not properly protected with a thermal or other type of relay that will operate quickly enough on the current drawn during single-phase operation to protect the motor or other equipment on the circuit involved.

TYPES, OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS, A N D USES OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES In order to use any tool or device correctly, it is essential to know how it works and what it can do, or, putting it another way, what can be done with it, Therefore, the first step in learning t o apply and coordinate short-cirruit protection relays and other devices is to find out what types are available, how they operate, and what their time-current characteristics are. All relays and other short-circuit protective devices except fuses and the thermal trips on some low-voltage breakers work on one or the other of two fundamental operating principles: 1. Electromagnetic attraction 2. Electromagnetic induction

ELECTROMAGNETIC-ATTRACTION-TYPE RELAYS AND OTHER DEVICES

Devices of the electromagnetic-attraction class are operated by means of a magnetic plunger drawn into a solenoid or a hinged magnetic armature attracted t o the poles of an electromagnet. I n some cases the operating coil has taps to permit adjustment of the pickup-current setting. Pickup current is that value of current at which the plunger or armature will just start to move. Changes in pickup setting of plunger-type devices are accomplished by varying the position of the plunger in the coil. The pickup of hinged-armature devices may likewise be vaTied by changing the air gap or by maintaining a fixed air-gap setting and varying the spring tension. The farther it has to travel, or the greater the spring tension holding it back, the greater the amount of current or combination of current and potential required to operate the device. Hinged-armature-type construction is used in the direct-acting trips of air circuit breakers (600 volts and below) and also in some relays.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

507

Plunger type construction is used for direct-acting trips on power circuit hreakers (2400 volts and above) and some relays. In modern practice most of t,he plunger-type relays are instantaneous units. Those used i n industrial plants are usually intended to provide fast tripping on high-magnitude short-cirruit currents. In such cases accuracy of the pickup setting is not so important as it is with time-delay relays, which may he required to operate accurately on relatively low currents. However, plunger-type relays with a bellows and adjustable air valve are available for use on systems where time-delay operation is required, but the more accurate and expensive induction-type relays cannot be justified. Since electromagnetic-attraction devices work about equally well on either direct riirrent or alternating current of the frequencies ordinarily used, all instantaneous plunger and hinged-armature-type relays and other devices are affected by the d-c component of asymmetrical shortcircuit current. Consequently, the offset (asymmetrical) factor must be taken int,o account when determining the performance of such devices.
ELECTROMAGNETIC-INDUCTION RELAYS

The electromagnetic-induction principle is used in the design of many relays but not for direct-acting trip mechanisms. Such relays are essentially induction motors. The “stator” has current, or current and potential coils, and the fluxes created by the flow of current in them induce corresponding currents in a disk or cup. Interaction of the induced currents and fluxes creates torque to drive the rotor and thereby close or open the relay contacts. Surh relays are commonly referred to as “induction” relays. Figure 9.1 shows an induction-type overcurrent relay removed from its case. Electromagnetic-induction relays do not operate on direct current and consequently are not affected by the d-c component of an asymmetrical short-circuit current, as plunger-type relays are. Actually, the rate of change of the d-c component has some effect, but i t is of no practical significance. The rotor of the relay, which usually carries the moving contact, works against a restraining spring which returns it to the normal position when the relay is deenergized. It rotates a very small fraction of a turn, in the fast-operating nonadjustable time-setting relays, or almost a full revolution on the maximum time-dial setting of the adjustable time-current characteristic relays. Variations in time are accomplished by moving the time dial, or lever, t o a specified setting previously determined from a family of time-current curves supplied by the manufacturer for that

S S E OVRCURRENT PROTECTION YTM

i

FIG. 9.1 Induction avMulrent relay wHhDut cam.

particular type of relay. Moat adjustable induction-type overcurrent relays have 10 or 11 timedial positions, whose identifying numbers are arbitrarily assigned without regard to the actual operating time for the particular setting. The relay contacts are closed a t zero setting, and the contact gap opens progressively aa the timedial settings are increased. All short-circuit protection relays have silver contacts capable of cloaidg breaker tripping circuits up to 30 amp without injury to themselv& They cannot open them, however, without being damaged by the resulti arc. Consequently, they are sealed in by a seal-in unit, and an auxilia switch on the breaker mechanism is connected in the circuit to open it when the breaker opens. If the tripping current exceeds 30 amp, auxiliary tripping relay must be used. Occasionally, induction relays have to operate on quite small values f Short-circuit current. When doing so, there is relatively little torque available to hold the relay contacts tightly closed while the auxiliary switch on the breaker ia opening the tripping circuit. Therefore, in order to prevent the possibility of damaging the relay contacts by arcing which may occur with light contact pressure and also to ensure positive tripping,

ti
d

c

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

SOP

provision is made t o bypass the main relay contacts with a seal-in circuit or alternatively t o hold them closed magnetically until the tripping circuit is interrupted by an auxiliary switch on the circuit breaker being tripped. The seal-in, or holding-coil, circuit is completed when the main relay contact closes. The holding coil energizes an electromagnet which attracts a soft-iron armature mounted on the rotating element of the relay, thus holding the relay contacts firmly in the closed position. The seal-in coil closes a seal-in contact which completes a circuit t o bypass the main relay contact. I n some cases the contacts are both held closed and bypassed, in which case one coil accomplishes both functions. The usual practice is t o have the holding, or seal-in contact, coils simultaneously release the operation-indication target also. I n some designs, targets are positively actuated, and in others they are gravity operated when a latch is released. They are always manually reset by means of a button on the outside of the relay case. Sometimes a separate auxiliary seal-in relay is provided inside the main relay case to bypass the relay contacts. Its coil is connected in series with the trip coil and the main relay contacts so that it is energized and closes its contacts as soon as the tripping circuit is completed. The seal-in relay does double duty by completing its own coil circuit and sealing itself in, as well as bypassing the main relay contacts in the tripping circuit. I n such cases, the operation target is actuated by the same coil. Both seal-in and holding coils are in series with the main relay contacts and the breaker trip coil, or auxiliary relay coil, and therefore must be capable of picking up on the current drawn by them when the main relay contacts close. These coils are usually supplied with 0.2-amp and 1.0-or 2.0-amp taps. The 0.2-amp tap is for use with trip coils and auxiliary relays that take 0.2 t o 3.0 amp and can safely carry tripping currents as high as 5 amp. The 1- or 2-amp coils should he used when the protective relay contacts trip a circuit breaker directly and the tripping current is not more than 30 amp. In some cases, i t is necessary for the fault protective relay t o energize several tripping circuits simultaneously, e.g., common practice is to trip the generator main and field breakers and the turbine throttle valve, and possibly also sound an alarm and operate an annunciator when the generator differential relay operates. I n such cases an auxiliary tripping relay having multiple contacts, each capable of energizing a trip-coil circuit, is provided. The opefating coil of the auxiliary relay is connected in series with the main relay contacts. When the main relay contacts close, they energize the target and hold-in or seal-in contact coils, as well as energizing the auxiliary relay coil. The generator-differential auxiliary relay is hand reset, i.e., its tripping and alarm contacts stay in the closed position even though its coil circuit is opened. This makes i t possible for the auxiliary

510

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

relay t o open its own coil circuit without having any risk of a “race” between the breaker-tripping contacts and the self-deenergization operation of the auxiliary relay. Sometimes auxiliary relays are used simply as a means of increasing the number of trip circuits without including the lockout (hand-reset) feature.
OPERATING-TIME CLASSIFICATION O PROTECTIVE DEVICES F

All short-circuit-current protective relays and other devices can be classified under one of these headings: (I) instantaneous, (2) highspeed, (3) time-delay, (4) combination instantaneous or high-speed and time-delay. By ASA (American Standards Association) definition, instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time delay. Some of them operate in less than one-half cycle, while others may take as much as 0.1 sec (six cycles). Those which operate in three cycles or less are also classified as high-speed relays. Time-delay relays may he induction, hinged-armature, or solenoid type. Usually the time delay is adjustable. Most of them are induction type with an inverse characteristic, i.e., the relay speeds up progressively as the actuating quantity (rurrent alone or the product of current and voltage, etr.) inrreases. However, a few time-delay relays operate a t a constant speed predetermined by adjustment and are independent of current magnitude as long as the current is sufficient to operate the relay. These are known as definite-time relays. The dirert-arting trip mechanisms on rircuit breakers may be instantaneous, or time-delay, or a combination of the two. R’ormal fuses are instantaneous or time-delay in their operation, depending on the magnitude of the short-circuit current. Some fuses, however, are designed t o give evtra time delay on moderate values of overcurrent in order to ride through permissible high overloads.
INDIVIDUAL RELAY CHARACTERISTICS

There are many types of short-circuit-detecting relays. Some work on current magnitude only, and some operate on rurrent only, but take into account the direction of current flow. Others work on a differential principle, and still others on the basis of measuring the impedance in the circuit as represented by the current and voltage to determine when the relays shall work. Following is a hrief description of the relays in the different rategories and their general operating chararteristirs.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

51 1

Relays Operating on Current Only (Nondirectional). Probably the most commonly used short-circuit protection relays in industrial plant power systems are the instantaneous and time-delay relays responsive to current magnitude alone without regard to the direction of current flow. Most instantaneous overcurrent relays are plunger or hinged-armature type. They may he supplied as an instantaneous element mounted inside the ease of a time-delay induction relay or as single or multiple instantaneous elements alone mounted in a case. Even though such relays are classified as instantaneous, a finite length of time is required for them to operate at different current magnitudes, as shown in the lower left corner of Fig. 9.3. Instantaneous relays are available in a wide range of current coil ratings from 1.5 to 80 amp or even more if required. Most time-delay overcurrent relays are inverse-induction type. An “inverse” time-current characteristic means that the relay operating time decreases as its operating current inrreases. Such relays are classified as “inversetime,” “very inverse-time,” and “extremely inverse-time.” Current pickup of the relay is selected by means of the taps in the operating coil, and time adjustments are made by means of a time dial or a time lever. For convenience in making adjustments, the total dial or lever-movement scale is arbitrarily divided into 10 or 11 divisions. Each design of relay has a family of time-current operating curves corresponding to the numhered divisions on the scale. Figure 9.2 shows such a family of curves for a relay with an inverse-time characteristic. The same family of curves is applicable for all current ranges of a given model of relay. There are different models of relays with varying degrees of inverseness. Figure 9.3 shows the difference in the time-current characteristics of inverse-time, very inverse-time, and extremely inverse-time types of relays on minimum and maximum time-dial settings. It also shows the time-current charact,eristic of the instantaneous element when it is provided in any of these three types of relays. The time-current curves of the three relays are quite different, making it difficult to obtatn satisfactory coordination when relays with different characteristics operate in series (see Fig. 9.17). The inverse-time relay is widely used for general application. It is better than either of the others on systems where there are wide variations in short-circuit current levels because of changes in the number of power sources in use. Its relatively flat time-current curve permits the relay to give reasonrtbly fast operation over a much wider range of shortcircuit current than the others can. This feature enables the inverse-time relay to afford a satisfactory degree of fault protection with one or all of the power sources in operation. The very inversetime relay has a steeper curve, which makes it slower on lox values of current and faster on the higher magnitudes of fault cur-

512

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

rent. I t is not so good for systems with variable generating capacity as the inverse-time relay, but it is better on systems supplied from large power company systems where the short-circuit-current level at a given point is more or leas fixed by the impedance of the system up to that point. The latt,er limitation restricts the current range over which the relay has to provide fast, performance so the curve ran he steepened. The extremely inverse-time relay was designed primarily for use on power company distribution system feeders, where it is necessary t o have a relay which will ride through the high initial-load current encountered when reenergizing a feeder after an outage and yet provide fast operation when needed for short-circuit protect'ion. At first glanre, one might think that the extremely inverse-time relay was partirularly well suited for coordination with fuses, since the shape of its time-current curve is nearer that of fuse melting-time curves than
I

420

360

300

60

0
MULTIPLES OF MINIMUM CLOSING CURRENT (TAPVALUE)

FIG. 9.2

Time-current curyes of inverse-time induction overcurrent relay.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

513

are the other relay curves. Practically, however, this relay is undesirable immediately ahead of a large fuse operating 011 the same magnitude of fault current, because it is so fast on high values of current that it is quite likely to tripits breaker unnecessarily when the fusealoneshould bloivfora fault on its load side. The behavior of this relay when installed on the

FIG. 9.3 Curves of time-current characteristics of inverse-time (A), very inverse-time (El, extremely inverse-time (C) induction relays, and instantaneous element ( D ) .

514

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

line side of large fuses is discussed further in the section on coordination and is illustrated in Fig. 9.21. However, the extremely inverse-time relay is satisfactory when the fuses on its load side are relatively small, or when the circuit impedance between relay and fuse results in sufficient current differential to permit selectivity, and also when used to trip a circuit breaker with a fuse ahead of it. I t will be noted that the time-current curves in Figs. 9.2 and 9.3 are plotted in terms of multiples of minimum pickup. Pickup current of a relay is the rating of the current tap in use. Induction relays generally have several taps brought out of their operating coils to permit selection of the desired pickup current. For euample, the tap range of a 4- to 16-amp relay coil is 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 amps. To illustrate the meaning of multiples-of-pickup current, a relay operating with a 6-amp tap setting connected to the secondary of a 200/5-amp current transformer (40/1 ratio) would see 2400/(40 X 6) = 10 multiples of its pickup setting with 2400 amp flowing in the primary of the current transformer. Since standard relays are built on a production-line basis, manufacturers are allowed certain tolerances in operating characteristics. Therefore, an induction overcurrent relay meets standard specifications if i t operates Ivithin 2 to 7 per cent of the standard characteristic time-current curves for that type of relay. I n general, the accuracy will be highest a t high values of operating current, i.e., high multiples of pickup. However, after a given relay has been adjusted t o have a specific time-current curve by putting current through it and accurately checking its operating time for varying values of current, it should operate consistently within approximately 2 per cent of that time-current curve. Induction-type overcurrent relays are available as standard devices for 25-, 50-, and 60-cycle service and in a variety of current ranges such as 0.5 to 2, 1.5 to 6 and 4 to 16 amp. The low-current coils rated 0.5 t o 2 and 1.5 to 6 amp may, of course, be used wherever low-current pickup is desired, but they are primarily intended for residual connection in the neutral (Fig. 9.4) of the phase-short-circuit-relay current transformers t o detect ground-fault currents. It should be noted that the low-current relays impose heavier burdens on their current transformers than the others do. All time-delay overcurrent induction relays will start t o move and will eventually close their contacts on current equal t o their current-tap (pickup) setting, assuming that they are in good operating condition and free from dust, etc. However, because of the manufacturing tolerances allowed and the low operating torque available from such small currents, i t is desirable to select a current-tap setting such that the relay will not be expect,ed to give accurate time-current performance below approximately 1.5 multiples of minimum pickup.

iYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

515

PHASE

J
1
FIG. 9.4

I _
Schematic diagram of residual connection for a ground reloy.

The reset time of induction overcurrent relays, i.e., the time for their contacts t o returii t o their completely open position when the relay is deenergized, varies with the time-dia1 setting and the type of relay. On the 10 time-dia1 setting, the approximate reset time is O sec for the inverse-time and GO sec for the very inverse-time and extremely inversetime relays. For loiver time-dia1 settings, the reset time is reduced approximately in proportion t o the setting. The relay contacts will also reset eventually, if t,hey are not sealed closed, mhen the current decreases t o less than 90 per cent of t h e pickup setting. Although the complete reset time of a relay for a given time-dia1 position may he quite long, the contacts wili have separated in six cycles (0.1 sec) with normal adjustment or “ivipe.” This permits using the relay in instantaneous reclosing schemes; i.e., a circuit breaker can be automatically reclosed following an outage without having t o mait for the disk t o reset completely. The relay contacts will not be in their normal position, however, and therefore, if the circuit is still short-circuited, the relay will operate t o trip its hreaker in much less than the normal time for the time-current setting of t h a t particular relay. Basically, different manufacturers’ versions of a given type of relay will conform t o the general patterns discussed. Nevertheless, there are sufficient variations in time-current curves t o necessitate procurement of the manufacturers’ d a t a for the particular device involved, if reasonably accurate settings and performanee are t o be ohtained. Generator Overcurrent Relay with Voltage Restraint. An overcurrent relay with voltage restraint is an induction-disk unit with a voltage-

516

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

restraining circuit which restrains or bucks the actiou of <he rurrent element. This relay was designed especially for gerrerator eyternal-shortrircuit protection. The presence of the restraining coil enables the relay to distinguish between normal operating overload rurrents and shortcircuit currents of the same magnitude. This discriminatiou is accomplished by the fact that voltage is esseiitially normal during any permissible operating load condition, so that the voltage-restraining element of the relay is able to keep the current element from operating the relay. When a short circuit occurs, the voltage drops, thereby reducing the restraining effect and permitting the relay to operate. Its sensitivity and speed inrrease as the voltage restraint decreases, reaching a maximum at zero restraint during a three-phase fault close to the generator. Figure
1 0

8
6

5
4

3
2
v)

0

0 0 ' w
0.8
0.6

z

0.5
0.4

0.3
0.2
---I1

0. I

p I
-1

RELAY

0. I

0.2
Time-current characteristic curves of generator overcurrent relay with voltage

I

FIG. 9.5
restraint.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

517

The amount of voltage restraint will depend on the type, location, and severity of the fault. The curves for intermediate values of voltage restraint, which will fall inside these two extremes, can he obtained from the manufacturer. The relay has current taps, to permit adjustment of the current pickup setting, and time-dial adjustment. to control the operating time for a given combination of current and voltage restraint. Voltage-controlled Overcurrent Relay. The voltage-controlled overcurrent relay has an induction-disk time-delay overcurrent element and a solenoid-operated undervoltage element. The two elements are interconnected so that the voltage element must close its rontacts before the overcurrent element can start t o move. The overcurrent element can have a n inverse, inverse-definite-time, or very-inverse time-current characteristic as desired. It has current t,aps and a time-dial adjustment. The relay is applicable where it is desired that an overcurrent element be set t o operate on less than full-load current when the voltage falls helow a predetermined value. A typical application is overcurrent backup protection for generators. Directional Relays-General. A directional relay operates when the current in the rircuit floivs in a given direction and ignores current flowing in the opposite direction regardless of its magnitude. It ran he designed t o work on either useful power (kw) or short-circuit current (most,ly reactive). This discussion will be confined to the latter type. Directional short-circuit-detecting relays may he of the directionalovercurrent type or directional-product type. The current-measuring element of the overcurrent t,ype is a simple inst,ant,aneous and/or timedelay overcurrent relay. In the product-type relay, which is iised only for directional ground-fault protection, a single operating element,artuated by the product of two currents, or a current and a potential, indicates the direction of current flow as well as its magnitude. Some of the uses of directional relays are the following: 1. T o permit tripping a circuit breaker for one valne of time and cnrrent when the short-circuit current flows in one direction in the cirruit and a different time and current when the current is flowing in the opposit,e direction. 2. T o obtain selective tripping between circuit breakers at the receiving ends of parallel lines when a fault occurs on one of the lines causing the same current to flow thi-uugh the relays on the good line and the one in trouble. 3. T o obtain selective tripping of a grounded-neutral generator or transformer circuit breaker -when a ground fault occurs in the protected unit and there are other sources supplying ground-fault current.

9.5 shows the zero- and 115-volt-restraint time-current curves.

518

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

Phase-fault directional relays will also operate on ground faults provided that the ground current is large enough t o operate the relay, i.e., is not unduly restricted by external impedance in the neutral of the transformer, or generator, supplying power t o the system. However, directional ground relays, either overcurrent or product type, are usually supplied in addition t o the directional phase relays on both solid and resist,ance-grounded-neutral circuits. Directional-overcurrent Relays. One design of directional-overcurrent relays has a low-energy instantaneous directional-control element whose contacts prevent operation of both the instantaneous and time-delay overcurrent elements unless the short-circuit current is flowing in the direction for which it is desired t o have the associated circuit breaker tripped. The dirertional element operates on the same hasic principle as the wattmeter, but is designed t o respond t o out-of-phase short-circuit current rather than in-phase load current. This element responds t o the direction of current flow without regard t o its magnitude. The overcurrent element, \yhich measures the magnitude of the current, may be instantaneous or time-delay, or the relay may have both elements. The time-delay element is essentially the same as that in the ordinary inversetime or very inverse-time overcurrent relays. It has current taps t o permit adjustment, so that the relay will operate on the desired magnitude of short-circuit current. The relays also have a time dial, or lever, with which t o adjust the distance which the induction disk has t o travel, therchy controlling the time required for the relay t o close its contacts. Their dial, or lever, wales are arbitrarily divided into approximately 11 divisions as in the case of ordinary overcurrent relays, and their timecurrent curves are the same. In other designs of directional-overcurrent relays the time-delay element is (.ont,rolled hy the directional element, hut the instant,aneous element picks up independently of it. Directional operation when the instant,aneous element operates is ohtained hy having the contacts of the dirertional and instautaneous elements in series, so that, even though the instantaneous clement does pick up, nothing happens unless the contacts of thc directional clemciit are also closed. Provision is made to prevent possihle false operation that might occur because of the fact that for a given fault loration t,he current might, he flowing in the wrong direction for tripping and yet the nondirectional instantaneous element would pick up, therehy (.omplet,ing the tripping circuit falsely, if the sensitive, fastoperating ilirertional element should suddenly reverse and close its contarts before the instantaneous element had time t o drop out during the surge folloiving interruption of the short circuit by some other breaker. Iiirectional-o~erciirretit relays for phase-phase and three-phase faults arc single-phase units, and three are normally used for a three-phase cir-

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

519

cuit. Both the directional and overcurrent-element current coils are connected t o current transformers in the line, and the potential coils are usually connected to t,wo open-delta or three Y-Y potential transformers in a quadrature or 90" arrangement (i.e., the current at unity power factor leads the potential 90'). Directional-overcurrent ground relays are similar in construction t o the directional phase-fault protection relays. I n order t o simplify the application and also reduce the number of varieties to be carried in stock, some of the designs of direcbional-overcurrent ground relays have provision for dual polarization, i.e., they have both current and potential polarizing coils. The use of both coils is often advantageous in that it assures polarization of the relay whether or not the grounded-neutral generator or transformer at a given location is in service. The operating-current coil of a directional-overcurrent ground relay is connected in the neutral of the line-current transformers (Fig. 9.4). Normal load currents in t,he current-transformer secondaries even though unbalanced and phase-to-phase or three-phase short-circuit currents do not cause current to flow in the neutral. Therefore, only ground-fault current flows in the neutral connection except for error currents which will be discussed later under the general subject of coordination. The polarizing-current coil is connected to a current transformer in the neutral ground connection of a power transformer or generator, where the current flow will always he in the same direction (Fig. 9.6.4). The potential polarizing coil of t,hese relays is connected across the open corner of the broken-delta secondary of Y-delta-connected potential transformers, as shown in Fig. 9.6B. Under normal operating conditions the three voltages are equal and no voltage appears across the relay coil, but as soon as a ground fault occurs the relay potential coil sees a voltage, whose phase angle corresponds to that of the grounded primary phase and whose magnitude is three times the zero-phase-sequence voltage. On highvoltage systems, polarizing voltage can also be obtained from hushing potential devices and coupling capacitor potential devices. The latter are seldom required on industrial plant power systems because the power system voltages are relatively low. The potential coils of the phase-fault directional relays can be connected to the same potential transformers by using a 60" connection, i.e., the current at 1.0 power factor leads the voltage 60'. An alternative arrangement would consist of Y-Y-connected potential transformers for the phase-fault relays with Y-broken-delta auxiliary transformers for the . polarizing coil. Product-type Directional Ground Relays. Product-type directional ground relays indicate the direction, as well as the magnitude, of the

520

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

t

ETC r.
-\

\/

b

I F

t m D
1
-

e .

. ,
MAIN POLARIZING

GROUNDED Y-CONNECTED TRANSFORMER OR GENERATOR

TIE LINE

t

(A)

PHASERELAYS ETC
4d .

.\
.I

/. +
J-

TIE LINE
FIG. 9.6

t

(8)

Schemotic diagrams of directional ground relay polarized with current ( A ) or potential (8) for operation on ground-fault current flowing in direction of owow in tie line.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

521

short-circuit current flowing in the tripping direction by means of a single element operating on torque obtained from the product of ground-fault current and a polarizing current or potential. The main coil is connected in the neutral of the three Y-connected line current transformers (Fig. 9.4). The polarizing effect required for directional operation is obtained by means of a current or potential coil. The connections of both operating and polarizing coils would be the same as for the directional-overcurrent ground relays. Either the overcurrent or product type of dirertional ground relay will afford essentially the same degree of protection to industrial plant power systems, which are relatively compact and usually have the system neutral grounded a t only one station. The product-type relays are somewhat more sensitive and permit greater selectivity between relays under certain conditions, which factors may be advantageous on a complex power company system but are of minor, if any, advantage in industrial plants. Directional-overcurrent relays are simpler to apply and adjust than the product type, because only the current magnitude and time-dial setting affect their operating time, whereas the operation of a product-type relay is affected by the line current and the polarizing voltage or current, or both, and the phase angle between them. Directional-overcurrent Relays with Voltage Restraint. These relays are the same as the ordinary directional-overcurrent relays except that there is an additional voltage-restraint circuit in the directional unit. This feature enables the relay to distinguish between short-circuit and heavy-load currents, which may not be very differentin magnitude under some conditions. Under normal overload conditions the system voltage is essentially normal and the voltage-restraining coil prevents operation of the directional element of the relay. As soon as a short circuit occurs, however, the voltage decreases and the restraining effect is reduced or entirely removed, whereupon the contacts of the directional element close and permit operation of the overcurrent element. Since these relays are intended for use on circuits with low magnitudes of shortcircuit current, they are available with 2- to 8-amp coils, as well as the usual 4- to 12-amp or 4- t o 16-amp rating. Differential Relays-General. Differential relays depend for their operation on the fact that when conditions are normal the current flowing into one end of a generator winding, one side of a transformer, or one end of a circuit is balanced by an equivalent current flowing out the other end, i.e., what goes in has t o come out, if everything is in order. This makes it possible to build relays that “watch” the ingoing and outgoing currents difference between them indicates that something is and operate when i wrong inside the protected equipment or circuit. Plain overcurrent relays can be used as differential relays. However,

522

S S E OVERCURRENT PROTECTION YTM

since they work on simple current differential without the help of restraining windings, they must he set quite high in current t o avoid false operation due to current-transformer inaccuracies. Therefore, specially designed differential relays have replaced them almost entirely. Generator Differential Relays. As shown in the diagram of Fig. 9.7, two current transformers of equal capacity and similar characteristics are installed in opposite ends of each generator phase winding, and their secondaries are connected in series with the restraining coils (RC) of the differential relay. Under normal operating conditions the same current flows through the two current-transformer primaries, and corresponding secondary currents circulate through the restraining coils of the relay in the direction of the arrows. When a short circuit develops inside the generator, the current in the two current transformers is no longer the same and the difference in current will circulate through the operating coil (OC) of the relay. When this difference-current flowing through the operating coil exceeds the current in the restraining coil by a certain percentage, the relay operates instantly to trip the generator line and field circuit breakers through an auxiliary relay. These differential relays are of two types. One works on a constant percentage difference in current in the two current transformers (Fig. 9.7) and the other works on a percentage difference that increases rapidly as the short-circuit current increases (Fig. 9.8). They are commonly referred to as constant-slope and increasing-slope relays, because of the shape of their operating characteristic curves. Both types work on the same basic principle of checking the balance of current in the ingoing and outgoing current transformers. The important difference between them is the fact that the increasing-slope type, while costing slightly more, requires less arcuracy in the performance of its current transformers than the constant-slope type does. This means that less time need be spent in calculating the performance of the current transformers, less accurate and consequently less expensive current transformers might possibly be used, or other relays or meters, etc., could be connected in the same circuit with the differential relays, without running the risk of false relay operation due to unequal current-transformer behavior. The purpose of the slope in the two relays is t o prevent false operation due to current-transformer-error currents that might flow in the differential-relay circuit during a severe short circuit outside the differentially protected zone. Error currents ocrur because no two current transformers will perform exactly alike even though made to the same specifications and from the same lot of material. Because the current transformers are not absolutely alike, they saturate unequally when high currents flow through them during external short circuits and t,heir ratio breaks down unequally. If this happens, the unbalanced current flows in the differential-relay circuit, and the relay has no way of knowing

SYSTEM OVERCURPENT PROTECTION

523

l l / V X A A / I / ~ / W l
6

I

I

I
4

I

1
6

1

I

1

I

I

1

I

4 2 0 2 12 AMPERES CURRENT FLOWING FROM BUS T O GEN

8 1 0 1 2 12 AMPERES CURRENT FLOWING FROM GEN TO BUS

1 1 4

~

!
1 6

I

FIG. 9.8 Schematic connection diagram and operating choraderirticr of increaring-slope generator differential relay.

514

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

whether the current it sees indicates a fault in the generator or a “mistake” on the part of the current transformers, which the relay should ignore. The constant-percentage differential relay works on a 10 per cent slope, as shown in Fig. 9.7. The V-shaped shaded area represents the plus or minus 10 per cent margin allowed for current-transformer errors due to unequal characteristics and saturation. The current transformers to be used with such a relay should be selected so that the difference in secondary current output of I , and I , current transformers will not exceed 5 per cent under maximum fault conditions, which leaves a safety factor of 5 per cent without exceeding the 10 per cent margin built into the relay. The increasing-slope differential relay works on the same principle of watching the difference in current output of the current transformers in opposite ends of the generator winding. The essential difference is that the relay is designed so that the margin allowed for current-transformer errors increases rapidly as the short-circuikcurrent magnitude increases. This permits the relay to operate on 10 per cent current differential on low-magnitude faults when there is no danger of current-transformer errors and still not operate incorrectly during severe through faults (external to the generator) even though one current transformer falls down completely. In order for generator differential relays to operate when current is flowing from the generator to the bus, two requirements must be met, namely, (1) the per cent difference between I I and 12 must be greater than the per cent slope shown in the relay curves for the current magnitude involved in that particular fault, and (2) the differential current must equal or exceed the minimum pickup current of 0.1 or 0.2 amp. The relays will always operate on internal faults in a generator when there is feedback current from other power sources, provided the differential current exceeds their minimum pickup current. For all practical purposes both the constant- and increasing-slope differential relays are instantaneous in operation, but the latter is slightly faster. The limitation of ground-fault current, which is usually done on industrial plant power systems for reasons discussed elsewhere in t,his book, reduces the sensitivity of generator differential-relay protection in varying degrees, depending on the relative magnitude of the ground-fault and rated-load current of the generator and the characteristics of the current transformers. The generatar neutral relay can be set to compensate for this deficiency as far as sensitivity is concerned, but i t is only an ordinary overcurrent relay and hence may not operate selectively ip case of an internal fault in one of several individually grounded generators in parallel. Consequentk, a sensitive differentially connected directional ground

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

525

relay should be installed to supplement the main generator differential relay unless the nature of the load is such as to permit shutting down all generators in the plant, if an internal fault in one generator happens to be close enough to its neutral to limit the ground-fault current to such a low value that the main differential relays cannot operate. The unprotected area varies from about 11 to 19 per cent when the neutral current is limited to generator full-load current, and increases if the ground-fault current is further reduced. Transformer Differential Relays. Transformer differential relays are of the constant-percentage-differential type. They work on the same basic principle as generator differential relays, i.e., they watrh to see that when current enters one winding a corresponding amount leaves the other winding, or windings in the case of multiple-winding units. The connections of a transformer differential relay are the same as for a generator differential relay except that the current transformers in the different circuits to transformers have to be of different ratios to compensate for the fart that there is a different voltage in each circuit, and ronsequently the currents are not the same. One type of differential relay used with large transformers has a harmonic restraining feature \\ hich prevents false operation of the relay on the magnetizing current when the transformer is first energized. Since this magnetizing current may be as much as twelve to fifteen times normal, a differentially connected relay responsive only to current magnitude has to be set high enough in current and time to ride through the magnetizing period, which means corresponding reduction in the protection it can provide. The harmonir-restraint feature works on the basis of the fact that the magnetizing inrush current has a distorted wave form containing mostly second- and third-harmonic components, which are not present in short-circuit current. These harmonic components are filtered out and used to restrain the relay and prevent its operation on the inrush of magnetizing current. Provision is made to keep the harmonic-restraint circuit from blocking desired relay operation on internal transformer faults severe enough to create substantial amounts of third-harmonic current due t o a-c saturation of the current transformers. Another form of differential relay used with large transformers uses a supplementary tripping suppressor to prevent false operation on inrush current. The suppressor introduces the necessary time delay to ride through the magnetizing-current inrush under normal conditions and also makes provision for immediate tripping in the event that there is a fault inside the protected zone during the magnetizing period. The non-harmonic-restrained relays used with relatively small transformers depend on a slight time delay to enable them to ride through the magnetizing inrush. I n some cases, however, the inrush current is so

526

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

high that this time delay is not sufficient t o prevent false operation, and i t becomes necessary t o supply supplementary desensitizing equipment, or the suppressor just mentioned. The desensitizing equipment automatically makes the relay less sensitive until the magnetizing current inrush has disappeared. Transformer differential relays require more slope, i.e., a greater per cent difference in the output of t.heir current transformers than generator differential relays do, to allow for the unbalances in current caused by transformer-tap changing in addition t o the differences due to currenttransformer saturation. Without the extra slope it would be necessary to readjust the relay taps whenever the tap ratio of the transformer was changed, e.g., a 5 per cent change in transformer taps causes a corresponding change in the current in that winding, whereas the c.nrrent in the ot.her winding remains essentially t,he same for a given kva load. Some transformer differential relays have a single per cent slope characteristic, while others are adjustable for different slopes. The higher percentage slopes are for use with transformers having a wide tap range, as in load-ratiocontrol equipment. The currents in the different connections to transformers differ depending on the voltage ratio, and consequently different current-transformer ratios are required. I t is necessary for economical reasons to use standard current transformers, however; so it is seldom possible to obtain a cornhination of current transformers that will produce exactly equal current in their secondaries. Therefore, some transformer differential relays are provided with several taps in their windings to permit balancing the ampere-turns in the relay elements connected to the different main-transformer circuits. Other designs of relays depend on external tapped autotransformers to do this. The tap range is sufficiently broad to take care of the requirement that the current-transformer secondaries must be connected in the reverse order of the main-transformer windings, e.g., the current transformers for a Y-delta-connected transformer would he connected delta on the Y-connected side of the transformer and Y on the delta side. This means that the relay coil connected to the delta-connected current transformers would see 1.73 times the current in its individual current-transformer sesondaries, i.e., there would he 8.7 amp in the relay coil when a 5-amp secondary current transformer had full load in its primary. Differential relays are available for hoth two- and three-winding transformers. Those designed for use with three-winding transformers work on the same principle as the others. Bus Differential Relays. There are three types of relays available for differential protection of buses:

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

527

1. Ordinary time-delay overcurrent relays 2. Current-actuated bus differential relays with restraining coils 3. Voltage-actuated relays either differential-voltage or linear-coupler type Ordinary overcurrent relays can he differentially connected, so t h a t they will operate on the difference between the summation of the currents entering and leaving the bus. They are not particularly well adapted for the purpose, however, because the only vay to prevent their false operation when the ratio of a current transformer breaks down, because of d-c and a-c saturation during a severe external fault on a feeder, is to set them high in both current and time. When so set, they are too slow and insensitive to he very effective. The current-actuated differential relays have restraining coils and are much better than the ordinary overcurrent relays, hut they are still not so effective as the voltage-actuated relays. The latter are able to discriminate instantly between faults in the bus and external short circuits on feeders outside the differentially protected zone, even though one or more of the current transformers in the group become completely saturated. One form of these voltage-actuated relays is known as a differentialvoltage relay. It is designed for use with hushing-type or the through or window-type current transformers used in metal-clad switchgear. The relay is connected across the paralleled secondaries of current transformers i n each of the incoming and outgoing circuits. When conditions are normal, the vertor sum of these secondary currents is zero, and no voltage appears across the relay coil. But as soon as either a bus (internal) or external fault occurs, the vector sum is no longer zero and the flow of unbalanced current creates a voltage drop across the relay. Because the voltage appearing across the relay for any magnitude of bus fault is greater than that during an external fault, the relay is able to distinguish between an external and internal fault. The other form of voltage-actuated bus differential relay is known as a linear-coupler relay. These relays are connected in series with air-core mutual react,ors (linear rouplers), which look like conventional bushing current transformers. T h e couplers are installed in all the circuit,s connected to the hns and generate volt,ages in proportion to the flow of current in their primary circuits. Under normal load and external fault conditions, the voltages generated in the couplers in the incoming power circuits' rancel those in the outgoing circuits and no current circulates through the relay. V h e n a bus fault occurs, however, the voltages do not cancel each other, and the resulting current flow causes the relay to operate.

528

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

A-C Wire-pilot Relays (Tie-cable and Relatively Short Transmissionline Protection). 4 - C wire-pilot-relay protection is a form of currentdifferential relaying modified so that a very small portion of the current appearing in the secondary of the current transformers at opposite ends of t.he circuit, actually f l o ~ through the pilot wires. I t is designed to pros vide fast phase-phase, three-phase, and ground-fault protection of tie cables or relatively short transmission lines. In an ordinary differential-relay circuit, the secondary current from the current transformers circulates continuously through the relay and current transformers over a set of four control wirea. Since the four wires must be large enough to limit the impedance sufficiently to avoid saturaliou trouble by overburdening the current transformers, such a system is impractical unless the latter are within a few hundred feet of each other and the relay. This obstacle is overcome in the a-c mire-pilot protection system, because the relays and auxiliary devices are designed to take just a “sample” of the currents flowing in the current transformers at each end of the cable or transmission lines and then compare these samples over a pair of relatively small pilot wires. Under normal load conditions, or even when short-circuit current flows through the line to a fault outside the protected zone (through short circuit), the samples match each other and the relays do not operate. As soon as a fault occurs in the line between the relays, however, the samples no longer match each other, indicating that there is trouble in the protected zone, and the relays operate instantly t o trip their respective circuit breakers. There are two types of a-c wire-pilot relay systems. One operates on the opposed-voltage principle and the other on the circulating-current principle. In an opposed-voltage system, the current samples taken at each end of the line create voltages that are equal and opposite to each other, with the result that no current f l o w in the pilot mires under normal conditions. When a fault occurs, the voltages are thrown out of balance, current flows through the pilot wires, and the relays operate. In the circulating-current system, the small sample current circulates continuously through the pilot wires and directional relays a t each end. When a fault occurs inside the protected zone, the pattern of current flow changes and the relays operate to trip the breakers. Either system will provide adequate protection, although each has some minor advantages that might make it bett,er adapted for a specific application. These systems work best on two-terminal lines, i.e., single circuits with no t,aps or branches, but they can be modified for use with some combinations of lines with branch circuits or taps. . Both systems incorporate the necessary restraint features t o prevent

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

529

false operation due to current-transformer errors during severe short circuits outside the protected zone. These systems will work with pilot wires having a total loop resistance of 2000 ohms and a capacitance of 1.5 pf, which is equivalent to approximately 23 miles of single-conductor No. 19-Awg telephone wire (11.5 power-line-circuit miles). With certain special modifications, the systems will work with higher resistance pilot v.ires, permitting smaller wires or a longer pilot circuit. Industrial plant tie cables are generally of moderate length installed inside the plant, and privately owned multipleconductor control cables are used for pilot wires. It is common practice, however, to rent pilot wires from the local telephone company for the longer circuits involved in transmission-line protection. Pilot-wire Supervisory Equipment. Supplementary eouiprnent can be provided, if desired, which will continuously check on the condition of pilot wires to give warning in case the wires become short-circuited or open-circuited. Current-balance Relays. Current-balance relays are available in induction-disk and induction-cup-type construction for the protection of parallel transmission lines that feed a common terminal and have no branch lines. They operate on the principle that, under normal load or through-fault conditions, the current will be balanced between the two lines. If the currents become unbalanced by a predetermined amount because of a fault in one line, the relays operate instantly to trip the circuit breaker on the line in trouble. Current-halance relays provide phase-phase and three-phase fault protection. Current-halance protection of lines is subject to the handicap that the fast-operating current-halance relays must he disconnected from the tripping circuit when one of the circuit breakers is opened, either manually or by relay operation. Otherwise, the load current which was formerly divided between the parallel lines will unbalance and, therefore, operate the relay when i t is all thrown onto the remaining line or lines. The transfer from current-balance to plain overcurreut relay protection is accomplished automatically by means of auxiliary switches on the circuit breakers. Because of this disadvantage, i.e., reversion to ordinary overcurrent protection on occasion, current-balance protection of transmission lines is losing popularity in favor of distance relays, which provide highspeed protection to the lines whether they are operating individually or in parallel. Distance Relays. Distance relays obtained their family name from the fact that they operate on the basis of the balance between voltage and current, the ratio of which can he expressed in terms of impedance. Since impedance, in turn, is an electrical measure of distance on a trans-

530

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

mission line, which these relays are rommonly used to protect, it seemed quite appropriate to call them “distance” relays. They are a very versatile and useful family of relays operating on the hasis of the location of the fault without regard t o the magnitude of the short-circuit current. Consequently, they can give much faster tripping than relays depending on current magnitude and time settings for selectivity. They are seldom used on industrial power systems, however, because the latter are too compact and the distances too short in most cases to permit proper application of these relays. Consequently, it seemed best not to attempt t o discuss them in detail in this book.
CURRENT-LIMITING AND STANDARD FUSES

I

The two basic types of fuses are the current-limiting and non-currentlirnking or what might he termed standard fuses. Practically all fuses will melt in considerably less than one-half cycle on a 60-cycle basis when subjected t o high values of fault current. However, the arc is a conductor and enables the current to reach its mavimum crest value unless provision is made to put the arc out before the current can reach its crest. When such provision is made, the fuses are classified as current-limiting. Most fuses are self-protecting, that is, they are capable of extinguishing the arc for any value of current within their interrupting-capacity rating limit. Current-limiting fuses for motor-starting service are purposely designed t o carry low values of current for considerable periods of time t o permit repeated starting or jogging of motors. Such fuses must he used in conjunction with a thermally controlled contactor, or other circuitinterrupting device, capable of interrupting currents that would require more than 10 sec to melt the fuse link. Otherwise the entire fuse unit might he overheated to such an extent that. it would not be able to successfully interrupt the current when the link finally melted. Some current-limiting fuses used in the primary of load-center transformers, where it is desired to have selective operation between the fuse and a transformer secondary breaker, are designed to give somewhat longer melting time than standard fuses on high values of fault current in order t o clear the instantaneous trip in the rircuit breaker. Most fuses have a “smooth,” that is, a continuous melting-time curve, but certain types are purposely designed to give more time on moderate overloads of two or three times fuse rating. Such fuses have a jog in their melting-time curves a t the point of transition from slow t o st,andard melting-time characteristic. Fuse time-current operating characteristics are given in terms of the

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531

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SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

DIRECT-ACTING-TRIP DEVICES-GENERAL

A direct-acting-trip device is one that trips its circuit breaker by direct mechanical action when the flow of short-circuit current reaches a predetermined value, whereas a relay works through the medium of an a-c or d-c potential trip coil, or an undervoltage device, t o trip the breaker. Direct-acting trips may be operated by (1) an armature attracted by the

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

533

electromagnetic force crrated by the short-circuit current flowing through a series trip coil or (2) a bimetallic strip or the equivalent actuated by the heat generated by the fault current. The bimetallic strip is usually in series with the circuit on small breakers. On large breakers it may be heated by induction. The majority of direct-acting trips are used on low-voltage (600 volts and below) air rirruit breakers. However, they are also used on power (above 600 volts) circuit breakers in small installations as the only form of short-circuit protection and in conjunction with relays to avoid the use of a tripping battery. All direct-acting-trip devices are less accurate ill their time-current characteristics than relays. It might he possible to build such devices capable of developing sufficient force to trip their breakers directly and still have as high a degree of accuracy as is afforded by overcurrent relays, but the cost would not be justifiable on systems where this type of device is used. Inasmuch as their construction varies, the discussion mill he continued under the heading of the types of breakers with which they are used. Direct-acting-trip Devices on Power Circuit Breakers (above 600 volts). Direct-acting trips are commonly used on relatively low-interrupting-capacity power circuit breakers and are available when required on some of the larger breakers. They are electromagnetic, plunger operated, and may he either instantaneous or time delay. They are usually operated from the secondary of current transformers rather than being connected in series with the primary circuit. Instantaneous-trip direct-acting-trip devices may he used alone to trip their respective circuit breakers, but, for the most part, they are used in conjunction with time-delay overcurrent relays to trip the circuit breakers when there is no tripping batt,ery available. Time-delay direct-acting-trip devices have an oil dashpot with provision for adjustment of the time delay. Adjustment of the current pickup of either the time-delay or inst,antaneous-trip devices is accomplished by varying the position of the plunger in the solenoid. Direct-acting-trip Devices on Air Circuit Breakers (600 Volts a n d below). The direct-acting-trip devices on low-voltage circuit breakers (600 volts and helow) are electromagnetic. They are usually of hingedarmature construction actuated by t,he flow of current through coils in series with the circuit. Three tripping devices are provided on each three-phase breaker. They can he built with instantaneous and long- or short-time-delay trips. These different trips-can he used in a variety of combinations: (1) instantaneous, ( 2 ) long and short time-delay, (3) instantaneous and long or

534

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

short time-delay, (4) instantaneous and both long and short time-delay. A “family” of long- and short-time-delay tripping-device time-current characteristic curves for 15-, 25-, and 50,000-amp interruptingcapacity low-voltage air circuit breakers is shown in Fig. 9.10. The shape of different manufacturers’ direct-acting-trip curves differs somewhat, but the curves have the same basic characteristics as those shown here. I n the design of a tripping device whose curves are shown in Fig. 9.10, the current pickup is adjustable, but the operating time for different current values is not adjustable. I n other designs, both the current trip and the time delay may be adjustable. Tripping-device operation coils are available in a wide range of current ratings up to and including the maximum continuous-current-carrying capacity of the circuit breakers. This is 225 amp for the 15,000-, 600 amp for the 25,000-, and 1600 amp for the 50,000-amp interruptingcapacity (IC) breakers, respectively. The current rating of a circuit breaker is determined by its trip-coil rating rather than its maximum continuous-current-carrying capacity, or so-called ‘‘ frame size.” The current setting of long-time-delay trip devices is adjustable in the field, and pickup-setting calibration markings are a t 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 per cent of the trip-coil rating. They can also be set a t any intermediate value between these calibration points. Some short-time-delay trip devices are also adjustable, in which case they usually have three current pickup settings marked on the calibration scale. The NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association) standard calibration markings of 5, 756, 10 times the trip-coil rating are supplied unless another combination is requested. They can he had with ealihrations anywhere in the range of 2 to 10 times the trip-coil rating, as long as the desired maximum setting is not more than 255 times the minimum setting. Short-time-delay trips are sometimes supplied without provision for adjustment of the setting, because only one of a possible choice of pickup settings will coordinate properly with the characteristics of the tripping devices on the other hreakers in series with it in a factorydesigned selective-tripping system. The curves in Fig. 9.10 are plotted in “multiples-of-the-pickup setting” of the trip coil, e.g., if a 400-amp trip is set a t 80 per cent pickup, 1 multiple of pickup would be 320 amp, 2 multiples would he 640 amp, etc. Present NEMA Standards refer only to upper and lower boundaries of air-circuit-breaker tripping-device curves, and some published curves are plotted in that manner. The area hetween these NEXA limits is shown divided into it,s two components in the curves of Fig. 9.10, so that their significance could be explained in order to give the reader a better understanding of the operation of the device.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

535

The solid-line curves represent the boundaries of the tripping-time zones of the respective devices. Points on the lower of these lines represent the minimum time required for the device to trip on a given value of current. Similarly, points on the upper curves show the maximum limit of the tripping time of the device plus the arc-clearing time of the breaker. These maximum and minimum tripping-time curves represent the manu-

FIG. 9.10 Typical time-current choracterirtic curves of long clnd short time-delay trips on6W-volt aircircuit b r e o k e n ( l 6 0 0 a m p and below).

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SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

facturing tolerances adopted by the industry to define the limits of acceptable performance of hreaker time-delay tripping devices. These tolerances include allowance for variations in magnet and armature structure performance due to machining and slight differences in magnetic material, plus oil-viscosity changes due to temperature. These two curves represent the extremes of acceptable performance, and the operating-time tolerance hand of a given tripping device will be much narrower. All mechanically operated devices have a certain amount of overtravel, i.e., they continue to move in the original direction of motion because of inertia after removal of the driving force. Also, less current is required to creat,c the same pull in an electromagnetic circuit when the air gap is reduced. The dash-dot (reset-time) curves in Fig. 9.10, which correspond to the lower boundary of the operating zones of the tripping device as defined by S E M A , make allowance for these factors in order to avoid false tripping of circuit breakers on the line side of another hreaker, as explained below. As soon as t,he current in the cirSERIES TRIP COIL ON ARMATURE POSITION cuit exceeds the pickup setting of BREAKER AT RESET TIME either a long- or short-time-delay AIR trip device, the armature starts to move at a rate proportional to the ARMATURE PoSITIoN NORMAL series-connected force exertedAt the electromagnetic trip coil. by

w/
/

f

in Fig. 9.11. When the armature of the tripping device reaches this position, the current in the circuit must he reduced immediately to 80 per cent or less of the pickup setting of a long-t,ime-delay (LTD) device, or 20 per cent or less of the pickup setting of a shortbtime-delay device. Otherwise the armature will continue to move and eventually trip the breaker. This continuation of movement in the closing direction from the reset-time position is caused by a combination of overtravel and the increased effectiveness of current in the series coil. The position of the reset-time curve shifts somewhat with variations in the magnitude of the current left flowing in the circuit after the major reduction in current is effected, hut it is impractical to try to make allowance for such-variations. The permissible 80 per cent current limit on the long-time-delay trips enables the hreaker t o carry some normal load current after the high overcurrent period has passed. The same is true of the 20 per cent limit

FIG. 9.1 1 Schematic diagram rhowing operation of 6Mlvolt air-circuit-breaker tripping mechanirm.

time indicated by the intersection of the dash-dot curves in Fig. 9.10 and a current-magnitude ordinate, the armature will have reached a part.ially picked-up position designated position at resettime”

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

537

on the short-time-delay trip device. The latter, incidentally, is more generous than appears a t first glance, since minimum pickup on the commonly used short-time-delay devices is five times normal. To illustrate the meaning of the reset-time curves, assume that a 200amp 1C long-time-delay tripping device, as shown in Fig. 9.10, has its pickup set a t 100 per cent of the coil rating and that the current in the circuit is five times normal. I n order t o prevent false operation, the current must be reduced to 80 per cent of the pickup setting by the opening of some ot,her device, or by a reduction of the start,ing current in the case of motor-starting duty, a t not later than 5.7 sec; otherwise the device will continue to move and eventually trip the breaker, even though its minimum normal tripping time would be 11 sec with five times normal current flowing. When plotting coordination curves of time-delay air-circuit-breaker tripping devices, the area hetween the reset-time and the maximum-time curves (NEMA’S lower and upper boundaries, respectively) should he reserved for the tripping device of each circuit breaker. The long-time-delay and instant,aneous trips are usually combined in a common device. When this is done, the long-time-delay curves “blend” smoothly into the instantaneous-setting curves, as shown by the broken lines on the trip-coil curves in Fig. 9.10 and the typical combination of long-time-delay and instantaneous-trip curves shown in Fig. 9.12. The instantaneous curves are plotted in multiples of rated current and, therefore, are applicable t o any rating of trip coil available in the 15-, 25-, and 50,000-amp interrupting-capacity circuit breakers. It should he borne in mind, however, that the multiples of rated current times the current rating of the particular trip coil must not exceed the interrupting capacity of the breaker. The short-time-delay trip is usually a separate device and does not blend with the others. Consequently, when it is used in conjunction with a long-time or instantaneous trip, or both, there are sharp corners where its time-current curves meet the others, as in the typical combination of curves shown in Fig. 9.13. Instantaneous trips, when supplied alone, are generally adjustable in the field. Some of the instantaneous devices furnished in combination with time-delay trips are also adjustable, whereas others have a fixed setting a t perhaps 4, 8, 12, or 15 times normal, whichever is deemed best suited for the intended use of that particular breaker.
DIRECT-ACTING THERMAL-MAGNETIC TRIPS ON MOLDED-CASE BREAKERS

A combination of thermal and instantaneous magnetic trip is commonly used on the so-called molded-cape low-voltage circuit breakers t o provide time-delay operation on moderate overcurrents and instantaneous opera-

538

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

CURRENT I N TIMES BQEDUER RATING

F G 9.12 I.

Time-current curve of long time-delay and instantaneous trips on MX)-volt air circuit breakerr (1600 amp and below).

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

539

FIG. 9.13 Time-current curves of long and short time-delay and instantaneous trips on 600-volt air circuit breakers (1603 amp and below).

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SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

541

9.14.

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SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

FIG. 9.15 Schematic diagram of typical industrid power system showing possible choice of fault proteclive devices.

DeRnition of Device Numbers and Abbreviations

50 51 51 * 51N 51G 67 67N 87 87G ACB LTD STD Instant

MCB

Inrtmtmeous overcurrent relay [phase protection) Time-delay overcurrent relay (phore protection) Time-delay generator overcurrent relay with voltage restraint Time-delay overcurrent residually connected ground relay Time-deloy overcurrent ground relay in neutrol circuit Directional overcurrent relay (phase) Directional overcurrent relay (ground) Differential relay Generotor differential ground relay Air circuit breaker Long time-delay direct-acting trip Short time-deloy direct-acting trip Instantaneous direct-acting trip Molded-care breaker with nonadjurtoble thermal and instantaneous trip

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

543

TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM FAULT-CURREN1 PROTECTIVE-DEVICE LAYOUT

The schematic diagram of a typical industrial plant electric power supply and distribution system shown in Fig. 9.15 with the fault-current protective devices that might he used on it illustrates the use of the various relays, fuses, and direct-act,ing trips described in this chapter. In accordance with usual practice, the protective devices are identified on the diagram by means of standardiaed device function numbers. For convenience, the numbers that are used on the diagram are identified in the tabulation helow it. A complete list of the industry standard ( M A ) device function numbers is given in the Appendix. This plant has some generators of its own in addition to an incoming circuit from the local power company. This necessitates the use of directional relays for selective fault detection on the incoming line and also introduces another prohlem, namely, how t o disconnect the local plant’s system from the power company line in the event that something goes wrong on the power company’s system resulting in the two systems being split apart, with some of the power company’s load being fed from the industrial plant generators. This condition, as well as the case where t.he local generation is inadequate to carry its own plant load in case the incoming line is disconnected, can cause serious trouble by overloading the local plant generators to such an extent that the whole system collapses and shuts down the plant. The possihility of such a collapse can be prevented by the use of underfrequency relays and other devices whose characteristics and use are outside the scope of this book. COORDINATION OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES The final step in the creation of an adequate a-c short-circuit protective system is to be sure that the various devices are selective in their operation, i.e., coordinated nith each other.
WHAT IS COORDINATION?

On all but the simplest systems there will be two or more circuit breakers, or other circuit interrupting devices, hetween a fault and the source of power. In order to localize the disturbance as much as possible, these devices should be selective in operation, so that the one nearest the fault on its power-source side nil1 have the first chance to operate. If for any reason this protective device fails t o function on schedule, the next device in the chain must be ready to take over the task of opening the circuit, and so, in successive steps t o the power-source circuit breaker

544

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

itself, if necessary, to clear the fault. T o accomplish this objective, the faulecurrent protective devices must have been selected, as in the case of fuses and instantaneous trips, and so forth, or be capable of adjustment to operate on the minimum current that will permit them to distinguish between fault current and perniissible load-current peaks and to function in the minimum possible time and still be selective with others in series with them. When these two requirements are met, the damage to equipment, or the interference with production due to loss of power during a short circuit, or both, will also be a t a minimum. On very simple systems with but one fault-current protective device between the power source and the load, there is no coordination problem, but i t is still necessary to choose a current setting compatible with the load characteristics. All the adjustable devices must be set in the field to achieve the desired coordination. Following is a detailed discussion of some of the basic fundamental procedure involved in making the necessary study of an a-c power system to determine what the current and time settings of the adjustable devices should be, assuming that they and the nonadjustable devices have been selected correctly for the application.
DATA REQUIRED FOR A RELAY-SETTING STUDY
'

An overcurrent protective system is simply a multiplicity of coordinated individual devices, i.e., fuses, direct-acting trips, and plunger or induction-t,ype relays. Therefore, an understanding of their individual behavior, in so far as it affects their coordination with other devices, is a logical starting point for a coordination study; frequently termed a relay study. The necessary data on their individual characteristics were given earlier in this chapter under the heading Types, Operat,ing Characteristics, and Uses of Protective Devices. The next problem is to secure the necessary data from which specific relay or other overcurrent-proteetive-devieesettings may be determined. Following is a list of the basic information needed for this purpose: 1. A one-line diagram of the power system involved, showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated instrument transformers and t,he impedances of all transformers, rotating machines, and feeder circuits. 2. Maximum and minimum values of short-circuit current that are expected to flow through each protect,ive device whose performance is to be studied under varying operating conditions. These data can be obtained from a short-circuit study based on the information contained in the complete detailed diagram of item 1.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

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3. Starting current requirements of motors, and so forth, and their maximum peak-load current. 4. Manufacturers’ characteristic performance curves of the relays, trip coils, and fuses to be coordinated. 5. Manufarturers’ performance curves of current transformers, especially bushing types. 6. Any special overcurrent protertive requirements such as those stipulated by the National Electrical Code or dictated by the load characteristics. 7. Any special overrurrent-protective-device setting reqnirements stipulated by the public-utility company with which the industrial plant may be interconnected. 8. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by generators.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS FOR A RELAY STUDY

The basic data and procedure required for making short-circuit calculations as a preliminary t o a relay study are the same as for a circuitbreaker-duty study, but the combinations studied will be somewhat different. In a relay study the problem is t o determine the characteristics of devices that will (1) be sure to operate on the minimum values of fault current expected at certain fixed times following the instant of short circuit, and (2) be selective in their sequence of operation over the range between minimum and maximum values of short-circuit current, so that the relay or other device nearest t o the fault will be the first to operate. The magnitude of the short-circuit currents, which will determine the settings of the overcurrent protective devices, should be calculated on the basis of the fault current from any power-company ties, plus that contributed by all rotating machines directly connected to the local power system, that is, the user’s own power generation and distribution system. It is, of course, unlikely that every one of the local machines will he in operation simultaneously under normal conditions, but it could be the case during transfer periods when load is being switched from one machine to another; hence the relays, and so forth, must be capable of giving the desired sequential operation on the maximum possible magnitude of current. Usually the fault-current contribution from the power company can be calculated on the Basis of a single reactance value because the relatively high reactance of the tie circuit supplying the industrial plant is sufficient to limit the fault current so much that the effect of differences between maximum and minimum generating capacity and subtransient X y and transient X : reactances are unimportant. Also the decrement effect will

546

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

he eliminated for all practical purposes, see curve 4, Fig. 9.16. If, however, the tie circuit hetween the power company and industrial plant is of large kilovolt-ampere capacity and relatively low reactance, variations in power-rompany system reactance will affect the magnitude of fault current on the industrial system sufficiently to require taking them into account. I t would be advisable in all cases t o check the effect of any variations in power-company reactance until enough experience has been accumulated t o warrant deciding by inspection whether or not their effert would be significant.
EFFECT O F FAULT-CURRENT DECAY DUE T O GENERATOR-CURRENT DECREMENT

O N RELAY PERFORMANCE

As shown by the upper curve of Fig. 9.19 and curve 1 of Fig. 9.16, the fault. current supplied by generators to a local bus, where the total reactance is relatively low, decreases very rapidly and reaches steady-state short-circuit current in 0.5 to 1.0 see for the usual industrial-plant-size generators. The operating time of all time-delay overcurrent protective devices is affected by the decay of fault current due to this current decrement of the rotating machines supplying the short-circuit current. The decrement can be neglected when selecting settings for feeder relays, or time-delay trips, if the steady-state short-circuit current will be sufficient t o operat,e them and the number of relays in series is small so that the accumulated operating-time error will not he objectionable (see discussion relative to Fig. 9.20). I t must he taken into account, however, when (1) setting a generator overcurrent relay with voltage restraint (Fig. 9.20) and (2) setting relays or circuit-breaker trip coils on small systems with very limited generating capacity. In case 1 an actual decrement curve is needed to determine the settings of the generator and feeder relays. I n case 2 i t may not be necessary actually to construct a decrement rurve or curves, hut their general behavior and effect on the magnitude of fault current must he visualized mentally and taken cognizance of t o he sure that the protective devices will operate on the current available a t the time they are supposed t o function. For example, the decrement factor must be given consideration in those cases where a relatively small generator unit supplies power to a large system over week ends. On such a system it is quite possible that the available fault current will he insufficient t o operate the relays on large feeders, in which case a practical solution would be t o let the generator relay trip the generator circuit breaker and shut down the whole system in case of trouble on such feeders. It is particularly important to keep the current decrement in mind when

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

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selecting the devices, as well as their settings, for a system supplied from one or two engine-driven or geared-turbine-driven salient-pole generators, because even their initial fault current is quite low herause of their high inherent reactance. It will he noted from the curves in Figs. 9.16 and 9.19 that the presence of a voltage regulator and the addition of evternal circuit impedance have
40

30 25

20 15
1 0 9 E 7 6 5
4

KV BUS AT POWERHOUSE NO 2 FAULT AT SUB 3- LINES I 8 2 IN PARALLE NO 3 FAULT AT S U E 6 - 2 LINES PARALLELED NO 4 FAULT AT SUE 9 - I L I N E ONLY IN USE

3
2

m
10 . 15 . 2.0 SECONDS T I M E AFTER SHORT CIRCUIT 0 20 40 60 60 00 120 140 CYCLES FIG. 9.16 Short-circuit decrement curves on 33-kv system supplied by two 10.000- and four Moo-kw hrrbine-generator-h~nrformerunits.

0

0.5

!

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SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

a pronounced effect on the magnitude of fault-current contributed by generators. The amount of external impedance in the circuit between the central station generators and the industrial plant is usually sufficient virtually t o wipe out the decrement on short-circuit current from that source. Therefore, the current will be maintained a t the magnitude determined by the system reactance.

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS NEEDED TO PREDICT THE OPERATION OF VARIOUS OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES

Instantaneous Induction or Plunger-type Relays and Circuit-breaker Trip Coils. All these devices are responsive to direct current as well as

alternating current and are fast enough t o operate on the first half-cycle of fault current. Therefore, their operating current will he the initial (instantaneous) asymmetrical fault current contributed by all rotatin