Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

This page intentionally left blank

Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

This page intentionally left blank

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

................................................................................4 7........................................................................................1............................................................................................................1 Introduction ............................................... 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.............................. 213 Exercise Problems ... 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow.... 178 5............................1 Kinetic Energy .... 182 6...................(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .......0 7.............................................................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ..................................7 7................................................................ 159 Concept of Flow Net ...............18.................. 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes ............0 6.......... 219 7............. 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction .......7 6....... 226 ................ 192 6............3 6... 180 6................. 180 6............................................................ 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow ........ 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow ..................................................3 7........................ 174 Exercise Problems .............................................................................................................................................. 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow ...... 181 6............ Separation by 2a) ..........2 6........................................8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)...4 6............................................. 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) .....................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ....................................................... 182 6........................................ 159 Solved Problems .............. Opposite Rotation.......................................................... 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ........... 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ............................................................................................................. Static and Total Head .......................................................................... 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows ....19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications .........................................1.......................................... 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ................................ 194 Objective Questions ...............1.............................2 Potential Energy ....1.......................7 5..............................6 6................ 181 6...8 5..............................3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) ........................................... 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ......................................................................9 5..........5 7...........................................1. 215 6........................................................................................................................ 193 Solved Problems ...4 Internal Energy..5 6............... 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic.........................................1 Pitot Tube ................. 160 Objective Questions ........... 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop ....18....................................................... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter .........18............................................ 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line .......... 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ................1 7.............................2 7.............6 7..............8....................................

.....................................................................................................5.............................. 234 Concept of Equivalent Length ................ 245 Solved Problems ..........1 Geometric Similarity ............................... 243 7.........................................................3................. 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype ..........17 7.......... 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length ................................................................................................................. 273 Solved Problems .... 239 7.. 297 9.....3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters ....................................................19...............18 7......................2 Pipes in Parallel .................(xiii) 7....0 8......... 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters ........................................2 Introduction .............1 8....................................................4 8.............2.........................1 Determination of π Groups... 240 7........................................................2 8..15 7..............2 Dynamic Similarity .....19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop .................. 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow ......................... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity ....... 271 8. 296 9..... 297 9.......... 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem . Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ....4 Pipe Network ......................11 7........................................3 Branching Pipes .................................. 259 8 Dimensional Analysis ....................................................... 256 Exercise Problems .............................................................................19.2......................... 296 Model and Prototype ............................................................1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission ............... 245 Objective Questions ............................9 7............................. 232 Losses in Elbows..... 297 9.............................................................................13 7...19.........12 7...........18..... 270 8....................3 Kinematic Similarity .................................................. 291 Exercise Problems .......................................................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy . 271 8.................................................. 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow .......................................... 270 Correlation of Experimental Data .......................................................................................................... 263 8....................................... 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes .......................................................................................10 7...........................................................1 Problems with One Pi Term ..... 265 8.........................................2 Problems with Two Pi Terms .................................................................................................................................................... 273 Objective Questions ..2.16 7....................... 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups ..........................................................19.................1 9.............................................................................................................................. 298 ........ 241 7..................0 9......... 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes .........................................3 8........5................................................................................................................................ 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow ..... 238 Network of Pipes ..................................... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing ................... 238 7..............................................................5............................................................................................................................5 Introduction .... 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow ..............................................14 7.......

......................... 322 10........................ 337 10...... 321 10.............................................................................................................................3............................. 330 10..1.................1 Flow Through Closed Conduits .2............ 360 11.............................................................. 298 9........................................ 338 10...................................1 Flow Over Flat Plate ...........1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift ..........................................................................................................................3 Momentum Equation ............................3 Pressure Drag ............................................................. 362 11... 324 10......................................................................... 303 Solved Problems .......3................................................3 Flow with Free Surface ................. 363 ....................3........3 11 Flow Measurements ............................................ 321 10................................... 335 10........................... 302 Conclusion ..................... 359 Velocity Measurements...................... 339 Solved Problems ................................... 362 11...........................................1 11............................2 Introduction ...........5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ...........................................................................................2.......................................................................................................................................0 10........................ 303 Objective Questions ......1............................................ 325 10. 298 9.... 356 10.............3 Types of Model Studies ..................................................................................................2 10............................ 353 Exercise Problems ................................... 331 Turbulent Flow ...........................2...... 299 9....2.................................................................. 300 9....... 315 Exercise Problems ..........................................................................................1....................................... 317 9...........................................................1............(xiv) 9...............7 Momentum Thickness ... 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations .................................................1..................4 9.......3............................................................................................................................. 334 10............................3......................................................................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder .............................4 Laser Doppler Anemometer ......3... 322 10.....................................................5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift ................................2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ......................................................................................................4 Solution for Velocity Profile ...........3............1................. 336 10....................3 Hot Wire Anemometer......1 Pitot Tube ..... 341 Objective Questions ..................................................... 334 10.................2 Continuity Equation ................................ 321 Boundary Layer Thickness ......................... 359 11. 359 11......5 Integral Method ..........................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ...............................4 Models for Turbomachinery ..........................3................................. 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers ....1...........................................................3..........................................................1 Introduction ................6 Displacement Thickness ..........3...................................................4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ..... 327 10.................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies....

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

This page intentionally left blank

1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

60 0.1 × 0.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius.15 × 2] = 1. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0.3 Example 1. m 0.4. u.88 3.40 6. Substituting the values.00 0. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line).60 8.04 0. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s.1 m (wall surface. The viscosity of the fluid is 0. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).018 Ns/m2.06 0. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2.08 and 0. 1 = µ × [(0. 0.02 0. N/m2 0. µ = 0.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity.10 Shear stress.72 1.60 Shear force. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0.5.Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force.16 2. 0.72 1. Assume that the plate moves centrally.00 Example 1.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).63 2.18 0.15 × 0. m/s 0. Determine weight of the plate. Substituting the values. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate.05 Ns/m2 or 0.00 0.04. u = 10 [1 – (r/0. For 2 m length of the cylinder. Shear stress = 0.90 4.40 3.02 N (weight of the plate) . N 0.00 9.1)2] m/s along the radius r.06 0.52 Velocity.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq. 1.00 0. 0.02.44 2.08 0.

In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist.8. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig. tooth paste.6. 1.4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m.8. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0. Paint.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate. In plastics. L = 0. D= 0.1 m/s. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation.1) = 2714 N 1. Force. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1.8. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow. In shear thickening materials.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation. τ = µ (du/dy)). printers ink . Substituting. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible. ideal plastic and shear thinning. viscosity. Shear force is not involved in its deformation.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2.2.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. The kinematic viscosity is 2. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature.1 m/s. F = 2. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same). In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy.2.1 m.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0. du = 0.4 × 0.8.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1.

1. 1. In the case of gases. in the case of gases.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases.8. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases. The unit in SI system is m2/s. These are also shown in Fig. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low).2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction.2. It may be explained by modifying equation 1. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity. 1. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. As temperature increases. In the case of liquids. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure. So. ν = µ/ρ . A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow.8. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s. for relative motion between layers. So. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. which is usually for 1 atm. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences. (1. 1. Hence. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two.8. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. viscosity increases with temperature. But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density.4) .8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg.8. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. namely.8. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome.

rpm and the torque. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity.15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface. the value of viscosity can be calculated. These are the popular instruments for industrial use.8. substituting.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d. the time for the flow through a standard orifice. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations.00225 Ns/m2 or 2.9.15 mm.5.1a). Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15. diameter. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.12 1. 200 .8.5.2 Nm. In this case both are assumed to be equal. µ = 0.3).5.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.9. Knowing the length. 0.7.1/4)] Solving for viscosity.8. determine the viscosity of the oil. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1.2 + (0. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2. film thickness. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long. 0. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h. Refer Example 1. 1. Example 1. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex.0015)] × [0.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers.25 cP. 1.h) {L + (R/4)}.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1.13)/(15 × 0.8.7. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders. 1.

1 Shear stress. y = h. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h). proper units are listed below: L. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid.8. The head causing flow is known. (1. Using Stokes equation. Determine the viscosity of the oil.8.1) (1.052)/(32 × 1. Volume flow per second. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1.1 and 1. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. h should be in meter and N in rpm. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60.9.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1.9.85 Ns/m2.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation.8. Tangential force = τ × A.9. 1.9. This equation is known as Stokes equation.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1.5.5 . 1. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0. gravity force will equal the viscous drag.53 × 15) = 0. 1.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1.8.9.9. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus. D.4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column.052/4) = 1.1a) .80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s.8. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall.002) = 7. Q = ( π d2/4) V.9.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0.8.6) where r is the radius of the ball. At this condition. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity). substituting If radius is used. 1 poise = 0. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0. Example 1. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance. R.1 Ns/m2) (1. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). Hence µ can be calculated.2) (1. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter.53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0.002/2)2 × 9.9.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0. As power. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas). µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1.2. A = πDL Torque.

3) = 106.3 × 400/60 = 6. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.74 W) 1.03 {(6. 2πrN. Example 1.dr. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.001} = 188.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings.µ.9.9.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1.h = [µπ2N/15. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).6 N Torque Power required = 106.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings. 1.28 – 0)/ 0.995/60 = 670 W. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm.28 m/s τ = 0.3 × 0.r/60. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft. The force on the strip is given by. y = h.10. End effects are neglected.2.9. (check using eqn.03 Pas. Linear velocity variation is assumed.h]r3dr .2. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius.15 = 15.6 × 0.9.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15.9.4 × (2 × π × 0. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr. Axial location is assumed.2. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60.

206 mm .11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface.3a) (1.000206m = 0. substituting the given values.e. Solving torque.9. 0. Torque.9.154 – 0.5) (1. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × . Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0.682 = (30 × 0. 0 to R.3 m OD transmitting power. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60. using equation 1.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required. Hence.11.6) Example 1. Oil film Collar T = 0. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used.9.9.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP.. Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1.0001) × π2 × 700 × (0. 1.9. (1.682 Nm Figure Ex.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power.9. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre.5.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i.0001 Ns/m2. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s. substituting the values. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1.9.2 m ID and 0. Power = 2πNT/60 W.

3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60).3.cos θ)} µ(2πrN. substituting the values .sin θ.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex. Equation 1.sin θ).5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0. The 1.9.12. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1.8) Power required. Hence contact surface area = 2πr.3 m 0. the length OA being r/cos θ.h.9. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0. dT = π2µNr2dr.9. For contact only between R1 and R2. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr.dr/sin θ.7) 2.9) π Exmaple 1.3 m.3 = 0.cos θ. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing.5 m. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1.9.5 – 0.9.9.r Torque on element.cos θ and the film thickness is h.8 is applicable in this case.16 1.02 Ns/m2.667.3)/0./sin θ.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr. The height of the cone is 0. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°. h and R in metre the torque will be in N.3 m and 0.3. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.h sin θ (1. tan θ = (0. sin θ (1.m. 1.5 m 0. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0. as shown in figure 1. N rpm R.12 Ri4)/ 60.9. Torque = F. h.h.r/15.9. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1.h.

when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface.9 also.03 × 700 × (0. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m). This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random. Note the high value of viscosity 1. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension.54 – 0.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0.34]/ [1800 × 0. So they stop and return back into the liquid. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface .36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1.0015 × sin 34 = 149.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W.54 – 0. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid.36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149. This is due to the surface tension of water. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid. So also the formation of a free jet.10. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface.34)/60 × 0.9. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other. to form the surface. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0. The formation of bubbles.10. 1.

When the adhesive forces are lower.2.10.3N. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height. These are shown in Fig.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. 1. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0.2 Surface tension. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached. Oils. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface. h.10. the specific weight of liquid being γ.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension.15 N/m. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. water etc.13.10. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ. 1. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface. exhibit such behaviour. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence. Equating. Example 1.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1. Solving.10. These are said to be surface wetting.1.10. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β.10.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. Surface tension. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1. Such liquids are called nonwetting. σ = 0. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1.

1.10.81 × 0. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9.48 × cos135)/(0. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure. Example 1. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0. Using eqn.5 N/m and β = 130°. Assume σ = 0. The ID of the tube is 2 mm.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center.10.48 N/m.10. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression.81) = – 5.2.002 × 13600 × 9.15. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5.3 Pressure difference.002) = – 4. γ = 13600 × 9. doubly curved surface . Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.09 mm 1.82 × 10–3 m = – 4.82 mm Example1.14. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1. The contact angle is 135°. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference.09 = 762.09 × 10–3m = – 5. In a closed end single tube manometer. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. = ρg = 13600 × 9. Specific weight of mercury.

For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface. taking two halves of the cylinder. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative). This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained.4.10.10. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves. in radians.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2. pressure force = DL(pi – po). sin θ = θ. 1.10.10.10. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces.10.10.3) (1. Rearranging. s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension. r1 = r2 = R So.4) where R is the radius of the sphere.10. Cancelling the common terms (1.6) . The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium. and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1.

∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension. Example 1. without any modifications.03mm.11.10.67 N/m2 = 2. For water the maximum is at about 50°C. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases. Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0. The surface tension is 0. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}. reaches a maximum and then decreases.000 atm. The unit is the same as that of pressure. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2). σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. In the case of gases. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure. obviously. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus.05 = 1118 m/s. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally. . Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1.19.17.5. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. Example 1. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v).003/4) = 0.18. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3.0135 N/m 1. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0.04/(0. Rearranging. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp.11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density. substituting the values.67 kpa Example 1.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa.5. This definition can be applied to liquids as such.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666.16. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. Referring equation 1.04N/m.25 × 109/100]0. The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used).

The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process. Determine the pressure at that point.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. Bulk modulus. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. compressibility = k × P.11. dv. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. In the case of gases the variation of volume.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition.6 m/s.11. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0. 1.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. denoted as k). From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0. namely. If n = 0.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. .07% Example 1. dp. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air. 353.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1. For isothermal process. with variation in pressure.11. compressibility is infinite. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. For isentropic process. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. n = 1. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32.3 m/s. If n = ∞. At certain depth in water. will depend on the process used. oxygen.1 m/s and 1321.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P. 330.59 bar.11. compressibility = P. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ. If dp = 0.5 it can be shown that (1. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v).5 = [go × k × R × T]0.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility.11.3 m/s. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2.20.

.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place.12. This pressure is known as critical pressure. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon.12.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. (1. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. . The various properties like specific heat. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. As the temperature increases. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume. The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases. This topic is studied under Psychrometry. of the mixture can be determined from the composition. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V . 1. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other. gas constant etc.12.. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature.. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature.Physical Properties of Fluids 1. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature.

2.475 = 2.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0.00 6 29. The force required (eqn 1. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area.2).1.475 × 0.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9.002)]} = 43. F = 0. Density = specific weight/g. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane. h = 0. and the distance between the large planes be h. Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum.014 Ns/m2 . A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction.75 3 33.0/0.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. u = 5 m/s.. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y).484 N. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} .03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. y mm Force. Refer Fig.17 h–y y h Figure P. Model calculation is given for y = 0..002) + [1/0. Considering unit area. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below. Equation A is used in the calculation. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s. dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}. µ = 0. Problem 1.81] × (4.001) × 0.014 × 5 × {(1/0.8. Let the velocity of the small plane be u. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given. where τ is shear stress. or dF/dy = 0. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square.2.33 4 29.002 m. and µ is dynamic viscosity.17 5 28.2 Problem model . τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy). µ = 0. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes. Differentiating the expression A.01 – 0.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s. N/m2 2 43.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. So. the film thickness being 1 mm.1. P 1.1 m.

y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root. Problem 1. Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1. The viscosity of the oil was µ1.7)/(1 + 0. u = 5 m/s.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving.39 c = 0. N/m2 1.7) = 0.7 . c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate. Equating to zero yields.004 × 0. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i.65 50. P1.5 60.0 52.3.. Let the gap size be h. µ = 0. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ.4.e. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y.49/y) + [1/(0.004 – y)]}. Let it be located at a distance.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0.5 50. The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h). If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller.014 × {(0.15 2.58 2. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F.63 1.49 or c = 0. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}. mm Force. A quadratic equation.87 1. the derivative dF/dy should be zero.014 N/m2 .0 57.

592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0. Force F = A × τ = 0. h = 0. T = 0.9.3. check from basics.e.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.2 i.1 and 1.2) n = 194 rpm.9. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.07253/ (450 × 0. A circular disc of 0. (Check using the equation 1. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them.001). (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h). Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP.0005 m.8.0525 × n.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3.) Problem 1.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces.0005) Solving for u.45 × 3 × 0.182 m2.15 m. speed.2885 × n N/m2. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.592 × 10–3 × n/0.145 × n/60 = 7. the area being π × D × L.20) × 0. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.0525 × n × 0. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0.5 mm = 0. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also. The equation that can be used is. n = 300 rpm. Solving. µ = 19 cP = 0. Substituting the values.1 Nm.16374 m/s.0005) = 0.182 = 0.019 Ns/m2.2 m ID and 0.6. R = 0. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3. y = 0.5 mm. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.216 Ns/m2.5 mm. . Two bearings of 20 cm width are used. Solving speed. Problem 1. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0.1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0.9.019 (7. 0.. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N. µ = ρv = 2.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). Torque = force × radius.2885 × n × 0.8.216 × (u/0. Adopting the second method.001 m. A = 2 × π DL = 0. 1.154/ (60 × 0.7. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0.0005)] Problem 1. (care should be taken to use radius value. 15 = [0.145/2 = 3.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power. (h – clearance). Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W.5.8. Using equations 1. velocity = 0. The equation to be used is 1.

0.04. R2 = 0.08 m. h = 6. A conical bearing of outer radius 0.5 = 17.002)} = 0. Linear velocity variation is assumed. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0. Ro = 0. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.9 i.3 m) 0. R1 = 0. Clearance. (du/dy) = 5/0. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used.14}/{(60 × 0. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside. Problem 1.626 × 10–3 m or 6.04 m.014 N/m2 .001 × π2 × 500 × {0.5. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error. At the wall.5 – 0.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.08.9. h = 0.243 W. n = 500 rpm. (du/dy) = 5/y0. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately.01/10–6 = 10000. Problem 1. The support is rotated at 500 rpm. n = 500 rpm.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0.080.08 m from the surface.3)/0.04 and 0. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.2 = 1. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0.3 m and height 0. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6.15 m.5).5 m 0.54 – 0.11. τ = 17.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0.68.5 m.e.5012/60 = 26. y is given by u = 10 y0.10.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface. (du/dy) = 10000..040.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1.5. τ = 25 × µ y = 0.1 m.001 Ns/m2. So θ = 45°.002 m T = 30 × 0.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0. Solution is obtained from basics. (du/dy) = 5/0. the difference in y value is 10–6. tan θ = (0.9.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance. the velocities are 0.5 = 25.5 m and inner radius 0. u = 10y0. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary.154 – 0.03 Ns/m2.63 mm Problem 1.001= 0. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.03 × 5002 × (0. h = 0.9.5.2 m 0. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length. Using equation 1.0 and 0. µ = 14 × 0. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length). Ri = 0. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y.

The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0. Problem 1.25 × 0. Solving. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o .04 × 0.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848.062/0.1)2] m/s.28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder.88 N/m2.042 = 212. F = 0. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.498 × 0. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3. Using general notations.498 N torque = F × R = 0.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same. Problem 1.04 This can be checked using equation.04.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0. τ = – 2 N/m2.513 N. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases.13. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.014 × 94.014 = 11. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept.06 = 29. (see problem 1.04 m.05 and r = 0.04 = 94. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0.12. τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri.1)2].) τ = 0.1.06/s.1 m.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0. r = 0.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.04. = 212.014 × π × 0. du dr × 25 × 0.062/0.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r.25 × 0.022 = 848.08 × 1 × 0. At mid radius R = 0.31 = 0.25/s. 29. 0.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94. τ = µ (du/dr). τ = µ (du/dr) = 0. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.02 Ns/m2 .06/s 0.77/0.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2. F = 2.05.25 = 1. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction. Shear force F = 2πrLτ. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3.12 × 1 × 1. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.

The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length. F0.6 × 0.6 m/s. Determine the force required. F0. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.0002/0. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2.36 N. The clearance. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. .814 N.3 × 4.0001}] × [ln(0.814 N If the clearance was uniform. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. Problem 1. t at location X is obtained.2 = 13. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t. 18. assuming t1 > t2.2 mm. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4.0001)] = 18. assumed linear.143 N The arithmetic average is 20.14 Problem 1.14.1 mm over a length of 0. τ = µ (du/dy).1 mm. For t = 0. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0.8 × 10–2}/{0.572 N.1. Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure.15.1 × 0.1 = 27.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m.2 mm to 0.0002 – 0. The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.3 m.

0002 – 0.81 N/m3.13 × 0. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)].3 × 6002 × 7.29 Nm.1 × 10–2 Pa. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L. Equating the surface force and the pressure force.004] = – 1. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] . t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60. Assume surface tension as 0. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0.s (Ns/m2).0002/0.0001)}] × [ln (0. The shaft runs at 600 rpm. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0. Problem 1.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0. t at location X is obtained. Determine the torque and power required. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7.0002 – 0. π Problem 1. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. The distance between the ends is L m. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX.8 W.0002/0.45 N/m and β =115°.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. assuming t1 > t2 . as linear profile is assumed. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60.16.1 × 10–2}/{120(0. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].431 mm.2 mm to 0. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.3 × 600 × 7.18.1 mm over a length of 0. The oil has a viscosity of µ.0001)] = 457.3 m. Solving for h. P = [{π3 × 0.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy).29/60 = 458W.81 × 0.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length.0001)}] × [ln (0.431 × 10–3 m or – 1. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length.13 × 0. The clearance.0001)] = 7.

The contact angle is 60°.2 = 0.1 N/m.02 N. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.19.20.1005 N.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1.15 N/m. Problem 1.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD.21. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.0365 × 2}/{0. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0.0365 N/m.1. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P. Assume β = 0.22. F = 2 × 1 × 0.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14. Problem 1. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle.1005 N. The surface tension is 0.0254 mm. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure. 0.1 = 0. The force required at the time of separation was 0. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. σ × 2 × π × 0. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. Solving σ = 0. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Determine the surface tension of water. . Problem 1. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension.6 kN/m2. Surface tension is 0.

Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.92 = 765.022 N/m.81 × 0. (using equation 1. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0.45 × cos 60}/{0.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value.24. Capillary rise. equating forces. Problem 1.15]/ [1. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}. . R = [2 × 0.51 N/m.25. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc.10. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating. The contact angle is 140°. The contact angle is 60°.26.5 N/m2. Problem 1.45 N/m2.32 = 1.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0.82 mm. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0.92 mm.15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0. The tube is 3 mm in dia. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression. The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by.003] = – 3. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.10. Problem 1.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po).3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So.022}/{0. Problem 1.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension.92 × 10–3 m or – 3. So the additional force = 2 × 0.82 × 10–3 m or 1.81 N/m3. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].0025} = 17.212 N. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. equation 1.23.106 = 0. Initially the pressure is 10 bar. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight. The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm.92 mm of mercury. The piston diameter is 100 mm.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3.0152/4} × 6 = 0.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0.15} = 6. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. The temperature remains constant.

Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v). By definition—eqn 1.11. the pressure is 880 bar. Solving. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1. dv = – 0.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. The density will increase due to the pressure increase.11. Problem 1. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%.0% due to the increase in pressure. v2 = [– 0.00152) = 3. At the surface. 3.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement. When the applied load is released solids _________. At a certain depth.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0.5 × 10–6). Solving dv = – 2. Determine the density of sea water at the depth.01 bar. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2.12 = 1.002).48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9.991 × 10–3 m = 1.47 × 10–4 m = 0. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line). substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.11. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1.5 cc. The atmospheric pressure is 1.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0. . The density increases by 4.27.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1]. 2. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________.28.

In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. 6. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. Density is defined as _________. 7. 8. Specific gravity is defined as _________. A vapour is defined as _________. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state . 10. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. 3. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself. A liquid is defined as _________. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. 4. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. 6. In some solids molecules come out when heated. 7. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. O Q 1. Specific weight is defined as _________. The three phases of matter are _________ . Gases _________ the container.5. 2. 10. A gas is defined as _________. A mole is defined as _________. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. The distance between molecules is highest in _________. The phenomenon is called _________. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. . 9. 5. 4. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. Answers (1) Solid. 6. 3. When heated the atoms in solids _________.34 4. A fluid is defined as _________. 10.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. 8. 5. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. 2. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. 7. 8. Fluids cannot withstand _________. The distance between atoms is least in _________. 9.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.

7. 9. 6.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance. 3. 4. When gravitational force increases density _________. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 10. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. 5. 4. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________. O Q 1. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. An ideal fluid is defined as _________. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. 6. 8. O Q 1. 2. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. When gravitational force decreases density _________. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate. 4. 3. 2. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. 10. 3. 9. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. 7. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. . Surface tension is defined as _________. Viscosity is defined as _________. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. 8. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. 5. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. 2.

3. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. At constant temperature. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. 8. 6. 4. 4. As temperature increases. 8. 8 Decreases 1. 5. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. 10. 3. 8. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. 9. 10. 6.36 5. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. 10. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 4. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. 9 O Q 1. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. 3. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. 10a Decrease 2. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. Answers Increases 1. 4. the vapour pressure _________. 10b Remains constant 3. . 7.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. 1. 6. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. 10 Remains constant 7. Answers Increases 2. the capillary will rise. 9. 5. 9. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. 2. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. 8. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. 7. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. 6. 5. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. 7. 9. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. 2. 7 O Q 1. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. 5.

4. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. Classify them accordingly. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. 11 O Q 1. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. Liquid bubble 5.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. The shear stress is 3. 10 Incorrect 1. 10.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. The density is 600 kg/m3. 4. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. 3.00004 π Viscosity 2. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. 7. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1. 6. 7 O Q 1. 2. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2. 3. 1. 11. The weight of man will be lower on the moon. The viscosity is 1. Mass is measured by a spring balance. 4. Momentum transfer 2.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0. 5.11 Choose the correct answer.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity.01 – r2). 10 Incorrect 2. 8. Free surface of liquids 8. 1. 5. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place. The mass of an object is 10 kg. 8. 4.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. The dynamic viscosity is 1. 5. 9. 9. 5. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0.2 × 10 (b) 1. 8. 6. 9. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . The pipe radius R = 0.2 × 10–1 N/m 4. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7.1 m. 6 O Q 1. Capillary rise 3. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. 3. Free jet 6. 7. 7. Drag 4. 1. 6. 3. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1.

Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. surface tension B. droplet formation 2. 17. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. specific volume. 10. 3-B. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. 18. momentum transfer C. 3. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. 7. 12. gravitational acceleration D. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. 4. 4-B (ii) 1-D. 21. weight 3. 2-A. weight density and specific gravity. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. 9. 16. 5. specific weight (ii) 1.38 O Q 1. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. 6. Differentiate between the three states of matter. 2. N/m3 C. surface tension 3. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. 2-C. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. 2-A. 8. dynamic viscosity 2. ideal fluid 4. density 2. N/m B. Set A (i) 1. kinematic viscosity 4. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. 4-C (iii) 1-D. Define density. 3-D. free surface (iii) 1. 13. 3-A. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. liquid D. Newtonian fluid Set B A. 19. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. kinematic viscosity 4. shear stress A. . kg/m3 D. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 14. capillary rise 3.12 Match the pairs. 15. m2 /s A. 11. Distinguish between vapour and gas. zero viscosity B. 20.

Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid. Determine the diameter of the disc.08. Assume linear velocity profile on either side.4 m and inner radius 0. 0. Determine the ID of the cylinder.2 mm) E1.0 cP.614 kg/m3.8 m/s.81 N.94 N/m3.04 and 0. (10. E1. A small thin plate of 0. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp. (8.8 mm.011614. (200 mm) E1. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp. 1.58 Nm) E1. 1340 W) E1.2 m and height 0.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them.2.32 N. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0. (5 kN/m2) E1.6.79 Nm.9.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0.02 Ns/m2.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13. The support is rotated at 600 rpm. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square. determine specific weight of the liquid. (20.7 poise.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2. The force required was 0.4. pipe of 40 mm diameter.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.0861 m3/kg) E1.2 m/s is 267. The weight of the plate is 1 N. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP. the flow velocity being 1.5.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. Determine the density.3. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30. (1.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1.08 m. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1.326 Nm. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. E1.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used.11 If u = 10 y1. A thin plate of 12. Determine the distance between the plates. Determine the film thickness.734 N.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 .3). The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0. (5 mm) E1. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1. Determine the viscosity of the fluid.98 cp in a pipe.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over. the film thickness being 1 mm. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.069 Nm. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s. 113.16 m ID and 0. E1.1.4 kN/m3) E1. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig. (11.

20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used. in terms of h.99 mm.1. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height. 1. β = 129°. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted.15 Figure E.001 Ns/m2. (2 × 10–3 N/m2.94 N/m2) E1. m) Figure E. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2. a force of 0. (0.0365 N/m. (0.1. ω. Determine the value of surface tension.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm. Determine the droplet size.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid.17 mm is due to capillary action.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 . The mass m causes the movement. (0.16 E1. Determine the value of surface tension. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a.0254 mm) . (F = µu A/ h.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque. Assume β = 0.0728 N/m) E1. β = 0. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. α and µ.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2. Determine the value of surface tension.0728 N/m) E1.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure. (0.511 N/m) E1.40 E1. out of this 3. m m u Figure E. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1.0732 N.13 E1. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature.1.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3. r.1 N/m) E1.874 kN/m2.14 As shown in figure. µ = 0. (0.

(0. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri). (10 m) .51 N/m.0735 N/m. (0.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. (3.76 mm.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0.27 An additional force of 0.5 mm dia is (0. the density was measured as 1024. determine the percentage change in density. The atmospheric pressure is 1. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle.0389 N/m. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces.96. Determine the value of surface tension. (10 µm) E1. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1.0365 N/m.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.7%. E1. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37. The specific gravity of oil is 0.43 kg/m3.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar.5 kg/m3. 8 mm) E1. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects. E1.45 N/m) E1.04 × 109 N/m2.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065.92 mm of mercury column.1 bar and –50°C. σ = 0. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus.63%) E1.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm. (10 m) E1.6 N/m2.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C. Determine the average value of bulk modulus.82 mm. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765. if 5. At the surface.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used.49 × 106 N/m2. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1. determine the capillary rise in water. The contact angle is 140°.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2. (172 N/m2) E1.15 N/m. If the surface tension of the oil is 0.022 N/m) 17. Assume the value of surface tension as 0. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. there was a 4. The capillary rise was 1. E1. (762 mm) E1.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2.01 bar. The contact angle is 60°. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. The surface tension is 0. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material. (0.

In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. P is as below: 42 . When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. but this is usually small in magnitude. A ship floating in sea is an example.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. 2. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. However a more precise definition of pressure. The force exerted by fluids vary with location.

Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’.2. 2. The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A. This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge.1. This is also a popular unit of pressure. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure. . Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure.1. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure. dF = P dA (2.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used. 2. In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2.1.2. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure.

Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1.62 × 105 N/m2 . 1. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig.2. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while.2. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure.1.2. The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure.62 bar.62 bar = 1. Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured. 2. This is called Vacuum.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. Example 2. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure.

The proof for the statement is given below. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero. Py.3 kPa 101. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum.3) × 760 = 159. the force due to specific weight should be considered. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But.013 bar = 101. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0.3 – 80 = 21. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2.81 N/cm2 = 9. dl × cos θ = dz So. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components.1.3/101. Let the pressure in the x.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 .81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9. Convert this pressure into head of mercury.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest. The barometer indicates 1.62 × 105 N/m2 = 1.3.8 mm of Hg 2. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101.2. 2. For the element to be in equilibrium. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area.3 kPa. Pz.3 kPa = (21. y and z directions be Px. Barometer reading = 1.3. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21.013 bar. First considering the x direction.62 × 105/98100 = 1.

Hence. By using an element in the other direction. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2.4. 2. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles. Pressure forces are called surface forces.4. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured.4.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. Also. . 2. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or.4. as shown in Fig. dl × sin θ = dx. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. So. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2.1. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying.2). This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2.

4. dP/dx = 0 47 (2.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration.4) Chapter 2 In y direction. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container.4. 2. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0.e. The oil does not mix with water. these being incompressible. first for oil and then for water. If the fluid is incompressible. In a static fluid. This leads to the statement.81 × 0. Example 2.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9. the pressure increases along the depth.4. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0.68 N/m2 = 1. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2. This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers.0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217.4. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2.82 for another 40 cm.4.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location. This has to be calculated in two steps.4 = 3217.68 N/m2 = 3217.3 = 2943 N/m2 . the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i.6. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0.81 × 0. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1.4. P will be constant if y is constant.6. In equation 2.5) (2. s) For x axis. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar.7) As y increases. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids. planes normal to the gravity direction..4. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2.4. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation.3.

81 = 11.68 N/m2 = 6160. P = 43. Example 2. 2. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po.e. at any location i..4.81 × 0.4 × 105 + 900 × 9.3 = 6160.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9.3 and 2.68 + 1000 × 9. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa.68 N/m2 or 1.4 bar.8145 bar (absolute) 2.4.4.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density. If γ = γ (P.4. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.4.5.48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5.2.28 × (5000 – 0). dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both. (P/γ) = (Po/γo). calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.005°C per metre.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11.0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant.8145 × 105 Pa = 5.4. Solving. using equation 2.7) .4.600 N/m2 = 0. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.

Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )].10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)]. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity. where the pressure is to be determined. y = 5000 m and solving.5.506 N/m2 = 0.1 (a). 2. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB).1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2. The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations. The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known. For dimensional homogenity go should be used.4.5. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or.9) (2. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2. In Fig. Hence it is often left out in the equations. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. P=1× 105 exp [– (11.1 (b).4. The principle of operation is shown in Fig. 2.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest.893 N/m2 = 0. Integrating. Now y = 5000. ρ × g = (P × g/RT).4. 2.5. Chapter 2 . The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit.005. (P/ρ) = RT.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. 2. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. to the end point. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers. It needs no calibration.55506 bar (2. the pressure is the same. ρ = (P/RT). T = To – cy Pv = RT. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55.

2.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.9 × 1000 × 9.9 × 13600 × 9. Determine the pressure at point A. With respect to datum at B. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig. 2. 2.1 (b)).9 × 1000 × 9. Example 2.6.9 0. horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112.9 m Water C B Hg (13. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges. As only gravity is involved.6 .81 + 0. S = 0. Ex. The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.125 × 900 × 9.5.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.125 m A 0.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0.5.6.

6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.2. the reading may be amplified.81 × 0.7 = Patm + 3237. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement. S = 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9.8 Example 2.5.1.4 m E + 0.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil.Ex.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0. Determine the pressure at A. 2.7.4] = Patm + 7161.3 kPa (gauge) 2.2] = 40000 – [(0.2.9 × 1000) × 9.9 C D B B Water 1.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.81 × 0.405.3 C + A E 0. A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured.81 × 1.81 × 0.2] = 29. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density.8 m B 0.8.9 × 1000) × 9.7. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B.3 N/m2 or 7161. The area ratio is the significant parameter. Ex.9 × 1000 × 9.5. S = 0.8.3 = Patm + 7161.9 + A Water Figure Ex. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 .6 m D Water Oil. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648.7 Figure Ex.2 m 0. 2. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9. PA – PB is the required value.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.9 × 1000) × 9.81 × 0. 2. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.81 × 0.81 × 1.

The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. . The air density is 1.2 kg/m3. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm.5. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2. Under measuring conditions. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B.5.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y.1 and the filler fluid is water. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube.9. γ Example 2.2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2.5. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB). The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a.

1 × 1000 × 9. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level. γ3 = 1.05 m.1 × sin 20 = 0.5. y = 0. The actual head. Example 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig.0342 m = 268.81) – 1000 × 9.81} = 196. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196.10 2. 2.11772 = 196.1 × 1000 × 9.0342 20° Figure Ex.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm. For equilibrium along s direction.81 N/m3.5.2 × 9.1 = 2 × 0.1%. Using equation 2.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION. which is accelerated at as along the s direction. γ2 = 1000 × 9.05 × (1/10) × 1. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only.08 Pa.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid. and (a/A) = 1/10. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy.81 N/m3.81 × 0. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 .81 N/m3. 2.10. γ1 = 1. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9.2 × 9.05 × [1.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0.2 – 0. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0.

3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2. Using equation 2.1) This shows that when there is acceleration.5) (2. ρ are specified as functions of P or s. θ = 0° (2.6.6. These equations can be integrated if as. γ. However. θ = 90° (2. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid.6. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ .1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero. 2.6. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex.6.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2.6.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying.6. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over.6. for acceleration.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2.6. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction.6) In general. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction.

the free surface angle will depend on ax. (ii) If density varies with pressure as.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition. (2.6. . the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0. B are constants): Using equation 2. 2.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction.6. [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating.6. 55 (2. as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2.6.6. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2. ds = dx. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure.6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2.6.8. When gravity is not present.6.5–2. ρ = AP + B (A.6.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form.6.7. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations. ay and g.

6.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0.9 can be used to solve this problem.225 kPa.000 Pa = 142 kPa. A = 1.8 P1 = 1.12 Equation 2. 1.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long. A cylinder (Figure Ex. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.12.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa. B = 0. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.50. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1. ∴ 1 S = 0.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1.58. ax = 15 m/s2.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa.50.42.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1. 2.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2. 2. 2.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2.6. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2. 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant.2 × 10–5.11.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left. .000 = {1/1.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.50. equation 2. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1.

0613125 = 0. h = A ax/2g Example 2. As tan θ = 2h/A. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex.1386875 m3 Example 2.8 m long to a depth of 0. θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ. 2.13 tan θ = – 0.14.2 – 0.25 m.7.4905 × 0.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0.5 × 0.0613125 m3 = 0.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0. So x = 0.5 × 0. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2. using eqn.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay). As ay = 0. A fluid of specific gravity 0.81 + 0) With reference to the figure. 0. Free surface 0.5 m high.15.5 0. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment. Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0.5 m high.8 m long.8 0. 0.5 × 0. Using equation 2.81.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2.5 m wide and 0.5 q X Figure Ex. Chapter 2 . tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9. 2.13.5/x = – 10/9.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.5 = 0. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.8 = 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled.6. 2.5 m wide and 0.6. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.

25 ∴ ax = 1. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.81 = 12. 2. the liquid as a whole rotates.5)/1000 = 9. Equation 2.7.. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom. the weight of water is zero 2. i. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.1 – 2.8 = 0. the pressure would have been 1.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0.625 ∴ ax = 0. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1.5 [9810 – 1000 ay].465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.6. A tank containing 1. but the linear velocity varies along the radius.5 × 1000 × 9.81 = 6.5/0.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3.25 × 9.5 m.6. with fluid moving away from the centre.e.5 m/s2. The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form.1 is considered.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure.7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis.2.1) .715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric.4 = 1. where ay = – g. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.26 m/s2 Example 2. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay). ay = 9.625 × 9. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex.5/0.7. the water will be at 0.6.81/1000 = 14.3. An element of fluid as shown in Fig.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3.16. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. The angular velocity is the same at all points. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full.6. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2.

ay = 0. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area).1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2. tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2. In forced vortex.7.7.4) (2. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging. (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y.r and ω is constant If g = 0.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant). The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2.7 is used. v/r = constant as v = ω. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location.7. The surface profile is shown in Fig.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2.2.7.6. radius and g. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. 2. Chapter 2 s dr .7.7.

The gauge A reads 0. Using equation 2.42)/2 × 9. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15. while the gauge .7. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius. ∴ ω = 8.17. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm.1. substituting the values.184 N/m2 (gauge).6 rpm Example 2.4 Using equation 2. Determine the speed of rotation.7. B. Equation 2. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2. N = (8.42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m.2 bar.4.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2.81).5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero.71 rad/s.52 – 0. r2 = 0. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge.81 = 1.7.712/2) × (0. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.712 (0.52)/(2 × 9.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)].7.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60.4. The outside pressure is 1. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2.4 m. Four pressure gauges A.52 – 0. 0.2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15.01 bar.18. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84.1 is applicable.

B.4 = P2 + 2.3 bar. 1.5 bar 2 2.2. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D.1 D 3 A B 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0.8 + P3 1.4 5 1. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3.8 4 C Gauge 2. 3.21 – 0.3 bar.6 = P1 + 2.1 = 1. PB = P6 + PA. The gauge is in chamber D.2 PA = P2 + PD .1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1.6 bar.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.21 – 1. The pressures in chambers A.2 are 3.1 bar.11 = – 0.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1. ∴ P5 = – 1.1 C . 2. PC = P5 + PA.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P.8 bar.4 + P5 2.11 = 0. 4. PB = P1 + PD.1 ∴ P2 = 1. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix.01 – 1.2.6 + P4 1.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2.6 = 3. 2.8 = 2.8 = 3. 2.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0. 0.01 + 0. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6. C and D as shown in Fig. Figure P.1 ∴ P1 = 0.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1.4. 2.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0. 5.1 bar respectively.6 6 1 3. PC = P4 + PB. ∴ P4 = – 0.1 = 1. A.6. Gauge 1. P. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.8 and 2.2 = 1. 2. ∴ P6 = – 0.

71 cm hk = 0.5. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1.81 = (0. (As hk = hw/1.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures.. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.81 + [(hw/1.4 = constant. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ. determine the heights of the columns.96 cm Problem 2.4. Determine pressure at 10. Such a vacuum is not possible.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0.25..2371 m.5.3 kPa. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k.4] = const. Problem 2. Temperature at ground level is 27°C. Then h × 13600 × 9.000 m altitude. Denoting the index as k. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1.1896 m. h = 0. or 18.6 bar. or 23.2 × 9. 2. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P.3.25) hw × 1000 × 9.02996 m or about 3 cm.81 × 830) Solving. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury.25 × 9.4 = const. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) . Problem 2. or P/γ1. To = 300 K . Let the rise in mercury column be h.9 floats. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.25) × 900 × 9.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values.81 × 1000) + (0. For example reading of P5 = – 1. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added.

7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere.2622 63 20000 0. Determine the pressure at B.6086 6000 0. the top of the longer limb. Depth.61 0.2.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.3524 10000 0.5 × 109 14758.7848 4000 0. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101.(P .Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude.89 0.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C. kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14.4657 8000 0.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards. determine the value of K. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0.6.3 kPa.3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2. PA = 1. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101. substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth . 2.8874 2000 0. .013 bar 8m Figure P. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa.25 0.6) 2.47 0.79 0.03 0. m P.35 0.

If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9.95. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A).9. Problem 2. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. Solving. The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0. 2.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level.95 H (in this case).h Py is now calculated.95 x x h y y gm Water .0252 m or 25. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure. h = 9. Consider stationary condition. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A). calculate the height h. hence there will be no boiling at B.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9.45 kPa At 30°C.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9. In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x.8. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 1000[0. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side. what should be the length of the limb? 4. S = 0.81 × 89h. Py = P2 + 9.24 mm of water. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101.246 × 103 = 101.h (As the filled volumes remain the same). If the water just begins to boil. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil. A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement. ∴ h = 0.24 kPa.8 N/m2 or 23.81) = 23447. Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H. Figure P. when both pressures are equal.973 m Problem 2.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9.81.

A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density. 2.9 × 1000 × 9.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2. Problem 2. consider pressures at y as the reference. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P. γm = 1000 × 9. × 9810 + 0. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm). 2. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0.11 150 Hg C 400 . S = 0.81.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334.02998 m or 30 mm.2 h. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil.10 Figure P. 2. γs = 0. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs.10.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0.

Determine the pressure in the pipe. The dimensions are shown in Figure P.81 × 0. Determine the acceleration.2. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water.81 × 891] equating and solving.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1. The mass of the container is 50. Problem 2.032/0.81 × 0.7.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9.616 m/s2 Problem 2.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.30. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0. 2.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity. Then using equation 2.11.81 × (0.12) = 2.97 kg.4 – (13600 × 9.6. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9. ρ = 1445.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.81 × 0.013 × 105 + (850 × 9.11.4) = 104635. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.13.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9.13 . A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13.

2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9.1°.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2.598/(9.81 + 1. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.4525)] θ = –19. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2. same as the slope of the plane.24 N Acceleration along the plane. The mass of the container is 10 kg.5 × 1000) + 50. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy.178) = + 0.3464 Problem 2.81 × sin 60 = 4680. ∴ tan θ = – [4.2. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.2 × 0.15.9. ay = 2. ax = 2.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.5 – 1404.13 Total mass = 1000 (0.2 m size and of height 0.9 × 0. Refer Fig.4 × 0.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal. the gauge indicated 980 kPa.81 × cos 60 = 2702.4 m × 0.26) = 1298.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated. P. ax = 4.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa .9.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550. Specific gravity of oil is 0. slope = 0.2478/(9.4525. with the same acceleration.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4.97 × 9.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2.µ = (2701. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line.5/26 = 4.5)] θ = – 12.598 m/s2. When moving up.81 – 1.14. A tank 0. as = F/m = 1298.905 × sin 30 = – 2.356 × cos 30 = – 2.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13.3 = 1404.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.6.97 = 550. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination. ay = – 1.6.81 + 2.905 × cos 30 = – 4.2478. P2 = P1 – (ρ.97 kg Fx = 550. This is an interesting result.041 m/s2 The component along vertical.2 m.2478/(9.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°.81 – 2.53 N Acceleration as = 127.81 × cos 60 = 127.041)/(9.97 × 9.97 = 2. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.24/550.

Vent P2 = P1 – ρ. During the travel along the curve. choosing B as origin. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature.30 to the vertical.18 . A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.17.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2.04241 bar using equation 2. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately. tan θ = ax / (g + ay). saturation pressure is read as 0. From steam tables at 30°C.013 bar.2.16. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD). P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case.16 Problem 2.255. 2. ∴ ax = 9. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road. A tank as in Fig. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid.16 is filled with water.04241 bar. the balloon will turn inwards by 14. 2. the general equation can be used.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric. Pr2 = 1.P. Problem 2. r2 = 0.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric.7. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9.81) = 0. ay = 0 speed.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. ∴ θ = 14. x = 4.81 m/s2 Figure P. The left side is vented to atmosphere.18.1 m w Figure P.ω2. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810.3° As pressure increases outwards. ∴ P = 0. ax = r.

902 m/s2. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.3 × 800(9. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.81 × 800 = – 2354.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2.902) = 0. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration.9 m/s2.ω2 × 0.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii).19 Patm · (P.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting.8 · D 1m E· Figure P.9/9.3 m 1m Oil.19) Problem 2.45/(9. The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s.8 × 9.81 C B A · 0.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). B is at 0.45 m/s2 and ay = 4.902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 . PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr. 2.186 P2/Po = 24. when accelerated along the x direction. R = 8314/352. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used.19.3 liquid head above i. C.6.e.39755 – 0.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2.0976 m head of fluid.81 × 800 [0. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3. D and E when (i) ax = 3.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure.20.7 × 0. ay = 4.3 m of liquid.39755 as the length is 1 m.20 ∴ The slope is 3. ax = 3.81 + 4.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0. For a gas ρ = P/RT. ax = 2. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.81 + 4.013 – 0. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i).9/9. The molecular mass of the gas is 352. As compared to A. (1.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9. Determine the gauge pressures at B. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3.12 ∴ ω = 139.16653 At B. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases. 2. ∴ PB = 0..9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2. C′ will be above C by 0.45 m/s2. Equation 2.3 × 9.81 = 0. S = 0. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s. ay = 0.

determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.81) = 7. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11.9.81) = 0.7 × 800(9. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration. Neglect the weight component.22.21. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12.23. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa.3 × 800(9. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. 2.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P.09/(7.06]2/(2 × 9.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s.24 × 10–3 × 1.01 + 9.5 sin 40 = – 11.902) × (0.3 × 800(9.81 + 4.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0. So ax = 0 Problem 2. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm. The lorry accelerates towards the right.5 m/s2. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal.03 m/s2 Problem 2. ∴ θ = 33.3 – 0.1665) m PC = – 0. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1).6.2. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12. using equation 2.659.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0. The accelerations are indicated. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3.5 cos 40 = 7. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank. head of water = (7. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1. ∴ ay = – g or 9. C is above C′ by (0. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure.16653 m above A.3 – 0. The plates rotate without any air flowing out.2)/1000 = 8.659 Problem 2.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii). If PC = PB.81 m/s2 upwards. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.81 + 4.4°.81 + 4. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12.21 . decelerates at 4 m/s2.

y γ.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. horizontal 7. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. 71 5. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. 9. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. Paraboloidal. 8. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. . Pascals law states ________ 3. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. 2. is zero 5. Distinguish between gauge pressure.2. When gravitational forces are zero. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. 3. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. 9. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. 7. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. low 9. Chapter 2 4. 10. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Explain the consequences of the law. basic hydrostatic equation. 6. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. State and prove Pascal’s law. 6. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. the free surface will be ________ 7. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. is the same at all points 4.

The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. zero 3. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. 2. Along the free surface in a liquid. 5.2. 3. 6. 6 Remains constant : 2. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas.2. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. 9. cylindrical 7. In micromanometer. The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. . As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. neglected/equal on both sides 6. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. independent 10. In a manometer. 10 Decreases : 4. 1. the pressure ________ 3. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2.72 O Q. 1. small 5. Answers Increases : 1. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced. the pressure at a point varies with direction. In inclined tube manometer. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. 7. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. 9. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. 8. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. decreases.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. In a micromanometer.2. 4. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. tan θ = – a/g 4. Due to horizontal acceleration. 2.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. exponentially 2. 3. or remains constant. 2. 9. As the density of manometric fluid decreases. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. ax = g O Q.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3. 8. 6. 10. In a manometer. As specific weight increases. 7 O Q. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. In a fluid at rest. independent 8. 8. specific weight 9. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. 8. 5.

6.6 m is 0. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11.72 (d) 130. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3.4 × 1200 × 9. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading. with y as the vertical direction.2 (c) 12.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9. 8.55 × 0.55. The gravitational forces are negligible.2 × 1200 × 9. 10.2 (b) 13.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9. In a forced vortex. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.6 m above the centre.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.81 N/m2 5.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. 9 O Q.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5.2 (d) none of the above 7. 10 Incorrect : 1.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out. 73 Answers Correct : 2. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit.2 m. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be .55 × 0. In a circular cylinder of 0.44 (c) 32.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2.1 × 1200 × 9. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. 5. The specific gravity of mercury is 13. 7. the level at a radius of 0.2. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2. the manometric rise is 0. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8.2 m dia and 0.55 × 0.81 N/m2 (c) 0. 3.81 3. 4. In a static fluid.

2.2 m is (a) 40. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0.000 N/m3. c .000 N/m2 10. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c. In a differential manometer a head of 0. 290 kN/m2] E. In this case c has a value of 1. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude.2 kN/m2.2.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m.2.2.1 Figure E. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2. 2. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1. [390.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100. where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m.1. 2.1.2 kPa 1. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a . b . c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4.2. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E. γ1/(K + γ1.18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q. E.3.2.y. E. The surface pressure is 101. [9935 kN/m2] .2. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig.2.2 E.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.4.4.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9.2.2. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E. d .2.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E.02 × 105 N/m2. In an artificial atmosphere. [101.5 (d) 0. Determine the outside pressure.3 m of fluid B in limb 2. The specific weight of a fluid is 20.000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.

8.9 Chapter 2 .75] E. E.9 m of water balances a column of 1.2. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig.5 E. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2.5. E.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil. E.2.6 0.5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0. S = 0.4 0. 2. open to atmosphere at both ends.5 m 0.6. [0. In a U-tube shown in Fig.2 + X Datum Figure E. S = 0.2 m 0.92.8 Water Oil.6 m 1.6 Figure E.2. Neglect gauge height.6.8 0.2. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B. 92 6m B Figure E. E.2 m of an unknown liquid. 2. 2. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E. 2. a column of 0.2. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.7.7.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1.2.7 E. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1.2.2. [454. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig.8 [8.

11. When pressures are equal. [68.04 kN/m2] E.6 Oil.10. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section.2. For the manometer shown in Figure E. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa.9 E. 2.9.2.10.12.9.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0.11 E.2.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. E. determine the length AB.2. determine the pressure at point D.11. E. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1. the level from the top to the filler fluid is .2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition. S = 0.9 B Hg Figure E. [111.8 Water B A 1.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0.2 m Figure E.03 and the filler fluid is water.2.2. [94.10 Figure E. The specific gravity of the oil is 0. For the situation shown in Fig.7.6 m A 1m 0. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0. 2. 2. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig.2.

2. [122.14 Figure E.2.2.03 Figure E.16.866 N/m2] 0. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.17. when the temperature was 20°C. The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C.04 S = 1.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil. 2.08 P1 P2 0.2 2 Chapter 2 .2. Water Water S = 0.95 Figure E. E.6 Water 0.18 Water 0. [88. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig.65 N/m2] E.15 E.15. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig.2.15.2. Determine pressure above atmospheric level. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0. Determine the pressure difference indicated. 2. E.14.006° C/m.13. Determine the pressure at 3000 m.2.4 Hg 0.81 N/m3. E. S = 0.14.2.9 0. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m.12 E. E. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level. 0. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9.04 0.

Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure.19. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0.2. and if fuel specific gravity is 0.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2.29. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m. E.2. . [120. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction.2.28. E.26. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.471 × 105 N/m2] E.6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0.2.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface.2. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0.2. E.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0.2. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0.6 m long and 0.038 kN/m2] E. determine the pressure at the left end. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2.2.22.20.3 bar gauge.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank.905 m/s2] E. [0] E.24. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2. A cylinder of radius 0. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0.2. determine the pressure gauge reading. The tube is 3 m long.20 E.92 as shown in Fig. the bottom face being horizontal. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1. [987. 0. E. A rectangular pan 0. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g.8. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill. E. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners. A closed cubical tank of 1.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0.65 kg/m3] E.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2.23. [4. 172.2.15 m.3 m radius. [35. Assume the base to be horizontal.2.20. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. Determine the acceleration. Using figure in Example 2.25. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal.2. [227.27.2. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion.6.3 m high. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar. E.21. 2. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0. Determine the density of the fluid.18. Determine the pressure at the left end.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction.

Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C. The U-tube shown in Fig. 2. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure.2. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point. A box of cubical shape of 1.35.5 m 2 A Figure E.3 m and 0. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2.2. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2.34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A. A 120 rpm 1 0.36.31.32. E. E.30 E. 3 and 4.30. (ii) downwards.33. Determine the pressure at the closed end. Determine the pressure at points 1.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. 2.2.34 E.3 m of water. E.2. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. E.2.37. E. 2.2. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical). Calculate the rotational speed. E.6 m is 0. The free surface is at the top of the pipe.2. The pressure difference between radii 0.6 m 0.34. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2.2. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure.2. determine the angle attained by the free surface. At the same time. Chapter 2 . A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole. Determine the force on one of the faces. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E.

oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3. sluice gates.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth. The walls of reservoirs.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3.1) z hdA (3.e. The fluids are generally under static condition. h.0.! 3. flood gates. i.4) A A 80 . From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered. P = γh.0.0.0.. To determine the point of action of the total force. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F.

Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered.1. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero.1. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.1.1. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero.1.1. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion. it is possible to choose a value of x = k.1) (3.1. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3. 3. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis.2) 0 y y x x 2.3) As k is a constant. such that the moment about the axis is zero. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3. 3.1. With reference to the Fig. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure. 3.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area.4) A y dA (3.1. 3. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.1. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig.1.1. .1.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3. the second moment of an area about the y axis. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area.5) z A x 2 dA (3.

The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3.1.1. 5. 3.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area. 6. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – .1.8) (3.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3.10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis. 2. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle.9) (3.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . The location of the centre of gravity. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems. z A x dA = x 2 A. 4. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3.1.1. Triangle.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b. The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids.1. Table 3. Ixy = 0. 7.

9. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3. Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface).2.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure. So Chapter 3 . F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same. 3. Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. 3.2. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid. Refer Fig. Consider the elemental area dA. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same.

1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area.1. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1. 3.2.3. 2. 3. 3. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h .3.2. and so h = y in this case. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation. 3.1. let CP (xcp.2.1.10 z A x y dA. ycp) be the centre of pressure. With reference to the Fig.5) and those given in Table 3.1. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ.2.9 and 3. Equations (3. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid. (3. As h = y sin θ. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3. F = γ A h (3.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid.2). In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments.1. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry.2) .3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3.2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface. Referring to the Fig.1.4). Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. 1.

433 × 0.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9.3. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp. If θ = 90° (vertical surface). Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. 8. The depth of centre of gravity. y = h the depth to the centroid.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h .3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.1 Problem model Example 3.44/ cos 30 = 9.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9. then. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0.8 m wide is closed by a plate. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m.74 m h = 9.433 = 8.5 0. These equations are fairly simple.3.74 cos 30 = 8.746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9. then sin2 θ = 1.8] + 8.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level.3.1.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8.433 × 1 × 0. h = 8 + (0. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes. The angle with the horizontal is 60°. 3.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8. The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction. Example 3.81 × 8. If the plane is vertical.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes.2.44 m 0.44 m Distance along the wall surface. .

Case 2: A circle of diameter d.3.3.75) = 89394 N 1. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.9 × 1000 × 9.3. the side of length b being horizontal. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.3. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases.5) (3. y = P.9.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.5 m Figure Ex.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face.81) (1 × 1. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action.3 .3.5) (6 + 0.6) (3. (3. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0. y = P.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3.3. y = P. horizontal and nearer the free surface. 3.5 m Gate 7.

021 m 1m 2m C F 2.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3.633 + 98100 × 4.4.5 m wide and 1 m deep. 3.75 = 6.75 = 6. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m. Example 3.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force.81) (1. 3.52 /12 × 6.78 m Check using eqn.75) + 6.5) + 6.5 + 2.5. IG = bd3/12.5) = 2.75 × 1 × 1.5)) + 4 = 4.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0. Ex. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig. which is simpler. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal.5 m D E G WL 1. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2. 3. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y .81) (1.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2. 3.3. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.4.75 m = ((1 × 1. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 . = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.5) + (98100 × 1.5 m below water surface.3.53/12)/6.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.4.4 Also by equation 3.1).5583 m and at a distance of 1. The top surface of the plate is 1.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2.4.5 = 2.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9.5 × 2)] + 2.0 m from the edge AF. y = 6.

3.5. Using equation (3. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3.5 .1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex.1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ.4.5. and in case the edge is at the free surface. 3.2). Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area.4. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. ycp = (IG / y . A) + y . Water WL (3. An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O. 3. Determine the ratio of h/L. denoting the distance along the plane as y. Ex. friction etc. It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane. Neglect the weight of gate.

L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0. Total force normal to the plate F = γ . Taking moments about O.6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W. For the following data. W. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O. and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig. Lw = 0.. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. Ex. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3. W = 8000 N. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O. then h = 3. Using the equation derived in example 3.5 = 0. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0.4641 m.265 m.6. 3. 3.1.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial. Ex. 3. determine the value of water head h to open the gate. See 3.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid.6. 3. h For unit width. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. (The other solution is 0. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O. Determine the value of h in terms of L. A. Taking moments about O.506 m).1.6.5774 h For example if L = 2 m. The Chapter 3 . L = 1m. Example 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. h = 1 m.7.4.4. θ = 50°.6. Example 3. Considering unit width.). This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial.

A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex. 3. Refer to Fig.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area.5. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3. In case there is gas pressure above the surface. F = γ A h. 3. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements.1 be in equilibrium.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium.8. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces.5. Ex. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element. At the base of each element. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper.1. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. These two statements can be proved as indicated below. Example 3. 3. Also determine the direction of action of the force.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. gravity = 1. The value can be calculated using the general equation. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure.8. force due to the gas pressure cancels out.8 . Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp.

Example 3.e.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area.0523 ) – 683757 × 2. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N. 3. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0.937 \ q = 43. the line of action of vertical force is = [(2. at = 1. Taking moments of the area about the edge. 729673(4 – 2.333 m from the bottom (i. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex.9. Considering unit width. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards).e..14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig.5 = 999973. Ex. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.302 m from the edge.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. upwards.. to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i. 3. The direction of action to the vertical is. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre.16 N .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9.9.0523 m from the edge.

48° where θ is the angle with vertical. 3.881 and that of mercury is 13. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0.698 m.6. 78480 × (4 – 1. ycp1 = − (3.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side...6.6366.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1. Specific gravity of oil is 0. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9.3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + .81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references.81 = 34570. F = F1 + F2 + .81) = 330832 N/m2 ..81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.1 Total force. In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid. from the hinge.10..6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other. Example 3. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle.. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3.3333) – 123276 × 1. Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9. this form is prferable.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.698 = 42..8.5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0. (4.. ∴ θ = 32.2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil.

5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.8 is filled to 2 m depth.11. Calculate the pressure at 1. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface.333 × 1935944) + (11. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0.5 m.46 m. (3.46 × 268808) + (16.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn.81 × 43 × 7 = 0. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4. Example 3.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9.5 m.0625 m. Total force. 2 m and 2.81 × 1.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13.4.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2.81 × 0.887 × 106 = (5.944 m. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.0 = (0.1. P1. from the water level or 0. (i) At 1.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = .81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall.09 N Solving h = 4 m. y × 13.8 × 1000) × 9.5 m depth. Determine the level of water above the gate. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.2).5 = (0.8 × 1000) × 9.

12132 m.3 . (i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d.16875 + 5. 3.1125 m. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2.2.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2.121322)/4}] = 5. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides.05625)/2 = 5. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4. with outside diameter being 3 m. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d. m 5m 3m Figure P. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2.94 Problem 3. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5. (ii) The given condition is. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force.121322 × 5] = 5.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5. 3.3. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application. force on the circular area = force on annular area.

5 C + 1.5. As C = 3 is not possible. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h .3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3. 3.26667 – 5. A1 = A2. 4 × 3 = 12. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0.3833 – 5.5 or 3.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure. If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size.4 Chapter 3 .5 = 0.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise.4. C = 0. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. Problem 3.0.

834) + 9. Problem 3.97 – 2 × 2.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5. solving h 2 = 6. let the centroid be h 2 .392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6.774 – 2. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.887 (5 × 5.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface. . 6. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.834/2) = 9.33 = 0. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i.e. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.392 = 1.774 h 2 – 8.7743/12 × 2.083 = 9.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided. at depths of 3.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts.97 × (5 × 2.97 = 7. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2. 7.774)] + 2.849.667 m (check).392)] + 6.038 and 9..834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i..3923/12 × 6.887 = 3. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.5.8493 m (ii) For the second strip.083 × 5 × 1.887 = 5.114 m. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2.887) = 2.e.887 m.8343/(12 × 9.

Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge. In a water reservoir. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles.4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P. depth.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0.5 i.6.6366) = 0.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level.4142 Problem 3.5 CD/BD = 0. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0.e.8836 m Problem 3. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3). A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.6366 = 22072 N = 22.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.5 Consider the triangle ABC..5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.7.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 . rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate. BC/BD = 1. 3.

2732 = 0.976 × xp = 275. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.1921 + 3. Force on the strip = γ.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3. Circle equation is. .h.4655 m below the free surface and 1.dy. 2 x2 = (9 – y2).2732 m as r = 3.x. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3.2732 = 3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.906 Nm 226.906 ∴ xp = 1.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0.2156 m from the vertical edge. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.8.25 = 275.98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)]. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0. 3.4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).25] = (9810/2) × 56. 0) Area of strip = x. Problem 3.9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3.

BE = 0.75 m In the x direction. CD = 1 so.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base. Check: A strip of width dy is considered. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1. which is the line of symmetry. Referring to the figure. the centre of pressure will be on the median line. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0.625 m from the vertical side. the centre or pressure will be on it.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height.75 m from top and 0.625 m The centre of pressure is 2. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P.25/2).75 m 2m 2m C 0. 3.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0.75 B 1. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y. Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case. Chapter 3 2m CP dy .81 × 0. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.25 E D y 0.

3. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.10. 3.3.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3.625 2. Assume water is the liquid.2156 A CP CP 0.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.75 m and distance from the side = 0.3. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal. x = [(1. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3. 3. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface. P.4655) + (47088 × 2.3.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp. Taking moments about AB.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3.3. P.8.3313 m and 0.4655 m and distance from side = 1.2156 × 226976) – (0.75/0.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 .75 3.2156 m (ii) For the triangle.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0. WL 1.7 and P.10.4655 B Figure P.9.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig.9. gravity 0. Problem 3.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P.7 and P. depth y = [(226976 × 3.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.

11. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5.12. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out. 3. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1.9) × 4 × 5 = 176. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.778 Nm Problem 3.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9. The force Figure P. 3.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards. h = 5.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2. Neglect the weight of the gate.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11. The counter weight.81 × 0. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely.3333 m4. and held in place by a torque.11. 3. Taking moments about the hinge. P.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 .11 acts at (h/3. The tension of the rope will equal W. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1. W.

77 kN . (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ).54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ).54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate. Problem 3. from hinge. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. If h1 = h2. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ. Figure P. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. Problem 3. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises. Neglect the weight of the gate. θ = 28. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. 3. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension. h = h/2. Taking moments about the hinge. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ). Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side.56° or the gate is tilted towards left.13. θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ. below the centroidal axis. A square gate of side.14. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. Problem 3.15. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully. The angle between the plates is 90°. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate.

3. at the surface [9.33) = 5231.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.54] = 9.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945. Height. Solving.44 kN Problem 3. P.16. moment is taken about O.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9.027 m.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10.16. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.52 m depth.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig. CG is at 9.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9. 3.16 Chapter 3 . The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.333 m from the bottom. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10.15 m Figure P.77 – 945. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P. 3. Considering 1 m width.

84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow.58° Gate . Problem 3. A roller gate as shown in Fig.17 has a span of 5 m.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. tan θ = 78480/14218. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area. Neglect weight of the gate. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3. 3. θ = 37.3333) – 0. 3. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P.3333 m from bottom twoards the right.33) × 78477 = 0.5 = 79757. P.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1.67974) – (2 – 1.18. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area.17. as shown in figure. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero. 3.67974 m taking moments about the centre.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle. (14218 × 3.84883 × 308189 = 0. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400.333 m from bottom Figure P.18.73)° with horizontal. 392400 × (2 – 1.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37.58°. θ = 79. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0. Problem 3. h = 5m. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1. considering 1 m width.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction. The quantities are equal. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1.4494 m3 Weight = 1.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced.

b = 6. Hence. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π).18 To determine the line of action. 1.19. The shape described as x = 0. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0.20. Consider unit width. Then.73° To fix the line of action.19. h = 8.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area. 3. P. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 .20. Derive expressions for the horizontal force. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2. A = 12π. as shown in Fig. 3. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse. P 3.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58.392 m below O at an angle of 47.392 O P 47. the line of action passes through a point P. (2. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis. Calculate the values for y = 3m.392 m. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate. Considering unit width.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving. Problem 3. 3.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. taking moments about P. Problem 3. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1.35° from vertical. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined.

Determine for the given dimensions.2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.20 z y 0 x .dy = 0. x/2 = 0.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1.21 = 3.06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.5 × π × 32) = 3. 3. P. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface.21. 3.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x. Force on the surface ABC is required.2 = 1.129/sin 68.024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0. xy/3 = Figure P.66071 m . Let it be x from y axis.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3.04 y5 = .216 m Problem 3.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom.2 y3 γ/3 = 0. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.2 y3/3) γ × 0.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0. the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0.21.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis. 3. Assuming unit width. x . dy .2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.

It does.875 m The vertical force remains the same.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ).75 + [0. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. down from B. The angle with the horizontal will be 15. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.5) (4/π × 32) = 1. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1.5625 × 69343 – (0. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0. θ = 36.333 m from top. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check.55565/(0. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right. Problem 3. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere.52/2)] = 0. at the same level. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1.05°.95° {0. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre.87° with vertical. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge. h = 2D/3 π.6366 × π × 1.55565 Centre of pressure = 0. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0.22. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. .9973 m.9.5625 m from wall. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0. 3. Line of action.

3. = {(22072. tan– 1 (82072.000 N/m2.75 × (1. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072.52 + 594352)0. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.5/3π = 0. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20. from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0. Problem 3.5) = 1.75 × 2 × 1.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated.23 .75)} / (22072.000 = 82072. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity.5 × 2) + 20. P.53/ 0.8172 m from top. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.5 m 2 m Figure P.23.63662 m.5 + 60.5 × 2) = 22072.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78.5 / 59434.000 × (1.9) = 54. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0. Similar force acts on the other half.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical).5 × 1) + (60000 × 0.000) = 0. 3.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1.25 m from top. The tank is filled with water as indicated.0 m (from top).5 + 60.89°. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1.

Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1.25/ 2) × 1.25 × 1.252/2)] + [(1. Consider 1 m length.91 × (1.25.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3.5 /2) × 5.25 m S = 0. The bridge is 4m wide.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise.26. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area.5 m Figure P. Problem 3. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1. P.252/4) × 0. 3.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1. Determine the upward force due to water pressure. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1.91 C 1.24.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure. The cylinder is in equilibrium.24.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.25 × 1 = 6974.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P. 3. 3. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.253 × 2/12 × 1. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°.5 m and 5.25 × 1) = 0. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3.24 [(1.3 N and this force acts at .5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0. determine the reaction at each hinge. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5.25 × 1. On the upstream side the water level is 5.5 m from the base. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite. If the gates are hinged at 0.25) + π × 1.

5)0. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high.5 A = 0. i.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown. Water stands upto x = 2m.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0.5 – 0.5 / 3 = 1.6667) = R1 (5. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge.5 – 1. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge.5 should be dimensional. To determine the reaction at each hinge.5 Z2 where z is the width.5 . Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall.110 This force acts at 5.e. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.83333) – (78480/2) (5. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5. (check total as 515025) Problem 3.27. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration.22 m.5 – 0. At any section the height. 3.8. (note the constant 0. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5.9428 x1. This force acts at 2/3 = 0. Problem 3. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value. 3.5 m from base.667 m from bottom.28. The average specific gravity of the material is 2.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N.26 R = 515025 N. 1/m).5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P. (CP is h/3 from bottom). h = 18.8333 m from the bottom. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure. Consider a width of 1m. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5. the structure will tilt. x = 0. Considering a strip at x and width dx. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length.

5 ) = x0. 5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0.5 = 2.8856 = 0. 3. This force acts at Z = x0.5. z = 1. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity.9428 x1.5 / 1. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes.75 = Z (222119).6666 × 9810 = 26160 N.225 + 26160 × 0.225 m from Z = 0 position. 0 Figure P. P = 0.169 m.45 × 1 × 0. weight = area × depth × sp. x = 2.45 m.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2.8856 3m X A Air 0.8 × 105 N = 195959 N.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width.8 bar = 0. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0. 3. weight A = 0. 7. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface. Chapter 3 .28 Pressure force = 2. 6. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. 2. Considering 1 m width.5)0. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid. This acts along 1. A = 2. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal. 4. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth.9428 x1. Z = (3/0. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle.5 / 1. Weight = volume × sp.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1.

11. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. (6) the centre. x-distance between the axes. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. IG / A h . (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. (2) zero. decreases or remains constant : 1. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. (4) below. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface.3. 3. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. 7. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________. 10. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 6. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid.3. 2. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________. O Q. 9. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. 2. 4. 9. (3) lower. . (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. 5. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______.1. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. (8) A x2. 6. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. 8.3. 4. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis. (5) depth.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. Fill in the blanks 1. 10. 3. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. the centre. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. (6) normal. 3. 5.3 Fill in the blanks using increases. 4. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. O Q.

P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. 6. 6. At location where g = 5 m/s2. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. Remains Constant : 3. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. 4. 2.3. the normal force on the plane will increase. 5. g/γ). The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. 113 4. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . 4. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. 6. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 5. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. 3. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. 4.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid. Decreases : 2. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. O Q. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. O Q.5 Choose the correct answer : 1. 5 (2) Incorrect : 2. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. 3.3.

Second moment of area 4. 2 – c. . Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. 2 – d. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. 3 – d. 3 – a. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3). Centre of pressure 3. Centroid 2. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. Density 3.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. 4 – a. 4 – c. Circle about centroidal axis 2. the centre of pressure will 8. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. Free surface 4. 4 – a.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. 2 – d. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e. 3 – b. (II) A 1. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. Specific weight 2. O Q. First moment of area 5. 5 – c.3. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased.

3.3 E.1 E. For the shapes in Fig E. E.3.3. 3. 3.3.5 0. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water. 3.1.1 from the given reference lines.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E.3. E. Chapter 3 2m 1. X 3m X X 2m X 0.2. 3. WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E. 3. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig.4.3.1.414 m X X .

6 E.9.3.9 E. 3. E.9 with 8 m length on the base level. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate.6. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia. E. shown in Fig.3.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water. 3. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid.7.8 stands to a depth of 0. 3. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0. E. A gate as shown in Fig. E.3. 3. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. E. Also locate the centre of pressure. .11.3. 4 m wide.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.8. 3.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0.3. E. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts.5 Figure E. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface.10.6. in the vertical wall of a reservoir.5 m over water. the centre being at 4 m depth. 3.5. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown.3. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E.3. E.

15 E.14 Figure E.13. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base.14. E.17. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. The gate weighs 6 kN. A dam section is shown in figure.5 2m Hinge level 1. 3. E.3. 3. Show that as the depth of immersion increases. Chapter 3 .15. 3.14.5 m y Figure E. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2. E.3.4 m 2m F 60° 3. 3. 3. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. The gate is 1 m wide.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig. 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. An automatic flood gate 1.3.3. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig. E.5 Figure E. Determine the location of hinge from the base.3.12. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid.3. 3.16.12 E. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base. E. Determine the air pressure required. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig.16. E. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.11 Figure E. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform.17 closed. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top.

3.17 E. E.4641 m. 3.22. 3. E.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0. The water level is up to the top of the gate. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig.21 E.3.3. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig.16 Figure E.8 m Plate 0. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane.20. E. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank.8 msq. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0.21. F WL 0.9362 m] .3. 8. Also determine the line of action. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water.20.19. The 3 m side is along horizontal.3.18. Figure E.8 m 0. [3. E.20 Figure E.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0. 3.2 m Figure E. Determine the force required to open the stopper. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder. Also determine the direction of action of the force.73. E.3. Determine the force on one half of the wall.4452 m 10. 3. 3.21.

Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. ships. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume.1. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. This force is called buoyant force. balloons and other such similar systems. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed. 4. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships. common for both terms) 119 . If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure.1. boats. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. 4. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body. (i) Immersed body. It is applicable in the design of boats." 4. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed.

K.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1.32/4) (1000 × 9. (ii) Floating body. R = 287 J/kg. F = γ V. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA.81 = 416.8 bar.1. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. The pressure at the location is 0. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon.81 × 1.32/4) 0.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. Example.3 m and height 0. 4.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV. the weight of volume displaced. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating. where dV is the volume of the element.16 N Example.1 A cylinder of diameter 0.81 × 1.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder. 4. Top is at 0.6 m depth. Summing up over the area. This force acts upwards. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. Considering an element of volume dV. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.6 × 1000 × 9.6 – 1000 × 9. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. . The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon.0) = 416.

In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. If it is less.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523.6 × 9. 121 4. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required). If these are equal. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron. Chapter 4 . (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely. to its original position.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0.6 – 4056 = 830.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. the body will sink.e. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. Whether floating or submerged. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid.46 kg.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid.8 × 105 × 523. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid.8 × 105 × 523. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position. Under equilibrium conditions. No further change in position occurs in this case. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid.46 × 9.6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413. Weight of hot air = m. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink.6 N (i. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium. the body will float with part above the surface.. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action. about 84.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886.g = 413. the body will stay afloat at any location.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body.

because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance.1 (i) and 4. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium.2. In the case of figure 4. WL W B C W Submerged. Point C is the centre of gravity.2. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position. This body is in unstable equilibrium. the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position.2.1 (iv) and 4. Figure 4. In the case of Figure 4.2. then the body will regain or go back to the original position. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium.2. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4.2. If the couple opposes the movement.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4. In the case of Figure 4. Figures 4.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship).2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable.2.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point.2.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition.) . The couple is called righting couple. Point B is the centre of buoyancy. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces.1 (i) and 4.2.2. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide. (Note: For practical cases.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.2. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.

In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise.3.1. Larger the metacentric height. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body.1 Metacentric height. Referring to Fig 4. better will be the stability. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. the two forces act at the same point. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position. when disturbed. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting.4. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. If it is at the centroid. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. is defined as metacentre. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. . the floating body will be unstable.3. If it is below the centroid. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. If M falls below G. correcting the disturbance. the floating body will be stable. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. say clockwise. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. This is illustrated in Figure 4. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′.1. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. After a small clockwise tilt. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body.

The moment distance is x.2 . If G is above B –ve sign is used. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight). R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4. the submerged section is FGHE. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I. In the tilted position.2) From the triangle MBB′. the intersection of water surface and centre line.4.4. So the metacentric height can be determined.4. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used.4. P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force. MG = MB ± GB (4. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4.4.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4. Uniform section is assumed at the water line. Taking moments about B. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P.124 4.4.4) GB is originally specified.1 in section and plan view (part). Let it move through a distance R.3) Both I and V are known. as the angle of tilt is small. the metacentric height is given by. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4. The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. As V = W/γ.4.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA.

5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053. MG = (I/V) ± GB. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4. 4. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9.5 = 1. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured.87) – 1. 4.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line. The centre of buoyancy is 1.3 = 1.63/970.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053.63 m4 .1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified. Chapter 4 .4.5 = 28. 4.8 – 0.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical.000/1030 = 970. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m. MB = I/V = 3053. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G.62/970. Example.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.08 kg/m3.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5. V = 1000.15 – 1. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians). Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis).5. Example. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons.87) – 1.81 (. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced.3 m Highly stable in this direction.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G).87 m3 .3 m below the water level.5 = 3. Determine the value of metacentric height.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9. GB = 1. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line. say W.5 × π/180) = 1. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ.

Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0. 4.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384.25 = 93.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4.465 × 1024 × 9.8 = 54624.93/3) = 45. Equivalent Depth = 93.75/465 = 0.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45. Neglect metal thickness.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.81.6 × 0.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.25 m3 To support the same weight.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9. Solving r = 0.692 m D = 2r = 1. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges.8 + 66708 = 402092.3 × 0.384 m Problem 4. 9. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere.2 = 4. WL 3 m f. Determine the weight of the block. .5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.08) × 9. The box has a mass of 110 kg.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen.8 – 0.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906.7 m Problem 4.7.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P.5 + 0. (omitting 9.9 m size just submerged in water. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.

711.8181 × 10–6 + 5.2 N (86.5 1.85. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block. gravity) – 0. When in water.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0. gravity h. 34.0775 × 9.3260653 = 850. 23. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N .05 and 1.7.2786/sp. Total upward force = (0.004)2 h] × sp. [(4/3) π (0. Determine the depth of immersion. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.05 102.025/2)3 + π (0. Problem 4.4 The intervals in mm are : 43. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N . gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion. 1.95.15 79.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.3 × 0.81 × 0.8 1.7 kg) Problem 4. specific weight = W/V = 15205. downward from the surface. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape.81 × 1/1000 [0.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0.1 and hence not uniform.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4.75. gravity = 1. Solving Weight of the block = 9.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp.00 115. gravity of liquid equals 1.5 N/m3 Problem 4.6 × 0.80 × 9810) = 8 .80. 27. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0.5. ∴ V = 4.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp. Let its volume be V m3.6 0. Let the side of the block be h m.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079.326065 m = 2500 × 9. 0. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero.026 × 10–5 h] × sp. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.75 208.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4. 0. If it is just floating.4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N . Cheak whether the intervals are uniform.9 1.85 164. mm 0. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams.9.15.

it will stop sinking further.732 m (the other root is negative). (0.9 = 3124. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D. The unit is released in the sea. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid. This is less than the depth of the body. ∴ V = 0.1152 m Problem 4. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced. Check whether it will be stable. Problem 4.63 × 9810 = 8875.10 A mass of volume 0. ∴ D = 1. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 . The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N.9 Two spheres. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. Figure P. Determine the density of ice. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3.2 m f . The original volume was 0. 4. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced.1 + V) 10000 = 2000. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water.3 m3.1 m3. ∴ γ = 8618.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope. consider a small thickness by at distance y.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878.81. rope. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875. Determine the level to which the unit will sink. Solving D = 0. are tied with a rope and placed in water. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3. Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure.1 .3 m3 at a pressure of 1. So the assumption that the body floats is valid. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced.1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0.

P.81 = 18614 N.2 – 1. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere.5 N/m3. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2). The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. R = 1.0556 m.4 × (0. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4.5) = 6.3/0.5 m. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P. L = 1. (4πR3/3) = 463.4. P2 = 1. as h = 6 m. ∴ V = 463.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1. Chapter 4 . Solving y = 31. The width of the gate is 1.92 m3.87 m. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge.92 m3. acts from the hinge at: 1.2 – 1.1) = 4.5 m.0556 m.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N.87 m Problem 4.6 m Problem 4. acts upwards). 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31.5) = 3500 + 1000. 4.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.013) × 105. ∴ D = 9.

Hinge 3m q 1. Problem 4. A spring causes water to seep below the tank. (4R/3π) = 0. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle. Taking moment along the pole. The pole weighs 90 N.08 Nm. 176580 × 1.2/cos θ)]. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around. R = 1.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1. 4.2/cos θ).4488 m Problem 4. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. θ = 45°.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. P.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle. The distance along the pole it acts = (1. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks.5425 m When water rises to about 0. Taking moments about the hinge. If h is the height upto which the water rises.7244 m or D = 3. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving. Problem 4. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise.2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm.815.22/cos2 45)] = 135.15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3.15 A wooden pole of 0.0555 = 18614 × 0.81 = 9. .4244 m from hinge. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. 4.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1.

weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9.8 × 1000 × 9. 60 + (π × 0. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal.81) m3 = 7. θ = 53.0765 m. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid.22) = 0.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7. The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0. a force of 100 N acting upward is required.162 × 9810 × 0.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion. and 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0. 4. If the level rises above this value.7 kg/m3c Problem 4. h = 2.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ). The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ. the weight equals the buoyant force.0392/(π × 0.4 m dia. When the pole begins to float vertically.22 × 0.022 × h × 9810.3946 m .16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P. Equating the moments.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp.162 × 9810 × 0.26°. a vertical force will act on the hinge.162 × 9810 × 0.3 m.81) m3 = 0. The depth of oil will also be h.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.815 = 425.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them.3 × 8600 N = 384.8. Problem 4. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384.81) = 3466. Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal.17 A cylindrical container of 0.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0. Solving h = 0. h × 0. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.21/(1000 × 9.

5 + 0.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0.8.04 .6 h = 0.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1.2 + h). ∴ V2 = 4.3) and (4. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. Using equation (4. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. Equating and solving.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0. D > h. l2 = 0.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0.4.1 specific gravity values. Problem 4. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1.2 + h ∴ h = 0.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. For stability. Problem 4.04/(9810 × 1. D = 1.6 cm. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation.04.1) = 3.18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. ∴ V1 = 5.036052 m or 3. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0. Let the volume displaced be V3. Solving l1 = 0. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0.0 and 1.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0.0775 × 10–6 m3. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically.1314 h . Determine the distance between the markings for 0.1. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder.2 m length attached to it at one end. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level. (i) Relative density = 0.5 .01311 m or 1. V = π D2 h S/4. V3 = 0. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer. (iii) Relative density = 1. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64...8.8 = 0.4).6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4. 1. equating.8.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0. This is downwards as V2 is less than V1.4.5. (V – volume displaced).2 × 9810 × 2. 0. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2. As density increases.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm.

to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S.32 × 0. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2.2 m and h = 1. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base.7646 or 0. Check : (use the eqn. the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. GB = h (1 – S)/2 .3 m from bottom Location of B = 0. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0. Problem 4..20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.2354 Problem 4. 1 in problem 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length. h = 1. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal. I = π × 0.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.20. equation 1. the cylinder is unstable. Equating.2.5. The ID is 0. Determine the stability of the cylinder. D = 2 × 0. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio. V = (π × 0. This is the value of D which is required for stability. ∴ GB = 0.5. Consider a thin cylinder. (D/h) = 0.61788 m.5 .6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0. Here.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h.8 then.5 }/2.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom.32 × 0. For stability.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0. D > h. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting.841 (compare with Problem 4.20. say if (D/h) = 1. where k = 0.34/64 Volume displaced. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4.33333 to float in water. Refer Problem 4.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0..9 and S = 0.6 × 7500)] – [0.5 .5D. MG = (I/V) – GB.036 m.20).5 = 0. then S = 0. k = 0. Problem 4.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.3 – (0.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3.3 m dia and 0. Chapter 4 Hence.8 m.5 as in problem Problem 4.

Considering the calculated D = 2.. checks. The specified diameter is only 1.52) 1. So.5 = 2.54)/64. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square.147 m > 1.33333 (1 – 0.6 m with specific gravity 0. V = h Sa2 k .52)]0. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0.8 value. then. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal.33333)/(1 + 0. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k. (a/h) = 1. V = π × 2. Centre of gravity is on the water surface.a (where k is a fraction). (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced.5/k .6.62]} – {2 × 0.1472 (1 – 0. then (a/h) = 0.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0. The sides should be longer than the height. Refer Problem 4.1474 (1 – 0. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD.8 × 0. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height.8 (1 – 0.147 m. or (I/V) = GB. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4.5 when floating in water with axis vertical.8 [2 × 0.333333/4.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical.8 m and d = 0.5 S = 0. The specific gravity is 0. h to side. I = ak3 a3/12. MG = 0. Problem 4. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2.5. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. Hence.8 × 0. I = π × 2.2 m. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1..25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide.5.A .60002 and GB = 1. The relative density of the log is S.98. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4.8.24]/[8 × π × 1.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2. as S decreases (a/h) increases. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π.44 – 1.6/3π} = 1.23 Consider S = 0. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2]. (I/V) = 0. So it is not stable.33333)/2 = 0. MG = (I/V) – GB . Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2.134 Substituting the values.5.

. The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d. D2 HS = d2h. For stability.B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 . Problem 4. The situation is shown in the Fig..28 A conical wooden block of 0. reordering. Consider the general eqn.27. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4.. 4. S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 .5]/2 Problem 4. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB.4 m dia and 0. 4.20). h H H Figure P.8 for a fluid in which it floats. the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 .5 }/2 if k = 1. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h .6 m high has a relative density of 0. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established.A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) .27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position. S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 .. P.27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability. Determine whether it can float in a stable condition. A.

OP = 1.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N.557) = 0. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical. Define centre of buoyancy. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies.2742 m Figure P.6 × 0. GB = OG – OB = 2. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9.0201 m3 .332 × 10–4 m4. 8m Solving.03226 = 0.5 m.2629 = 1.7197 m. . 2. Check: H = 0. 3. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit.29 OB = 1. the position of the centre of 1.8 = 0.6371 m.2742/2 = 0. This is positive and hence stable. 7. d = DS1/3 = 0. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0. ∴ I/V = 0.6 < 0.81/3/4 (1 – 0. Prove Archimedes principle from basics.81/3) = 0. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer.557 m. The actual value of is 0.6 m. OG = 2.03226 m.9 m. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat. OA = 5 m.04642 – 0. The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre.6 – 0.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition. 4. ∴ h = 1. Define metacentre and metacentric height.2742] – 2.42/4) 0. D = 0. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit. Problem 4. 5.68 × 105 Nm.4 m. h = H S1/3 = 0. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 6.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1. when it floats in river water.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1.42 × 0. 4.01416 m.518 m2 ∴ H = 0.

The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. stable 11. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. 8. 2. overturn 9. 14. 4.1 Fill in the blanks 1. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. 10. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. positive 12. 3. 19. remain in the new position 8. 3. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. W MG sin θ. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. the weight of the body 3. 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q.5 16.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body. 13. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. 17. 7. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. It’s weight is ______.5 15. 16. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. 4. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. neutral and unstable 6. Metacentric height is equal to _____. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. decreases or remains constant 1. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. neutral 10. 5. return to the original position 7. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____. 9. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. 18. W MG θ 14. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. 15. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. shorter O Q. Answers 1. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. 5. 6. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. satble. 11. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. 6. Chapter 4 . The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______. 12. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. 9810 N 19.

4.3 l. 10. 2. Answers Correct : 3.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. 3. 4. 4.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium.4 Choose the correct answer 1. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced.8 will be . 8 Decreases 3. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. 10. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. 9. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. Its volume is 15. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 6. 2. 4. 8. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally. 5. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. 4. 5. Answers Increases 1. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. 9. 8. 10 Remains constant 2. 5. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. 7. 5 O Q. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. 3. 10 Incorrect 1. 7. 6. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. 7 O Q. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 9. An object weighs 50 N in water. 8. 6. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. 4. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. 2.

8.6/2 . (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface. Answers (1) c. O Q.25 times its volume.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6. [1.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C. [70632 N] E 4. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a. 403. at what height of water level. 4. the drum will start floating. (3) b. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium.2 m above the free surface. (2) d. (8) c. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically.37 N] E 4.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water. (5) c.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4.3 (b) 7. 4.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. A cube of side. Answers (1) b. (4) c.8 times its volume. 2. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13. 9.8 (d) a × 13.8 and 1. (9) c. (a) 40 N (b) 62. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship. If water is filled in the tank. (3) b. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0. (7) b.3 (c) 6. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. [3074. 7. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon.93 N. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft. Neglect the self weight of the drum. 3.5 Match the sets A and B A 1.6. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0. (2) b.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10.

1265. [0. OD 1. [1 m] E 4. Determine the specific gravity of the oil.821.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.8 m. find the dimension of the cubic block. determine the specific gravity of the metal.5 floats in water. .15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0.78] E 4.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3. It floats 22.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0.4.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4.88 kg/m3] E 4. [unstable] E 4. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13.458] E 4. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0. For stability of the cylinder.5 m dia and 4.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. 1.81 m] E 4.56. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m).20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid.28 m] E 4.9 m.11 A cylinder with diameter 0. 1.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.67] E 4.13] E 4.72 m] E 4. [50 mm] E 4.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon. 51.00408 m3.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m.9 kg/m3.65 × 10–3 m–3. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0.25 m and length 0.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it. [1.45. [1. [7.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm.479 m] E 4.6. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable.865 m.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other.6 m] E 4. Calculate the depth of floatation.8 mm dia and it weighs 0.08 kg/m3.5 m below the water level. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams.21 A long log of 2. 2.8] E 4.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N. [1. Determine its volume and density.5 with specific gravity 0. The cubic block is also submerged in water.8 m height to float stably in water.0216 N.5 m floats in water. [756 kg/m3] E 4. [5.45 floats in water. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0. 9 m long.5 m dia and 0.15 m] E 4. Determine its metacentric height.667. [0. [1.8. [2. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3. [7. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. [0. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0.

[1. stable. E 4.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1.62 tons with load. Water rises by 0.1 is 10 mm.753 m. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium. If the wedge is 50 cm wide.2 and 0. [0.5 m is forced into water by 666 N.4 and 0. Investigate the stability.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0. E 4.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0.67 m dia and 1. the top layer being 60 cm thick.9.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y.29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.65 and base width 0.4 m. the depth of immersion is 6.6 m inside. 1904 kN/m] E 4.5 m and height 0. Determine the weight of the unit. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1. Determine the weight of the tank.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram. E 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4.1 and 1.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S.026. (y in mm). E 4.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water.95 mm] E 4. The mass is 453.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1.08475 N] E 4. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg.7 m centreline.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1. Chapter 4 . E 4.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer.25 A sphere of 1. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26. The water level is 1 m from the top. [0. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water.22 A tank of 1. E 4. determine the depth of immersion. determine the tension in the chain.83.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury. What should be the diameter of the stem. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged.25 m dia floats half submerged in water.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom. E 4. E 4. [4.02. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water. and A is the sectional area of the stem. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium.2 m] E 4.

The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces. Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly.0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. In real fluid shows. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow.# 5. 142 . the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times.

This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. 5. . (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law. V = V (x. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. y. the co-ordinate system following the particle. z.e. A moving coordinate system has to be used. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. The flow description is particle based and not space based. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids.. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. In the Eularian method. 5. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. are with reference to location and time i.

y. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. z).4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. These can be expressed as V = V(x. P = P(x. 5. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. In the case of unsteady flow. t). For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. the flow is called compressible flow. 5. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time. t) where t is time.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. these are described. Momentum. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. z. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. y. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. If the density varies with location. In the next three sections. z. 5. This causes .6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. the properties vary with time or V = V(x. P = P(x. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. then such flow is called incompressible flow. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. y. z) etc. y.

z. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. the flow becomes reversible.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . t). This describes the general steady flow situation. v and w. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. For a flow to be reversible. z. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. y and z directions as u. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. y. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. t) . z. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). y.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case. y. Chapter 5 5. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. z. ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. Denoting the velocity components in x. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . y. z). v = v(x. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. This is the laminar region. REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. t). y). y.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. . t) and w = w(x. z. y. y. z. dz are the displacements in the directions x. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. Depending on the relative values of u. In general as u = u(x. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. In unsteady flow V = V(x. dy. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. no surface or fluid friction should exist. 5. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick.

and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms. 5. 5. Under steady flow conditions. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another.2) . The last term is known as local accleration term. First considering the y – z face. only the convective acceleration terms will exist.9. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element.9.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly. for a given time interval. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5.1.9.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx. because the flow at a point is changing with time. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5. dy.1) (5.9. Applying the law of conservation of mass.

Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 .9.3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5.1) and (5.9. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.7) This is the general equation. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.9.9.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified.9. or (5.9.9.4) (5.9.9.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow. like flow in a nozzle or venturi.9.9.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero. Integrating ρuA = constant.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.

As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y).11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig. (5. The idea is illustrated in Fig. For irrotational flow.∆t. 5.e.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y). The symbol used is Γ. . ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5. then the flow will be irrotational. the flow is irrotational.11.1.10.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x.Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5. ∆y. In case there is rotation. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is. ∆y.10.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5.10.2) 5.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy.15.10. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform. y) B Da ¶v Dx. 5. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field. If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path.∆t. y) v = v (x. At 1 the undeformed element is shown.

12 STREAM LINES. 5. 5.11.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise. so Vorticity = (5. 5. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines. ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v . Vorticity = circulation per unit area. ¶x ¶x Figure.2) For irrotational flow. i. vorticity and circulation are both zero.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area.3b. STREAM TUBE. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5.11.1 (b). dy is considered. PATH LINES. The velocity vector is a function of both position and time.e. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y). If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations . here area is dx dy.11.11. as its tangent at that point. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u ..

13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. Flow can be only through the ends. 2. Under steady flow condition. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. there can be no flow across the surface. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow.1. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. A line joining these points is the streak line. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time. . This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1.12.12.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5.12.1 Stream tube. such a line is defined as a stream line. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. 5. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. Such a passage is called a stream tube. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. P3. P2. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines. This line is called time line. 3 and 4. P4. there can be no flow across a stream line.1. they form a line at that instant. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.

1 showing the flow field. 5. The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5. thus proving the equation (5.13.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 . B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero.13.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero.5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. 5. 5.13. In the next para. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig.14. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream.14. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line. co-ordinate system and two stream lines. In the cartesian co-ordinate system.1). as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow. 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line.

14. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ. As a result of the definition.9. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5.14. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5.10 in terms of ψ. with complex boundary conditions. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ.14.1.14. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5.2) and comparing the above two equations.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5.14. Now taking components in the x and y directions. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines.14. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines. .5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained.14. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A. The definition is based on the continuity principle. if the stream function for a stream line is known.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. Consider another stream line B close to A. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. Considering the stream line A in figure.

The proof is given in solved problem 5. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient.15. Converging flows. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other.e. and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational. If a fluid flow is irrotational.15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential..15.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y .1.11.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v .12 and 5.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase.10. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations.13. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 . Substituting this in equation 5. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number.10.15. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ . ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5.2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.1 is satisfied i. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows. then equation 5. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points. v=− ∂y ∂x (5. (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results. 5. Substituting these in the continuity equation.

16.16. 5. the simple flows are described.1.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies. u = constant and v = 0.1. For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. . f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5. The flow can be described by the condition.16.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure. c2 = 0. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance.1.16. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines. C3 = 2ua etc.16.16. In this section. 5.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. ∴ ψ= z const. c) (5. i. By applying the boundary at y = 0.e. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ.. 5. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants. The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object. coincident with x axis.1. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0. b) (5. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α). a) (5. C1 = ua.1.

3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex.17. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5. ψ = – (q/2π)θ .8) Chapter 5 . The equations describing the flow are ur = 0. uθ = 0.17.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5.3) (5. FG q IJ θ .17.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.7) (5.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. where θ is the angle of the stream line. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5.5) (5. origin. 5.17.17.17. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) .2) (5. Here C1.17. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5.17. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point). The circulation around any closed curve is zero. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. the velocity will increase.17.17.17. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. The origin is a singular point. C2 etc are simply Figure 5. H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero.17. As the area increases along the outward direction.17.17.2.1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.1. (5.17. 5. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q.4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.

17. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ . where ds is the distance between them. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves. Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . At r = o. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point. ds→0. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5.17. In this case Λ takes a definite value.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5.17.9) (5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point. In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius.3.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5. 5.17.4 Potential and stream line for doublet .

The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. the flow area reduces. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source.18.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig.18. The flow rate of the source is q.1 Source and uniform flow P 5. 5. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ . 5. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. source. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2. in polar coordinates. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux.18.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.18.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 . As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 . Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. it is found useful to study such combination of flows. The equations describing the flows are. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5. The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform.18. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. For example. sink etc.1.

18. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.6 Doublet.18. In polar coordinates.6 Doublet.17.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5.17.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.17.18. P 5.3 Source.1 and 2.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5.18.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates.18.18.5 and 15.18. and for K<4πau Figure 5. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r).4. vortex and uniform flow .18. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.18. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5.18. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).

2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow. Opposite Rotation.18.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.17. Chapter 5 Figure 5.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).17.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.8 Vortex pair 5.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net.18.18.18.18.7 Source and vortex 5.18. 2a P Figure 5. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle.9 Sink and vortex .7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.17.

1. ψ = ψ (x.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0. 5. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines.19.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank.19. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other.160 An example is shown in Fig. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line.

Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. 5. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) . The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow.3. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ . ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole.2. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t.

Hence flow is rotational. . the continuity equation should be used. 5. The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass. C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig.5. To check for irrotationality. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . v= − y x + y2 2 1. the condition to be satisfied is.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω . ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. P. Problem 5. Show that the flow is steady and 2. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy .3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 .4.

=–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. (a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. (iii) u = –2x. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2. v = – 3x. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational . Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. v = 0.5.6.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y. = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. (i) u = x + y.

∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. f ′ (x) can be obtained . The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. y) ∂y z f1 (x. ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y.7. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. y). as ψ = xy. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. (i) From the definition stream function. v = – y ∂v ∂u = .8. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. using equation 1 determine the derivative. y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. Problem 5. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x. =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. = 0. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. y). Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u.

9. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy. u = 2x + y . f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2.r. ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x . Determine the stream function given.t.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy. = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c. = – 4y.

∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. = 2y. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. = x. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x.10. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. Problem 5. Stream function may exist. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only .166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. Case (ii) φ = xy.11. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. The function is a valid potential function. 2 = – 2. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid.

∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. = 3y. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks.12. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. Hence flow is irrotational. u = – 3y. φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v. v = – = – 3x also checks. For the following stream functions. here both are – 3. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. – v = = 3x. = 0 . in this case both are zero. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v .

13. Only in the case of potential function. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. ∂v ∂u = 2x. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. as an exercise. checks. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant. u= Hence flow is irrotational. x.t. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y.t. y. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases.r. Problem 5. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. Laplace equation etc. ∂x Differentiating w. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked. Check for continuity. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ.r. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. = – 2x. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . checks ∂x . ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. In this case stream function will always exist.

(i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2. P. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0.4 0.4 6 3 5 0.14.2 0..t.8 Figure P.r.6 0.6 26. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0. 5. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 .2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0.14. v) and for orthogonality.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i. y. Hence checks.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y . 5. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w. Problem 5.56° 7 9 8 0. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig.e.

P. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1. 5.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5.15 Problem 5.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.5 4 3 –5 2 0. Show the resulting stream lines.5 = 11. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y. 5. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.5 = (102 + 52)0.5 –1 2 3 4 4.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1. P.16 For the combined stream lines .5 1 – 5.16. Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y. 5.15.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0.60 to the x axis Poblem 5.

5. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) . The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y. In a two dimensional flow. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point.18.16 u= x2 Problem 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3.17.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5. The velocity components at point (2. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy. Assume steady incompressible flow.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

3.3.2.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity).4. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow. Steady flow 2. the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2. equation 6. The assumptions involved are: 1. as velocity. as = dV/dt. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6. dP + gdz + VdV = 0.3) (Note: in equation 6. this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt.3. . it will also have a unit of m/s2). 6.3.3. V = f(s. This equation after dividing by g.3. t).3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. is also written as.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. As it is.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6. Multiplying by go. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. Motion along a stream line and 3. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. dt (6. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg).2 reduces to. (t = time).3 also it is better to write the first term as go. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6.

3 2 × 9. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar.4. V1 = 0. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. However. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. Barometric pressure is 1 bar. venturimeter.4. γ = sp. gravity × 9810. kg m/N s2 .81 Solving.832 P2 11.4.32 m/s 10 × 105 2. or loss of head due to friction occurs. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. Substituting. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3).1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. V2 = 0. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0.3 2 × 9. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 . As P/γ is involved directly on both sides. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. (6.3) Example 6.3 m respectively. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. orifice meter etc. P2 = 9.092 × 105 N/m2).5 bar (vacuum).3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1.8 × 4/π × 0.092 bar (9.6 m and 0. the equations will read as.62 = 2.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. nozzle meter. Example 6.4.6 m and 0. the pressure P2 can be calculated. determine the pressure at section 2. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube.81 9810 × 1.8 × 4/π × 0.33 = 11. Equation 6. it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure). In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity.83 m/s.2 m. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1.

3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2. 2 × 105 0. 6.542 31832 Q2 .94 m/s.43 m/s. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex.6 = × 4. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .6 m below the tap outlet.6 m Jet V22 2. ∴ D = 0. V1 = 2.1 m f 2 0. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases.4 Problem model .4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’.6. Z2 = – 0. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat.202) = 31. Example 6. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0.81 V2 = 4. kinetic energy increases.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9.602) = 3. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0.3.6.1 m /s Water A 0. V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0.54 Q.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex. The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout. Q = 0.6 m Q = 0.6 + 2 × 9. Example 6.4. Z2 = 0.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm.62 = − 0. V2 = 17. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0.83Q 3. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2.3 m/s. 6.81 2 × 9. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation.6 m/s at the tap outlet. V1 = 1.6 m.81 9810 9810 Solving.186 and noting Z1 = Z2. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.81 2 × 9.01166 m or 11. Ex.548 m3/s. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute).

When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise.48 cm 6.1. Figure 6.1/ (π × 0.22) = 3. 6. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow. P1 − P2 = 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.1832)/(2 × 9. V1 = 4 × 0. substituting the values.6 + x + sh γ γ (where x.5. It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.G.6 + h(s – 1). considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0. For calculating the total energy kinetic. V2 = 4 × 0. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line . For the manometer configuration. Energy line is the plot of are negligible. line hydraulic gradient line.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3.5.1/ (π × 0.81) = 8.7322 – 3.6 + (12.12) = 12.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0.6 + h(13. The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head).6148 m or 61. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.346 = 0. γ 8. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow. When losses (frictional) are negligible.183 m/s.732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2.

5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0. Figure Ex.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.5 Venturimeter-flow . V22.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0. 6.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 .5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s. In numerical work consistent units should be used. Refer to Fig. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also. N/m2.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V . 6.5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.6.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0. inclination from horizontal or vertical position.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction. Z in m. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging. Ex.5 (6.188 6. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction.

.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid. if the manometer shows a reading of hm. 6. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric.6. 6. h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0.5 (6. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0.5 Comparing the equation (6. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified. Example.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. applying Bernoulli equation.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified. i.12/4) × 7. Also determine the pressure at A.06 m3/s A Water level C 1.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1).672 m/s. dividing by γ1.1) with the problem at hand. 6. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. Ex. Ex.7 when flow is established.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.6. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.3) . The fluid head.5 [2 gH ]0. γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow. 6. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove.6.0 m Tank Pipe. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7.e. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.672 = 0. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.5 (6. H.2) This equation leads to another conclusion.

r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0. 6.35. the elemental force dF is given by.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure.6722/ (2 × 9. Now considering locations C and A.2594 .025)2 = 103.08/2π × 0. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N .05 × 0. 6. Ex.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure. Assume the pressure at radius r = 0. dF = ρ πrdr 103.05 m is atmospheric.75 − 0.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates.75 (0.35 − 0. The top plate is fixed. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation.08/2π × 0.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB. Net force = 1000 × π (103.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.052 ) / 2) − 0.025 × r)2 = 0. γ Example. 0.35 0.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks. Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.75 V22 = (0. P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. 6.05 to 0. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0.

The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL. Let the shear stress be τ.13 m3/min) Example 6. + 10 2g 2g .3. V2 = 12. Example 6. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).3.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom.5 V22/2g. The Euler equation 6.81 .64 m3/min.3 and Fig.01068 m3/s = 0. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm.777 m/s 11 π × 0.178 m3/s.53 m/s and flow will be 2. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element.777 = 0. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. 6. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 . There is no loss in the nozzle. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g.9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6. V2 = 3.1. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet.062 × 3.

1.8. the pressure term is known as static head.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction. (Figure 6.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 .166 m3/s 6. The head measured is also called Piezometric head.8. (Figure 6.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm.8. . γ 2 × 9.49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation. (Figure 6.8. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction.1 = 5. 6.5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0.178/π × 0. Such a probe is called static probe. The transition piece length is 6 m.1 × 0. using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet).67 m/s P2 5.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum. Considering the bottom as the datum.5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0. determine the rate of flow. V1 = 2. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head.3/0.672 = = 5 m of water head.353 and V2 = 9.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0. Solving.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC. It is measured by a probe.

1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig.8.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.2.8. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water.9 × 13. 0. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.9 (13. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.24 m Note.8.9 m of mercury column.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6. Chapter 6 .1 Pressure measurement 6. 6. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6. This instrument is also called pitot–static tube. then the head should be calculated as 0.8.6 – 1) m.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1).

V2 = 8 × 0.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow. The outlet diameter is 1. Ex. 6.16 m of water. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m.2 m.39 m/s. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm.2 Figure Ex.5 .16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9. In a draft tube as shown in Fig. 2 as the datum. discuss in which case the flow is highest. Z2 = 0.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6.81 2 × 9. Consider equation 6.194 Example 6. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards. Z1 = 3 82 1.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level. 6. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.13. cavitation problem limits the design pressure.52 = 1.6. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0. The inlet diameter is 0.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’. 1.

S1 = 0.05g 4 0.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6.8 K PQ 1 − b0.056 2 12.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.1FG 13. Problem 6.5 = 4.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same.8.732 m/s.5 m and 0.2452 /4) 3.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15.282 m3/hr or 4.236 bar (absolute) = 1. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2.81 × 0. . Barometric pressure is 1 bar. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0. 6.03/0.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P.6 = 12.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13.81 2 × 9.05)4.5 2 0.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6. h = 0.6. 6.8.03 / 4j L2 × 9.245 m.10 m S2 = 13.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0. Q= eπ × 0.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar. Determine the throat pressure. Determine the flow rate. Substituting (π × 0.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.6.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.6 = = 3. Substituting.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.6. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2.03 / 0.

8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0. 4 π × 0.04 2 = 1.6 mm. gr = 13.6 Calculate the exit diameter.6.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2.405 bar absolute. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0. Problem 6.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1. Using equation (6.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1. Problem 6.81 2 × 9. V2 = 19.5m above point 1.81 × hFG 13. h. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0.6 − 1IJ OP H 0.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.b) determine the value of manometer reading. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0. Using Bernoulli equation. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values.37 m/s.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.5 2 × 9.0146 m = 14. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s.5 Solving. 2 π × d2 ×19. at the rate of 0. Neglect losses.9m3/s. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.83 × 10–3 m2 .26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0. determine the pipe diameter at that location.5m and pressure is 800 kPa.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. .2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.9 × 4 / π × 0.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0.81 9810 9810 e j Solving. h = 0.5 0.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0. which is 1.06 2 = 2. Flow = area × velocity.37 = 0. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. of mercury column.

04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure.07 m 1.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. Loss of head = 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9.531 m/s 2 × 9.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0. neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2.96 m 0. Z1 = 6 m V22 2.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube. Z2 = 0 (datum).531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1.81 2 × 9. Express it as a function of exit velocity head.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2. Problem 6.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.3 bar. Determine the head loss through the pipe.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0.516. can be reduced to a vary low level. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature.405 × 10 5 1.22 LM N OP /2 × 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7.81 9810 Losses = 1. and the pressure at the topside is 7.04 2 0. where the draft tube is attached. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 .

5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.2) (with A2 = 0.031 2 0. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13. h = 0.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.5 Solving.5 2 bar Figure P. gravity. P2 = 0.81 × hFG 13.514 = H 0.62 = 0.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.8.5 LM2 × 9.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2.8 2 × 9. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. 0.8 ×105 N/m2 . 6.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp. 6.5 0.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.81 9810 × 0.6. Z2 = 2 m 2 0. Z1 = 0.854 m .6 − 1IJ OP 0. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0.8 2 × 9.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.5 2 × 2.2 2m 1 h 0.8 bar 0.2 /4 JK = 6.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.81 b g π × 0.5 /4 I GH π × 0.031 m2.62 m/s 9810 × 0.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0.196 K QP 0. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2. P. A1 = 0.031IJ OP N NM H 0.196 m2) Flow rate.6.25 V 2 2 2 1 6.

Z1 = 0.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.4 × 4/π × 0. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 . This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.10 Petrol of relative density 0.3 m B A 1.2 m 1 h 0. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses. 6. Z2 = 1.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.2 m. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2. determine the direction of flow. Mercury with S = 13.81 2 2 + 0 = 22. Determine the flow rate.15 m 0. Problem 6. P.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2.4 × 4/π × 0.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.69 bar 1. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1.6 is used as the manometer fluid.6.3 j 2 × 9.2m vertically above point 1. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6.10. 0.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.38 bar Figure P. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. 2 0. + 9810 e0.

V2 = 9.11.6. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6.22 = H 0.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.5 S2 13. Solving.82 1 LM2 × 9. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal. P.81 × hFG 13.3 2 × 3. . π × 0. S = 0.3 K QP π × 0.3 m Problem 6. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s. V1 = 3. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A.15 2 /4 4 0. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0. Assuming friction to be negligible.82 × 9810 0. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P. 6.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.12.2355 m.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2.15 IJ OP N NM H 0. h = 0.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.6 .2 = 15 V12 .82 K Q LM1 − FG 0.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.6 − 1IJ OP 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.5 Solving.2 b138 − 69g10 0. indicated by point 1.5 0.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.106 = 0. Point A is 1m above the water level. 6. Problem 6.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.6.

12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 . The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10. The outlet is 8 m below water level. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P.3 m. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9.81 × 2 = 12.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation. Atmospheric pressure is 10.13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir. Z1 = 8.3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10. Z3 = 0.81 = 11. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9.53 m/s Chapter 6 . Consider level 1 as datum. between 1 and 2. V1 = 0. The velocity of water at the surface is zero. 6. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. As flow is the same. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.3 m of water.

37 m/s.14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. 2.3 ∴ Z2 = 9.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P.5 V1. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2. As V2 = V3. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel. Q = 16. Z3 = 0. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1.3 m.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 . Substituting in equation (1). 6. 2 × 9.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3. both surface pressures being atmospheric.35 m/s.81 2 × 9. Problem 6. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10. Therefore the barrier can be 1. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1. Problem 6. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter. 3 V2 = 2. V2 = 8. determine the level downstream.742 m3/s.3 m above water level. flow rate. Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3.

0.81 h23 – 2. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9. check using A. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia.57 checks.54 + 1.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water. 2m being trivial.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1.81 h × 2 × 9. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line. losses and kinetic head.1147 = 0. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.425 m.5 = 3.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9.797 + 0.54 m h2 = 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8. this reduces to Solving. Using B.56 m/s. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head. Problem 6. Chapter 6 . 2 + 0. 0. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads.1147 h22 + 0.54 m is the acceptable answer.81 = Vn2 [5. h2 can be 2 m.4587 = 0 Simplifying. – 0.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0. ∴ V2 = 5.

Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. loss 5V2/2g 10. Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10. Z. – .321 m = 6. 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 .6.321 m below atmospheric pressure. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected. Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ. distance travelled. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A.979 m absolute 3. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. Kinetic head V2/2g.314/4g I GH 2 × 9. P.3 m of water column. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . Describe the path of the free jet.17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. during time t. Problem 6. In the vertical direction. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. 10. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. Hence .3 – 3.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory.

at time t.32 m/s. Ref Fig. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6. so the velocity decreases. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal.66 m 9. becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4. 6. where a = – g. P.097 m 2g 2 × 9. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t.215 m 17. X = Vxot.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2. 6.32 2 17.81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17.17).32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5. .Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10.

81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17.56 m also. X = Vxo t. Given Vo and Z. From basics.17. 6. two values of X is obtained from equation A.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9.53 m The X value corresponding to this is. X = Vxo t.81 × 11.12 tan 40 – 9. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by.61 m/s.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. By symmetry.12 1 × =6 2 17.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained.612 sin 40 cos 40/9. referring to Fig.81 = 15. Problem 6. P. Refer Problem 6. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17.17. Vxo = Vo cos 40. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down. 11. Vzo = Vo sin 40.56) + 15. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15.56 = 11.56 m.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17.12 m check by substituting in equation B.81 = 6. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt .81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X .

21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6. solving tan θ = 7.594 or 0. tan2 θ – 8. Fall Rise 82. For maximum horizontal reach.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.17. 207 Problem 6. . P.155 tan θ + 4. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°. In the first case it clears the height during the fall. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. In the second case it clears the height during the rise.21. See Fig. the projected angle should be 45°.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ.5° or 29.6.3°. The maximum reach.262 = 0.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m.5° 29. eqn. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. C Chapter 6 1 9. 6.

y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 .22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position. Show that H1y1 = H2y2.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly. 6. and simplifying. 2g . If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top. Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B). Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. Referring to Problem 6. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. reaches a maximum height of 20 m. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank.208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.17. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. eqn.

25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving. P1 = P2. Assume the frictional loss as 4.9 l/s.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.25 Problem model .5 = 19. V2 2 0. 0.5 bar.0739 m3/s = 73.18 = 0. V1 = 0. 6.809 = 0.81)0. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum. 1 and the bottom of the pipe.1427 m 4 Problem 6.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0.12 2 × 19. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy.15 2 × 4.81 × 2)0. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level.5 2 × 9.224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height.81 V2 = 4.81 9810 2 × 9.5V22/2g.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9. Determine the flow rate. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0. 4 Problem 6. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4.

The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 . d = 0. ho = 0. g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 . −1 . Let D = 0.t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval.5 m. Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0.5 m. Consider a numerical problem.210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h.025 m.

t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank. LM OP 100 9.71 s. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g . 2 × 9. ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) . then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 .5 IJ − 1 PP H 0.01 m. Say d = 0.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0. Chapter 6 t = 127.0471) = 0. ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero.81 / 2 211 = 0.5 = G H 0.7 seconds. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used. Determine the distances indicated as h and H. then time for employing is 1130 sec.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds.5 / FG 0.81 . Problem 6.025 IJ 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0.025 K 4 − 1 = 127. 2g .5 IJ H 0.5 K 2 .25K N Q o 4 2 = 0. 2 Solving F 0.5 (1 – 0. t. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m.81/ 2 × 0.4764 m In case d << D.

25 m.22.25h = 0.212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P. as H = 6. 10 . Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present. H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h). t = or H = 6. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet.26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. 8g = Vxo2 t = 10.25 – h = 50 g 25 = . It may be also noted from problem 6. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6.25 × 4 = 4 × 6. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 .25 Hence this condition is also satisfied.25 m. is present. Substituting. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt . 6. Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. . or h = 2. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2. 6.25 m.

Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. 7. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. 8. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. 7. 6. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. 6. 9. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. 8. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. Fill in the blanks: 1. . 12. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. 11. 9. 2. (5) Z. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.go where γ is specific weight. V2/2g. 5. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––. 10. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. 5. 6. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. 6. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. 11. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. 213 2. O Q. Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. 3. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. 10.2. 4. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––.1. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. Chapter 6 3.

12 O Q. 7. 11. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. 9. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. (e) all flows. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. 5. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. 12. 7. 4. Answers Correct – 1. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. 11 Incorrect – 2. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect. 4. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction.4. as the diameter is doubled. 3. 6. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. 3. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. 8. 5.214 O Q. 6. 3. Flow will take place along energy gradient. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. the energy line will decreases by a step. 6. the velocity head is 6 m. Choose the correct answer: 1.3. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. 6. the pressure head is 3 m. 5. If velocity increases. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. 9. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 10. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. 8. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. 6. 2. the potential head is 4 m. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. 10. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid.

potential energy 2. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass.1. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m.201m) Chapter 6 . 9. Set A 1. neglecting losses. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. 6. O Q. 3b. 2d. Answers (1) 1c.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7.84 flows through the pipe. 2d. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. 0. Continuity equation 3.6) is used to measure the pressure. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer. Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity. Bernoulli equation 2.854 N/m2. kinetic energy 3. 3b. Set A 1. In a source type of flow. Laplace equation 2. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. internal energy 4. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. (36. Oil of specific gravity 0. Eulers equation 4. 4a (2) 1c.5. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. Match the sets 1.2 m dia to 0.

(35. A pipe line is 36 m above datum. 17.45 m at the start. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. (47.8 bar.6 mm. (0. Oil of specific gravity of 0.63 m. Calculate (1) the power of the jet.98 m) E 6. 100 mm) . Determine the pressure at the location.12.4 and 0. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22.13 m/s) E 6. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s. (V at fork = 4.225 m dia is 3. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. P0.25 mm. The velocity in the pipe line of 0. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length. The pressure at the upper location is 0. Neglect losses. The length is 300 m.8 m) E 6. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering.15 m and 0.5.105 m3/s) E 6. A nozzle of 25 mm dia. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.4. determine the maximum length. Calculate the flow rate. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s.14 kW.9.6.33 m. (2) the loss in head due to friction.1 m/s. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s. is 8. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1.11. 6. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min. P0. Neglect losses. The diameter reduces from 1.15 = 16.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm.4.7 Nm.73 bar) E 6.225 m diameter.8 m/s.5 m/s.kg) E 6. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0. 5.2 kW) E 6.2 m Supply 1. (283. The velocity at the beginning is 1. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. Determine the pressure at the lower location. V0. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge. (8.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section. (38.225 = 19.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes.15 m dia. 25. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. The flow rate is 0.3%.2 m.5 m) E.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0.6 m. Pfork = 13.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water.8.821 m.5 m3/min. (0. E.7. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m.05 m/s.8 m V=? Figure E.8 m/s. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7. (84. (774.15 = 8.5 m/s. 6. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2.4 E 6.14 bar) E 6. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.2. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0.13 m3/s. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.10. 6.3.2 m to 0. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle.6 m/s.

9 m.16 E 6. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0.19. 6. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet.13.14. 45.18. Atmospheric pressure is 10. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm. 6. E.17. E. E. when the jet is directed vertically.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. 9 m) E 6.16.1 kPa ab) 2 1. (4.19. if velocity at 3 was 11. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. (18 m) E 6. issuing at 18.8 kPa ab) E 6. 6. 6.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E.17 Figure E. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig. 22. 6. The arrangement is shown in Fig. shown in Fig.18 E 6. (8 m.7 m/s.9 m/s) E 6.15.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig.7mm. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m. Calculate the height to which the jet.0 430 mm Figure E. (18 m.17.13 m of water) Chapter 6 . Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case.2 m of water. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2. determine the height to which the jet will rise.16. (16.83 S = 1. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98.2 l/s. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. 6. Diameter of the pipe is 2.18.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°. 6. (43 l/min. E. In the setup of siphon for water flow.5 cm. 1.

E 6.36 m /s 3 Figure E.218 2 7.5 m 9.20. 6. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig. E 6. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream. 6. 6. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig. 6.20. determine the flow rate of water.3 m 5 m/s 1. E. Neglecting losses. 6. E. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig.22.24. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H. E 6. Neglect losses. E.75 Water 1. Assume that these are no losses.21 Figure E.25. 6.22.22 E 6. For the venturimeter shown in Fig. 6. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards. E 6. 6.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.24 Figure E. 6. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place.21.25.5 m WL 1. 6.24.20 E 6.23.19 Figure E.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig.5 m 2. 6.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream. y 0.25 . E. E.3 m f 10 mm Figure E.

The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed.% 7. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design. 219 . Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. with layers not mixing macroscopically. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. Besides these laws. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated.

2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig. Beyond this point. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. 7.1. Small disturbances are damped out.220 7. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig. The flow initially is laminar. Beyond a certain distance. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface. There is no intermingling of layers. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. The adjacent layers also slow down. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero.1.1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer. 7.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface.1. but to a lower and lower extent. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. mainly by diffusion.1. The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. the flow in the boundary layer becomes .1.

7. where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates.3. The distance upto this point is known as entry length.1a. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . The flow beyond is said to be fully developed. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers.3. At some distance from the entrance. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. In pipe flow it is not a function of length. It is about 0. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v).04 Re × D. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. Inertia forces become predominant. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference. the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible. 7.

the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent.1) (7.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers. In this case.2) . u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7.1b. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number.186/Re0.25 f= 0. f = 0. The dye path is shown in Fig. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself.3. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid. x. Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent. 7.4. This length. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). If a dye is injected into the flow.316/Re0. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates). The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations.4.1. In the case of flow through pipes. 7. 7. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance.4. The friction factor. the dye will travel along a straight line. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular.4. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig.

Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ. For circular section Dh = D. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer.9}]2 (7.6. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes.e. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 . Here the inertial forces are predominant. This definition is applicable for any cross section. Dh = 4A/P (7. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal.4. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter.8v/u f (7. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth. with a roughness height of ε.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth.6. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow.7D) + 5.2) Example 7. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out.325/[ln {(ε/3. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption. 7.1 In model testing. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow. So for a given section.. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter. If δl < 6ε. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough. Re = Dh × u/v (7. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces.6.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number.5.74/Re0. is given by f = 1. i.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface. In rough pipes.3) 7.

and using the relationship for force balance. the velocity being a function of radius only. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow. the diameter should be 15 times that for water. diameter and density. A) 1.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached.7. outside radius = r + dr. 7. If velocities should be the same. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. 7.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant. length = dx.7. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G.1 . It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow.1a. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity.

7.7. which represents parabolic distribution. and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7.3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R.72) At a given radius. we get 7.3. at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification. Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C .7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 . dividing 7. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7.7.2). u= at r = R. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7. ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.1 by (7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .7.7.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.

The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked.8.79 umax for n = 6 and 0. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness. t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate. f= . (7. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation).8. But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7. It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter. where n varies with Reynolds number.8.87 umax for n = 10.1 elemental length L in the pipe. given in the appendix.8. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost. Some empirical equations are given in section 7. The average velocity is 0.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K .4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow. Consider an Figure 7.2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor. 7.

8. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text. ∆P. we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7. π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = . As mentioned earlier. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0.8. It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid. Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 .5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 .4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P.8.8.6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs.6). um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7.8.

9. Also (µ / ρ) = ν.2 and 7.1) (7. 7. The equation is derived in this section.9. 7. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = .9.7. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 .8. Equations 7.9.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop. Refer to section (7.7.9.8.1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.2).6) is applicable for all flows .7) equation (7. substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7.1.8) Now a days equation 7. umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit.8.9.3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7.2) (7.

12 = 3200 N/m2. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region.1 × 1 × 10 0. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.81 × 0. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 . Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID. (ρu.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7. so the flow is laminar 1 × 0. inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path. f = 64/Re). as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number. The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal.e. laminar flow prevails in pipes. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930.1) = 0. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = ..300.9. 7. Example 7.351 m head of oil.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9.93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. When velocity increases. Re = Friction factor. or ∆P = 0. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0.s).3. laminar flow prevails in pipes. f = 64/930 = 0.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0.351 × 0.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0. µ can be also expressed as Pa. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length.u).1 µ .2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f.

5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.11. u u* = 5. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.6 ν/u* (7.6) R + 4.12.75 (7.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.1 × 930/0. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.75 ln ( R − r) + 8.5 ν (7.8) .11. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.47 m/s.33 f (7. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.5 ε (7. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.75 log (7. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5.11.4) For rough pipes.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7.2).11.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.11.11.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe. = 5.2).11. u = (1 + 1.1 ∴ um = 2.75 log = 5.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.11.5 ν (7.33 f ) um – 2.

(a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation. Three types of entrances are known.11. f = 0. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error. In a pipe system design.12) = 2 log R + 1. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant. valves and fittings.8 log Re – 1. 7. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.10) (7.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.11. it is necessary to take into account all such losses. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution.13) Charts connecting f.221/Re0.74 ε (7.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7. Chapter 7 . As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7.237) 1/ f = 1.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0. (7.11. several correlations are available for friction factor. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance. f ρ um 2 .11.316/Re0.11.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart.0032 + (0.11.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile.04 for this situation.11.11) (7. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows.14) (7. The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses.

7. C = 0.13.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe. Square edged entrance is used more popularly.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses).13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity.1.8. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example.08 for angles of 10° to 60°. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses.05 to 0. datum remaining unaltered.12.5. The loss coefficient. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. The loss coefficient is 1. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7. The value is 0.33 for D2/D1 = 0. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio. For gate valves L = 8D.5 in this case.0. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) . and for globe valves it is 340 D.12. (7. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g.

1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2. P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 . The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2. The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2).13.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2. replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change. 2g Chapter 7 .

234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. friction head and the dynamic head. 7. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. This line will also dip due to frictional losses. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i.4. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7. 7.e. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID). . the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. elbows etc. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows. The head to be developed will equal the static head.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path. In the case of bends. Determine the head to be developed by the pump.1 (pump is not indicated in figure).15. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. u2/2g. fittings etc. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. Specimen plot is given in Fig. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line.15. Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows.. There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. The line will dip due to losses.

81 = 35 + 0.25 = 0.42442/2 × 9.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7. v = 1.2 m below the water reservoir level. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings.237 = 0. From the relation knowing C.05 = 0.252/4) × 0. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.0092 m 2 × 9.4244/1. minor losses may often be neglected.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5. f and D.42442 = 0. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.23 m3/hr.2562 m head of water.02622. 7. Flow rate = (π × 0. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0. D = 0.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9. or 97.265 + 0. Re = um D/v = 0. 7.316/210930. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head. Le.05 × 0.2562 m.0241). Friction head = f L um2/2g D.5 A pipe 250 mm dia.15).55 m/s. Head to be developed by the pump = 35.0032 + 0.25 = 0. Example 7. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.11.052 = 0. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D.316/Re0. using the value 0.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.05 m.4244 m/s. This length is known as equivalent length. Determine the rate of discharge.027 m3/s.0092 = 35. 4000 m long with f = 0.02622 = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m.2 = [(0.81 × 0. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 .176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.55 = 0.81 × 0. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m.02622 × 55 × 0. 5.221/Re0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s.81)] = 17.

04 ∴ Q = 0.021 and 0.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations. m 600 800 400 Diameter. as the pressure loss is the same.45) Q2 = 0.3)5 = 834. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses.17.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7. Example 7.4/0. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7. L2e = 300 (0. 300 m and 250 m respectively. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No.17.019 0. m 0.4/0.7.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2. The lengths are 200 m.024) × (0. Three pipes of 400 mm. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0. In parallel arrangement.81 m 12 = (8 × 0.2 m2/s.81 × π2 × 0.021/0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7.17.35)5 = 511.04.02 m = 200 + 511.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution.019/0.024) × (0.019 respectively.02 = 1545.024.4 m pipe as the base.021 0.024 .79 m L3e = 250(0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0.81 × Q2)/(9. 1 2 3 Length. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m.024 × 1545. The friction factors are 0.6.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0.35 Friction factor 0.25 0. Example 7. 0. Q = 0.30 0.79 + 834.

L2 = 1500 m.078542/ π2 × 9.019 × 800 × 0. L1 = 2000 m.5 Using equation (7.4362 Q1 = 0.255 = 6.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7. D1 = 0. L1 = 2000 m.019 800 GH 0. Let the flows be designated as Q1. The two reservoir levels are equal.000 l/min.4362 Q1 + 2.43 m. the head drops are equal (refer para 7.11282/π2 × 9. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location. So.35I = M MN 0.11.2.4 m.021 × 600 × 0.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.81 × 0.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2. The value of f3 = 0.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.4 m3/s 0.024 × 2000 × F 0.019. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0.021 1500 GH 0. eqn. hf = 8 × 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0. Q2.024.576 m Example 7. D2 = 0.35 = 6.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0.35 m.5 OP PQ L 0.20867 m3/s Total = 0.25JK L 0.6569 Q1 = 5. Chapter 7 5 0.17. L2 = 1500 m.8.17. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs.021 × 600 × F 0.11. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3. f2 = 0. eqn 7.024 400 GH 0.5 = 0. The total head available is 25.024. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24.5 = 2. D2 = 0. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0. 7.5 .81 × 0.021. f1 = 0.3 I = M MN 0.021.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1. f2 = 0.5 OP PQ 5 0. Determine the flow rate through the system.4 = Q1 + 1.17. D1 = 0.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3.2). Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0.4 m.021 × 600 × F 0.35 I MN 0.6569 Q1 = 0.

dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7. Net head available = h – hf. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained.81 × 0.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe. Q2 = 0.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.81 × 0. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.81 × 0.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes.024 × 2000 × 0.238 25. Power = mass flow × net head Power.67%. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a .46 = 25.021 × 1500 × 0.46 m both are equal as required. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD.18.4 5 = 17.42 = 7.2123 m3/s.555 Total head = 7. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.019 × 1600 × 1.555 = 387.81 × 0.21232 π 2 × 9. 7. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.81 × 0.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u.88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9.31 Q12 + 177.99 + 17.355 = 17. but this will prove to be costly.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0.99 m π2 × 9. checks.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66.18.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0. for maximum power.17 Q12 = 564. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.45 m .4 m3/s.1877 2 π 2 × 9. 7.019 × 1600 × 0.45 π 2 × 9.

18755 × 1000 × 9. Determine the maximum power that can be developed.014 is used. Determine for the data in example 7.81 × 0.25) = 208.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s.1.81 × 0.014.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.81 (450 – 92.5 m/s. Example 7.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s. Example 7.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0.014 × 3000 × 6.1. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m.10. Here both u and D are not specified. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.07 m Power = (π × 0. Refer Eqn 7.252/4) × 4.963 kW Example 7.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0. The available pipes have friction factor 0.25) solving.81 (450 – 208. Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0. Q = 86.48 m Power = (π × 0.82 m/s. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed.81) D5.52)/(2 × 9.18.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9.014 × 3600 × 4.81 × 0.9 the power transmitted for u = 4. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0.4 × 103 m3/day. hf = (0. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D.01735.81 × 0.4445 m .44452) = 6.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted. For maximum power when flow rate is specified.48) = 516493 W = 516.5 × 1000 × 9. Using equation 7. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0.924 × 106 W or 3.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems. Chapter 7 D5 = 0.18.07) = 524246 W = 524.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551.4442)/(2 × 9. hf = (0. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m. Some of these are discussed in the para. u = 3. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head. (i) u = 4. D = 0.25) = 92. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.81 × 400 = 3.

61 + 17.15 Pipe 1..355 π 2 × 9.. D1.81 × 0. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m.02 × 220 = 149.11... This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + . 1 2 3 4 Diameter.013 0.30 0. 7.81 × 0. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes.35 0.45 8 × 0.1 Pipe 3.240 7. No. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5. D2.018 0.81 × 0.19. Consider equation 7. Determine the flow rate.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7.. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + .12.40 Length including minor losses.02 0.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149. Pipe 2. m 220 410 300 600 f 0.11..015 × 600 8 × 0. 7.62) Q2 = 355. f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3.018 × 410 = 116. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9.. m 0.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network.015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.455 8 × 0.19.45 0. R2 = π 2 × 9.35 π 2 × 9.463 + 72.463. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths.793 Q2 . R4 = = 72. D3.1. Pipe 4. The circuit is shown in Fig.19.. = 17. f1 L2.013 × 300 8 × 0.. f3 Figure 7..15. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated.. WL L1.61.81 × 0.

19.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0. D2. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. m 800 1200 900 Diameter. 7. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. 1 2 3 length.19. Determine the frictional loss. f2 P3 L3. Q2 and Q3 are specified.4 Friction factor 0. these flow rates can be determined. D3. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below.13 and Ex. Example 7. . f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7. 3. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1. 7. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig.3 0.019 Chapter 7 4. D1.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1.02 0.046 + 3.14.2 WL h1 P1 L1. 2. f1 P2 L2.022 0. 7. No.916 + 0.449 = 12 m 241 7. m 0.2 0.589 + 2.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.19. Using the value find Q2 and Q3.

If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water.13.81 × 0.66 m3/s.91 m π 2 × 9. 0.022 × 800 × 0.02 900 m. f = 0.81 × 0.019 Case 1.41629 m3/s 0. 7. Ex.11. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0. Q = ? Case 2.52274 0.66 × 0.1355 m3/s π2 × 9. using equation 7.13558 = 0.2 5 8 × 0.171172 π 2 × 9.3 m f.4 m f.81 × 0.66 × 0. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3.52274 0.81 × 0. 0. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1.07254 2 = 23. 0.05745 = 0.91 m .45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0. f = 0.17117 m3/s 0.25 8 × 0. determine the total flow rate 2. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available.81 × 0.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.02 × 1200 × 0. 7.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.022 WL 1 1200 m. h1 – h2 = 15 m. If the total flow rate is 0.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled.66 m /s.2 m f.66 × 0.32971 = 0. determine the individual flow and the friction drop. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss. The system is shown in Fig. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.07254 m3/s.35 8 × 0.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0. 0.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.66 m3/s .15 800 m. Q = 0. f = 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0. Pipe 1 hf = 0. Q2 and Q3.05745 m3/s π2 × 9.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.52274 8 × 0.

13 by analogy method.. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 .48..07 + 1 137.81 × 0.02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs...07.45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used... The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref...66..522742 = 23...81 × 0..19.2 R3 = 8 × 0..52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + . R2 = 2 = 816.91/137..19. Q1 = 0. trial solution becomes necessary..14..17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23.. Q2 = 0. Q2.....98 ∴ ∴ Case 2. Q3 = 0.416292 = 23. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + . If flows are Q1.07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23.4 2 5 = 137. Case 1.98.41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one. 1 R = 1 4544.893 = 0.3 Branching Pipes . then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.81 × 0.48 + 1 816. The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle..Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0. 7....48.893 × 0.893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. R = 54. 8 × 0.019 × 900 π × 9.13497 K 2 = 54..91 m π2 × 9.35 π × 9..07 2 5 π × 9.. Q3 .2733 Q = 0.. Fig.. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation........019 × 900 × 0..3). If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct.. If none are specified. and Q2 = hf /R Example 7..91/4544. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 . (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe.81 × 0..893 hf = R Q2 = 54... Work out problem 7.022 × 800 = 4544.. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 .. both of these will receive the flow.98.91/816.91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23.. If the head Chapter 7 7.

3.81 × 0. This is shown in Fig 7.19.55 = 41. (iii) If it is positive. (25 – ZJ)/41.0354 = QB2. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0.19. But at the first attempt.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9. Such iteration can be also programmed for P. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7. Example 7.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one.6 m diameter with f = 0. (8 – ZJ)/10. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. 8 × 0.45 = 121.011 × 900 = 10.5 m and f = 0. B and C at water levels of 25 m. Using the equation 7.81 × 0. the sum may have a positive value or negative value.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 . 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network.4 m and f = 0. inflow to the junction is more.11. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir. So reduce the value of head assumed. the outflow is more.C.2473.013 draws water from A. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero.5196 Considering flow from A.5196 = QC2 . and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0.3 The method of solution requires iteration. (12 – ZJ)/121.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction.81 × 0. (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details.65 8 × 0.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9.0354 π 2 × 9.15 Three reservoirs A. Similarly for flow from B and C.011.2473 = QA2. (iv) If it is negative. where ZJ level at junction J. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.

0406 QC – 0.1286 – 0. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained.5 11. The flow rates in the last column can be used. ZJ = 11. What is head loss for a length of 10 m.56517 m3/s.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0. With the use of computers.0596 0.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2. Methods of successive approximation are used.6030 0.603 m3/s 7.2556 – 0.4360 – 0. 2. 3. QB = 0.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.5768 – 0. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction. This set can be solved using computers. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.5 cm.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .00019.5657 QB 0.6010 QA + QB + QC 0. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0.5721 0.6894 – 0.4 × 0. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7.19.19. 7.825 m gives a residue of 0.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13.002/π × 0.0909 0.1. the flows are QA = 0.2409 0.8 QA 0. 1. A sample is shown in Fig.0 11. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem. Considering the value. 7.06423 0.082 = 0. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.5394 0. An oil of specific gravity 0.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice.4 m/s Re = uD 0. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

In flow through pipes.6. (a) (15). The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable. 1. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. (i. Answers 1.. 5. 5. 10.414.64 (d) 1/1. 3. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. 8. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent. .) (a) 0. 7. 2. 14. If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. (b) 12. 15. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. (d) 13. 6. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe.5. 8. 11. (c) 4. (b) 16. 5. 16. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––. 7. (d) 7. 11. (a) 5.414 (c) 0. 4. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases. For the same flow rate and friction factor. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases.025 (c) 1.258 12. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. 9. (c) 11.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0.e. For the same sectional area and flow rate.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. 3. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar. 6. (b). 12. Incorrect: 2. 9. 7.032. (a) 9. (d) 2. Answers Correct 1. 12 O Q. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. 4. (d) 14.4 (b) 0. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same. (b) O Q.0. 6. (b) 8. (b) 3. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s.2 (c) 1.5 (b) 0. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop. 2.05. (d) 4. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. (b) 10. (d) 0.7. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia. 3. The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. 10. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. 4. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. In flow over a flat plate. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. the friction factor ––––––––––.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. 0. D – 1 (2) A – 4. 9 Remains constant: 2. For a specified roughness.5.127 m/s. 7.8 × 10–5 m2/s. the length –––––––––– 10. 7. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. (d) wall shear and (0. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. 0. For the data in problem E 7. 10 Decreases : 4. (e) head loss/m. 8. Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity.5 l/s.2. . 0. An oil with specific gravity of 0. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. (c) friction factor. Laminar) E 7. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. B – 3. the length –––––––––– 9.. C – 2. 6 O Q.3. 5. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7. 0.077 N/m2.1. E 7. C – 2. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm.4. (Re = 54. the flow rate being 0.7. 3.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. f ρu2 . Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic. determine (a) centre line velocity.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow.107 m/s. B – 4.18. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1.1. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes. 259 6.

Pipe lines as shown in Fig.13. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m.51 m3/s. 7. the lengths being 300 m. Oil of specific gravity 0.019.02 60 m B 480 m 0. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. A and B. 20 cm and 25 cm. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0. f = 0.02 respectively. E 7. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s.8.10. see problem E 9. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter.2 m f.083 m3/s) E 7. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0. 0.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7. E 7.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia. the head available being 6 m. (0. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g. The pipe diameters are 30 cm. (0. E.00018.055 m3/s. carries water over a length of 300 m.9 and dynamic viscosity 5.15 m. 7. (0.6.2 m dia.6 cm of water) E 7.9 E 7.032 1200 m. E. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .2 m to 0. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7. (2. determine the flow rate. 0. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia.699 m) .42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0. – 5. 7.62. turbulent) E 7.11.12. (0.15 m.13 and 14).06 m3/s. Show from basics that in sudden contraction.9.15. f = 0. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia. 0.7. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point. Neglecting minor losses. Determine the value of friction factor.042. 0. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m. The friction factors are 0.013 m3/s) A 600 m.673 m. A pipeline 1.006. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m. Determine the flow rates in lines C.45 m to 0. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. (ii) Contraction from 0.124 m3/s) E 7. If the energy (0.1 m f f = 0.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E.034. (i) Contraction from 0. 0. Re = 11475.3 m to 0.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m.5 m. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s.021 and 0.13. where Cc = Ac/A2.192 m in all cases. 150 m and 250 m respectively.14. (iii) Contraction from 0. Show using the expression in E 7.54 m. 0. at a rate of 0.15 m f. 0. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. 0.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. (0. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir. A pipe line of two sections. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min. (0. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. Discharge is to atmosphere. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance. Also calculate the flow rate. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry. f = 0. determine the flow rate. (72. f = 0.20. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. If the difference in water levels is 10 m.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . The first run ends at a level 1. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters. Assuming f = 0. If in the problem E 7. (0.21.51 m3/s. The values of friction factor are 0. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes.25. 7.02 m. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7.24. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion.0232 for the pipes.025. (2034 m. The entry is sharp edged.23.22.04. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. (QB = 28.0207 m3/s) E 7. f1 = 0. The friction factor is 0.22. A single pipe of 0. f = 0.16.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13.6 m of water) E 7.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0. f = 0. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1.0192 and 0.3 l/s) E 7.3 m dia. two pipes of 0.1 m) E 7. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. the first of 50 mm dia. The enlargement is sudden.024.2 m dia. (94.852 m) E 7.24.76 l/s) E 7. 0. 5. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run.04.3 m f 1500 m 0.5 m.3 l/s. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.24 E 7. connects two reservoirs.02.04 (2. determine the flow rate through the second pipe.18.6 m dia. E. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. Qc = 90.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe.3 m f B C Figure E. (37.65 l/s) E 7. Neglect minor losses. determine the flow rate.17. 7. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia.19. neglect other losses. E 7.

E 7. f = 0. f= 0.02. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance.26.425 m) E 7. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute). pipe with friction factor f = 0.31.03.56 m3/s) E 7.94.9 m dia. (0. f = 0. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long. 0. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1.008 m3/s. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0.30. (72. calculate the flow rate.16 l/s) E 7. (43. If in the problem E 7. (2. pipe takes off from the reservoir. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system.021. determine the flow rate. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked. Also determine the flow rate. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min. f = 0. 2. 3000 m length of 0. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m.347 m3/s) .64 m dia.307 m3/s) E 7. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. Determine the flow rate in the first branch.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1.25.5 m is 40 m long. 1. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet.27.048.29.3 m for the next 3000 m.28.13m3/s. 1.1/100) E 7. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0. Determine the flow rate. calculate the flow rate.44 m. The pipe diameter is 600 mm. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. 0. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m. Express the head loss as slope. (5 m.04.6 m dia.

fluid properties and fluid velocity. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. Example 8. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited.& 8. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary. density. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming. The topic is discussed in the next chapter. the geometry. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. 263 . The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. for example velocity u. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. Viscosity. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation.

π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. . To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). for fixed values of ρ. Total experiments for u.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc.1. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. Hence total experiments required = 104. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced. c. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case.S. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. To obtain a curve F vs u. 2. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. µ and D. velocity u. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D. 3. b. d. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. ρ and µ = 103. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. 8. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities.H. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. experiments needed = 10. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter.

π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5.3. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters. Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted. πn–m) (8.1 cannot be obtained from the analysis. q2. the numeric constants are dimensional.. For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1.. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure. In such cases..3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1. A + B = C/D. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived.. π2 . π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. q2..Dimensional Analysis 8..3. If unsure the parameter can be added. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process. qn. . ...5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8. then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used. 8.. π6 etc..1 Determination of π Groups Step 1.3. π2.’’ For example.. qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters.2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation. It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results.. If some parameters are left out. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension.. ... List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned. This has to be very carefully done. expressed in the form g(π1..... πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous. A. q1. as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10. π3 .. 8.. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups.. In the expression.1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters.

Select a set of primary dimensions. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. (force.1. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure. (mass. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. Table 8. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions. length and time). Step 3.3. stress. Step 2.1.3. Table 8. Nm W. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . (mass. length. Bulk modulus Moment Work. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure. length and time).

Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. Substituting dimensions. Hence a = 1. (a) Using π theorem method. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. say L. This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. Step 5. . Choosing the set mass. π1 = qm+1 . Thus the π term will be defined. b. b. to determine π terms numbering n – m. Example 8.No. L3.2. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen.. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. L2. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. d can be obtained.. D Velocity. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc.. length and time. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. q3c . The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a.. q2b . The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. c. and in turn comparing indices of mass. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. The form of the equation is. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. c and d. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2. u Density. D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. S. q1a . Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. Hence two π terms can be obtained. Step 6. time and length as primary dimensions. in turn to obtain n – m such equations. ρ Dynamic viscosity. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. ∆P Diameter. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1.

average velocity u. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. Example 8. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. . L and T. Multiply and divide by D. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. ∆P D/ρu2. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. c = – 2. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. ρ. Substituting dimensions. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. L and T. d = 1. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. We can assume a = 1. m appears only in the viscous force. variables. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. a + c = – 2.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. The following functional relationship is formed first. diameter D and average roughness height e.3. In case D. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. studying the forces. Similarly. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. fluid density. viscous force and inertia force. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. dynamic viscosity µ. three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. e = – 3. – 1 – c = 0. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. b = – 1. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). So we can assume d = 1. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. As DP. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. Solving a = 1. b = 0.

L and T. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . no problem will arise in using indices a. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. π3 = µ ua Db ρc. Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. – a = 0. ∴ b = – 1. b = 0. (as these sets are separate equations. Let Consider π1. c = – 1. L and T. D and ρ as repeating variables. 1 + c = 0. c = 0. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2. Selecting u. a = 0. ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. e . a = – 2.No. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b and c in all cases). π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. – 2 – a = 0. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. L and T. π2 = L uaDb ρc. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. c = – 1. So four π terms can be identified. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.

4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8.4.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8.270 8. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms. Table 8.4. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u. . ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ.1. indicating significance and area of application of each.5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments.

Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. The parameters are listed below using M. Inclusion of additional variable.5.4.4. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity. Hence only one π term will result. 8. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions.2 two π terms were identified. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air.No. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. Chapter 8 . 1 + a + b – c = 0. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. Example 8. L. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. to obtain a reliable value for c. 2 + b + c = 0.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. A single test will provide the value of the constant. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. namely density will lead to another π term. π1 = F Da ub µc. Equating indices of M. Substituting dimensions. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. S. This is illustrated in example 8. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms.5. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1). T dimension set. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables.5. diameter and viscosity. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. This is illusration by example 8.Dimensional Analysis 8. and the viscosity µ. This can be established by experiments. However. b = – 1.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. velocity of fall u. L and T 0 = 1 + c. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c . c = – 1.

051 – (– 1.01798 5964 3.022 0. A log log plot results in a straight line.25 – 1. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.014 0. m/s Pressure drop. This corresponds to the value of 0. 8.997 – 3.9 2766 1.9 0.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex. Ex.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.5 (b).00890 99400 4. as shown in the Fig.2508 = 0.08 – 1. To fit an equation the following procedure is used.997 – 2.5 0.5 (a).16 × Re–0.3 0.6 – 1.797.01202 29821 4.5.78 – 1.5 . N 0.821 0. The correlation appears to be good. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.16.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.3 404 0.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below.865 1.01119 39761 4.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0. 8.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. Viscosity = 1.48 – 1.008 0 20. Hence we can write.016 0.0 0.000 40. D∆P ρu2 = 0.78) = – 0. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m.2508 This gives x = – 0. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2.000 60.010 0.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ).78 – 1.745)}/(4.951 3 0.01011 59642 4. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.000 10.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.6 0.2508 When extrapolating we can write. the slope using the same – 2.995 5 0..745 0.01366 17894 4. Velocity.5 6763 2.000 80.01512 11928 4. As the direct plot is a curve.012 0. 8.020 0.6 1361 0.92 2.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0.2508 0.

1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8.Dimensional Analysis 8.5. D Velocity. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 . The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. u Density. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship.5.5. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon. ρ Viscosity. ∆P/l Diameter. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2. and viscosity µ.3. density of the fluid ρ. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained. S.1.No. 8. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set. diameter D.

b. S. µ Unit N. Problem 8. a = – 1. Choosing D. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc. T set.2. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. D Velocity. F Diameter. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. b = – 1. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. b = – 2. using M. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. c.No. b and c. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. ρ Viscosity. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c .2. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. u and ρ as repeating parameters. u.274 Using D. two π terms can be obtained. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. So two π terms can be obtained. L. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. L and T solving for a. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. c = – 1. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. u and ρ as repeating variables. u Density. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions.

– 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. forward velocity u. F Diameter. The thrust force. a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. ∴ c = – 1. ρ Viscosity. So three π terms can be obtained. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. c. F ρ uD =f . 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M.3. L and T 1 + c = 1. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. Choosing D. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0. u Density. F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. D Forward velocity. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1. . a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. S. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. c Comparing the values of indices of M. b = – 1. Note: the significance of the π term. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. b. b. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force.No. density ρ. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. µ Rotational speed. u and ρ as repeating variables.

c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. µ Bulk Modulus. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. using M. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. b = – 2. b. S. L and T c = 0. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. a + b – 3c = 0.4. ρ Viscosity. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a. N Density. density. rotational speed. – 1 – a = 0. T set. F Diameter. ∴ a = – 1. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. L. forward speed. b = – 1. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 .276 Comparing indices of M. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. u Rotational speed. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . D Forward velocity. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M.No.

– 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. T set. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. S. ρ Viscosity. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. L and T on both sides and from equations. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. Selecting D.5. b = – 2. u and ρ as repeating parameters. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. – 3a + b + c = 0. N Density.No. viscosity and density of the fluid. τ Diameter. b = – 1. L. π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. ρ uD . c = 1. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. Using dimensional analysis. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. So four π terms are possible. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. D Rotational speed. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. rotational speed. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. 1 + a = 0. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. using M. b = – 2. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L .Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. b = – 2. c = – 1.

the velocity u. L. ω. So two π parameters can be identified. Problem 8. A rectangular plate of height. S. density ρ and viscosity µ. b = – 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. b = – 2. Selecting b. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters.6. T set of dimensions. a Velocity. (Another form of Reynolds number. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. a = – 5. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. – 1 + a – 3c = 0. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . N and ρ as repeating variables. u and ρ as repeating variables. a and width. b Height. and the fluid properties. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. Considering D. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. Hence three π terms can be obtained. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1.No. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. b = – 2. F Width. 2 + a – 3c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. u density.

Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b.7. Hence two π parameters can be found. c = – 1. Problem 8. – b = 0. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub .No. a = – 1. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. D Viscosity. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. the load on the projected area and the diameter. – 2. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. adopting MLT set. Chapter 8 . viscosity of the oil. 2 + b – c = 0. D and µ as repeating variables. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. τ Speed. The variables with dimensions are listed below. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. – 1 + b – c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. S. Considering N. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1. In film lubricated journal bearings. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. try to verify. – 1 – b = 0. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1. a = – 1. N Load per unit area. P Diameter. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation.

ρ Viscosity. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. S. density and length as repeating variables. g Bulk modulus. Euler number. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. µ Gravity. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid. of the fluid. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. Considering velocity. u Length of the body. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. terms are possible. R Forward velocity.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0.No. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.5 (Froude number. So four π. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ .280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. l Density of the fluid. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.8. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl.

9. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. a = 0. Writing c = f(ρ. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . g Density of the fluid. the dimension being that of pressure.5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0. ρ Roughness height. σ Viscosity. The velocity of propagation of pressure wave. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 1 – 2b = 0. ∴ b = – 0.5. D Head. M/LT2. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ . µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0.5 ρ Problem 8. Fr) 0.5. k Surface tension. 1 – 3a – b = 0.5 Problem 8. c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. Considering ρ. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow.10. using the method of dimensional analysis. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0. g and H as repeating variables . The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter. H Gravity. – 2b = 0. gl .No. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term. Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. So four π terms can be identified. Ev) Let.

c = 1/2. ∆P Diameter. So two π terms can be obtained. k . adopting MLT system S. b = 0. 3 – a + b – 3c = 0. b = – 1/2. a = – 1. c = – 1.No. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. ρ Kinematic viscosity. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0.5. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. b = – 1. D Density. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. – 1 – 2b = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2b = 0. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). D and ρ as repeating variables. – 1 – 2a = 0.282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. Q Pressure drop. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). ∴ a = – (1/2). – 2 – 2b = 0. Lc a = 0. Choosing ∆P. a = – 1. b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate. – 3a + b + c = 0. c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . Problem 8. The variables and dimensions are listed below. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions.11.

h Inlet diameter.No. – 1 – 2a = 0. ρ Viscosity. Try to verify.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. g.12. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). c = 0. – 1 – c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. µ Gravitational acceleration. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number. Hence four π parameters can be found. c = – 1. Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. ρ and u as repeating variables. u Density. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Considering D. c = (1/2). d Velocity. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. D Outlet diameter. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. S. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0.

– 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy. π3 will not exist. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. head of fluid over the vertex. S.5.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. and surface tension σ.No. b = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. . Problem 8. Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. .13. As θ. h Gravitational acceleration. – 3a + b + c = 0. adopting MLT set. c = (– 1. v Surface tension. The volume flow rate. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0.5. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. and acceleration due to gravity. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. g and h as repeating variables. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions. g Flow rate. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter. . – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = 2. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. kinematic viscosity v. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. Considering ρ. σ Head of fluid.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. ρ kinematic vicosity. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . So three π terms can be identified. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ .

developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. P Density. h Gravitational acceleration. D is the runner diameter. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. S. ρ and g as repeating variables.15. ρ Speed. S. ρ Gravitational acceleration. D Density. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1. Show that the power P. b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . Considering D. density ρ. σ Capillary rise. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. Problems 8.14. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. D Head.No. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. c = – 1.No. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. – 2c = 0 a = – 1. g Surface tension. a – 3b + c = 0. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power. N Diameter.

g. Problem 8. 1 – 3a + b = 0. 2 – 3a + b = 0. – 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. speed N. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. adopting MLT set of dimensions. D and g as repeating variables. S. density ρ. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. c = – 3. These are used in model testing of turbo machines.16. P Head. h Flow rate. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c .286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. D and N as repeating variables. N Diameter. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. Taking ρ. 1 – 3a + b = 0. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. ρ Speed. Q Density. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. Choosing ρ. D Acceleration due to gravity. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. and acceleration due to gravity. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. flow rate Q.No. runner diameter D. So three π terms can be found. c = 0.

c = – 1/2. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. – 3a + b + c = 0. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2c = 0 a = 0. b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. Head coefficient 2. 1. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = – 1/2. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. Specific speed based on Q. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. . for pumps. Specific speed based on power. b = – 1. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3.

u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions. density. a – b – 3c + d = 0. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions. µ Specific heat.17.No. – 1 – 3a – b = 0. S. flow velocity and the diameter. viscosity. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. Choosing k. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. ρ Viscosity. – 1 – a = 0. a = 0. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. . ρ and D as repeating variables. c Flow velocity. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. k Density. c = 0. specific heat. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. – a = 0.18. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. c = 1. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0. b = – 1. b = 0. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. b = 1. where θ is temperature. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient. µ. Problem 8. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. c = 0.

c = 1. c = 0. d = 0. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. α Thermal conductivity. 1 + a – d = 0. k Convection coefficient.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. b = 1. θ Time. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. a = 0. – c – 3d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. b = 0. L. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. – c – 3d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness. b = – 1. Hence four π terms can be identified. b + 2c + d = 0. choosing MLT θ set. S. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. d = 0. x Initial temperature difference. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. a = 0. a – d = 0. α and k as repeating variables. b + 2c + d = 0. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. L Location distance. c = 0. Choosing θ0.No. – 1 + a – d = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . c = 0. τ Thermal diffusivity. b = – 2. b + 2c + d = 0.

gravitational acceleration. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. thermal conductivity. c = 2. Hence five π terms can be identified. x and k are chosen as repeating variables. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. S. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. – 1 – d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. b = 3. viscosity. hL . b – 3d = 0. the height of surface and the flow velocity.19. c = – 2. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . g Density. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. b = – 3. coefficient of cubical expansion. π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. temperature difference. µ. β Acceleration due to gravity. ρ Viscosity. specific heat. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only.No. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. µ Specific heat. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. – b – 3d = 0. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. ρ. x Temperature difference.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . 1 – d = 0. Using dimensional analysis. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. c Thermal conductivity.

dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. 8. The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . – 1 – d = 0. d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. a = 2. Chapter 8 6. c = 0. – 3 – b – 3d = 0. As the π terms are too many π1. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. 5. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . has to be determined by 8. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. If there are n variables and m dimensions. b = 0. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . – 3a – b + c + d = 0. d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. b = – 2. have 7.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. 4. b = 1. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. each additive term in the equations should . c = 3. π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. Fill in the blanks: 1. .1. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. for . 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. d = 0. – 1 – d = 0. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. c = 1. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.

8. number.3. for experimentation the . Froude number is used in the study of 3. 8.292 9. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. O Q. 10 . 10. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. Cauchy number is used when 7. Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. flow. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . 4. flow. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. . Fill in the blanks: 1. 9. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. 6. is important. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8. 2. Euler number is used in the study of 4. 3. Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. 5. flow. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. State correct or incorrect: 1. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. number. 6. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. O Q. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 5. flow. Weber number is used in the study of 5. 7. . 4. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. 8. 9. 10. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. 7. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. 8 Incorrect : 2. 3. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number.2. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6.

ρ-density. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. c in a gaseous medium. the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. and acceleration due to gravity. The quantity of oil pumped Q. depends on the speed u of the rope. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. h . The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8.5. the width of the weir b. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8.2. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. In flow over a smooth flat plate. a functional relationship between the varaibles.1.11. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. wave length λ. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. u-velocity.4.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8. In flow over a smooth flat plate. volume flow rate Q. Determine.3. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up.10. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. and the speed N. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8.12. density of the gas ρ.8. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h.6. using dimensional analysis. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 . The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D. The velocity of sound.7. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . the layer thickness δ. Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. d . Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. with clearance h. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m . the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D .9. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge.

In an oven where materials are heated by convection. m wD e . LM t NM ru D 2 3 . The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. 2 .13. Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results.17. m ruL OP QP E 8. viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. Determine the π parameters for the situation. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. m d P . viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. . P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . jet velocity u. angular velocity of spin. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L.20. d elastic modulus of the wire.16. diameter D. If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev.15.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8. . LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . density and viscosity of air. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. and the density. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. golf etc. density. m . the rotational speed N. The pressure P. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. the velocity u of the jet. s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. (d/D) = f F ruD . the ball diameter D. c∆q u2 . ruD u D OP QP E 8. diameter of the wire. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. D .18. LM Q MN ud ity. . The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u. The velocity of the jet is u.14. density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L. Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h .19. diffuser diameter D. find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h.

h rg . LM MN d Q 2 gD .Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . (use ρ. Determine π terms to correlate the variables.21. Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg. the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. L . d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . rud .

these are cheaper to build and test. turbines. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. ships. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. As models are generally smaller than the prototype. pumps. at different pressures. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing. velocities etc. 9. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. 296 . Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. submarines. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. These may also operate with different fluids. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful.' 9.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. harbours and tall buildings and structures. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit.

This is a basic requirement in model design. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost.. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously . the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype.(9.. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers..3) Equation 9.πnp) ..2..2. be equal for the model and prototype.. In such situations. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype.. 9. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor.2. Weber number etc.2..1) πlm = f (π2m. Froude number. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships... Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done. Roughness is one such case. In cases like ship.1.Similitude and Model Testing 9.3 provides the model design conditions.. π3p.πnm = πnp . Chapter 9 9.. These numbers are ratios of inertia.. energy etc. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters...2. This requirement is called dynamic similarity.2) For such a condition to be satisfied. (eqn.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity.... lengths. π1p = f (π2p . If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model.. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same..(9. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype. viscous gravity and surface tension forces. In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale. It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws.πnm) .2. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters....1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces.. This is called geometric similarity.2. There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity. π3m. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio....2.. 9.(9.. π2m = π2p.

This is called kinematic similarly.2.(9.3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers. The conduits are generally circular. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist.3. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. but there may be changes along the flow direction. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category. This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. This is illustrated in problem 9. As the wall shear is an important force.. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ. the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the . valves. scale = Lm/Lp. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities . These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9.. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ .. (M<0. 9. This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes. Lm up As λ is less than one. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL .1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio.14. 9. D IJ H µ L LK .3).3. Reynolds number is the most important parameter.geometric.(9.3.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype. ε .2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated..

Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2). the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible.3. Drag coefficient. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. using the model. ∆P / ρu2. i.3) From equality of. . Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted.3. Submarine. Generally the following relationship holds in this case. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study. then similarity of cavitation number should be established.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9. in this range.3. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. In such cases.3.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface.6) . As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in. 9. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. Using the similitude. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity.3.3) As ∆Pm is measured.3. such condition should be avoided. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9.e. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison. However. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted.

3. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing. 10 1. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. which will mean a high Mach number.1.3. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. then the model should operate at 1000 kmph.3.. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water. 9. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level. thus increasing the density.. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter. In some cases at higher ranges. 9.3. .6. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. Hence the performance prediction will be in error. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance. Using equation 9. and reducing the required velocity of the model. full scale models are also used.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range.(9.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9.3. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig.0 CD 1 0. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible.

The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag. A special situation arises in the case of ships. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9. 9. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity.11 (refer problem 9. Considering Froude number.8) um = up (9.3. In case of design of river model. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected.3. Chapter 9 .9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. substituting this value of velocity ratio.3. If surface tension also influences the flow. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q.3. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment. But the use of distorted model. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used.3. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9. the power P and the speed N. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem.9 and 9. Power. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small.3. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines.3.21). The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9.10 simultaneously. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype.

The procedure for turbines will also be similar.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines. the power and flow rate can be measured. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed. defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y .11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine. 9. This will then lead to the same efficiency. The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 . Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9.3.302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. combining power and flow coefficients.4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations.3. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined. 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9..13) . HD D N D 1 . The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient. When differential equations describing the system are available. ..3. Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.3.(9. Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9.3. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied.

as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. Substituting. As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. . = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. . gL/U2 will be identified. These are the similarity parameters thus identified. Reynolds and Froude numbers. P* = . These are forms of Strouhal.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. Mach number can be obtained by a similar method. Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added.v = . τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added.5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. x* = . The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. 9. Weber number can be identified. t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. a model of scale 1/10 is used. Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. µ L P . In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used. If equations for compressible flow is used. Euler. y* = .

For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3.6 m/s.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2.205 1.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model. Reynolds number analogy should be used. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = .2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow. Density = 1.205 kg/m3.23 kg/m3. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1. As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype. Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × .05/1. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14.58 × 10–6 m2/s. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C. Problem 9.14 × 10–6 kg/ms.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18.6 × 0. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . µw = 1.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100. µair = 18. dp um = = 10. ρw = 1000 kg/m3. ρair = 1. a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3. Also the drag coefficients will be equal.304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same.

which is rather high.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed.23 2. ∆Pair = . vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × . . ∴ uair = 0.04 × 1.521 × 10–5 = 0.114 m/s.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits.e.8315 × 10–6/6. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3. For model testing water at 300C is used.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter. 114 × 0.12 × 10–3 kg/ms. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C. Reynolds number similarity is required. area = a2. Kinematic viscosity is 0.87 m/s.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3.1085 m/s.956 × 10–6 m2/s. Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0. i.732 m/s Problem 9.9726 = 0. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6.64 2 up ∴ up = 3.23kg/m3.9726 m/s. For square section.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3. Determine the flow required for model testing.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0.1085 m/s 4 um = 3. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL .033 mm of water column Problem 9. for pipe flow.23 127 × 10 −6 .521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3. um dm u p d p = . Density of air = 1. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.7 × 10–6 kg/ms.956 × 10–6 = 2.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s.082 × 2. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.05 2 × 1.64/8 = 0. As roughness etc are similar. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area. 24.1085 × 8 × 0. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3. reynolds number similarity is to be used.

322 = × (0. .32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.5 1. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.2 kg/m3 and 1. predict the drag on the prototype. Density. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. Mp = Mm.2 1.5 kg/m3. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7. Estimate the pressure required. the force ratio is high. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained.5 140. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. Problem 9. 1.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2.32 7. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. For Mach number similarity.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1.252)2 = 0. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft. This is fully immersed flow.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model.

195 m/s × 8 18.5 × 105.56 × 0. 26.006 ×10–6 m2/s.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2. The width of the model = 2.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. µ = 17.961 25.1 × 10 −6 17.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic.01 L ∴ u = 25.78 N.165 = 212 N Problem 9. This condition is above 105. and 150C.1525 m.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24. assuming length L.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C. At the given flight conditions.7N and 9.165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2.6N. µ = 18. Determine the drag on the prototype.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.44/16 = 0.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8. Equating Reynolds numbers.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80. v = 1. pressure = 75 kN/m2.44 m and 7. at an air speed of 35m/s.56 × L × 0.24 < 0. drag at 25. Also determine the power required. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105. Re = 15.1525 × 35 = 3. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force. are 4.8 m2.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. the drag on the model was measured as 10. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26.01 80. Chapter 9 .06 × 10 −6 0. D.7N.78 × 24. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2.

14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained.725 kN = 1725 × 27.25 kg/m3. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1.05.8 × 10–6 m2/s. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel. 1.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.832 × 10–6 m2/s.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1.95 1. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47.75 kW. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = .67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0. ρa = 1. va = 14. Also determine the value of Reynolds number. If the tunnel is to operate with air. ( 27.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.205 × 35 2 × 7. 1 242.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1.927 kW. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. = . µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1.78 m/s) 0. vw = 1.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant.95 m/s vw a 1.02/1. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14. The length dimension is the same.8 × (27. ua = v = = 38. This is a fully submerged flow.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. Pair = Pw 38. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test. determine the flow velocity required.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air.308 Area of the model = 7.205 × 7.10 The performance of a torpedo. i.05 = 242.e.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph.5 kW Problem 9. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel.85 × 1000 = 11. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.

Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition.6 × 200 × 1.6 m/s in water at 20oC. vw = 1.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2. .2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15. The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1. This is a free surface flow.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9. As it is fully immersed type of flow. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel.205 kg/m3.205 77. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.54 N Problem 9.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55.5 = −6 6 × 18. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1. velocity around 2. a model of 1/75 scale is proposed.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.39 × 10 1.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N.06 × 10 −6 × = 2. Estimate the drag on the prototype.5 36.6 m/s.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3. the air being at 20o C.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2.85 m/s 100 1.2 28.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15. Determine the flow rate required.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15. u p × L × 1025 36.2 × 105. vair = 15. Determine the speed of air for the test. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp .25.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. The drag force is measured as 15 N.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0.6 × L × 28. Let L be the length of the prototype. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible.6 × = 77. Problem 9.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.

41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11.38 × 103 N Problem 9. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance. Froude number similarity is to be maintained. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2.5 = 0. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag.5 = 1. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph.9 up1.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 . Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.95 × 2500/402 = 20.84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2.8971.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s.9 × 121. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.41 × 106 N or 1. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.04927 m3/s Problem 9. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.7 × 1.95 N/m2 of wetted area. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict.7 × 1. From the Froude number similarity. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water.8971.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance. um = up lm = 12/400.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.8 × 2500 = 635.16 = 11.7 u1. The ship is 135 m long. Fsm = 3.8 × Ap = 2.9 u1.

h.128 kg/m3 . height = 0. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.12 × 10 −6 1 .6 = 0. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3.5 Fp 1 = 1.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9.006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18.43 m/s 1000 19.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration.6 = 0. a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049.02 1 = .976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below. To predict the shedding frequency.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12. = H 0. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph. ρp = 1. The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.056 × 1. µp = 1. Consider air temperature as 40o C. Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.056 m/s ∴ um = 18.36 m. µp = 19. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0.36/0. ρ.02 m. The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are.12/0. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0. u. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D . Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12.128 1.12 m.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.5 1000 1.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12.

vair = 1. ua = 54. Using the third π parameter.25 4. 6. vw = 1.5 0. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length.48 × 10–5 m2/s. Froude number similarity is required. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used. under similar conditions of flow.5 km/hr.ρa= 1.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p .028 m/s u × 0.5 × 1000/3600 = 4. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m. u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18.48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air.25 54.3 = a −6 1.31 × 10–6 m2/s. ρp . dp dm ρm um 2 . up2 Problem 9.31 × 10 1.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model.3 m diameter. um = up ( gL p ) 0.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2.19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.06 1 × × 60 = 28.5 ( gLm ) 0. This situation is open surface flow. Qp = upLp .23 0.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition.25 m diameter was tested with air flow.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0. a column of 0. Also determine the time scale for the model. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 .08 Hz.3 4. Qm = um Lm.028 × 0.028 × × = 227 × 1. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter.

The impeller diameter is 0. As D is the same.81 × 70000 × 6. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1.92 1400 × 1.55 N/m2 Problem 9. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0. H/N2D2.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104.5 = 0. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15. as velocity = length/time. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm .3 kg/m3.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same. using flow coefficient Q/ND3. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise. Determine the flow.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.92 kg/m3.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise.20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1.7 m /hr H 1170 K .2 m. Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient.9 m Power = mg H = 9.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0. (At 1170 rpm). Also calculate the specific speed at this condition.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2.41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0.2236 Problem 9. the speed being 1400 rpm. Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal.5 = 0.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1.7 /(15. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first.

00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. Problem 8. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal. with ρ1 = ρ2 0. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects).09045 / 25.8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0. 5. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 . ve = 2. vw = 1. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8.00 = 5. Neglecting the effect of surface tension.16). Also determine the ratio of power required. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc . Problem 9. checks. Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 .267 × 10–6 m2/s.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm.885/0. Water was used for the test at 20oC. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient.200 × 25 = 0. Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 . Problem 8. The flow rate has to be found for various heads.006 × 10–6 m2/s. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient.45 l/s Considering head coefficient. (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2.468 As efficiencies should be the same.468. Density = 1000 kg/m3.13). determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads.2 /253/4 = 38. Density = 1282 kg/m3.885 m .09045 × 25. specific speed = 950 0.

in size compared to prototype.97 Problem 9.006 × 10 K GH 2. 9.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1. should be equal.267 × 10 OP N 1.. model is used.7 × 10–4 kg/ms. will exist.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2. Dimensionless parameters provide 7. .006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9. µw = 1. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3.1 Fill in the blanks. similarity. should be equal. For geometric similarity ratio of 8. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called . conditions for model testing. µR = 2. when surface tension effect is neglected. to an existing system. 1.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. 5.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1. 2.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.71884)5/2 = 3. When the prototype is very small 6. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2. Models are generally 4.873 × (1282/1000) = 4. Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10.

For rivers. kinematic 10. 1. 3. O Q. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow.3 Fill in the blanks. Reynolds 2. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. number similarity is used. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. Froude. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. Reynolds 4. kinematic similarity. then 8. 3. Froude 8.4 State correct or incorrect. For studying wave drag 10. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. 1. In flow with free surface 8. Similarity 7. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. In case of same fluid properties it is ously. Mach 4. Reynolds. Model 2. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1.2 Fill in the blanks. Mach 5. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag. is because of 6. Answers 1. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. Distorted 2. Impossible 6. When gravity and surface tension are important. number similarity is used. 2. Froude 9. and similarity are used. 4. 2. Reynolds. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. For flow around immersed bodies 4. Froude 10. be maintained simultaneously. 1. Strouhal O Q. Modifications 6. Froude 9. 11. similarity is used. vary 10. 9. Very small flow height for model 3. When wave resistance is important 9. Froude 6. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. Weber 8. 9. 7.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 6. Reynolds and Mach 3. 9. similarity is used. Weber. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. For flow with free surface 10. Mach 11. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. number similarity is used. Smaller 4. For complete similarity in general the be the same. cannot O Q. Reynolds 5. 9. Dynamic 7. Enlarged/larger 5. Prototype 3. Pressurised 7. . number similarity is used. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. harbours etc. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. 5. . and prototype it is called 7. number similarity is used. . 4.

The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm. (1. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity.4. E 9. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. (both 39. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. Distorted models are used to study river flow.78 N. Assume 20oC in both cases. 11. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used.345. Determine the drag on the prototype. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. 10. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. 317 7. 9.1. 8. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. The air temperatures are equal. 10. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag. Chapter 9 . Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. 12. 43.5 × 106 (based on chord length). 4. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. 6. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect.6.2. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank.5 m/s.4. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N. If the prototype is to travel at 27.Similitude and Model Testing 5. 5. 6. These should be obtained from tables of properties. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype.5. determine the speed in the tunnel.93 Mpa. 3. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used.978 N) E 9. 12 Incorrect : 1. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified.2 m/s) E 9.3. 0. 9. 1340 N) E 9. the test speed being 75 m/s. determine the static pressure at the point. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon. 11. Answers Correct : 2. (6.78 m/s in air at 15oC. 7 kN) E 9.21 m/s. 219 N) E 9. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. ( (um/up) = 0. A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. 7.

If a model of 1.46 kN. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model. E 9. 17. (1. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity.16. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph.12.625 m2 when travelling at 22.45 × 10–5 m2/s. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. 0. E 9. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. The flow velocity is 5 m/s. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. E 9.9. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model.02 N.13. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required.6 m. F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. A model of 1. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m). The discharge scale is 1/1000. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed.11.5 mm.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test. density = 833 kg/m3. (7. (8 m. Determine the depth of flow in the model. determine the velocity required. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat. The model is to run at the same speed. predict the drag force on the prototype.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. (2. In this case the model size is to be 0. (3. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC.0328 m3/s) E 9. Neglect viscous drag. If drag force on the model is 3. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s.10.46 kN. the drag on the model was measured as 2. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.14 × 10–6 m2/s. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency.5 N. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. E 9. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype. Determine the flow rate of the model. If inertial gravitational.15.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. E 9. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales. Assume same temperature in all cases. 55. determine the air velocity required.31m/s.6 m/s. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0.25 × 105) E 9. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa.7. The density scale is 1. The width of the spillway is 65 m. The scale for the model is 1/4.1 kW) E 9. Kin(0.1 m/s.17.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. 2500 N.062 m/s.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9. Determine the dimeter of the model. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm.8. E 9. speeds are to be estimated.14.75 kW) . The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. 1.

A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects.23. If the temperatures are the same. E 9. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow. E 9.35 m3/s. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it. The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. If the flow rate over the model was 1.26. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale. E 9. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype.5 m/s was measured as 10 N.22. Comment on the results.Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9. µw = 0.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.24. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1. =– . ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g . Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N. 7. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model. Density of air = 17. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow. when moved at 1. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0.20. E 9.3 N.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water.8 atm.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 . µw = 1. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20.5 kg/ms.006 × 10–6 m2/s. (1/10) E 9. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25. Viscosity of air = 18. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. Calculate the model discharges. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1.478 × 10–6 m2/s.18. Also determine the drag force on the model. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9.31 × 10–7 N) E 9. ρw = 998 kg/m3. u +v =– +v 2 . ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. g ∂x ∂x E 9. Determine the linear scale. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. 1/3125. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC.19. E 9. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow.83 kg/m3.24 kg/m3. 0.001 kg/ms. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio.53 cm/s. Density = 4. (1/5.25. ∂h u ∂u .28. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity.27. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model.21. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s.

75 kW.2 m/s. the geometric scale being 1/5.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2.95 up1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.33. total pressure and power absorbed.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model.29. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio.34.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9.30.22 um1.5 l/s. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1.67. 1. Determine the prototype wave resistance. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained.32 m3/s. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42. 3.2 N) E 9.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated.51 m/s.205 kg/m3vw = 1.44 m3/s) E 9.32.3 N. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it. 142. E 9.2 m. When tested at 3 m/s.5 ] E 9. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1. measured a total resistance of 46. Power absorbed : 1. 13. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1. Total pressure 63. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1.12 m.36. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered.c.8 mm w. m2 . Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data. (0. ρa= 1.37. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air.9 N/m2. E 9.9. Volume delivered : 2. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed. (25:1) E 9.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir.5 mm of wate column.31.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s.35. (2. the skin resistance was 14.2 N. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9.75 m3/s. va = 15.95 N/m2. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1. but at the same Mach number. A model E 9. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7.

The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. then this layer comes to rest. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . When these fluids flow over surfaces. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. The flow field now can be divided into two regions.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. This layer was named as boundary layer. If the surface is at rest. Work is to be done to overcome the force. 10. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. This was supported by measurement of velocity. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. “no slip condition” prevails. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. Real fluids have viscosity. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers.

10. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion . Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. 1. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. 10.1. 2.1.1. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits.1. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current. velocity. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10.1. 10.1. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field.99 times the free stream velocity. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure.

∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. Time is not indicated in the equations. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. Also for incompressible flow density is constant.1. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . The density of the fluid is ρ. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive.1. 10. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow.1. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. Under unsteady conditions. Flow in across face AA. If u decreases.2. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer. As flow proceeds farther. (ii) flow is steady. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero. ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered.

3. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up.1. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig. 10.1.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion.1. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q . the second set in the above equation is zero.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10.324 10. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction.

at y = ∞. u = 0.1. (ii) at y = δ. u = u∞. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were .4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile.1. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.1. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method.1.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. u ∂2u dxdy . noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0. 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. and simplifying. v is also called as momentum diffusivity.1.4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present.

332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .1.0 5. δ u∞ / vx = 5.1.5 L Rex (10.4.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10. 10.1.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig.1. the value of . Cfx.0 Slope 0.9) Defining skin friction coefficient. is obtained as 0.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth.1.0 3.0 0.332 u/uµ 1. u/uµ = 0. The value of y i.664 Rex–0.e. at η = 0.99 1.5 L z 0 (10. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. .99 is found to be 5. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0.5 4.0 2.8) (10.5 (10. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer. as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1.1.328 ReL–0.

5 ux = = 1.32 × 10–3 3.325 mm.67 × 10–3 CfL 6. both local and average.93 10. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher. µ = 1.68 × 10–3 1. mm 4.1. CfL = 1. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length.1. ρ = 1.40 × 105 0.56 × 105 2.68 × 10–3. at these locations.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6.5 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.2. The values calculated using equation 10. Cfx = 0.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.66 × 10–3 4. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer.006 × 10–6 m2/s. 10.2 m/s. µ = 18.99 × 105 1.7.63 × 105 1. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables. Example 10.8 Re 0. 0. Cfx = 1. δ = 5x Rex–0.8 m from leading edge.59 × 105 δ. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0. m 0.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate. 0.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1.165 kg/m3. There is no flow through the face ad.5 m and 0.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.000 Cfx 2.5 0.5. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.325 8.5 Consider 0.328 ReL–0.5 × 105 δ. 10.664 Rex–0.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below.33 × 10–3 CfL 5.8 Re 0. momentum etc. Also determine the skin friction coefficients.5.2 m. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 . Distance.1.1.33 × 10–3 2.5 and 0. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s.5.63 × 10–6 kg/ms. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0.5 m.11× 10–3 1.2 0. CfL = 3.8 m.02 7.2 0.21 × 10–3 3.03 Cfx 3. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction.36 × 10–3 2. m 0.66 × 10–3 1.000 6. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.2. mm 5.

It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero. Considering x directional momentum.1. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy ... Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H.1. (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ. Equating dy (10.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ . d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle.

5 (10.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation.1.1. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile.64 x v u∞ x = 4.13) Substituting in equation 10.64 ρu∞ x (10. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP .64x/Rex0.1.1.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.5 x 2 2 × 4.1.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10. This leads to . u = 0.5 = 0. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.1. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.1.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ .64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0. at y = δ. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10. Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4.64. δ = 0. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration. The boundary conditions are at y = 0. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10.

The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream.1. Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution.1.330 Compared to 0.6. with boundary conditions. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher.1. 10. The idea is illustrated in Fig. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ .664/Rex1/2 by exact solution. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. 10. (i) u = 0 at y = 0.1. u = a + by + cy2. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity.

18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation.00 δd.69 × 10–4 V(0–x).8 δ.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. In the case of example 10. m/s 0.1 and 10.1.108 2.6) for displacement thickness.5 0.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x).e.35 × 10–4 5. Substituting in (10. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 ..03 δd.84 × 10–3 10.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations. water flow the values are given below.17) and integrating.333 × 5 × 10–3/0.2 0. m 0. For other lengths values are tabulated above. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i. Example 10.02 7. V = volume/area. mm 1. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness. mm 4. From example 10.67 × 10–3 1. m3/s 1.1.666 Volume flow.8 δ. mm 5.2 = 0.0211 0. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s.93 10.2 m2. mm 1.3. m/s 1.108 × 5 × 10–3 2. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections. The average velocity.333 × 5 × 10–3 2. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.673 2. Area = 1 × 0.0333 m/s.1.2.5 0.29 × 10–4 6. m3/s 3. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.343 flow rate. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer.2 0. assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0. In case other profiles are adopted.06 × 10–3 0. Using data of problems Examples 10.2 flow is 1.643 3.1.0333 0. ∴ V = 1.0 6. Distance.325 8.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width. this constant will be different. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.333 2.

For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used.1.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow. Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000).332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way. 10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution.1. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10.1. δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.7. then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10. .1.

2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.003488/2) × 1000 × 1. having different distributions at different heights is available. ux 1.0269 m or 26. The velocity at any location at any time.2 × 1. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity.2 m long.0594/Re0.2) (10. Chapter 10 v = 1.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10.2.22 = 0. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.55 × 10–4 τ = 5. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.22 = 2.5 = 5.664/Re0.005 m or 0.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0.37 mm.51 N/m2 5.2 m/s over a flat plate 1.382 x/Rex0.5 × 1000 × 1. δL = (0. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow. .1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10.074Re–0. Water flows at a velocity of 1. However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.55 × 10–4 × 0.5 = 0.3) (10.4.2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location.2.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0.72 mm. Cf = 0.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0.2.1.2 a) (10.2 = 0.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26.2. (10.2 = 0.382x/ReL0. The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 . Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0.0594/Rex0.4) Re = δL = 0. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.381x/ReL0. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile.2.9/8 = 3.2 = = 1.006 × 10–6 m2/s.

3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions. The wall shear cannot be zero..1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface.1. . then separation will occur. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. blunt bodies. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer.3. In turbulent flow. the force is parallel to the surface. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero.3. In the direction of flow the pressure increases. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. Hence at y = 0. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced.. In the case of flow over spheres. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy . In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. ie. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10.3. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. The body will experience a force in such a situation. Viscous forces exist in such flows. This is shown in Fig. An example is subsonic diffuser. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity. Separation will not occur in such flows.334 10. 10. airfoils etc.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur. cylinders. 10.

3. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0.2) This applies to viscous drag only. the pressure force.664/Rex0.6) (10.074 Re 0.2 For ReL up to 109.4) Chapter 10 (10. FL.004.58 − (10.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces. Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value.455 (log Re L ) 2.3. For a flat plate of length L. 10.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0.7) (10. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0.3. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure. in laminar flow CD = 1. M) (10.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.3. . CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10. then CD = f (Re. it is seen that CD = f (Re). Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow.3.2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.5) (10.455/(log ReL)2.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow. In case wave drag is encountered. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications. an obvious example being aircraft wings. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface.3.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.074/ ReL0.3.3.002 to 0.3.3.328/ReL0.5. The former may be called shear force and the other.

7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0.17 1. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0.5 × 109 ) 2.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.455 (log 0. So it is called pressure drag.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1.5 × 109 = 1. These are applicable for Re > 103. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1.3.3. The chute is of 1.3. 2 . Example 10. shear does not contribute to drag force. Table 10.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.4 × 10–6 = 0.6. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.58 − 1610 0.20 0. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s.2 Density of air = 1. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car.2 kg/m3. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.32 and frontal area is 1.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0.05 1.154 × 106 × 5 = 0.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number.1 m2.1 below.3.42 1.77 MW 10.20 1. Determine the speed after 50 secs.4 × 10–6 m2/s. like a plate or a disk.18 1. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10.5. So the equation applicable is 10.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.5 × 109.77 × 106 W = 0.9 CD = 0.

(ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt.2 ×π × 1.3.06811 ×29.2. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.0433 . The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0.. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front.0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.82/4)] = 2. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29.36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105.32 × 1. 10.3.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2. (A) k= ∴ 1.0433 10.2 [( 0.62 m/s u = 20.36) = 968 m 2.06811 × 50) = 13. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range.06811 × t) ∴ t = 29.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag..1) + (1. 20 = 60/(1 + 0.0433 × 60)/1800 = 0. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.

This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag. Determine the tension in the towline. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient.2) CD is read as 0.97 × 104 From graph (Fig.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number.45 π × 0.3. Kinematic viscosity = 1.3. The lift on airfoil is an example. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow.45 N 2 4 10. 10. reducing the pressure drag.05/1.006 × 10–6 = 4.10) .3. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0. Example 10. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. The component along the flow direction is called drag. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0.3.7.

3.3. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines.02 CL CL 0. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients.0 0. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap. ratio. known as stall. For spin along the flow direction. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge.5 0. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1.3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . Ap = bc.3. 10. separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift.3.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. golf. For each airfoil section such plots are available. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used. Chapter 10 10.

No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. called spin ratio. This can cause drift in the flight path. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L .8. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u. Hence two π terms can be identified. In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0.8. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number. 10.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. As CL and CD are dimensionless. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . . Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions. This is known as MAGNUS effect. these are not listed. u Radius. Reynolds number. Ex.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight. 10. FL CL and CD 0. The trend is shown in Fig.4 CL 0. R Angular velocity. ω Kinematic viscosity.6 Lift force. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below. namely L and T. ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. v LM w D . uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number.

δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0.1. Let u = a + by + cy2. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y . Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating.5 x = 0.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient. displacement and momentum thicknesses.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation. τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3. du u y y =2 − = 0. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10.464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses.577/Rex0.5 u∞ 3. This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10.464x/Rex0. and u = u∞. determine the thickness of the boundary layer. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . . Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy .1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation. At y = δ.5.

y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part.1. and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer.5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5.12).5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K ..73/Rex0.477x/Rex0.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ. δ = 5. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ. du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy . = sin .5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5..5 Cfx = instead of 0.5 δd = 4v Re 0. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ . using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5.477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.644/Rex0. τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ .477 x/Rex0.477 as against 5 by exact solution.

655/Rex0. τw = µ (du/dy).1366 δ.. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0.8x/Rex0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10.4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes.8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0.76.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ .1366 δ] = = u v.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution.1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 . [u∞ × 0..3625 δ = δ/2. (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0.1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0.5 = 2 2 × 0. at y = 0. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ. instead of δ/3 δm = 0. Assuming cubic velocity profile.5 = x δ u∞ 4.1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2. or δ/7.5 = 0.

Hence the second and third terms are also zero. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation. ∂y Problem 10.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow. Simplifying.5 x Re 0.74 × 5)/(1.6]. [Refer Problem 10. u = 0 and v = 0.1) Air flow.64 x 1 1. At y = 0. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 .5 = 0. ∂3 u = 0.022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 . Hence profile assume is approximate. Consider the x directional momentum equation. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 .e. Consider the data from example (10.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero. u∞ = 5 m/s. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero.5 m. . 1 × x for unit width. Re = 1. u resect to y.56 × 105)0.5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0. velocity = 3 4. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained. at a distance 0..

Indicate at what y location this will be maximum.87 Re 0.0594/Rex0. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ . Consider continuity equation.3) Cfx = 0.r. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. y. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – . Problem 10.1 N/m2. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2.2. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3.6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate.4). v = 15. ρ = 1.205 kg/m3. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 . Assume cubic velocity variation.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2.t. .2.

808 × 106)0.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.2)1/7 = 32.5 = 0. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r.623 × 2/15.51 m ∴ Lw = 0. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 .1).5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0.0352 m or δ = 35.006 × 10–6 0.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.3) is justified.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.2 = 0.2 0. mm 17.382x/Rex0.51/(5 ×105)0.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk. Using equation (10. No Air Water Engine oil Density.06 × 10–6 Lcv.04 or u∞ = 35.7 1.5 ∴ La = 2.2 = 0. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15. m 2.17 m = 5 × 2.0177 m = 5 × 0.2.382 × 2/(4. kg/m3 1.2 × 1 × 1.17 150 δ. 2 u∞ = 621. Rear surface : CP = – 0.2.06 × 10–6 = 4.346 Equating 2. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.5 Problem 10. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.51 0.623 (15/35.05 m/s Problem 10. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.1 = 1.1677/(5 ×105)0. δ = 0.2 u∞ 2 0.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.0594 × (15. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15.5 = 1.808 × 106. Solving.205 u∞2.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.5 = 0.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.623 m/s Re = 35.17/(5 ×105)0.2 1061 1.0012 m = 5 × 150.

dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0.5 = 0.42 = 1. height will be L. 10.205 × 21.332 × 1.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1.75 = On the otherside.5 N 1/ 2 x 1. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0. Assume air temperature.06 × 10–6 m2/s.332 ρ u2/Re0.06 × 10–6 = 0. ∴ F = 4.5 m τx = 0. P.5 OP Q L = 9. and assuming the length of base as 2L.5 − 1.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.10.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.5/15.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.06 × 10–6)0.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.332 ρ u1.10.5 × (15.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base.5 3 10–3 .5 m.68 × LM Lx N 0.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.75 + 0. ρ = 1.205 kg/m3. as 20°C.5x–1/2 = 4. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0. kinematic viscosity is 15. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P.

348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.782 = 359.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.88 N Power required considering 2 skis.2 × 2.662/2 = 5022.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph.2 × 10/1. F = const ρ u1.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.23 × 35 × 1. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27. the water temperature is 20°C. N = const Hence checks.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.19 from graph by extrapolation.074ReL–0.2 kg/m3. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15.5 m m 3 s 1. Re = 1.99 × 10–3. it can be taken to act at the mid point.19 × (1/2) × 1.5 N Moment = 5022. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate.5 = kgm/s2 = N.5 s 0.2 m long and 0. P = 2 × 35.88 × 10 = 717.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows. CfL = 0. Problem 10.2 × 16. M = FD × distance.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27. u = 600000/3600 = 16.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.5. v = 17.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.006 × 10–6 = 11.35 × 1. Assume density of air as 1.6 × 10–6 = 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.6 × 10–6 m2/s.67 × 1. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.2/17.6 × 103 Nm . Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1.99 × 10–3 = 35.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87. Problem 10. ρ = 1.2 × 0. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.67 m/s Re = 16.11 A water ski is 1.893 kNm.40 from graph by extrapolation. As this is a uniform force.6 W Problem 10. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.006 × 10–6 m2/s.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0. v = 1.5v1/2L1. kg m 1.78 m/s.

7364 × π × 0. Equating and substituting the values. CD = (1/2) × 0.81 = 1.52 × 0.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s. At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig.16. the value is about 0. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required. 10.15 m 0. P. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.2. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm.7 kmph.3. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. (Refer table 10.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.2 × (1/2) × 1. 10.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2.51 m Problem 10.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres. 90 rpm 0. Problem 10.023 × 9. Assume the vessel is large.782 = 167. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3.94 ×105.1) Net force = 120 × 9.81 N 120 × 9. u = 38. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft. V being the volume.628 × 10–5 kg/ms.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0. Density of air = 1.7364 kg/m3 and 1. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible.4) × 103 = 527.628 ×10–5 = 0.52 m/s or 138.6 + 167.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.5 m Figure P. For parachute CD = 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0.205 × 2 × 30 × 27. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0.23 kg/m3. Substituting this value.04/1. . Gravity force = ρ Vg.4 × (1/2) × 1.

78 × 0. kinematic viscosity is 15.30 × 0.01)] 2 = 175.4 for both cases.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2. 0.01 m f ×1m 0.42 – 0.5 × 0.71242 = 235. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm.5 m 4 × 0.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.13 = 3.350 For circular plate CD = 1. 10.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1. A = π × 0. Determine the starting torque.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27.205 × 27.23 × 32 × 0.782 [(5 × 0.38 = 1. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph.5 × 90 = = 4.205 kg/m3.04) + (1.04 m f ×5m Figure P. ρ = 1. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1. Torque = Force × torque arm.04 × π × 0.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27. Substituting = 1.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.04/15.7 N .42.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235. FD = 1.23 kg/m3. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10. 10.4 × 1.06 × 10–6 = 7. Consider density of air as 1. At this value CD is about 1.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P.38. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.65 Nm. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0.06 × 10–6 m2/s.18.152/4) × 4. If due ot fiction.5 = 117.08 2 1.02 m f × 1.02) + (4 × 0.

gravity force = 0. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane.064/16 × 10–6 = 1.81 = CL × × 1.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2. 10.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.057 × 302/0.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .85 × 166. not dropping due to gravity.76 × 0.e.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2.5 1 0. The wing area is 160 m2.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin.25 ∴ Lift force = 0.9808 = 52.7 m 2. flight speed.064/2 × 30) = 0.064 2 × × 1..72 ∴ CL = 0. determine the lift coefficient. (Fig.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.91. then R = 0.165 × 302 = 0.7 m/s 70000 × 9. For this situation.064 m and mass is 0.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.5592 = 91.25 × π × 1 0. 10. Air density at the flight conditions is 0. Top spin causes downward force. Problem 10.85 kg/m3. Neglect the compressibility effect. V = 600000/3600 = 166.91 ωD = 0.81 = 0.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig.3. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.4216 N.3635.4.3.8936 Re = 30 × 0. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number. i. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path. R = 0. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. If the craft travels at 600 kmph. page 341 CL is read as 0.057 × 302/0. For air density = 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837. with a back spin ω. Problem 10.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837.038 2 × 9.057 × 9.20 In championship tennis.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.057 kg. ∴ ω = 574.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0. The ball diameter is 0. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin.

56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0.153 × 9. 10.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. 10.45 0.45 for sphere 189. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness. ∴ FD = 94.66 = 0. Solving V = 3.88 N.0039 x0. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P.22 A cork ball 0.22.21 is tied on the bed of a river.45 × 0.0039 × 300.45 m/s 2 4 3.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s. The components perpendicular to this line should balance.5 = 0.02136 m . CD = 0.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V . Problem 10.81 N = 109.98 × 106 1.47 × 106 and CD = 0.2 kg/m3.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0. Determine the velocity of flow. At 30 m.3 = 0. Problem 10.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more.2 Corresponding V = 5. P. for this spin the ball will rise.88/cos 60 = 189. displacement thickness is δd = 0.5 where x is the distance along the flow. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m.35. Density of air = 1.

6 × 0. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________. 3. 10. 7. 7. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force. 2. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________.2 [3. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. 9. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces. 5. .02136) = 0. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient. 6. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. 10. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. 4. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. 6.6 – 2 × 0.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. 10.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. 8.1 Fill in the blanks: 1.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. 9. 4. 10. 8. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations.6 × 3 = 0. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction.482 – 32] = 1. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 5. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. 3. 2. In flow over surfaces.

10. 3. 10. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. 9. Pressure 4. Adverse 6. . 3. Angle of incidence 7. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. 4. Flow O Q. 2. Answers 1. 10. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. Lift force. dynamic force 6. 3 Magnus effect 4. Perpendicular 10. Answers 1. decreases 7. Momentum thickness 3. 7. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. 9. 9. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. 10. Smaller 8. Cubic 10. 1. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. 5. Spin ratio 8. 7. 4. dynamic force 5. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. 2. 10. 3. Drag force. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient.1 10. Displacement thickness 2.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. approximate integral. 8.4 Fill in the blanks: 1.0. 5 × 105 6. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. One seventh O Q. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Increases. Larger 7. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. 5. 8.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. Reynolds 5. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________. Turbulent flow. microscopic 2. 0. Shortens O Q. Separation 8. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. Adverse 9. 6. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. V being the forward velocity. 2. 6. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. exact differential. Nearly constant 9. 4. Favourable 5.

In laminar boundary layer. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . 10. 5 × 105 6. 9. 7. 6. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. 3. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. 355 4. 2. the velocity gradient will be _______________. Pressure 9. 4. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 8. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 7.7 State True to False: 1. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . Molecular diffusion 3. 8. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. 2. 5. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. greater 7. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. 6. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. Turbulent boundary layer 4. 10. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. 7. 10. 9. Thickness 2. 8. 9 Decreases : 2. Boundary layer 5.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. 4. the momentum transfer is by _______________. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. 4. 5. 3. Laminar sub layer 8. Wake 10. 3. Answers 1. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. 10. At the separation point of boundary layer. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. 5. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. Increases : 1. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. 6. 5. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. 3. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. Zero O Q. 8. 6. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. 10 O Q. 9. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. 7.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. Spin ratio 15. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10. all at 20 °C. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0. 11. Pressure drag 9. 13. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. calculate the value of C.5. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. 5. 7. Magnus effect.8. 16 False : 1. 12. 14. 15. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. Turbulent flow 7. wing span of an airfoil. Drag coefficient 13.0972) E 10. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.9 mm. Laminar flow 6. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. Flow separation 10.205 kg/m3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. v = 15.5 m and 0. 6. Angle of incidence 14. 3.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile.2. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. 11. Drag coefficient 8.4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. Coefficient of friction 5.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1.2. 12. Lift coefficient 12.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. 9. Momentum thickness 3. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness. . 8. δm = 0. 11. determine the velocity at 0. 14 O Q. 16. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. Boundary layer thickness 2. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law. H 2 δK E 10. 15. 4.8 Define 1.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ . 13. 10.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s. Displacement thickness 4. Chord.356 10. E 10. Answers True : 2. (δm/δd = 0. E 10.10.

E 10.9 mm of water column (gauge).15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1. (1.81 N) E 10. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0. Determine the drag on the section.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water. (3. For u∞ = 2 m/s. (V = 1. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9. determine the diameter of the chute. (0. the value of CD being 1.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 . Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry. determine the total drag.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N.9 bar.2.2 kg/m3. Chapter 10 E 10. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b.5 mm to 12.3 m. (2.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞.6 m/s. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge. At the first location. (30 m) E 10. Determine the total viscous force on the plate. Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction.3 m/s. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. (8370 N) E 10. The static pressure is – 22. Determine the total force on the board.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope. determine the velocity at the second section.62 N) E 10.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0.6 kN) E 10. At 0. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. Density of air = 1. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness. Determine the change in pressure between the sections.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. A plate 0.29 m/s) E 10. (0. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0. The wind flows at 20 kmph.76 kN) E 10. E 10. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C.3 m along flow).18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward. The water is at 10 °C. E 10. E 10. the velocity of air is 18. and L = 0. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0. .7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm. where b is the width. Also determine the change in static pressure. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate. In order to maintain the velocity constant. (59 N/m2) E 10.19 N/m2) E 10. ∆P = 2. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s.7 mm.2.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute.305 m.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness. b = 1 m. (18. E 10.4 m/s.

µ = 0. d = 0. If CD = 1.3 Pas.2 kg/m3. at a wind speed of 30 m/s.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute. Estimate the terminal velocity.2 kg/m3) of air = 1.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms. Use stokes law.27 m/s in air.1 × 10–3 m/s.2 kg/m3. (8.63 × 10–2m/s) . The kite is a square of side 6 m . E 10.22 kg/m3 E 10. CD = 0.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N.25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. Density (0.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6. Take properties of water at 20 °C.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10.2 kHz) The density of air 1. Density of air = 1. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. The wind speed is 4 kmph.9.53) E 10. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal. E 10. E 10. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph. Determine the density of helium in the balloon. E 10.8 falls in oil of relative density 0. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients. (1.26 A spherical ballon of 1. Air density is 1. (CL = 0. E 10.149 mm) viscosity = 1.72.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2. and weights 5 N. Dynamic (V = 8.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2.

chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. Performance tsting of pumps. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described. 11. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. 11. in some instances. fans and blowers are typical cases. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. Out of the many parameters to be measured. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. 359 . However. since any sensing device has a finite dimension. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. teurbines. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. Velocity is also measured directly. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases.

The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig. 0 at the other end of the tube.1.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer. at point 1.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.1 (a). This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. . h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11.2.360 11.2.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe. ρg ρg 2g (11. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11. 1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid.2. 11.2.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids.2.2. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11.1 (b).1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11.2. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).2. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure.1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. 11. the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11. The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary.2. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.

2. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig.5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device. it is not a practical arrangement. Hence equation 11. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11. 11.2.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities.2.2 (a) and (b). This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. the equation for the velocity should be modified. indicating the details of construction. 11.2.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats. Standards are available for these instruments. Chapter 11 . In the case of subsonic gas flow.2. 11.2. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11.2. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube.2 (b). This set up (Fig.

The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity.3(a). an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration.362 11.4.2. The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds.3 Vane anemometer 11. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11.2. Tw is the temperature of the wire. 11. The pick ups are shown in Fig. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. . R is the resistance of wire per unit length.2. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly.2. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. 11.2. Ta is the ambient temperature. radiation and conduction being negligible. Constant current method. 2. Constant resistance method. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity.2.

Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector.2.2.2.4 Hot wire anemometer 11. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement.Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed. 11. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams.5 Laser Doppler anemometer . The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows.2. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried.

For a given flow rate. Propeller rotors are used in this meter.1 Rotameter 11. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized.3.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium. 11. It is also expensive. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube. 11. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a . In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force. 11.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate.3.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable. Through careful design.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration.3.

C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11.3. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.3.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading. .2 Turbine flowmeter 11. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also.2.3 and 11. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11.3.2.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations. 11.3. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil.3 Venturi.3. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates.2.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate. ∆h.1 and 11. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11. 11. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output. The arrangement is shown in Fig.1 and 11.2.

. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat.366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0. The coefficient is defined by. The value depends on the diameter ratio.7 to 0.98. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal.3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent.3. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient.65.95 to 0.6 to 0. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss.

The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig.Flow Measurements 11. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head.3. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig.4.4 Elbow meter 11. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 . When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line. 11.4. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place.3.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES.4. 11. 11. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2.3. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs.4. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully.

Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate.62. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines.62. Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0.4.2. This section is called as vena contracta. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.61 to 0. the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity.95 to 0.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size. 11.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0. 11. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice. . Due to these effects. Cofficient of velocity (Cv). There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice. Typical value for Cd is 0. Coefficient of contraction Cc. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge. The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0.2.4.

Discharge over a triangular notch. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.4.4.3.075 H z (11. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11. 11.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z.611 + 0.1) . It is called Cipolletti weir. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width.4.Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11.4. The value of Cd will however be different. Consider an elemental strip dh.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.

4.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium .1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.4.4.3) Table 11. dirty liquids and some slurry Clean.

98 2 × 9.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air.821 m/s or 25.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe.98 2 × 9. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2.98. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6.86 m/s H 1. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. Solving for.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct.98 2 × 9.81 × h . Assume Cv = 0. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. V = Cv 2 gh 88.13 K 100 Problem 11.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11. Flow velocity. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83. Hence the equation used is . compute the discharge of water through the pipe. Problem 11. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm. h which is head of air.33 m/s. Determine the speed of the submarine.89 = 0. If the mean velocity is 0. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.32 m.98.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube.7 times the centre line velocity.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5. ∆P = 419.6 kmph.98 Speed of the submarine.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register.56 = 88.33 + 5. If the density of air and water are 1. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid. hair = 419.

173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68.98 2 × 9. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.32 × 0.152 = 0.98 2 × 9.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.0283 m3/s.73 × 10 3 = = 1. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11. ρ= P 107.7 m3/min.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.73 + 9 = 107.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.6 × 103) (9.81 × (10 / 100) = 1.81) FG 740 IJ = 98. Substituting .0752 = 0.6.81 × 68.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0.373 = 0.9.2 m of air 100 1. 4 A2 = π × 0.00442 m2 4 = (1. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.7 × 1.7/60) = 0.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct.2 = 35.98. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.0177 m2.961 = 0.85 m/s Problem 11.

Flow Measurements 0.0284 A2 = 2 60 0.963 Problem 11.8.00442 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.15 FG 13. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0.192 = 0. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.96. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length.6 − 1IJ H 0.9 K Cd = 0.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute.96 × 0.96.00442 2 2 × 9. Solving A2 = 0.0177 × 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0. The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid. ∴ π × d2 = 0.81 × 0. 11.0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.0284 m2 4 2 × 9.0177 2 − 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0.8 . π × 0.9 cm π Problem 11. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.81 × 8 .0098 = 9.

Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch.0141 2 2 2 × 9.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.12 = 0.96 × 0.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0. A = 1 π × 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0.0141 × 0.0214 = Cd Cd = 0.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.07 kN/m2 Problem 11.0707/5 = 0.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0. 4 0.0707 − 0.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .6.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.81 × 0. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.0141 m2.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.374 Refer equation 6.8 K = 0. Substituting.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh .9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.6.39 .0314 (0.0314 / 0.1875/2 = 0. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.6 − 1IJ H 0.96 2 × 9.0707 0.81 × 0.22 = 0.04 × 9.81 × 0. When a steady head of 0.32 = 0. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0.04 × 9. Q= 0.32 N/m2 or 10.0785 m2.04 × FG 13.0314 m2 4 π × 0.6 × 15 2 × 9.

Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.81 × 0. V = 4 × 0.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream.0095 / 0.0095 m2.81K Chapter 11 .13 K 10.95 Problem 11.00332 m2 4 4 0.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0.112 = 10. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2.0095 (0.13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3.81 . Q = 0.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.13 K = 0.95 × 0. If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter.0652 = 0. A2 = × 0.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.112 = 0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9.007 ∴ Cv = 0. Assume the density of air as 1.44 = Cv 2 × 9. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.81 × 0.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it.0992/π × 0.

96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall.63 0.81 0.152 4 2 × 9.0486 m /s 3 .376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.149 = Cd × 0.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0.05OP N 1000 × 9. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall. 11.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11.81 Q = 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter. The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.6 × π 0.81 × 28 1000 × 9.149 = 0.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.237 Simplifying 0.

4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m.81 × 3 Problem 11. Cc and Cd of the orifice. 6 = Cv 2 × 9. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time.913 4 × 0.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0. Cd = 0.9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9.81 × 15 . Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0. 11.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0.5 × 15 Figure P.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11.152 × 4 2 × 9. ∴ π × 0.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 .81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.5 m vertical. calculate the coefficient of velocity.020 m3/s.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0.9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0.7424 Cv 0. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv.6774 = = 0.14 . and y = 0. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice.

5 m3/s in an open channel. the flow equation 11. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.378 Coefficient of contraction. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0. B = 0.4.914 m 0. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.81 tan 45 × 0.799. A2 = × 0. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.627 Cd = = 0.4. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.6 × 3 2 × 9.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0.0314 m2.0314 / 0.5 m.6.6.00503 m2 4 4 0. The head of water over V notch is 0.687 0.75 m.65 × 15 . Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9. calculate the discharge in the channel.082 = 0.65.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.6 × B 2 × 9.913 Cv Problem 11.626 Problem 11. As θ/2 = 45°.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0.6.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.0134 m3/s 8 × 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.5 = 0.22 = 0.8.53/2 = 1. and tan (θ/2) = 1.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.6 × 0.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.81 × 0.155/2 = 0.81 × 0. Discharge (Refer eqn 11. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0.15 m.3 reduces to Discharge.5 = × 0.0314 (0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.

41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0. The width of rectangular notch is 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P.1 m. 11. Determine the head of water over the V notch.65 15 2 × 9. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0.81 (0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch. Discharge through the rectangular notch.59 Notch 8 × 0. 2.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter.0485/2.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.41 = 0.15 m3/s.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0. 3. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer. Chapter 11 . Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9.15 = 0. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0. 4.6 × 0. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.63 0.20 ∴ H = 0.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0. Solving Cd = 0.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11.5 3 2 × 9.59 m Problem 11.048 m.81 tan 45 × 0.1)3/2 = 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.65 respectively.6 and 0.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.6.6 15 2 × 9. Q= 0.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m.

Static pressure 3. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5.7 to 0.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2.11. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density. 5.92 (d) 0. . 6. Reluctance pickup coil 10. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. Outerwall 8. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. 10. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter.2 Select the correct answer 1. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Electrically heated wire.85 to 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. Velocity of flow 2. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. Define venacontracta. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6.92 to 0. 8. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter.1 Fill in the blanks 1.85 (c) 0. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3. 9. 7.6 to 0. Answers 1. 4. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank. Stagnation pressure 4. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6. When a fluid flows though an elbow. 6. O Q. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. 2. 3. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7.7 (b) 0. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. In a hot-wire anemometer. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4.11.98.

b 3.8 A pipe of 0. d 9.3 m/s) . c 7.18 m. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. (6. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube. (39. a 10. (1.2 m diameter at the rate of 0. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter.05 m3/s) E 11.0064 m3/s) E 11.98) E 11.Flow Measurements 7.16 m diameter.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline.2 m/s by a pitot tube. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11.98 and the density of air as 1.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38.06 m3/s.3 m/s) E 11. (0.3 kg/m3. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. determine the oil flow rate. b 5. is equivalent to 6 m of water.3 m/s) E 11.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0. calculate the flow rate in the pipe.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe.2 m3/s. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. (0. If the pressure head at the throat is zero.98. Answers 1.29 m. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter.98. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1. c 2.1 m. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0.2 kg/m3. calculate the air velocity. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0. (0. (0.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0.99) E 11. A venturimeter with 0. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice.085 m of water.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.1 m of water. Density of flowing air 1. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0. a 6.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10. b 8.17 m. 381 8. (0. a 4. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity.7 A venturimeter with 0. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi.

the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7. An orifice meter of 0.25 m diameter. An orifice of 0.082 m3/s) E 11.2 m. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s. (0. under a head of 0.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.5 m/s.3 m diameter. If the pressure difference recorded is 19. discharge and contraction.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0. 0. The head causing flow is 0. E 11.15 m3/s) E 11.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26.25 m diameter. determine the flow rate.8 flows through a pipe of 0.2 l/s.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11. 0. (0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0.8 m.16 m3/s.65. If the actual flow rate is 1.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate. (0.59) . Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0.62) E 11. 0. (0.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0.4 m of water. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head.46.62) E 11.6.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0.082 m3/s. Calculate the discharge through the pipe. (0. (0.8 m.358 m3/s) E 11. calculate the coefficients of velocity.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid.1 m is fitted in the pipe line.85.59. (0.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it. Under a head of 4 m.65) rate measured by it is 0. (0.15 m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate.62.54) E 11.15 m3/s) E 11.11 An orifice meter of 0. calculate the discharge in the pipe. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.4 m.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0.

As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower. As seen in chapter 8 and 9.5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0.0 1.5 1. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow.0 1. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow.5 1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .0 1. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow.5 1.5 1.0 0. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity. 12. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex. and is proportional to the bed slope. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 2. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow.5 2.0 2.5 2.1. Hence the flow is generally turbulent.1. irrigation canals.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12.0 0. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference.5 0. Reynolds number are high. 12.0 1.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric.

The average velocity occurs between 0. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow.1 Flow at normal depth .384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. This represents the average depth of the section.2 times the depth from top. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. 12. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig. as mentioned earlier. When the width is large. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius.1. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface.1 by the dotted line. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. When the depth changes gradually.8 times the depth from top. the average velocity is used. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value.1. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500.2. the hence velocity is constant. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal.4 and 0. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow.2. it is defined as gradually varying flow. it is considered as wide flat. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. A and the wetted perimeter P. This is also non accelerating flow. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. 12. Rectangular and Circular sections. 12. For analysis. 12. volume flow rate/area. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface.1. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. Triangular. due to area or slope changes.

hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2. Substituting in equation 12. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface.3. The energy grade line.2.3. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. 12. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel. act on the control volume. E. As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). the specific energy is constant along this type of flow.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. Assuming a loss of head of hL. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig. y1 = y2 and for a length L. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g .2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12. (iii) Energy equation. Defining specific energy. 12. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y.2.2. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. on the volume. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length.2.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2.3. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation. Ff.

5 = FG 8 × 9. wetted perimeter. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. C = 86. As the first two correlations are more complex.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0. Another method of deriving the equation is as below. Kutters and Mannings. and hL = L Sb. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0.5) (12.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved.5. Substituting D = 4Rh.6) C = (8g/f)0. i etc are also used).3.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C.3. The value varies from 0. Out of these. three are more popular namely Bazins. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.704 = 2. .455 V = 45.4. 12.5 Example 12.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0.445 (0.3.81IJ H 0.5 = 45.1) where k is known as Bazins constant.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless. As in the case of closed duct flow.6 m. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C.5 (12.5 (RhSb)0. This correlation is independent of bed slope. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m.3. f = 0.5 = 0. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3. Sb = 1/2500. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.6 × 1/2500)0.112 m3/s 12.038 K 0.4. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs.704 m/s. = 3 × 1 × 0. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant.17 for earthen channel in rough condition.038. 0.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below.5 (12. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.

08 for poorly maintained earthen channels. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate. m3/s 3. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 . A = 3 m2.02 54. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0. Using the above values.502 0. The value of Bazins constant.4.6. the value of which varies from 0.9/(1 + k/ 0.16 0.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S. No.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500.6) is used to calculate V . are given below.52 32.46 1.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.66 V.51 1.40 26.060 0.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.6 ).4.847 0. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86. Equation (12.75 3.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions. Example 12. V = C 0. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.75 12. The results are also tabulated.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0.2) is used for the determination of C.750 Chezy’s Constant 80.06 m.4. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0.35 2.3.250 1.65 72.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12.460 1.116 0.413 Q.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0.160 0.06 0.303 1. k.303 1.24 : : : : : 0. m/s 1.5 ) 23 + (0.53 1. Equation (12. Rh = 0.

388 S.88 3.48 70. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.51 2.3.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.017 0.02 1714 V. No.4. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.4.37 1.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.110 0.015 0.6 m.85 2.64 61. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope.86 2. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12.3) and (12.64 0.09 0.29 1.3 there is good agreement between the results.4. N 0.11 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const.02 51.4. m/s 1.84 0.5). No.022 0.3.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.4.52 53. 12.36 1.32 1.91 0.95 0.79 0.4) and are presented in the tabulation. A = 3 m2. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.013 0.94 0.015 0.65 0. The results are obtained using equation (12. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.23 54.85 .011 0.25 71.022 0. Example 12.28 2.95 0.29 Q (m3/s) 3. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated.011 to 0.27 Q. Note that in examples 2.32 2.050 C 83.018 0.02 41.2 and 2.74 41. Sb = 1/2500 S.51 2.96 3.37 V (m/s) 1.84 0. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.53 61. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12.6).90 50. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.79 0.06.017 0.013 0. Rh = 0.018 0. m3/s 3.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.74 18.

002 0.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels.005 0.014 ± 0.022 ± 0.050 0.015 ± 0.025 0. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.002 0.012 ± 0. The value of Mannings constant is 0.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.030 ± 0.1.015 ± 0.035 ± 0.002 0.030 ± 0.022 ± 0.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12.003 0.012 ± 0.150 ± 0. Table 12. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture.5 m Chapter 12 .014 ± 0.010 ± 0.010 0.050 ± 0.002 0.005 0.003 0.075 ± 0.010 N Example 12.035 ± 0. painted Steel.010 0.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full.005 0. No.013 ± 0.003 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney. smooth Steel. Use Mannings equation. finished Concrete.040 ± 0. Perimeter = π D/2.002 0.002 0.002 0. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.025 ± 0. riveted Cast iron Concrete.011 ± 0.005 0.003 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.020 0.025 ± 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).2 and 12.015 for the rough concrete lining used.012 ± 0.016 ± 0.035 ± 0.002 0.010 0.005 0.004 0. N S.014 ± 0.

5 .4414 1.7.42 × 0.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0. is chosen.7636 5.55 m3/s.4333 1.7331 5. various alternatives are possible. by a trial process.0015) × 0.9 and solved problem Problem 12.4371 Q.3333 1.6999 0. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.4495 2. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates. V= 1 1 1 .5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5. lining etc.7723 5.4431 1. 12. (1500l = 1. velocity V.6330 1.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.7071 0.5 d.7059 0.6695 5. assuming depth and width. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value.7055 0. m 1. Example 12.5 1 : 1. hydraulic radius Rh. m3/s 5. m 2.5119 1.7155 5.8182 = 7. d:b 1 : 1.8284 3.2649 b.955 m/s.75 1:2 1 : 2. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1. Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0. and flow rates are tabulated below.6.7.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500.51/6 = 59. m 5.4409 1.7027 V.4142 1. .6458 2.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0. m/s 1.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.7658 5. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below.011.6667 5. Sb = 1/1934 12. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1. say rectangular. circular etc.1622 P.25 1 : 2.8 and 12. width b. For a total area of 4 m2. perimeter P. Derivations are given in example 12.4. . Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.9552/(59. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0. After a particular type of section.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0. m 0.6569 5.0000 3.6920 Rh.

This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed. Assume uniform flow conditions. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero.5 A0. 12.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12.8 and as A. and P is to be minimized. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC . Refer Fig.8 for variable names.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. Also determine the optimum side slope. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable.5 Figure Ex. From equation (3). Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d . dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a]. 12.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels.5/P0.e. using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section.(A) A Sb P As A.4.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. Ex. Or dP should be zero for such a condition. Example 12. Let a = cot θ.. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P. Q is maximum when P is minimum. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0.5 i.7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12. y being the independent variables..5) Example 12.C and Sb are specified.

12. b = 2y.5 0. A Sb P . and from equation 1. as a = cot 60 = 0. Ex.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0.392 P= Substituting for A. 12. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2). and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides.5774 W2 = 1. P = 4y.9 Area. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y. A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a]. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12. Refer Fig. P should be minimized.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q.9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay.5 Figure Ex. P = 2d sec θ.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0.

The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular.1 Examples 12. .5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2. diameter.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N. depth d q.2. and Rh = A/P. D depth.5.5 = A0. Optimum geometry.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0. width b.6 to 12. flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0. b depth. and minimizing P2. d Wide flat. Mannings coefficient and bed slope. Table 12. d Circular.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. width.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed. d b = 2d L QN OP 0.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. b depth.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1.353 d 12.

011. N = 0. b = 2 × 1.0(2.75 = 3. check: 1.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.2347/2 (d/2) = 1.344/2) 3.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.502 + 1.32 1.2)3/8 = 1.84 0.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0.3166 1.682(2.688 m A = π 2. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation. Diameter D = 2 × 1. (ii) Trapezoidal.38 0. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.2)0. Also A = 1.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.2)0.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.2)3/4 = 2.468 m A = 3.622(2.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. check: 1. but the depth is more for the triangular section.32 1.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1. ∴ b = 2. the values are calculated as below.682 (2.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1.04 2.344 = 2.2)3/8 = 1. Mannings coefficient.75 = 2.344 m.5 Rh2/3 = 1.93 m2 d = 1.37 1.3168 1.10.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0.44 .301 cot 60) 1.42 0.75 = 3. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.2347 m.2)3/8 = 1. top width = 2 × 1.2)3/8 = 1.84 m2.917 LM 4 × 0. Next comes trapezoidal one.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1.04 m2.917 (2.301 m.583 (2. V= check (1.04 m2 d = 1.297 (2.301/ 3 = 1. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0. Example 12.3650 1.4649 m A = d × b = 3. Using equations in table 12.743 m. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular.039 m2.04 2.2.93 3.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.968 (2.11 Using the results of Example 12.301 = 2.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1.45 0.2)0.743 = 3.

84 3.502 + 1. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c. Solving by trial d = 1. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases.6033)2/3 = 3.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow.021)) = 0. suddenly.65) = = = 0.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate.04 = 0.021)/(0.6.301(1. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces.011)] × (1/2500) 0.5 × (0.2093.011.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0.688 2 × 1.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.057 m 2. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1. 12. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 . An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool. Area/top width. Example 12.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d. Hence iterative working is necessary. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d. Substituting the values.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0.301 2. Q = AV = V × 3d.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1. involves polynomials of more than degree 2.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.872 m. slope etc. circular y = = 1. and hence the flow area also should change.021)/(3 + (2 × 1.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5. 12.502 + 0. When the terrain changes the slope has to change. N h 1 1 4= × 0.

net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two.e.6. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . In order to facilitate analysis. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady.396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12. 12. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section. In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction.6.1) .6. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c.1. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12. Referring to Fig. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow.

6. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow.6. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation.1). Flow velocity/wave velocity. Changes occur only in the downstream flow.6.91 100 31.5. The flow is called critical flow. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr.05 4000 198. the wave height is small compared to the depth. These are similar to subsonic. Case (i) If Fr < 1. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0. 0. Example 12. Case (iii) Fr > 1. 12.21 1 3. 1000 and 4000 m. Case (ii) Fr = 1.13 10 9. 100. m/s 0. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. Using equation (12. As already indicated. m velocity. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid. which is seen near beaches. the characteristic length. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream.6. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible.99 gy . is the depth y and V is the flow velocity. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl .3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. finally leading to the breaking of the waves. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream.2 Chapter 12 12. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c.1 0.32 1000 99. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. In the case of open channel flow. Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio.1.e. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. A standing wave may generally result. c = depth.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. l.2 Froude Number .5 2.

V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12.6. Differentiating the equation (12. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.6. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow. V2 Q2 = .6. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.6.3) and equating the result to zero.6. This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head. Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. The symbol used is E.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow.4(a)) .3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate. V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12.6.6.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width.2. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12.

Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12. .6. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc. Ec = 3 y. and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.6.6. and eqn. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist.6. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12.6. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c . 12. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation. 3 min (12.5) 2 E . c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate.6.6.6.5a) From the definition of velocity.6. This is shown in Figure 12.3). Vc2 = g . The third solution is negative and has no significance. (12.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy. Vc = gyc .8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q. These are called alternate depths and velocities.6) From the expression of wave velocity.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow.4. 2g (12.6.4a for unit width at the critical condition. This is shown in Figure 12. ∴ Vc = c.

Here also very similar conditions are seen. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted.6. the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave.6. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12. the kinetic energy is CD.6. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth.6. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller. When the depth is yT (AC). This is represented by the line at 45°. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. In the rapid flow region. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. In the rapid flow region.6. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. y = E.6. When the depth is equal to yR = AB. this reduces to . the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. This is in the rapid flow region. At q = 0. 12.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. This is shown by the line ABCD. In the tranquil flow region.3) by qmax. there are two possible depths of flow.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. the kinetic energy is given by BD. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E. Figure 12. and V > Vc.

0874 × 0.7039 m.5214.81 × 0.3).81 × 1. the depth being 1. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12.7038 m. The flow is supercritical check V2 4. Similarly for given values of q.81 × 0. Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.516 9. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known.516 m/s 4. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1.0874 9.5 = 0.6643 = 1. Fr = ∴ V = 4.7) . Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.6. solving by trial.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12.7961.6. yal = 0. the equation below will result in a single curve.4575 m.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12.0874 m/s 3.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1.6643 m.9717 = 1.6. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.5162 +y= + 0. 2g 2 × 9.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3.6643 = 1.5 m. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases. Example 12. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y.5 × 1) = 2 m/s.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width.

3.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E.6. The base width is 0.16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. i. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n.6 m.(A) y b Volume flow. In the case of triangle.5 Example 12.6. A/top width From section 12. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. Area of section.15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution. Substituting . yc = (2/3) E. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y. Hydraulic depth = yc . btop = 2yc + b.e.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − . ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) .. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A). In this case for critical flow. from section 12. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y.. b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0. as was established earlier.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n.

012.6 m determine the slope required.081 m (check) Case (2) 0.5 I = G H 9.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.53 × 9. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1. q = (22. Calculate the critical depth also.6 m.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.5 Fr = 22.5 = (6 × 3) × 1. Case (1) depth = 3 m.6/(6 + 2 × 0.265) = 0.6) × (1/0.0796. solving 0.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.5 m 22.6 m depth. Fr = 7. Critical depth is given by the equation (12.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0.53) = 7. the equation used is (12.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.252/(2 × 9. Take Mannings coefficient as 0.5/6 × 3 = 1. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1. the flow is supercritical. For a depth of 0.81 = 0.5 = (6 × 0.6.265 m Vc = (gyc)0. Chapter 12 .1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m.6 1 9.7167 = 0.265 (0.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.81K 1/ 3 = 0.81 = 3.012) (0. Substituting the values. solving Sb = 1/70.6 + 0. the flow is subcritical.81 × 0.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1.5 m To determine the slope.52 / 3 S 1/2. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3.34 m3/s Example 12.58. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0. 22.075/ 0.53 m V = 22.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22.5/(6 × 0.5 = 1. Rh = 6 × 0. Solving y = 0.5 = (9.6 = 2.6) = 0.81 × 0.0796 y2 + 0.4837 × 0.2244)0. the Manning flow equation is used. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22.5 m3/s. For depth of 3 m and 0.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0.25/ 3 × 9.5)2/3 Sb1/2.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc.07 m/s.5 × 6 × 0.2304 To determine alternate depth.6.0796 m Froude number: 1.81)} + 3 = 3.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.

7. E = 0.7.6 K 2 × 1 = 1.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects.7.1.513 At the critical flow condition.5 IJ H 6 × 0.7. b. 2 × 9.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12.81 Substituting and solving by trial. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig. 12. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.137 m/s.81 12.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate. as calculated yc = 1. which is 1. is considered.691 m. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0. 12. alternate depth is 1.7595 m. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2. V = 2. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. checks.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22.1) .1275 + G H 6 × 1.991 m 2 × 9. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions.5 IJ E = 1. Substituting for V1 and V2. these cases can be analysed. The height of the bump at location x is h. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump. Fr = 0. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2.1275 m F 22.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width.5 × yc. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations.

6 m/s. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height. dy/dx can be determined. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1. is differentiated with respect to x. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 . the flow height is 0. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. the expression on the R.06 m exists on the bed surface. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0.S. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12.18 In a rectangular channel. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height.2) As dh/dx is specified.H. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0.06 m Figure Ex. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow.18. (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0. Example 12. Refer Fig.18 Under steady flow conditions. 12. Ex. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression. 12. Solving for (dy/dx).7.

E1 = specific energy at section 2.61835 m 2 × 9. .0047 m 0.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic.61835 – 0.7.7. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region. decrease in level.6 V12 + y1 = + 0.81 2g specific energy at section (1).2 Flow Through Sluice Gate. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure. y0 = + y1 (12.7 mm.5353 – 0.81 × 0.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. 12.6725 m/s = 0.3323 m. solving by trial.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant. change in surface level or 4.06 = 0.06 = – 0. substituting for V2 . Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0.6 + 0. V12 + y1. 2g y2 y2 = 0. ∴ V2 = 0.5353 m.7.7. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0.6 9.6 = 0. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0. there can be two solutions.5583 m. V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0.5583 m. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12.3323 m.6 = 0.

Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.7. 1. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max .0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0.4.7.7.e. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term.6) OP Q Also Q/b = q. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2.7. Steady. 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12.7. 12. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12. 12.7..4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.4) with respect to y1 .666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1.2 Figure 12. incompressible uniform flow is assumed. (flow/unit width).

e.81 = 406. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream.81 = 627.264.8 = 0.7485 m 2 × 9. In case velocity V1 = 0. y0 = 2. then the condition will give y0.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate. y23 – 2. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value.81 × 4.4) × 2 × 9. Example 12.06/4 = 6.8) × 2 × 9.2039 y22 + 42 = 0.732. depth velocity and flow rate downstream.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same. q = 25.81 .4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0.404/ 9. and 12.4 = 8. V1 = 23.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).29 m3/s/m. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4. As y1 and V1 are specified.29/4. Considering unit width. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2. y0 = 6 m. m/s. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow. Determine the depth at the downstream side. Fr = 6.82 (6 – 4. specific energy remains constant.8 and 0.45 q = 23.17/2.81 × 2 = 0.17 m3/s/m.852/ 9.7071.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.2039 m 2g 2g 9.264/ 9. V = 20.404 m/s Fr = 8. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i.06 m3/s/m V = 25. this will be the value of y0 i.42 (6 – 2.3.8 = 4.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2.81 × 2.4 = 1.84 q = 20. Steady.4 m.81 = 542 . Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0. the condition at section 1 will change. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12. q2 = 2.6.84. But y0 will remain the same.3.8 m. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0. From equation 12.e. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0.8 × 6 = 4. Solving by trial y2 = 0.4 = 2. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail.7.

469 = 5. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel.4692 × 9. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly.7485 = 5. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12. As the change is continuous.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate. Refer Fig. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform.796 × 1. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx.8.8. The slope of the energy grade line is S. 12. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line. flow depth changes gradually. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12.1) Chapter 12 .1. 12.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z. The slope of the bed is Sb. the upstream condition at section 1 will change. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2.8.2039 × (2/3) = 1.81 = 3.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth.

The equation (12.5) Using equation (12.4) Substituting for S in equation (12. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12. . when Rh = y.2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12.8. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.8.8.8. Then on the basis relative values of y. critical slope and steep slope types.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope.3). where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.3) can be applied to this situation.8.8.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.8.8.5). [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12.8.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.8.2. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles.4) we can show that.8. The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth.

the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).9. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. More often. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2. The flow upstream will remain unchanged. 12. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side.9.1 Hydraulic jump . Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically.9.Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. This is called Hydraulic jump. Horizontal bed condition is assumed.1) (12.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing.9. Considering the control volume. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth. Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. 12. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section.1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream. Fig. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods.

9. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.07 3 3.59 10 13.5 1.0 1. Bed is assumed to be horizontal.9.4) Wall shear is neglected. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12.77 3.48 4 5. Fr y2/y1 1 1.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g . Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12. y Vs E diagram.5 4.9. The loss is due of violent mixing.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12.6) Solving for (y2/y1). As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions.412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12.18 4.9.5 5. 12.9.67 2 2. From Equation (12. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12.1. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.5 3.9.9.5). Using momentum and continuity equations.37 2. Fr > 1 alone is considered.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.88 5 6.

Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream.2 2 9. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump. Fr hL/E1 1. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow.4 8 66.1 3 25.0563 = 0. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream. Example 12.655 Chapter 12 . Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.655 – 1]3 = 16.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12.0563 m.33 = 0. In flow through supersonic nozzles.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7.7 4 39.33/ 9.5436 m V2 = 0.7). Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.552 m/s Fr2 = 0.239 0.655 × 0.10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number. the velocity downstream is 5.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir.4 10 72.81 × 0.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5.9.1 6 56.9.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump.1722 − 1 = 9. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.9.1 5 49.78 4 9.5 2.0563 = 7.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one. By proper design. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12. Fr = V/ gy = 5.0563 × 5.9.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies.

332 + y1 = + 0.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1.1) . The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel. The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses. Fig.9. The phenomenon is similar. Considering rectangular channel.5 or q = (gyc3)0. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth.81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0. hL E1 = 0. Fr = 7. As the crest is broad. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12.5 yc = (2/3)E. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q . This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall.705 bE3/2 (12.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall.504) × 100 = 62.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow.10.172.504 m 2 × 9. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.0563 = 1.82 %.10.78 × 0.1.053 = 0. 12. 12. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16.945/1. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5.10.

11. similar to venturimeter.5 (12.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. and if critical conditions occur at the throat. The details are shown in Fig.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth. the level downstream will rise. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume. In case the upstream flow is subcritical. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width. 12. then.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir.11. 12. it may not fall to the critical value yc.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. If the upstream flow is subcritical. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation.99. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. Chapter 12 . If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. the depth in the reduced section will decrease. the flow rate is given by.11. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement. In that case Q = 1. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest.95 to 0.

V1 = 0. Example 12.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level.025 = 0.4 m. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined.5 = 45.6 – 0. The velocity upstream. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump. Q = 1.11.5 b1 = 2 m.5607/(2 × 0.375 M NM 1 − (1.416 Q = 1. then.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.2) (12.6.45 To determine the hydraulic depth. h = 0.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12. Friction factor f = 0.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case.2) Q = 1.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0.43 = 0. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.375 m. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 .2 – 0.6 m.81 × 0.375 / 2 × 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12.3 × 0. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0. Compared to 0. E = the total head at construction which is 0.6 m.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. determine the rate of flow.038]0. b2 = 0.11.011 m.11. y2 = 0. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12.6) QP 2 0.025 m. Chezy’s constant.705 × 1.3 × 0.81/0.025 OP Q = 1.2 = 0.5 = 0.8% and hence may be neglected.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0. this is 2.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream. L 2 × 9. bed slope = 1/2500 .6 – 0. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.9 m.038.4 m ∴ Q = 1.705 b2 E3/2.11.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small.2 m above that of the channel.6) = 0. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat.3 × 0.

Problem 12.5 2.88 1.92 11.1 3.3 0.6 7.88 1.94 V 1.9 2. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.32 0.60 7.2 0.1 2.34 5.40 0.1.24 1. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.3 In problem 12.28 V 0.4 V 0.33 1.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.9 0.75 0.56 0. Velocity V.35 0.9 1.98 10. 1.0 1.30 0. Considering combination of depths of 0.2 0.4 4.3 0.8 0. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.86 0.0 5.3 0.11 1.8 0.4 1/2500 V 0. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical. m/s.24 1. Chapter 12 0. 2.9 1. but not in direct proportion.704 × 3 = 2.0 1.6 Note.60 0.1 1.2 0.704 m/s.42 0.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region.5 1. Flow rate Q.3 14.57 1.0 1.33 1.50 0. Depth and Rh are given in m.3 0.0 1/2000 Q 0.8 0.60 0.40 V 0. 2 and 2.38 0.7 0.3 0.38 0. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.46 0. Depth and Rh are given in m. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.57 1.5 1.5.7 0.97 1/500 Q 1. m3/s.8 0.7 0.9 1.8 V 0.32 3.1 1.39 1/1000 Fr 0.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500. 1. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase.94 V 1.88 1.81 × 1 = 0. Problem 12.9 Fr 0. Slope Depth 0.8 .5 V 0.9 Q 2.0 1.6 0. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.3 0. Fr = V/ gy .3 0.8 0. 1/1000.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12.0 2.5 8.87 4.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.11 1.75 0.5 Rh 0.2 As depth increases for a given slope.24 1.6 0.0 2.86 0.8 0.2 0.97 1/500 Fr 0.2 V 0.6 0. indicating velocity by.1 6.39 1/1000 Q 1.6 / 2500 = 0. Slope Depth 0.6 0.76 1.24 1.1 1/1500 Q 1.45 0.9 0.72 7.1 1/1500 Fr 0.5 Rh 0.88 1.5 2.5 5.76 1.2 1/2500 V 0.704/ 9.9 1. 1/1500.7 4.6 6.2 0.0 1/2000 Fr 0.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.7 0.

For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition. P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0. The depth of flow is to be half the diameter. b = 4.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 .11.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s.9.022.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope.9443y Rh = A/P = 2.12. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2.5 = 8.8. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m .2 for which the flows are 8. 2. N = 0.4721y2 0. the bed slope being 1/2000. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 . Q = 1500l/s = 1.4721 y2/4.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 .5 m. Assume Manning coefficient as 0. 8.8.022.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0. 1.1 and 2. 8. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth.05. called normal depth.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12.022. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0.4721 y.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1. Problem 12.5 m3/s 1. A = (b + 2y) y = 2. to carry 10 m3/s.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4. Problem 12. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0. Assume Mannings constant as 0.12 and 8. For economical section perimeter should be minimum.

5733 R Chapter 12 .4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0.69 radian or about 154°.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12.8884 y7/2 y = 1.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ. Refer figure.9971 m. θ = 2. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation. (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3.e. dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ). 12. The condition is determined.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial. b = 0. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i. Let the flow depth be y.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0. and Let the angle subtended be θ.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. ∴ dP = 2 R. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P..

901 D Problem 12. the same result is obtained as in equation A.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used. or Solving.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0. Refer problem Problem 12.626 R or 0.8988 R or 0. Substituting. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R . V = C Rh Sb .75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143. . θ = 2. In case Manning equation is used. or 128. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ).8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0. A/P should be maximized.813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2.7. P = 2Rθ.802 R or 0. Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ).247 radians. then the flow.

38 = 0. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.6086 m Q = 2.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge.247)) 2 2 = 2.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.247 = 4.083 m2.69 = 5. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1.64 Flow is in the subcritical region.81 I JK 1/3 = 0.083 × 60 0.81 × 1 = 0. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.6086 × 1 = 4. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.69 – sin (2 × 2. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2. Flow velocity.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).494 m Rh = A/P = 2.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.247 – sin (2 × 2. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12.215 m3/s 1000 0. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.0 m.69)] = 3.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12.38 m Rh = A/P = 3.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0. P = 2Rθ. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.7351/4.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.7415 m .5 = 4. R = 1. Q = 2.494 = 0.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.083/5.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.

3333 m2.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb . Rh = 5.3333 × 50 1. V2 2 + y2 = 1.565 m and V2 = 3.5 = 6.12 .5 + 0. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.3333/10.0343 × 60 [0.2039 0.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13.3051 m 10 = 13.5 2 2 = 5.6971/ 9. 10 2 2 × 9.5 + (π × 1. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.5398 m/s.81 × 0.2039 y22 + 0.0343 m2 P = 0.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1.5 m π × 1.2039.8813 m Q = 5.7415 = 1. 12.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.5) = 5. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.745) = 2. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m.7123 m.7123 = 0.2039 + y23 = 1.8813/2000]0. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12.5036.2036 (checks).5) + 0.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0. Solving.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2. A = (3 × 0.2164 = 1. Problem 12. ∴ Supercritical region. Fr = 1.5 m Figure P.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3.2039. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow.3051 × Sb .0343/5.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13.422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0.

0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0. Rh = 2 m.5 = 1 m2.0005)1/5 = 94.3333 0.0005 = 90.333 × = 26.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2. P = 0.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.5 = 3 m.9 1 + 1. Kutters constant = 0.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0. Assume Bazins constant k = 1.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26.66 m3/s.012)22/3 (0. determine and compare the flow.333 C= 86. P = 16 m. Sb = 1/2000 = 0.8813 2 / 3 6.0163 Problem 12.303 / 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.0005))(0.385 m3/s Problem 12. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.682 FG 1 IJ = 0.00155 / 0.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0. Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0.025.0005) + (1 / 0.012) = 89.9 Rh Sb . If Manning constant for this type is 0.13 Using Bazins formula.0343 0.65 m3/s Chapter 12 .00155 / 0.59 1 + (23 + (0.303. Discharge Q = AC 86. taking Manning constant as 0.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.333)2/3 0. Q= 1 1 (0. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000. For concrete.59 2 × 0.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.012 Q = (32/0.5 + 2 + 0.

N = 0.552/7.5519 (0. width b = 1.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3.05) × (0.424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0.95 m3/s .012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0. y = 0.83 Problem 12. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0.5 m. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.7 m3/s.5519 m2. Manning constant N = 0. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0.25 m.5/2 = 0.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0. The bed slope is 1 in 2000.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82. Rh = A/P = 2/3. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0. A = 2y2.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.5519 × C 0.8324 = 0. Discharge.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.25 / 1000 = 3. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000.83 m.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant. C 10.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 . A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2. assume Mannings constant.7 = 7.83 = 0.7028 m.7 = 7.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.9642 m Q = 10.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0.4056 m Problem 12. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.

Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.5238 – 0.5757 m/s 0. b × y = 2.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 .5 Q = = 0.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss.472y2 = 5. Hence hydraulic jump is possible. 2.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0.06 2 2 × 0.472 y2 = 2.4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.5 – 2 × (1.5.006 in equation (1) y= 2. 2.006 m 2.06 = 0. 2 = 50 1.006)2 b = 0.5 = b × y + 2y2.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.06 = = 0.5 m2.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1.473 m .006 b = 2.5 – 2y2 + 4.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2.52.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s. Substituting y = 1. y= 1.06 × 5 2 + = 0.472 (2) Velocity.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12.5 = 1. Hence flow is supercritical. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0. V = C Rh Sb i. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y).81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.81 × 0.e.5238 m 4 9.

013.86 m/s.7 2 2 × 0.6399 = 5.5238 + 0.339. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420.81JK GH 2 × 9. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.7 × 8 2 + = 2. Rh = y.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0.05 m head of water.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0. Normal depth is . The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y.5727 I F 5 = G 0. Problem 12.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 .22. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards.082 m/s 2. Sb = 1/95.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0. The Manning constant is 0.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0.69 m 4 9.9.81J K 2 2 = 1. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.7937 m head of water.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.7 = = 2.7 + 8 I − F 2.69 + 2.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow. Determine the normal depths for each case.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12. Solving y1 = 0. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height. Problem 12.06 + 2 × 9.013 V1 = 3.81J G 2 × 9.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.75 m3/s/m.6399.75/0. 0. Fr1 = 2.

Solving by trial.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.9863 m Problem 12. (equation 12.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m. or y2 – 3.8284 y2 = 1.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2. .0796.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.4404 = 0.Flow in Open Channels 3. Side slope is 1:1.25 m/s.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0.81 = 0.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3.81 × 1.82y = 3.0796 m 2g 2 × 9. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1.6035/ 9. Fr = 1.5 y 3.0796y2 + 0.4404 m 0.5/(6 × 3) = 1.25/ 3 × 9.8284 y 2 = 0.339 2 = 1.252 +y= + 3 = 3.013 427 V2 = 3.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22. b = 0.9.4404 = 2. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s. Specific energy = V = 22.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1. Determine the optimum dimensions. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.75/1.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2.8284y. V2 + y2 = 3.1907 m.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0. Solving y2 = 1.23 V22 1. Refer section 12.0796. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth.8284y + 2.726 = 0. hydraulic jump should occur.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1. Expressing V2 in terms of flow.

Assume negligible velocity of approach.5302 = 3. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3. Given b = 0. calculate the rate of flow of water.5302 m. the flow will be maximum.07/ 9.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.81 × 0. The throat is 6 m wide.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed. The depth of water upstream is 0.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.5 I =G H 9.4 × 0.1275 Problem 12.32/ 9.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1. Fr = 7.705 × 6 × 1. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22.4 K −3 2 1 9. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir.5 + 0.94.033/2 = 3.5 = 0.07 m.81) = 1.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy. correcting for the velocity of approach. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream.94 × 1.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0.5 m.32 m/s. Now using the corrected value of E . Q = 1.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0. As there is free fall over the weir.691 m.4 m.981 m/s E = 1. 6 × 1.02 = 0. H = 0.705 × 0. V2 = 7. Assume Cd = 0.1275 = 1 22. The discharge is given by the equation (12.1).666 m3/s = 17.10.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.81 × 1. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.98142/(2 × 9.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.5 = 3.94 × 1.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12.666/12 × 1. Vc = Fr = 3. Refer section 12.03 – 0.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1.705 b H3/2.03 m ∴ Q = 1.549 m Q = 0. In case a standing wave forms downstream.4 m wide.020 m = 0.53/2 = 17.5493/2 = 18.705 × 6 × 1. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1.

17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected. considering upstream velocity.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine.11.705 b2 E3/2 = 1.021 m head.4 2 2 y1V1 0.8321 × 4 = 1.705 × 1.9.046 m3/s.663 m/s.2 × 0. Problem 12.797/(1.4 = 4/ 9.2 × 1.5939 I F 4 = G 0.81 y .2832 m. 1. Determine the flow rate. E = 1.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.4. Solving for y.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1.2 m.81 × 0.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.6476 – 1.2 × 0.2 × 13/2 = 2. then Q = 1. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.9) = 1. y2 = 0. As V = 1. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0.5939 m/s 1.27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1. Q = 1.5 = 1.8321 m Substituting in equation (A).9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump. Assume the bed to be horizontal. Specific energy E = 0.2832 + 2.81J G 2 × 9.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms.9 M N 1 − (1.705 × 1.2 × 0.0411.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12. The Froude number is 1. .6261 = 0. V2 = = = 2.8321 + 2 × 9. Also calculate the loss of specific energy. y = 0.041 m. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.1 OP Q = 1.5 = 2.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1.9 m.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.9 + (V2/2g). Fr = V/ gy .

1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical.95 × diameter of circular section. 8. 12. Define open channel flow. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% .430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 9. 6. 11. 7. O Q. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope. h = 0. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Explain the term hydraulic jump. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. 10. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. State Chezy. 3. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. 12. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. 4. the depth of flow.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. Derive an expression for wave celerity. 5. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel.

Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. 12 Incorrect : 1. Answers 1. Chapter 12 . As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. Decrease 6. 9. 5. 4. specific energy remains constant. 8. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). 3. 11. the specific energy is minimum. 13 O Q. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. Higher 8. 7. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. 4. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 9. 4. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. 12.Flow in Open Channels O Q. 8. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. Hydraulic jump 4. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. 7. 6. Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. 11. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. Answers Correct : 2. 2. 3. Across the hydraulic jump. 13. Higher than one 2. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). At critical flow. As roughness increases. Decrease 5. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. Mannings constant will decrease. Semicircular 11. Alternate depths 9. 12. 12. 10. 2. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump. 12. the level at that point will decrease.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. 5. 11. 8. L / T. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. 7.3 Fill in the blanks : 1. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. 3. 5. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. Subcritical 7. 4. 6. 8. Increase 10. Normal depth 3. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. the depth is called __________ 3. Kutters formula considers bed slope. 10. Increases O Q. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel.

2 A triangular open channel with 0. . 4. E12. (1:2500) E12.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. For optimum area in a rectangular channel.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s. 7. The bed slope is 1:1000. 3.5 times the flow depth. 12 O Q. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water. 2. Answers Correct : 3.86 m. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity.972 m. fine the Chezy constant. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. 5. Answers Correct 1. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump. (11.83 m3/s.16 m. 10. Vc = 3. 6.432 9. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2. 4. (h = 4. 12.48 m3/s) E12.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 11.4 m.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500. determine the flow rate. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. For a given area. 12. (h = 3. If the slope of the bed is 1:950. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. 6. the kinetic head will be 0. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal.5 m depth. 11 Incorrect : 2. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. Pipe diameter is 256 cm.138 m) E12. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52.8 × 1. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 7 Incorrect : 1. 3.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1. (40 liters/s) E12.69 m/s) m2. 5. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. Assume Chezy constant as 60. 5. (2. 10. 2. 9. determine it’s cross-section and slope.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. w = 5. determine the flow rate.459 m) E12. 7. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. If Chezy constant is 65. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. In the case of circular section. w = 4. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1. (1:736) E12. 8. (hc = 0. the depth should be twice the width. 4.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s.

29 m3/s.571 m/s) E12. E12. The slope is 1/1796. what would be the rise in water level. determine the width at the water line. 0. (7.3 m and velocity is 0. E12.5 m3/s per m width. If the free surface well upstream is at 0.5 m above the weir surface.71) E12.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0. (0.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1. (2. (23. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . determine the two depths of flow possible. 0. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section. (hc = 0.333 m) E12. (3. E12. (23. (12 m) E12.7 m and 3.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s.2 m .2 m.5 m/s.44 m) m3/s. At upstream the depth is 0.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section. Neglecting energy losses.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h.467 m. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. 3.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1.17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80.715 m) E12. If the specific energy is 2. 0.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0.6 m.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow.03. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3. Also calculate the Froude numbers. with water wetting the surface. 0.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream. 0. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel.3395 m3/s. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100.34) E12.97. (5. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.267 m. The height of the bump at any location is h(x). flowing full if the top is closed.5 m above the bed. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient. (0. If the width of the channel is 2 m.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel.426 m) E12.3 m deep.14 N/m2) E12. E12. E12. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway.563 m/s) Chapter 12 .Flow in Open Channels 433 E12. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition.12 m.7%) E12. Determine the flow rate.

determine the normal depth. if the flow (0. 2. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream.79 m) m3/s.2 m. Also calculate the percentage loss of head. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2.18 m/s. (10.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56. with normal depth of flow of 1.09 m3/s) E12. 3.022 (1. (0. (0.33 m/s.44.25 Water flows under a sluice gate.434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12.0883 m3/s) E12.2 m/s.93/1000) E12.3 mm and the velocity was 5. 67.0563 m.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.1 m3/s. Upstream the depth is 1.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.942 m) E12. Determine the flow rate.9%) .3 m.543 m.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface.9 m and speed is 25 m/s.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. 0.5 m and the velocity is 0. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump. N = 0.015. Determine the bed slope. Also calculate the maximum flow rate.3 m3/s/m. (6.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0. 2. E12. E12. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0.

In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles.! 13. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13. 13.1. In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 . through which the fluid is flowing. is discussed. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force.1. When applied to control volume. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed.1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force.

(13. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.5) A 13. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.1. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure.1. v and w are the components of velocity in the x. The negative sign in the LHS of 13.1.2) In other words.1. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required.1.1. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out.1.1 (a).1.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 .1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.6) .1. The numerical value will show the actual sign. The force exerted by the fluid (13.1.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow.1.4b) (13.1.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction.4a) (13.4) (13. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13.6 is due to this assumption.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13.1. y and z directions.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13.1.

The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively.7) and (13.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0.1. (13. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act.1. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.2 × 1000 = 14.1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0. 13.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1.8) Chapter 13 Example 13. the turning angle being θ.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections. .7) (13.1 As A1/A2 = 2.1. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1.01 m2.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0.6 m2.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.1. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s. Refer Figure 13. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0. P2 = 30 kPa 0. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces. In this case the force on the bend is required. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction.1. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.1. Example 13.6a) 45° Figure Ex.02 – 10 × 103 × 0. The inlet area is 1.

1 + (− 36.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid.1 kN downwards. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs.3) 2 2 = 259. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14.04° 257. θ = tan–1 36.1. Rate of flow m= π × 0.4 N .3 kN along x and 257. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.2 13.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141.1.3 = 8.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13.438 Substituting the values.65 N. 13. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257.1 y Figure Ex. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed.6 × cos 45 – 14.1 36. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.8) (13.6 × sin 45 + 14.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°.2 – 30 × 103 × 0.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid. The forces on the bend will be 36. In turbomachines the blades are in motion. There is negligible change in the magnitude.1 kN in the +ve y direction.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14.3 kN. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.3 x 257.1.1. – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

Chapter 13 . 13. determine the forces in the x and y directions.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure. The vane velocity is 15 m/s. Calculate the vane inlet angle.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s.9 E 13. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. E 13. E 13. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane. Assume shockless enters and exit. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. α1 = β1 = 0°. determine the outlet blade angle. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. E 13. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13. Also determine the energy transfer rate.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7.

The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation." 14. Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. The conveying system may consist of tunnels. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. 14. Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc. channels and steel pipes called penstocks. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. 452 . Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. where the remaining expansion takes place.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits.

The representation is qualitative only.3.1 illustrates this idea. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. for solving this problem. mixed flow and axial flow machines. gH/N2D2 (14. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”.3. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily.3. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter.1) 2. The specific sheed. The power coefficient. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine. These are 1. In addition to the operation at the design conditions.Hydraulic Turbines 14. “medium head” and “low head” plants. the specific speed increases.16). head available etc. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. power. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric. The head coefficient. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. P/ρ N (14. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow.3. These are again divided into radial flow.3) 4. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine. . In spite of sophisticated design methodology. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions.). In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. Figure 14. Q/ND3 (14. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. flow rate. (speed.2) 3D5 3. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. The flow coefficient.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. 14. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer.

90 Axial flow turbines 0.3. For the same flow rate.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.3. h Francis turbines 0.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase. Figure 14.94 Efficiency. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.454 0.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed.86 0.3. .2 gives another information provided by the specific speed.

1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds.047—0. Lower the speed chosen.3.5 . .819 0. Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate.122 0.663—1.072 0. Then only the value becomes dimensionless. Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 . 5 / 4 . The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps. As the flow rate increases. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. . .5 . larger will be the size of the machine for the same power. Table 14. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. 1/ 2 2. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14. 1/ 2 .1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. P in W and H in m.015—0. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. s 2.5 s 2. This is also shown in Table 14.1.1.122—0. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow. (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. 1/ 2 .5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure. 1/ 2 .66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine. Head is estimated from the topography.Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14. Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data.5 . speed should be in rps and power should be in W.72—0. m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless. 2.1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0.053 0. In the non dimensional form.5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1.

At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m.5 rpm.2. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable.1. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine. Non dimensional specific speed. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. When the head is large. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design.000000)1/ 2 × = 0. these conditions are generally not satisfied. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head. the flow rate has to be higher. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter.0163. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. 417. Example 14. Even with same actual installation data.5 (40. g → m s2 . wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable.1. Example 14. Power estimated 40000 kW.456 g1.5 40. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. As the head drops further for the same power. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. Determine the specific speed. Keeping the power constant. Head available : 900 m. 1/ 2 60 × 9. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps.000 kW.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable. ρ → kg/m3. When the flow increases. The power potential was 50. Significance of specific speed. Speed required : 417. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head.0000001/2 = 8. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). P → W or Nm/s.H→m ∴ Ns = 417. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. But in the solved problems and examples. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen.92. × 60 9005 / 4 .1. Ns = Agrees with the former value.24 as in the tabulation. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high.015 × 549 = 8. This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed.

P → W. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype.0001/ 2 × = 475. acceleration. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity.000 kW. g → 457 m m3 . Dimensionless Ns = 40. N → rps. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable.81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. Ns = 600 (40. .g→ 2.000. it can be shown that specific speeds. At a location. A model study was proposed. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype.000 600 . The power estimated is 40. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. The speed chosen is 600 rpm. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model. forces etc.000000)1/ 2 × = 84. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. Example 14. In the laboratory head available was 20 m.4.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9.000000 60 × (200 × 9.000. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model. In such case. leads to dynamic similarity. 60 501. Head available = 200 m. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. power available = 40.09.3. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit.3. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant. = 0.H→m kg s = 0. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit. Example 14. the head available was 50 m.153. Dimensional Ns = 600 40. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal.000 kW. Ns = 600 40.25 14. The speed chosen was 500 rpm.

062 kW and run at 948. Choosing head coefficient.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990. Determine the speed and head required for the model.4 as 70. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm . A one sixth scale model is proposed. In example 14.5.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984. head. 70. 113 Example 14.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same.7 rpm.7 1 × 3 = 0. These are 200 m. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40.000 2005 / 4 = 70.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression.4.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.6 rpm .08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp.0747. the data in the proposed plant is given.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm. In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40.5 = 948. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14.000.

2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.6 rpm.G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22. 108 14.3.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .8 m. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. As the linear dimension will be the same. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.0747 = 1000 P .000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient . Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14.00926 = m .6.0747 = 459 40.9 Example 14. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow.4.000 990. Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed. 990.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation.6 990. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109. 70.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.6 40.8 m and test speed is 990. Test head required is 21.0747 Solving Hm = 21. 60 × 22. In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem.

A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.5 = 0.66 MW. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. ∴ 3. or FG IJ H K 0. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities. The head available changed to 350 m. both levels to be observed at the same time. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0.7.5 0. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.93541 = 467. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race).5 Q2 = 5 × 0. The constant is called unit discharge. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2. 1.93531 = 4. It can be measured . This constant is called unit power. Example 14. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17. This constant is called unit speed.45 MW 14.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine.

4.4. This reflects the runner design effectiveness.4. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2].4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14.3) 4. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet. 1.5) 14. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work.4. axial and radial directions of the rotor.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances. The following efficiencies are generally used.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential.1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head. . windage losses and other frictional losses. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. 2.4. 3. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings.

∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14.5. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1.5.1 Velocity triangles .5. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm. the work done also will be vary with the radius.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius.5.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque.1. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14. shown in figure 14. It is not easy to sum up this work. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow.5. the – sign will become + ve sign. centrifugal and acceleration effects. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation.5. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. 14. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner. tangential force and the tangential velocity.5. These are the dynamic.

In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. In impulse reaction turbines. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. From inlet velocity triangle. The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. Vr1. the last two terms only will be present. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. In pure reaction turbines. u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet.5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. (Francis turbines is of this type).Hydraulic Turbines V1. all the terms will be present. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 . u1. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. Vu1. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet.5.

The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number. Z. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing.6.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure. The number of buckets.A. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter. These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14.1.6. . A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel. fixed on suitable shaft.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same.464 14.6. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. made of cast or forged steel. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants.

d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly.6. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14. The deflector will than move to the initial position. Chapter 14 . The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. When load drops suddenly. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly. Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system.8 – 4 L/d 2. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. Even when the flow is cut off. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia.95 Notch width 1. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load. The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex.6. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards.5 – 2.3. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure.6.8 T/d 0.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter.

3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°. 14. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14.6.6.6. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry.466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator.4. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.6. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second.4) . Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u. In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm. Power used in the region.6.2) (14.1) (14. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds.6.6.

3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.6) in (14.6.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ.6.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0.46 V1 Substituting equation (14.6. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.52] .5 – 0.6. Equation 14. For various values of u.6. dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14.5 V1 (14.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ.6. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14.6. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14.4 can be modified by using the following relations.6.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .6. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.

Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.8) = – 58. Vr1 = 76.4) × 67. φ = 0. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57.8 W = (96 + 7.11) × 28. u = 43.6) = – 20.8) = 36.8 Nm/kg/s 8.3.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67.6 cos 15 – 38. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%. u = 57. u = 38.4.2 × cos 15 – 28. φ = 0.8. 2 × 9.8. The head available at a plant location is 500 m.8.4) = 17. u = 19.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5.97.98) × 19.5) × 57.2.3 Nm/kg/s 4.2.5 W = (96 – 20.8 × cos 15 – 19. φ = 0.6.2.3 Nm/kg/s 7.8) × 43.2) = – 39. Vr2 = Vr1.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0.24) × 38. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19.8 Nm/kg/s 3.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent.8.6.7.2 = 2898. Vj = 0.8 Nm/kg/s .4 W = (96 – 39. u = 48. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.97 1.3 W = (96 – 58.2.8 Nm/kg/s 2.2) = 54. Example 14. Vr1 = 67.8 cos 15 – 67.5.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76.8 Vw2 = (28.8 = 2898.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.6 m/s Vw2 = (57.64 W = (96 – 1.2 cos 15 – 76. u = 67.4 = 4348.4 Vw2 = (38.2) = 7. u = 76.4 cos 15 – 57.4.3) × 76.24 W = (96 + 17.45. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.8 = 3804.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6. u = 28. φ = 0.8 Vw2 = (52. φ = 0.2 Vw2 = (19. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1.2 = 3804.98 W = (96 + 54.8 cos 15 – 43. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg. φ = 0.6 = 4348. φ = 0.

6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .5.2 0.4 by Fig 14.45 is given by Fig.3 0.Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.6. 14.4 0.7 0.6.9 Figure 14. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.6.6.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.5 f 0.6 0.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10.8 0.5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.1 0.6.

7 0.9 1. N. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency. . In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° .8.8. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14. The power can be calculated from the torque curves.1 8. the actual power curve is not a parabola.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue .6.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings.b 2= ns 18 0° . It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line.7. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1.6.9).6.5 0.4 0. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.3 0.4 and 0.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u. op en 48 8.0 Figure 14. or u = V1. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.7 and 0. 14. It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter.2 0.6. The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1. It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14.8 0.6.

8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum. φ H 1/ 2 d . H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 .9 1. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.1 0.6. For single nozzle unit.10.5 0. This is shown in figure 17.0 0.3 Figure 14. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter.6. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio.8 0.6 Values of f 0. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0.7 0.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0.4 0.

ns = Figure 14.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine.45 12 10 8 6 0.6.44 0.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0.50 0.43 0. .49 0.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow.48 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner.6.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects.46 fe 14 D 0. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. 1. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.

1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. As there is no such limitation. an American engineer in 1849.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine. 14. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.46. Francis.7. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14.1. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time.Hydraulic Turbines 2. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value. Chapter 14 . Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B.7. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type.7. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today. Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism.

The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference. whose movement is controlled by the governor. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely.3.7.7.7.7. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners.7. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14.474 14. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner.2. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section.1.2.1. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions. 14. .1.7. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape.

70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.8 Dd (b) Figure 14. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.7.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° . B D ns = 81 fe = 0.3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes.7. fe = 0.

Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head.1 (as also in figure 14.7.6. The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7. In the case of reaction turbines.7. The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid.7.5 Draft tube Figure 14.7.6 Various shapes of draft tubes . 14. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14.1. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14.5).4.7. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement.1. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly.7.

Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands.7. 14.1. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14. This is discussed in a later section. H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations.7. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss. .7.7.

the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . D1 . Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency.478 From Euler equation. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate. In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised. Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 .e. As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i. the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0.

8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load. At part loads the efficiency is relatively low. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 .7.8.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14.7.

Value of φ 0. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine. In the discussions on Francis turbines. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed.0 1.1 0.8 0. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed. The flow rate is changed without any change in head. % Power (kW) 3 . There are many locations where large flows are available at low head.9.7.2 1. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14.2 0.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.4 0.8 0. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction.4 0. the simpler propeller turbines are installed.4 1. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades. KN.2 1. This trend when continued.3 0.m 0.1 1. so Efficiency.6 0.8. the runner becomes purely axial flow type. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.6 0.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14.3 1.7. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines.9 1. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine.1. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900. m /s Torque.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.5 0.

As the head is low.4. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher.8. As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius.5 to 2.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m. The flow ratio lies in the range 0. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used. many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type.8.35 to 0.8. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14.Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing .75. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed.2.

As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. The flow velocity remains constant with radius. In order to avoid cavitation. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14.8. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form.8. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius.3. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action.

The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8.8 σc = 0.8. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level. Chapter 14 .8. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level.006 + 0.7) Example 14. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.82 H 380.43 m.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0.6 m.3.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m.9. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet.17 m. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.1 + 0. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0.4) (14.8.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient.8. The turbine outlet can be set at 2.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed.8.6)1. is used. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race.43 m above the tailrace level. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed.1 to 0. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.8.5. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.6 – 0. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0.55 (Ns/444.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380.6]2.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14. It critical cavitation factor is 0.3 [Ns /444.3 × 20 = 2.17 – 0.625 s s c (14.4 to 1. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency.6) 2 (14. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge. σ.5 2 (14.308 + G J 6. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe.78 K σc = 0. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski.8.

Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine .9. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly. At the same time it should not hunt. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time.9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants.484 14. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small.

the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces.9.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder. In the case of reaction turbines. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. This part of the system is shown in figure 14. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft.9. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place. As sudden cut off is not desirable. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element.1. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out.9.2. The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine. When the turbine speeds up. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder. (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required.

22 – 10 × 0.12 Solving ω = 15.05 Vj2 0.12 ω) 0.12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction.05 Vs2/ 2g. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.12) = 1 Nm. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0. Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power. the resultant torque is zero. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0.22 ω).2 .81 – Vp2 = 1.02 90 × 2 × 9.1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0. The flow rate is 1ls on each side. ∴ (10 – 0. Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0. Vj2 Dj4 = 1. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s.02 . Problem 14.22 ω) 0.05 Vj2 0. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0.22.8 – – 0. Neglect friction.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765.923 radions/second ω= 2π N .486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.2 2g 2g 600 × 0.22 = (10 + 0. 14.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m.

97 and efficiency is 88%. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43. A single nozzle unit can be selected. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s. Power = η m gH = η . 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1.40 kg/s 95. m/s 40.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. Determine the specific speed of the machine.04 0.85 m/s 21. Ns = 15.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m. In order to calculate the specific speed.60 150.18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1. If φ = 0.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765. At first sight. Assume Cv = 0.10 Vj.81 × 115 = 21.25 = 30. Power = 15 × 103 × 9.19 27.05 kW .7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.07 46. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60. Problem 14. Problem 14. m 0.06 0.08 0. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.92 33.26.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj .64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj. Which is for a narrow rotor. the working speed of the turbine is required.39 19.06 m or 60 mm. A jet of 20 cm is used.85 × 60 = 3.46 u = 0.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine. which may not be suitable.90 26. Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions.85 132. the head will suggest two Francis turbines. Select turbines.

55 × 60 = 1.45 K 0.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.97 2 × 9.46 Vj u = 0.81 × 550 . Blade velocity coefficient is 0. not suitable should be at least 10.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.484 m3/s 0.55 m/s D= 36.022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0.1482 m.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.81 × 550 × 9.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517.97 2 × 9.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0.86 × 1000 × 9.98.D= = = 1. d 0.4 = = 4.5 d . φ = 0.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0.81 × 550 = 46. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.46.296 m D 1.5 =0.5 = 0.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.5 F 5. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5. D = 9.46 × 0.9 kW = 14. u = 0.46 × 79.9.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11.296 Assume 4 jets.97 2 × 9.2 2 × 1000 × 0.98 2 × 9. then F 5.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet.35 . the head available (net) was 335 m.488 Vj = 0.484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.45 K 0.97 ∴ Power = 0. Assume Cv = 0.72.81 × 335 = 79.45 = 36.

9. Problem 14.81 × 425 = 88. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.55(79.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0.97 and φ = 0.46.9 × 47. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.45. Assume Cv = 0.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.8 Vr1 = 47. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.8 0.97 2 × 9. 14. 14. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.81 × 335) = 0.9 (9.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36.9 × Vr1 = 39.55 = 1.45 + 1.74 Vu2 40.6 = 40.6.8 15° 43 Figure P.6 m/s u = 0. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.46 × 88.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.8 = 47.16 – 36.61) = 2962.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79.9 36.6 – 40.55 Vr1 = 43.51 Figure P.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.8 m/s Vr2 = 0. 38.45 15° ur = 36.6 = Vu1 u = 40. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh.8 m/s Vr1 = 88. Vu2 = 38.

6 + 0.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.9.81 × 425 1093.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1. 14.83 – 25 = 8.5 × 10 3 = 0.5 d 0. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.83 12.9 m3/s.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40.661 × 106 × 2 = 87. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.5 = 0.490 Vu1 = 88.082 = = 16.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s.8 × 60 = = 1.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .8 (88.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.082 m π × 720 πN 0.6 2 u × 60 40.3 IJ H π × 88.74)/1000 = 1093. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.83) = 1.661 × 106 W Figure P.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.9286 = 92.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.8 = 0.43% 300 × 9.79 .06565 m D 1.86% 300 × 88.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0. The blade friction coefficient is 0.8743 or 87.6 K 0. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.

0. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.3 m/s D= ∴ 43.85 × 1000 × 9. The head available at a location was 1500 m.8. It is assumed as 0.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3.13 m/s u = 0.65 m.165 2 × 94.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.000 = 0.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1. determine the number of jets required.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%.46 × 94. Cv = 0.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5. If D/d = 10.56225 m3/s .75 m3/s 0.81 × 480 = 94.000 kW.13 = 43.3 × 60 = 1.35 = 103.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3.97 2 × 9. flow rate is to be calculated.81 × 480 Vj = 0.97. φ = 0.13 K = 0.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3.000. Ns = 750 60 20.9.87 × Q × 1000 × 9.000. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14. π × 500 d = 0.87 20.13 = 2.75.37 . It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm. The power available is estimated at 20. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14. In order to determine the jet diameter.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229.

The specific speed is to be determined first. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.9 + 15 Problem 14.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0.667 .1832 / 2 × 9.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0.029 × 2000 × 3.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0. Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3.1093 2d 24 numbers. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s. the head is estimated as 550 m.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0.28 = 90.4 m/s ∴ 1. The number of buckets = Z .72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18.029.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.285 / 4 . Net head = Head available – loss in head.98 m.46.97 V = 0.4 × 0. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss. = 8. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required.95 m π × 750 1.8 = 18.87 × 20 × 1000 × 9. It is assumed as 0.183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m. the blade velocity is to be calculated.81 × 531.4. Solving.81 × 1500 = 166.56225 = π d2 × 166. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D. the value of Cv is required. d = 0.46 m/s π DN = u. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%.72 = 531. 60 531.81 × 2 = 14. 60 ∴ 166.97 2 × 9. D = 2 m. = 5 × 14. The value of φ is assumed as 0.10. f = 0. ∴ u = 166. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes.4 × 0.

Problem 14.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0.98 × 2 × 9. It drives a 15 MW generator.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8. Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0. Dimensionless value = 0.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter.81 × 531. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.98.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 . From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0. d = G H π × 100. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively.43 = 35.05.0372 m3/s 0.86 × 1000 × 9. Alternate will be three single jet units. Jet ratio is 12.11.95 = 6 too low. 60 531. Suitable In this case Ns = 90.46 × 76. then.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0. low side.05 K = 0.3.16 m/s Chapter 14 .46 × 100. d = 0.5 0. Discussion of other consideration follow.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit.95 × 0. 0.81 × 310 = 76. Determine the jet and runner diameters.46 × 100. the speed and specific speed of the runner. The effective head is 310 m.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case. ∴ D = = 2.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested. d = 0.05 × 60 π DN = 0.5 m (farily high) 0.28 = 100. If three jets are suggested.77.98 2 × 9.28 5 / 4 = 10.46. The speed ratio is 0.

25 D = 115. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1. Cv = 0.5 N= ∴ ∴ u .764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.2096 D D Problem 14. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance.48 × 0.25 H1.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100. = 8.12. where N is rps.81 × 3. the . For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane.98 2 g H1/2 = 2. ηo = 90%. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0. Show that for the following constants.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.2096 d .8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35. Total head is 115 m. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.61 15 × 10 .73 d2H1.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity.25 = 0.13. φ = 0.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12. The flow velocity at inlet is 9. The power developed is 12. d = 4 π × 76. u = 0.068 d dH 1. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s. the dimensionless specific speed is 0.71 rpm πD 6 176.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0.43 LM N OP Q 0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6. d π DN = u.5 = 0.48 Vj = 0.9 × 1000 × 9.16 × 60 / π × 3.73 d2 H1.4 m.3171 = 3.25 MW.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0.25 / 549 H1. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1.98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q.5 m/s.48.8 = 176.98 D Ns = N P .

5 m 2 × 9. Assume zero whirl at exit.29% Chapter 14 . = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2.25 × 10 6 430 .9029 or 90.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit. = 104.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0. The runner speed As Power developed 12.14.392]0.39 m/s u1 = 31.5 = 8.07 m 9.43 m Ns = 12.13 9.07 – 2.52 + 32.5 32. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9.52) ∴ β1 = 84.77° Total head = 115 m.5 = [9. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9.5 m/s Vu2 = 0. Also fluid the specific speed. The flow rate is 7 m3/s .52 Vu1 = 32. = 223.39 – 31. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.4 = = 31.12 60 115 1.5 / (32.39 ∴ α1 = 16.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.5 = 33.75 m/s 32. Problem 14.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32.81 × 260 ηo = 0.39 × 3152 . 14. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm.

9498 × 9. 14.81 × 260 / 847.08° tan β1 = 11/(51. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet. The whirl is zero at exit. Assume ηv = 0.5 × 600 = 47.9 / 0.98 × 0.97 = 0. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm.12 = 51.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51.15.135 .2 m . Vf1 = 94.81 × 25 = 232.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero. Determine the runner speed.9. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.81 × 25 = 11. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51.98.12) β1 = 68. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1.14 Problem 14. whirl velocity at inlet. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side.81) / 260 = 0. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0. ηm = 0.97.46 Figure P. The overall efficiency is 0. The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity. = 38.98% π × 1.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0.9 × 9.9468 × 9.4 – 47. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.4 u1 = 47.

Determine.385 u1 (u1 – 7.385 / 11.16 m.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282. The flow velocity at inlet is 8.9 ∴ α1 = 31.31 × 0. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.385 u1 – 232.58.1 × 282. = 27. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.38 = 7.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P.27 m.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero. power.31 = 282.1 m/s.15 π DN .59 16.1 × 2 × 0.9. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m.16 Chapter 14 .37 × 60 / π × 1. β2 = 164. 14.2 m and 0.37 m/s.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.2 × 0. Assume ηH = 90%. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.1 × 0.37 Vu 1 = 11.16 / 1.385) = 232.55/π × 1.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1. Vu1 = 11.4 2555000 = 134.76°.26 m/s 60 60 4. The outlet blade angle is 16°.2 × N = u2.58/π × 1.63° Vf 2 = 11.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.16.25 Problem 14.4 = = 16. 60 × 25 1.73 = 4.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15. 14.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7. The inner diameter and width are 1.2 u1 – 7.99 a1 Vf1 7. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.

β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7.92 × 81 × 9.09 m/s 1 . 14.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4.9732)1/2 = 26.8 m/s gH 46.84 m/s u1 φ = V .04 = 0.81 × 1. Vu1 = = 22. Solving.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.81 × 81 = 7. V1 = (24.1 = 8.8 × 103/1.2 = Vf 1 2g H .5 − 22.44 m/s Vu1 = 29.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.67 × 103 = 731.973 = u1 – 4.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731. The available head is 81 m. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.81 × 120 .9 × 120 × 9.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm.1 22.04 = u1 (u1 – 4.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54.6 = 24.8 α1 = 19.1 46.9 × 9.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8. ∴ Vf1 = 0.8 Figure P.4 = = 46. Determine runner diameter.842 + 7. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.2. The flow ratio is 0.81 × 8. u1 = 29.44 – 4.14.2 2 × 9.72 Problem.6 u1 – 731.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0.143 m3/s Power = 0.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown.16 × 8. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.

17 = 31.81 × 120 × 0.14 2 g H = 0.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 . b2 = 0.14 2 × 9.5965 m.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15. Vf1 = 0.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0.1 D1.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9. Vu is required 1 0.44 60 ∴ D = 1. Assume flow ratio as 0.5°) To solve inlet angles.5 D1 and b1 = 0. b1 = 0.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P.79 15.193 m.128 26. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.25 Figure P. 14.1193 m.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .79 Solving D1 = 1. 14.5° (23.1 D1 × 6.53 Problem 14.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.14 and D2 = 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3. 60 811.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1.81 × 120 = 6.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0.615 β2 = 156. D2 = 0. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29.193 × 500 = = 31.44 = 1.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29.

767 m/s ηH = 10.767 = 0. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.82% 9.3° Problem 14.32° tan β2 = 6.10 D.93 ∴ α1 = 11.5 Figure P. 14. and blade angles.342 V1 = 1.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.1372 × 0. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity.33 = 8. The velocity diagram is as shown in figure.9397 × 9.00596 Q 0.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m.9397 V1 + 0.1372 V1 1732 .33 m/s u = 1.10893 V12 + 0. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0.23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0.93 − 31.81 × 10 Problem 14.6 OD and width as 0.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet.33 = 10. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.9 × 9.79 33. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .342 1.81 0.93 m/s 31.61 m/s Vu1 = 0. Determine the runner diameter.61 × 8.79 33. The flow ratio is 0. Assume no losses other than at exit. The blade inlet angle is 120°. .23 ∴ β1 = 68.1372 × 9.81 9.1093 + 0. ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6. Assume ID = 0.20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent.18 = 9.9397 . Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9. when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.3420 V1 is avaivable. the method adoped is as below.9482 or 94.81 × 120 = 33.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0.

1 D × 8.13 Outlet angle β2 = 16.78 a1 8.3° (as in figure) or 164.86 × (1 – 0.12 − 17.78 β1 = 15.21 17.7° (along + ve u) 8.2 2 × 9. 14.64 m u1 = ηH = πD1 N π × 2.86 17.6° (with + ve u direction) tan β2 = .20 8.4° (as in figure) or 163.86 × 0.86 b1 8.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17.81 × 100 = 8. u2 = 30.86 50.13 m/s 60 60 50. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.5° tan α1 = tan β1 = ∴ 8. b = 0.86 30.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.13 b2 Exit Figure P. 0.74 × 350 = = 50.274 m ID = 1.78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.1 × 8.1881 = π D × 0.21 m/s.1881 π × 0.74 m.91 = 9.Hydraulic Turbines Overall efficiency = = 501 Power delivered ρQ g H ∴ Q= Power delivered ρη0 gH 16 × 10 6 = 19.81 × 100 2g H Chapter 14 Q = π D b Vf (1 – 0.92 D = 2.08).21 × Vu 1 u1 Vu 1 .08) D2 = 19.78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26.86 m/s 19.85 × 9.86 30.

If the hydraulic efficiency is 91% determine the head available. Assume overall efficiency of 85% and hydraulic efficiency of 90%.81 × 180 .81 × 0.1 D1 and blade thickness occupies 5% of flow area.8.75° As exit whirl is zero ηH = H= u1 Vu1 gH u1 Vu 1 35 × 26 = = 101.22. The velocity diagram is as shown 4 = = 0. 60 180 1.04°.91 ∴ Problem 14.502 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14. 26 Figure P.21 ∴ Guide vane outlet angle = 8.94 m g × ηH 9. May be adopted . To determine the speed Ns = ∴ not suitable for 50 cycles.25 N P .21 An inward low reaction turbine has a flow velocity of 4 m/s while the pheripheral velocity is 35 m/s.444 tan β1 = 35 − 26 u − Vu Vf ∴ Blade angle at inlet. 14. Say 560 rpm Q= 5 × 10 6 = 29.85 × 1000 × 9. power capacity cannot be changed. The power delivered is 45 MW under a head of 180 m. Also find the inlet blade angle and the guide vane outlet angle.22 The diameter and blade angles of a Francis turbine with a specific speed of 95 are to be determined. There is no whirl at exit. Ns = 45 × 10 6 500 = 84. 500 rpm can be adopted (with 6 pairs of poles). Also b1 = 0. tan α1 = u1 = 35 Vu = 26 u1 a1 4 b1 Vf Vu1 = 4 = 0. The constant flow velocity is 15 m/s. β1 = 23.98 m3/s 0.1538. The whirl velocity is 26 m/s.96° or 156. 5/ 4 60 H 45 × 10 6 N = 95 × 60 × 1805/4 / = 560.

9 × 9. 14.9 ∴ α1 = 12.59 × 500 = = 67.6 of outer diameter.8 Chapter 14 u2 b1 Vr1 Vf1 = 15 15 Vr2 24° b2 u2 = 33. the diameter and power.8 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 gH 0.259 m. This is a special case and the inlet velocity triangle is a right angled triangle. Also fluid the angle at blade outlet. The flow velocity remains constant at 10 m/s.95 = π × D1 × 0.Hydraulic Turbines Q = π D1 b1 Vf × 0.7° ∴ β2 = 156° (24°) Problem 14. In a Francis turbine the guide blade angle is 17° and the entry to the runner is in the radial direction.44 m/s 67.23 The inlet velocity diagram is as shown u1 = Vf 1 tan α 1 = 10 = 32.8 tan β1 = 15/ (67. 14.59 m. u1 = Vu1 17° 90 10 m/s V2 = Vf 2 u2 b2 Vr2 Figure P.12 times the diameter.48° ∴ β1 = 18. b2 = 0. The width at inlet is 0. D2 = 1.295 m b1 = 0.8 – 23.95 = 29. determine the head.9 = ∴ Vu1 = Velocity triangles are as shown u1 Vu1 a1 V1 Figure P.9 m/s 0.44) tan (180 – β2) = 15/33.81 × 180 = 23. Neglecting losses.23.7 m/s tan 17° . The flow area is blocked by vane thickness by 6%.1 D1 × 15 × 0. The speed of operation is 400 rpm. D1 = 2. The inner diameter is 0.98 Solving.22 tan α1 = 15 / 67.518 m u1 = 503 π D1 N π × 2.

633 m3/s ∴ Power P = 8.81 Q = π D1 b1 Vf1 × 0.1874 × 10 × 0.94 = 8.633 × 10 3 × 32.63 β2 = 153° .94 = π × 1.6 = 19.1874 m π × 400 π×N D2 = 0.936 m Neglecting losses head supplied H= u1 Vu 1 V2 2 32.56 × 0.7 2 10 2 + + = = 114.7 60 × u1 = = 1.1 m 2g g 9.24 ∴ u1 Vu1 = u12 = tan 2 α 1 Neglecting losses and assuming Vf2 = Vf1 Work input = u1 Vu1 + Vf 1 2 2 ∴ ηH = Vf 12 / tan 2 α 1 Vf 12 tan 2 α 1 + Vf 12 2 Multiplying by 2 and also tan2 α1 both the numerator and denominator ηH = 2Vf 12 2Vf 12 + Vf 12 tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 .504 u2 = u1 × 0.24.56 m.7 2 10 3 = 9221 kW From the velocity triangle at outlet tan (180 – β2) = ∴ 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 10 19. 14. a1 Vf1 Problem 14.81 2 × 9. . b1 = 0. Show in the case of a 90° inlet Francis turbine. the hydraulic efficiency = u1 = Vu1 The velocity diagram is as shown tan a1 = Vf 1 u1 = Vf 1 Vu1 Vf 12 V1 Inlet Figure P.63 m/s D1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 × 32.

Frictional loss is 15% of the pressure head available between the inlet and outlet of the runner is 60 m.951 V1 – 0. V22 = Vf2 = 0. D1 b1 = D2 b2.0955 V12 V2 – + + 0.42645 1 2 2 g g LM N OP Q V1 = 34. 1 0.1 m/s b2 Figure P. ∴ Vf2 = V2 = Vf1 vu1 u1 u1 18° Vr1 V1 85° Vf1 Vf2 = 10.Hydraulic Turbines 505 Problem 14. Widths are 0.65 m/s.0955 V12 0.25 m/s Vf1 = Vf2 = V2 = 10.8787 = 0. Vu1 = 32.25 m and 1.924 V1 ∴ u1 Vu1 = 0. Blade thickness blocks the flow area by 8%.15 × 60 = 9 m.8787 V12 + + 2g 2g g 51 = Solving.5 m.25 To determine the work output u1. Diameters are 2. Mechanical efficiency is 92%.375 m.25.0955 V12 h1 – h2 = 60 m. Calculate the speed and output of the turbine. Also fluid the blade outlet angle.8787 V12 g Considering the runner inlet and outlet h1 + V12 V2 2 = h2 + + W + hL 2g 2g V22 = 0. hL = 0. Vu1 are to be calculated Vu1 = V1 cos 18° = 0. Both angles with the blade velocity direction.58 m/s Vr2 u2 = 21.57 m/s Chapter 14 In this case as .951 V1 Vf1 = V1 sin 18° = 0.924 V12 = 0. The following details are available about a Francis turbine.951 × 0. as head = (A) 0.3092 V12 ∴ h1 – h2 – hL = − V12 0.25 m and 0.58 m/s ∴ u1 = 31.309 V1 / tan 85 = 0.309 V1 u1 = Vu1 – Vf1 / tan 85 = 0. 14.8787 V12. The guide blade outlet angle is 18° runner blade angle is 85°.

7 m from the tailrace. Available head is 62 m.5 / 2.65/1000 = 17730 kW Power delivered = P × ηmech.58 / 21. u1 = 0.2 m3/s ∴ Power developed = 17. while the pressure at exit is 2. The flow velocity at inlet is 9 m/s.81 .58 m/s tan (180 – β2) = (10. The pressure at runner inlet is 35 m above atmosphere.74 m 2g 62 = 35 + 2 + 426. ∴ V12 = 21.57 × 31.5 m and runs at 375 rpm.08) Vf Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ N = 290.2 m below the atmosphere.26. V2 = Vf2 = 10.7 rpm = π × 2. Determine the losses before the runner.59 m/s Head loss upto the exit of guide blades or entry to runner.5 × 375 = = 29. In a Francis turbine installation the runner inlet is at a mean height of 2 m from tailrace while the outlet is 1.45 m/s 60 60 To find Vu1.25 × 1.81 × 62 Vf1 = 9 V1 Vr1 Figure P. h2 = 35 m.6 m2/s2 Substituting.59 πDN π × 1.45 Runner outlet velocity 18.6 + hL1 2 × 9.25 = 21.25.58 m3/s Q = 17.2 × 103 × 32. 60 Flow rate = π D1 b1 × (1– 0.45 × Vu 1 9.1 m/s From Exit triangle.25 m. Denoting these locations as 1 and 2.25 = 34. A draft tube is connected at the outlet. in the runner and at exit.506 π D1 N = 34. 29.1) Solving β2 = 153.592 + 92) = 426.9 = ∴ 29.25 × 0. = 16312 kW u2 = u1 × 1. h1 + V12 V2 2 + Zo = h2 + + Z2 + hL1 2g 2g LHS = 62 m.26 Vu1 = 18.4° (as in figure) Problem 14.5 / 2.25 × 0. The runner diameter is 1.92 × 10. At output it is 7 m/s. Hydraulic efficiency is 90%. 14. D1 = 2. Z2 = 2 m V12 = (18.

= 1.37% 1000 × 350 × 10 × 9.56 m/s 60 Speed ratio = 23.Hydraulic Turbines hL1 = 62 – 35 – 2 – 21.56/ 2 × 9.5 m and the hub to tip ratio is 0.2 + 1.72 m/s π (7. the speed ratio and flow ratio.93 + 2 = 6.7 + 55.7 m = 4. Hub diameter Turbine efficiency = 0.93 m.5 × 60 = 23.225 m =P/ρQHg = Kinetic head available = 2. turbine efficiency.2 + 1.225 2 ) 2 × 9.2 m 10% of the total head.81 × 10 = 1.2 m Considering the draft tube Static head available Total ∴ Loss. The tip diameter of the runner is 7. The discharge is 350 m3/s.43 × 7.81 = – 2. Problem 14.81 30.43.5 m But actual head at turbine exit 30000 × 10 3 = 0. While running at 62. Speed ratio is based on tip speed. ∴ Flow ratio = 9.26 + 0. Calculate the specific speed.45 × 18.000 × 10 3 60 = 308 .5 + hL2 ∴ hL2 = 0.74 = 3.59 + hL2 + 2 × 9.19 m in 6. hL3 = 2 m Total loss = 3.72 / .69.7 + 72 29. A Kaplan turbine plant develops 3000 kW under a head of 10 m.5 rpm.26 m Considering the runner inlet and outlet : Denoting as 1 and 2 h1 + 507 V12 V 2 + Z1 = h2 + Z2 + W + 2 + hL2 2g 2g Chapter 14 35 + 21.74 + 2 = – 2. 60 101. as hydraulic efficiency is 90%.68 Flow velocity = 350 × 4 = 9.2 m = 2.5 = 3.81 9.81 × 10 = 0.81 + 2.5 2 − 3.8737 or 87.27.25 Specific speed = Runner tip speed = ∴ π × 7.

81 × 35 = 309 m2/s2 = Constant ∴ Vu1 at tip = 309 / 43. Assume ηH = 90%.72 m/s 60 π × 3.75 m.28 Assuming no obstruction by blades.09 32.42 m/s In all cases u >Vu ∴ Shape of triangle is as given tan β1 = At tip tan (180 – β1) Vf u − Vu = 9.14 m/s Vu1 at middle = 309 / 32. The overall efficiency is 87%. Vf = Blade tip velocity = 133.28 A Kaplan turbine delivering 40 MW works under a head of 35 m and runs at 167 rpm.79 = 9. 40 × 10 6 Flow rate Q = = 133.9 × 9.9 × 4 π (52 − 2. Also find the speed ratio and flow ratio based on tip velocity.508 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.42 ∴ β1 = (180 – 13. Determine the blade angles at the hub and tip and also at a diameter of 3.75 × 167 = 32.5 m and runner tip diameter is 5 m.08° ∴ β = (180 – 21.09 m/s π × 5 × 167 = 43.79 − 9.75° At 3.81 × 35 × 0.07 m/s Vu1 at hub = 309 / 21. tan (180 – β1) = .87 u Vu b1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 Vf = V 2 Vr2 u2 b2 Figure P.72 − 7.92)° = 166. The hub diameter is 2.25) = 158.72/2 = 21.72 = 7.09 43. = u1 Vu1 = 0.79 m/s 60 Hub velocity = 43.52 ) = 9.07 9.86 m/s Velocity at 3.9 m3/s 10 3 × 9.75 m Dia.86 = 14.75 m. 14.

Overall efficiency is 85% and hydraulic efficiency is 91%.29 A Kaplan turbine delivers 30 MW and runs at 175 rpm.35 Specific speed = 167 40 × 10 6 60 × 35 1.85 π × 3.5 tan (180 – β1) = = 32.25 = 206. At the tip Speed ratio = u 2g H 43.75 m Dia: tan (180 – β2) = 9.82 × 106 = 140 × 103 × 32.93 = 32. ρ Q g H ηo = power delivered ∴ H = 30 × 106 / 1000 × 9.6)° = = 1.07 − 7. Outlet triangles are similar.09 / 21.09 21. The tip diameter 5 m and the hub diameter is 2 m.09 / 43.5 m/s Vu < u.29 Chapter 14 . 14.85 = 25.81 × 35 = 0.86 The trend may be noted.5 × 175 D×N = = 32.82 kW 0. Determine the head and the blade angles at the mid radius.7 m Power developed = Power available from fluid × ηH At midradius = 30 × 106 × 0.8 Problem 14.09 / 32.5)° ∴ β2 = (180 – 22.09 2 × 9.07 m/s 60 60 u=π× m u1 Vu1 = 32.07 × Vu1 ∴ Vu1 = 7.75)° At 3. The flow rate is 140 m3/s.72 ∴ β2 = (180 – 11.72 2 × 9.79 At hub: tan (180 – β2) = 9.14 ∴ β1 = (180 – 49.86 − 14.Hydraulic Turbines At hub tan (180 – β1) = 509 9.66) = 130. At tip: tan (180 – β2) = 9.14 m/s Vf = 4 × 140 / π (52 – 22) = 8.81 × 140 × 0.14 u − Vu Vf Figure P. ∴ The velocity diagram is as given Vu a1 Vf V1 b1 u (note u1 V1 = constant at all radii) 8.34° The trend is that (as measured with u direction) β1 decreases with radius.67 Flow ratio = 9.81 × 35 ∴ β2 = (180 – 15.

Determine the speed it hub tip ratio is 0.81 = D = 3.89 × 1000 × 9.5 .25 × 26.5 W = 39.5 7.14 with –ve u direction 165.8.77 × 106 W or 39.51.82º with – ve u direction and 161.5 1.89.77 × 10 6 N P 150 . Determine the power and specific speed.81 m3/s ηo ρ g H 0. .30. The flow rate Flow ratio ∴ =Q= Power 30 × 10 6 = = 81. Vf = 0.77 MW Dimensionless specific speed = 39. Q= π (D2 – d2) Vf 4 π 2 D (1 – 0.18° with + ve u direction Outlet triangle is right angled as Vu2 = 0.5 2 × 9.5 and 1.82°. β = 14.22. the flow rate of water being 170 m3/s.81 × 26.8 2 × 9.35 m/s.25 Problem 14. A Kaplan turbine works under a head of 26.9 × 170 × 103 × 9.5 m.35 4 ∴ Solving 81.81 × 42 = 14. Power developed = 0.25 ρ1/ 2 ( gH )5 / 4 Diamensional specific speed = 39.07 2 8.67 m/s .5 and the flow ratio and speed ratio are 0.81 × 42 = Vf 2 gh = 0.5.8° 32. = = 0. The turbine speed is 150 rpm. tan (180 – β2) = 8. 60 26.77 × 10 6 150 = 262.811. The overall efficiency is 90%.4776 rad 60 1000 1/ 2 × 9. The head available is 42 m.52) 14. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 18.2° with + ve u direction tan α1 = ∴ α 1 = 50° Problem14.81 × 42 = 51.510 ∴ 180 – β = 18.11 m u = 1. At a location it is proposed to install a Kaplan turbine with an estimated power of 30 MW at an overall efficiency of 0.31.

85 47.85. determine the hydraulic efficiency if the draft tube efficiency is 100% and if the draft tube efficiency to recover kinetic energy is 80%.9 8. The nearest synchronous speed is 333.67 × 60 πDN .97 × 103 kg/s and u = Vu1 ∴ 47.90 m = 47.90 and 0.22 a1 Vf = 8. guide blade outlet angle and blade ou