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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES
By NUST CADET SYED HASSAN MAHMOOD WASTI (060901) NUST CADET MOHAMMAD USMAN USMANI (060906) NUST CADET HUMAYUN YOUSAF (050803) NUST CADET MUHAMMAD ALI (060904) NUST CADET BILAL (060907)

COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING PAF ACADEMY, RISALPUR
03 SEPTEMBER 2010

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RESTRICTED A Project Report on

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES

By NUST CADET SYED HASSAN MAHMOOD WASTI (060901) NUST CADET MOHAMMAD USMAN USMANI (060906) NUST CADET HUMAYUN YOUSAF (050803) NUST CADET MUHAMMAD ALI (060904) NUST CADET BILAL (060907) 69EC

Submitted to the faculty of Department of Aerospace Engineering In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelors of Aerospace Engineering

Major: Aerospace Engineering

Department of Aerospace Engineering College of Aeronautical Engineering PAF Academy, Risalpur

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RESTRICTED COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING PAF ACADEMY, RSIALPUR

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES

By NUST CADET SYED HASSAN MAHMOOD WASTI (060901) NUST CADET MOHAMMAD USMAN USMANI (060906) NUST CADET HUMAYUN YOUSAF (050803) NUST CADET MUHAMMAD ALI (060904) NUST CADET BILAL (060907) 69 EC

A report submitted to the College of Aeronautical Engineering In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.E

APPROVED

(**************) Wing Commander Messam Abbas Project Advisor College of Aeronautical engineering

(**************) Group Captain ABDUL MUNEM KHAN Head of Aerospace Deptt. College of Aeronautical Engineering

Contents
List of Tables..........................................................................................................7 3

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List of Figures.........................................................................................................7 CHAPTER I............................................................................................................8 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................8 Definition of Ultra Light Aircraft..................................................................................8 Objective................................................................................................................8 Methodology followed..............................................................................................8 Market Surveys and Research...................................................................................8 Conceptual Design..................................................................................................8 Aerodynamic Evaluation...........................................................................................9 Detailed design & CAD modeling...............................................................................9 Full Scale Fabrication...............................................................................................9 CHAPTER II.........................................................................................................10 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN............................................................................................10 Introduction..........................................................................................................10 Phases of Aircraft Design.......................................................................................10 Conceptual Design Process....................................................................................11 Selection of Specification........................................................................................12 Mission Profile......................................................................................................12 Base Structure......................................................................................................13 Wing Geometry Selection.......................................................................................13 Airfoil Selection.....................................................................................................16 Engine Location....................................................................................................18 Landing Gear........................................................................................................19 Propeller Selection................................................................................................19 Engine Cooling System..........................................................................................19 Horsepower to Weight Ratio and Wing Loading.........................................................20 Aircraft Final Specifications.....................................................................................21 Three Dimensional Conceptual Model......................................................................22 CHAPTER III...........................................................................................................23 AERODYNAMICS....................................................................................................23 Lift Slope Curve....................................................................................................23 Profile Drag..........................................................................................................23 Induced Drag Factor..............................................................................................24 Thrust Available and Thrust Required.......................................................................25 4

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CHAPTER IV........................................................................................................26 DETAILED DESIGN..................................................................................................26 Fuselage..............................................................................................................26 Cockpit................................................................................................................28 Flight Instruments..................................................................................................29 LANDING GEAR ANALYSIS...................................................................................42 Firewall................................................................................................................47 Safety..................................................................................................................47 Control Surfaces...................................................................................................47 Buckling Analysis..................................................................................................53 Bolt Size Calculation..............................................................................................55 POWER PLANT SELECTION.................................................................................57 Modifications:........................................................................................................58 Alternative engine suggestions:...............................................................................60 PROPELLER DESIGN...........................................................................................61 Results................................................................................................................62 Conclusion:..........................................................................................................66 Solid edge view of the designed propeller:................................................................66 Fuel system..........................................................................................................67 CHAPTER V.........................................................................................................68 FABRICATION.........................................................................................................68 Material Selection..................................................................................................68 Fabrication of Connectors.......................................................................................71 Fabrication of Custom Designed Joints and Hinges....................................................72 Fuselage Construction...........................................................................................74 2d Truss Construction............................................................................................82 Wing Construction.................................................................................................85 Empennage Assembly...........................................................................................88 Control Surfaces...................................................................................................92 Fabrication of Landing Gear....................................................................................99 Fabrication of Aircraft Skin Covering:......................................................................103 Solid Edge Figures..............................................................................................104 CONCLUSION....................................................................................................109

CONCLUSION
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List of Tables
Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1: Aircraft Specifications...................................................................................7 2: Airfoil Comparison......................................................................................11 3: Wing Loading and HP/W..............................................................................14 4: Aircraft Final Dimensions............................................................................15 5: Loads Estimation........................................................................................23 6: Top View showing wing spars and major ribs of the wing...........................24 7: Side View showing wing spars and struts...................................................24 8: Fuselage Truss members............................................................................60 9: Wing members...........................................................................................63 10: Horizontal Tail members...........................................................................66 11: Vertical Tail members...............................................................................68 12: Landing Gear members............................................................................76

Table 12: Landing Gear members List of Figures
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1: Iterative Procedure of Concept Design........................................................6 2: Mission Profile..............................................................................................7 3: Base Structure.............................................................................................8 4: Clark Y Airfoil Coordinates.........................................................................11 5: Clark Y Characteristics...............................................................................12 6: Constraint Diagram...................................................................................14 7: Three Dimensional Views of Conceptual Design........................................16 8: Lift Slope Curve.........................................................................................17 9: Profile Drag................................................................................................17 10: Profile Drag at Different Altitude.............................................................18 11: Induced Drag Factor................................................................................18 12: Drag Polar................................................................................................19 13: Thrust Available and Thrust Required.....................................................19 14: Effect of Fineness Ratio on Fuselage Drag..............................................21 15: Definition of Upsweep and its effect on Drag..........................................21 16: FEM Model of the Wing............................................................................25 17: Application of Loads on the Wing............................................................25 18: von Misses Stress distribution in wing members.....................................26 19: Horizontal Tail Geometry.........................................................................28 20: von Misses Stress distribution in Horizontal Tail members......................29 21: Vertical Tail Geometry.............................................................................30 22: von Misses Stress distribution in Vertical Tail members..........................31 23: Fuselage Truss dimensions......................................................................32 24: von Misses Stress distribution in modified Fuselage Truss......................35 25: Fuselage Cabin........................................................................................36

Figure 25: Fuselage Cabin
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Definition of Ultra Light Aircraft 1. The definition of ultra light aircraft varies from country to country the aviation regulatory body of the country decides the weight of an aircraft to be classifies as ultra light aircraft. However, the civil aviation authority of Pakistan has no such definition for ultra light aircraft. As a result we selected the empty weight of our aircraft closer to that used in India and set it to 800lb. Objective 2. The aim of the project is to design and fabricate a full scale ultra light aircraft using in-country resources. Methodology followed
a) Market Survey’s and Research

b) c) d) e)

Conceptual Design Aerodynamic evaluation Detailed Design, CAD modeling Full scale fabrication

Market Surveys and Research 3. First step was initiated by carrying out a thorough web research followed by many surveys done at Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi flying and ultra light hobby clubs. Raw data of different ultra light aircraft made worldwide and in Pakistan was collected and arranged for comparison purposes. This step helped in setting the initial specification of the aircraft. Conceptual Design 4. Conceptual design was generated following Design books by Daniel P Raymer and Roskam. An iterative process resulted in optimized conceptual design.

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Aerodynamic Evaluation 5. Aerodynamic characteristic of the aircraft were evaluated using theoretical aerodynamics and final configuration was set.

Detailed design & CAD modeling 6. Structural analysis was carried out using ANSYS software and a detailed sketch of the aircraft was created using Solid Edge software. Geometric drawings were obtained to use for fabrication process.

Full Scale Fabrication 7. After creating detailed geometry, full scale templates of different parts were created. Fabrication was done using tools and technology available locally. Pipe marking, cutting, drilling and welding are few of main processes done in fabrication phase. All the structural parts including cabin, truss, wings, control surfaces, landing gear and empennage assembly were fabricated separately and assembled together to complete the aircraft structure.

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CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Introduction 1. Airplane is the intellectual engineering process of creating. Aircraft design is a separate discipline of aeronautical engineering – different from aerodynamics, structures, propulsion and controls. The job of a designer involves a lot of capabilities including knowledge of the above disciplines, his experience, talent, good approach, hard work and utilization of available resources and tools. 2. A good aircraft design seems to miraculously glide through subsequent evaluations by specialists without major changes being required. Somehow the landing gear fits, the fuel tanks are near the center of gravity, the structural members are simple and light weight, overall arrangement provides good aerodynamics, the engines installed in simple and clean fashion and a host of similar detail seems to fall in space.

Phases of Aircraft Design 3. There are three phases of aircraft design process.

Conceptual Design: Conceptual design is the primary phase. It involves configuration arrangement, size, weight and performance parameters. An affordable aircraft will be the one which meets all these requirements.
I. II. Preliminary Design: A preliminary design begins when major changing is over. During this phase the areas of interest are structures, landing gears and control system. Testing is initiated in areas such as aerodynamics, propulsion and stability and control parameters. The ultimate objective during this phase is to get full-scale development

Detail Design: Assuming a favorable decision for entering full-scale development, the detail design phase begins in which the parts of the aircraft to be fabricated are redesigned. For example, individual ribs, bolts etc are designed and analyzed. Detail design ends with the fabrication of the aircraft.
III.

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Conceptual Design Process 4. Conceptual design is the very first step of aircraft designing where the basic configuration, size, layout, weight and performance are set. It is done by going over the set or desired requirements repeatedly while validating their feasibility. This process answers the questions whether an aircraft with the requirements can be built to fly or not. As it has been made clear that there is a set of certain characteristics that the design has to meet. These specifications can be the requirement of the user or the designer. Conceptual design process starts with the rough sketch of the aircraft, which is being designed. This gives us a very crude idea of what we are going to design. This sketch may include approximate wing geometry, location of engines, payload, passengers, cockpit and landing gears etc. 5. After this initial sketch rough weight estimation will be done, it will be followed by wing geometry selection and the calculation of other important parameters of the aircraft such as wing loading, thrust to weight ratio etc. After all this has been done, initial sizing will be carried out. In the last an iteration process will be carried out which will result in the final values of all the parameters of the aircraft.

Figure 1: Iterative Procedure of Concept Design

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Selection of Specification 6. Ultra light aircrafts are usually used for recreation and therefore loiter time rather than the range is more important. As no design requirements were given therefore a survey was conducted and the specifications were selected accordingly. 7. The specifications that were selected were: Range 10 mile Endurance 20 min Stall speed 25 mph Max speed 60 mph Cruise speed 52 mph TO distance 400 ft Landing distance 300 ft Ceiling 5000 ft Climb rate 550 fpm Table 1: Aircraft Specifications Mission Profile Figure 2: Mission Profile

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Base Structure 8. Afterwards the base structural design was selected:

Figure 3: Base Structure Wing Geometry Selection 9. The wing geometry includes taper ratio, aspect ratio, dihedral, sweep, planform, twist, wing location, thickness and incidence.
I.

Taper Ratio High Taper Ratio Weight Tip stall Manufacturin g High Good Easy Low Ratio Low Poor Difficult Taper

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Hence, it was decided to have a straight wing as flow separation downstream from the root region causes buffeting as it flows over the horizontal tail, thus providing stall warning to the pilot. Moreover, as the wing tip still has attached flow control surfaces would still be operatable. Besides, a straight wing is cheaper and easy to manufacture. However, special efforts would be made in manufacturing as Lift distribution is such that the centroid is away from the root causing greater bending moment.
II. Wing Location

High Interference drag Dihedral effect Visibility Poor Negative Good

Mid Good Neutral Good

Low Poor positive Poor

High wing configuration was selected as:
a.

b. c. d. e. f.
I.

It adds to the lateral stability of the aircraft. The wings will not strike the ground on landing Safe from FOD Fuel system can be incorporated in it. (gravity fed) Wing box straight through the fuselage. Easy to manufacture

Monoplane/Biplane Monoplane Cantilever Weight Profile Drag Interference Drag High Low Low Braced Low High High

Bi - plane Very low Higher Higher

For less weight and greater structure strength, braced wings would be used and to make sure that drag is not very high, monoplane was preferred over biplane. More importantly from manufacturing point of view monoplane construction is much easier than biplane.
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II. Wing Sweep

None Lift curve slope Pitch attitude in low speed level flight Ride through turbulence Stall Lateral control at stall Wing weight High Low Poor Good Good Low

Sweep Low High Good Poor Poor High

No sweep was selected as it gives lower weight, better performance at low speed (our regime) and gives better stall characteristics(assuring safety).
III. Wing Dihedral

Effect angle Positive Spiral stability Dutch Roll Stability Ground wing clearance of Increased

of

Dihedral Negative Decreased Increased Decreased

Decreased Increased

As Ultra light aircrafts are supposed to be stable therefore a small positive dihedral angle would be used.
IV. Wing Incidence

Large Cruise drag Cockpit visibility High Good

Small Low Average

As incidence angle would increase drag therefore it was decided to use zero incidence angle.
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V. Wing Thickness

Low t/c Wing weight Subsonic wing drag Wing Fuel volume Maximum Lift High Low Poor Poor

High t/c Low High Good Good

As greater thickness ratio increases lift as well as decrease weight, we will use higher t/c but greater than 12 Cl max starts to deteriorate, thus , we will use t/c less than 12. VI. Aspect Ratio HIGH LOW Induced Drag Lift-curve Slope Low High High Low High Good Low Small

Pitch Attitude (approach) Low Ride in Turbulence Wing Weight Wing Span Poor High Larg e

Due to higher L/D, higher aspect ratio is selected. But higher value is limited by increasing weight with aspect ratio. Thus, a trade off is carried out and aspect ratio of 6 is finalized.
VII. Twist

Large Induced drag Tipstall Wing Weight High Good Mildly lower

Small Small Poor Mildly higher

To decrease complexity and to improve induce drag as wing span is already very large, we will use no twist.
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RESTRICTED Airfoil Selection Airfoil CLARK Y CLmax 1.65

NASA GA(W)-1 1.7 NASA GA(W)-2 1.8 NACA 2412,43012 1.65

Table 2: Airfoil Comparison Clark Y was used as an airfoil as it is easy to build and is most commonly used is Ultra light aircrafts worldwide.

Figure 4: Clark Y Airfoil Coordinates

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Figure 5: Clark Y Characteristics

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Engine Location Tractor configuration Advantages 1. CG moves forward. Improving stability and allowing a shorter and smaller tail 2. Propeller works in an undisturbed free stream 3. More effective flow of cooling engine Disadvantages 1. The propeller slipstream disturbs the quality of air over the wing 2. Skin friction increases over the wing Pusher configuration Advantages 1. 2. 3. 4. Undisturbed flow over the wing and fuselage Favorable pressure gradient at the rear of the fuselage prevents flow separation Engine noise reduced Pilot’s view improved

Disadvantages 1. CG shifts back which causes stability problem 2. Propeller damaged by FODs 3. Engine cooling problem more severe After considering the pros and cons of both the configurations it was decided to use the more conventional Tractor configuration. The major factor in making this decision was the use of an automobile engine. As we have modified the engine therefore, it would be a huge risk if we are using the pusher configuration as any cooling problem could result in a crash.

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Landing Gear Tricycle Groundloop behavior Visibility over the nose Floor attitude ground Weight Steering after touchdown Takeoff rotation on Stable Good the Level Medium Good Good Tail dragger Unstable Poor Not level Low Poor Good

Although the Tricycle landing gear has more advantages but the tail dragger configuration was selected as: • • • • • Provides clearance for the propeller. Less drag and weight Wing creates more lift as it is already at an angle of attack Easier to fabricate However, it is inherently an unstable configuration during ground roll. If the airplane starts to turn during ground roll CG tends to swing around causing the turn to get tighter and tighter. So the pilot must keep the airplane always aligned with the runway.

Propeller Selection Three practical constraints would be kept in mind while buying the propeller: 1. Propeller tip must clear the ground 2. Propeller tip should not reach supersonic speeds. As compressibility effects would ruin the propeller performance. 3. Propeller must be large enough to absorb engine power. The power absorption of propeller is increased by increasing the diameter. The final choice of propeller used would solely depend on the availability of propeller as they are not easily available. Engine Cooling System

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RESTRICTED Updraft cooling system is used as it, unlike downdraft cooling system, flows the cooling air upward through the cylinders and exits it into low pressure air above the fuselage, creating more efficient cooling flow due to a suction effect.

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Horsepower to Weight Ratio and Wing Loading The thrust to weight ratio (HP/W) and the Wing Loading (W/S) are the two most important parameters affecting the aircraft performance. Wing loading and horsepower to weight ratio are interconnected for a number of performance. The major part of the analytical design is the optimization of these factors as these are more interconnected in the segments of take off, landing, turn and glide etc. To achieve their values, constraint diagram was formulated, using the most critical segment of our profile:

Figure 6: Constraint Diagram

W/S HP/W

4.7941 0.08

Power Loading 12.5 Table 3: Wing Loading and HP/W

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Aircraft Final Specifications After going through different phases of concept design, final aircraft specifications come out as follow: All dimensions in feet. Fuselage Length Width Height Wing Span Chord Span area Sweep Aspect Ratio Taper ratio Dihedral 28 4.66 130.33 0 6 1 0 17 2.5 4.25 Control Surfaces Aileron Chord Span Elevator Chord Span Rudder Chord Span Flaps Chord Span Horizontal Tail Chord Span Span area Lht Aspect Ratio Taper Ratio Vertical Tail Chord Span 3.5 4.1 3.2 9.5 29.7 10.2 3 0.6 Weights payload Structural weight Engine weight Maximum loaded) weight 200 302 150 (fully 652 Cl design 0.25 of wing 0.55 of wing 0.75136 0.4 of fin 0.9 of fin 0.9 of stabilizer 0.45 of stabilizer 0.25 of wing 0.45 of wing

Clean Configuration K Cdo
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RESTRICTED Span area Lvt Aspect Ratio Taper Ratio Power plant Power required Fuel required Fuel required 60 hp 32 lbs. volume 20 litres Take off and Landing ST/O 0.278 sq. ft. 4.3 ft. Sldg 286.1 390 14.2 10.2 1.2 0.6 Take Off Cdo K Landing Cdo K 0.098043 0.075778 0.048043 0.070726

Air Cooling System Air Intake Area Propeller Diameter Tires Diameter Width 12 inch. 4.2 inch.

Table 4: Aircraft Final Dimensions

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Three Dimensional Conceptual Model Isometric View Front View

Side View

Top View

Figure 7: Three Dimensional Views of Conceptual Design

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CHAPTER III AERODYNAMICS
Lift Slope Curve Cl alpha versus Mach No:

Figure 8: Lift Slope Curve Profile Drag Profile Drag versus Mach No:

Figure 9: Profile Drag

Drag at different altitude:

Figure 10: Profile Drag at Different Altitude

Induced Drag Factor Induced Drag Factor versus Mach No:

Figure 11: Induced Drag Factor

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Drag Polar

Figure 12: Drag Polar

Thrust Available and Thrust Required Thrust Available versus Thrust Required:

Figure 13: Thrust Available and Thrust Required

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CHAPTER IV DETAILED DESIGN
Components of the Aircraft 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Wing Fuselage Cabin Fuselage Truss Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail Flaps Control Surfaces (Ailerons, Elevators, Rudder) Engine Mount Wing Mount Connectors/Joints Landing Gear Control System

Fuselage Fuselage is responsible for the largest portion of overall drag for most of the airplanes. Thus it should be sized and shaped accordingly for minimum drag. It contributes to various drags: • • • • • Friction drag. Profile drag. Base drag. Compressibility drag. Induced drag.

To reduce friction drags, two options are available: • • Shape the fuselage so that laminar flow is possible. Reduce the length and perimeter as much as possible.

If fuselage length is decreased, for the same level of static stability, tail size can be decreased, thus, decreasing the friction drag. Thus, the optimum fineness ratio is 4 to 8.

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Figure 14: Effect of Fineness Ratio on Fuselage Drag Upsweep of fuselage: Upsweep is needed for clearance during take-off. It also gives clearance during taxi in tail dragger arrangement.

Figure 15: Definition of Upsweep and its effect on Drag

As we can see in figure, drag does not increase much up to the upsweep of 15 degrees.
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RESTRICTED Our proposed design: Upsweep 12.5 degrees

Fineness ratio 4

Cockpit The basic idea behind the cockpit design is to provide comfort to the pilot besides easy excess to the all vital controls and accessories without diverging the pilot’s attention. Cockpit design especially for homebuilders:

Our proposed design:

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Sidewise motion of stick: 15 degrees. Distance between rudder pedals: 50cm. Flight Instruments Following are the most common instruments used in most of the homebuilders: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. airspeed indicator altimeter magnetic compass tachometer oil pressure gauge oil temperature gauge fuel quantity indicator

According to FAR 23, depth of instrument panel should be around 1 foot. Load Estimation Before going for further structural design, it is necessary to know the loads the structure is going to sustain. The total takeoff weight of the aircraft is 568 lbs and it will take a Load Factor of 2.0 during its flight. A Factor of Safety of 1.5 will be used for the structural design of the aircraft. Assuming that the wing generates all the lift, the wing must produce lift equal to the weight of the aircraft. Thus, total vertical force experienced by the wing will be the weight multiplied by both the Load Factor and the Factor of Safety which gives a value of 1700 lbs. Wing drag is estimated to be 10% of its lift which equals 170 lbs.
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RESTRICTED The lift and drag of horizontal tail is estimated to be 20% of that of the wing. So, lift and drag of horizontal tail becomes 340 lbs and 34 lbs respectively. Since the vertical tail has similar configuration as half of the horizontal tail, so we can take the side force and drag of the vertical tail to be half of the lift and drag of the horizontal tail respectively. Thus, the side force becomes 170 lbs with a drag force of 17 lbs. The following table summarizes the load estimation. These loads will be used to analyze the design.

Member Wing Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail

Vertical Loads (Lift, lbs) 1700 340 --

Horizontal Loads (Drag, lbs) 170 34 17

Lateral Loads (Side Force, lbs) --170

Table 5: Loads Estimation Wing Design Dimensions As per Conceptual Design, the wing dimensions are:
Span Chord Length 28 ft 3.5 ft

The wing is straight rectangular without any twist. Components The wing comprises of: 1. Leading edge Spar 2. Trailing Edge Spar 3. Major and Minor Ribs 4. Struts Construction: The wing will be constructed in two symmetrical parts which will be later joined at the wing mount. Each of the part will be 13 ft long and a 2 ft connector at the wing mount will make the total span to 28 ft. The following design is proposed for the wing part.

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Table 6: Top View showing wing spars and major ribs of the wing

Table 7: Side View showing wing spars and struts

All the members consist of Al pipes. An iterative trial and error structural analysis will determine the dimensions of these pipes. Determination of Dimensions of Pipes In order to determine the outer diameter and thickness of the pipes, the proposed design was analyzed in ANSYS using different combinations of available diameters and thicknesses. The best combination was then selected as the final dimensions of the pipes. Procedure of Analysis The basic geometry was predetermined and the variable parameters were outer diameter and thickness of the spars, ribs and struts as well as the span wise location of the struts. So, the basic geometry was generated in ANSYS and arbitrary values of outer diameter and thickness were given.

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Figure 16: FEM Model of the Wing The geometry was then meshed with element type PIPE16. Loads were applied as estimated before at 14 Hard Points. These Hard Points are the points where ribs will be joined. So, applying loads at these points will be quit suitable. It is assumed that the loads are equally distributed among these points. The Load Step was solved and von Misses Stress was plotted and maximum stress was noted. These steps were repeated until a satisfactory result was obtained.

Figure 17: Application of Loads on the Wing Result of the Analysis The analysis showed the following combination to be best suited which was selected as the final dimensions.
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Dimension Spar Outer Diameter Spar Thickness Strut Outer Diameter Strut Thickness Major Rib Outer Diameter Major Rib Thickness Strut Location Value 2.00 in 0.78 in 1.50 in 0.75 in 2.00 in 0.78 Mid Span

For the above combination, plot of von Misses Stress is shown below:

Figure 18: von Misses Stress distribution in wing members The factor of Safety can be calculated as: Maximum Stress = 29,510 psi Tensile Strength of Material = 30,000 psi
FOS=Strength of MaterialMaximum Stress=30,00029150=1.03

Since, we have already multiplied the applied loads with 1.5 as a FOS, so the actual FOS will be 1.5 X 1.03 = 1.54.

Minor Rib Construction: One of the most important parts of wing design is to give its cross section the shape of desired airfoil. In order to do so, seven ribs are placed on each side of the wing at a distance of 2.25 ft apart. The ribs are constructed from two pipes. A straight pipe is used
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RESTRICTED for the lower surface to get a flat bottom, as designed. The upper surface will be given the required curvature by using a bended pipe.

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RESTRICTED Horizontal Tail Dimensions As per Conceptual Design, the horizontal tail dimensions are:
Span 9.50 ft (114 in)

Root Chord 3.25 ft (39 in) Length Taper Ratio 0.60 Sweep Angle 15 Deg

Keeping in mind the above dimensions, the following geometry is proposed for the horizontal tail.

Figure 19: Horizontal Tail Geometry Determination of Dimensions of Pipes In order to determine the outer diameter and thickness of the pipes, the proposed design was analyzed in ANSYS using different combinations of available diameters and thicknesses. The best combination was then selected as the final dimensions of the pipes. Procedure of Analysis The basic geometry was predetermined and the variable parameters were outer diameter and thickness of the spars and ribs. So, the basic geometry was generated in
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RESTRICTED ANSYS and arbitrary values of outer diameter and thickness were given. The geometry was then meshed with element type of PIPE16. Loads were applied as estimated before at 06 Hard Points. It is assumed that the loads are equally distributed among these points. The Load Step was solved and von Misses Stress was plotted and maximum stress was noted. These steps were repeated until a satisfactory result was obtained. Result of the Analysis The analysis showed the following combination to be best suited which was selected as the final dimensions.
Dimension Outer Diameter Thickness Value 1.50 in 0.75 in

For the above combination, plot of von Misses Stress is shown below:

Figure 20: von Misses Stress distribution in Horizontal Tail members The factor of Safety can be calculated as: Maximum Stress = 28,496 psi Tensile Strength of Material = 30,000 psi
FOS=Strength of MaterialMaximum Stress=30,00028,496=1.05 37

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RESTRICTED Since, we have already multiplied the applied loads with 1.5 as a FOS, so the actual FOS will be 1.5 X 1.05 = 1.58.

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RESTRICTED Vertical Tail Dimensions As per Conceptual Design, the horizontal tail dimensions are:
04 ft (48 in) Root Chord 2.5 ft (30 Length in) Taper Ratio 0.60 Sweep Angle 15 Deg Span (Height)

Keeping in mind the above dimensions, the following geometry is proposed for the horizontal tail.

Figure 21: Vertical Tail Geometry

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Determination of Dimensions of Pipes Since, dimensions of pipes for horizontal tail are selected, we will check, whether these dimensions can be used for vertical tail or not. If the Factor of Safety is acceptable, we will use the same pipes for vertical tail construction. Procedure of Analysis The basic geometry was generated in ANSYS and the values of outer diameter and thickness were given as 1.5 in and 0.75 in respectively. The geometry was then meshed with element type of PIPE16. Loads were applied as before at 06 Hard Points. It is assumed that the loads are equally distributed among these points. The Load Step was solved and von Misses Stress was plotted and maximum stress was noted. Result of the Analysis The von Misses Stress distribution is shown below. The maximum stress comes out to be 26,679 psi.

Figure 22: von Misses Stress distribution in Vertical Tail members The Factor of Safety can be calculated as: Maximum Stress = 26,679 psi Tensile Strength of Material = 30,000 psi
FOS=Strength of MaterialMaximum Stress=30,00026,679=1.12

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RESTRICTED Since, we have already multiplied the applied loads with 1.5 as a FOS, so the actual FOS will be 1.5 X 1.12 = 1.69. The Factor of Safety came out to be 1.69 which is quiet acceptable. So, the same pipes will be used for vertical tail.
Dimension Outer Diameter Thickness Value 1.50 in 0.75 in

Fuselage Truss Dimensions The fuselage truss must be 9.5 ft (114 in) long. The other dimensions are as shown below.

Figure 23: Fuselage Truss dimensions Determination of Dimensions of Pipes The Fuselage Truss will be constructed from the same pipes used for the tails i.e.
Dimension Outer Diameter Thickness Value 1.50 in 0.75 in

Determination of Truss Members A 2 dimensional truss was proposed as the initial design. This design was analyzed using ANSYS. By noting the results, necessary modifications were made. The proposed design is shown below.
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Procedure of Analysis The basic geometry was generated in ANSYS and the values of outer diameter and thickness were given as 1.5 in and 0.75 in respectively. The geometry was then meshed with element type of PIPE16. Loads were applied at the attachment points of the horizontal and vertical tail as well as the rear landing gear. The loads at these points were obtained from previous analysis of horizontal and vertical tails. An estimated vertical load of 140 lbs was applied at rear landing gear attachment point. The loads are summarized below:
Loads FX (lbs) FY (lbs) FZ (lbs) HT Point 1 21 75 26 HT Point 2 15 96 -26 VT Point 1 15 -28 97 VT Point 2 21 28 74 Rea LG -140 --

The Load Step was solved and von Misses Stress was plotted and maximum stress was noted. Result of the Analysis The analysis showed that the lateral displace of the truss structure is very large. The displacement came out to be 20 in which is not acceptable. So, design must be modified to restrict the lateral diplacement of the tail. Plot of lateral displacement is shown below.

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Fuselage Truss Modification In order to restrict the lateral displacement, members must be added which can take lateral loads. So, four members are added as shown below.

Analysis of Modified Truss The modified truss was analyzed as done before.
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RESTRICTED Result of the Analysis Lateral Displacement: The lateral displacement of the tail of the modified truss structure came out to be about 4 in. this value is acceptable if the stress does not exceeds the strength of the material used. Plot of lateral displacement is shown below.

von Misses Stress: The maximum von Misses Stress came out to be 26, 385 psi which gives a FOS of about 1.70. So, the design is safe and can be accepted. Distribution of von Misses Stress is shown as under:

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Figure 24: von Misses Stress distribution in modified Fuselage Truss

Fuselage Cabin Fuselage cabin is the part of aircraft where most of the components get jointed. Wing, landing gears, engine mounts and fuselage truss are connected to the cabin. It also has the provision for installment of flight instruments and control system. It will also serve as the cockpit to house the pilot. The following figures show the sketch of fuselage cabin.

Front View

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RESTRICTED Figure 25: Fuselage Cabin

LANDING GEAR ANALYSIS For the landing gear analysis of ultra light aircraft a standard drop test is carried out. In this test the aircraft is dropped from a height of 3 ft and the impact taken by landing gear is closely observed if the landing gear is able to fully survive the impact it is declared safe. However, we have used ANSYS to simulate all the critical landing loads. LANDING GEAR CRITICAL LOADS Critical loads as stated by FAR 23 and those suggested on discussion forums of ultralight aircraft were considered. According to FAR 23 regulation the most severe conditions for landing were
• Vertical load equal to 75% of max ground reaction

– 10 fps for design landing weight – 6 fps for design TO weight • • • Drag 40% of the max weight Side force 25% of vertical force This combination acts at the wheel axle centerline.

However, most discussion forums on the internet suggested that forces up to 3g’s could be experienced during poor landing and hence vertical loads were selected accordingly. The corresponding loads used were: ◦ ◦ ◦ Drag/Friction : 280 lbs Lateral loads due to bad landing : 350 lbs The vertical reaction on touchdown calculated on suggestions from discussion forums describing landings at 3gs : 1400 lb

Dimensions Selection Dimensions were selected on the following requirement:

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The final landing gear dimensions are:

SOLID EDGE VIEW

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ANSYS ANALYSIS The greatest challenge we faced during the analysis was the non availability of damping coefficient and spring constant value of dampers. Although spring constant could be found. It was impossible to calculate the damping coefficient without proper experimental setup. Therefore, it was decided to find the loads in the rods connecting the dampers and hope that a damper could be found with the required load rating inscribed on it. The element used for landing gear analysis was Pipe 16:
 Uniaxial element with tension-compression, torsion, and bending capabilities

 The element has six degrees of freedom at two nodes: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. Material Used Steel 4130 N is used. Use of steel also means that the structure can be easily welded
therefore analysis of welded structure was done.

Density ρ [kg/dm3] Elastic modulus E [GPa] Poisson’s ratio ν Thermal conductivity κ [W/mK] Thermal expansion α (1/K) Ultimate Tensile strength (Mpa) PROCEDURE

7.9 200 0.28 31.4 20 e-6 730

 As we couldn’t get the values of “k” and “c” for the shock absorber and the design

papers were only specified for oleo shock absorbers therefore they couldn’t be used  Hence it was decided that if individual load in the member where shock absorber is to be installed could be found then the shock absorber can be selected  The maximum stresses in each member were found.  The load was then calculated by multiplying with area  These loads were then used to find a suitable shock absorber  Usually FOS of 1.5 is used but I have used 2 as the local material might not have perfect strength
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TWO POINT LANDING CONDITION The results as calculated by ANSYS were max. stress of 3269 psi. which corresponded to a force of 845 lbs. The maximum stress was also less than the failure stress.of 105 ksi

Fig. 2 point landing analysis

The deformation calculated was also acceptable

Fig. deformation diagram

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Firewall Stainless steel or galvanized iron sheet of minimum thickness .015 inch (according to FAR 23) is installed between cockpit and engine to prevent pilot from engine heat. Safety For the safety of pilot, cabin should consist of : Ballistic Parachute Fire Extinguisher Control Surfaces Flight control systems can be divided into primary and secondary flight control systems. Primary control systems:

• •

Lateral Controls: ailerons, spoilers and differential stabilizer. Longitudinal controls: elevator, stabilizer and canard. Lateral controls: rudder.

Secondary control systems: • •

Trim controls: lateral, longitudinal and directional controls. High lift controls: trailing and leading edge flaps and slats. Thrust controls: engine fuel controls (throttle), manifold gates and propeller blade incidence.

Based on their design, flight control systems are further divided into: • • Reversible flight control systems. Irreversible flight control systems.

Reversible flight control systems: In a reversible flight control system, when the cockpit controls are moved, the aerodynamic surface controls moves and vice-versa. They are typically mechanized with cables, push rods or a combination of both. Irreversible flight control systems:

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RESTRICTED In an Irreversible flight control systems (hydraulic or electrical), when the cockpit controls are moved, the aerodynamic surface controls moves and not vice-versa. Another way of stating this is to say that in an irreversible flight control system an actuator moves the aerodynamic surface controls. The pilot merely signals the actuator to move. This signaling process is usually an irreversible process. Major advantages associated with reversible flight control system are: • • • • Simplicity. Low cost. Reliability. Relatively maintenance free.

In laying out a reversible flight control systems, the following important design aspects need to keep in mind: • • • • • • Mechanical design requirements for cable and push-rod systems. Efficiency consideration. Cable and push rod control force levels. Control surface types and hinge moments. Aerodynamic balance requirements. Mass balance requirements.

Major design problems associated with reversible flight control system are: • • • • • • • Cable stretch. Cable slack. Friction. Weight. Handling qualities. Elastic control system deformation. Flutter.

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Cable stretch: To prevent cable stretch l/s >6.

Cable slack: Turnbuckles are used to prevent cable slack and to prevent cables from leaving pulley, cable guards are used.

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Friction: To prevent too much friction, following rules to be considered: • • Keep cable runs as straight as possible. Keep the number of guides and pulleys as small as possible.

For every cable turn, additional pulley is needed which introduces extra weight and extra friction. Elastic control system deformation: •

To prevent elastic control system deformation, the following rules should be observed: Use oversized cables (this will cost weight).

Make sure pulleys are attached to stiff structural components. Do not attach them to flat plates, they deform easily. Flutter The solution to the control surface flutter is : • To make sure that centre of mass not behind hinge line • try to have chordwise cg at hinge line • prevent any play in the linkages

Design consideration:

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RESTRICTED • • • Primary flight control system cables should have a diameter greater than .11inch (2.8mm) according to FAR 23. Rotation efficiency is highest if the angle between the cable and the driving sector is 90 degrees with the system in its neutral position. Kinematic feasibility.

Mechanisms A and B are kinematically sound, the quadrangles ABFE and CDFE remain parallelograms when the system is used. Mechanism A is better than B because of its higher rotation efficiency. Mechanism C and D are unworkable because the cable lengths AB and CD do not remain constant after some rotation. Thus mechanism C and D are undesirable.

Our proposed design: Reversible flight control system is selected, which consists of only cable pulley.

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Three Dimensional Sketches Front View

Side View

Top View

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Buckling Analysis Our aircraft cabin contained vertical members that would take compressive stresses at landing as indicated by ANSYS Analysis therefore buckling analysis was necessary. As we had chosen pipes for constructing cabin therefore we had the added advantage in Buckling as a circular pipe is the most efficient column section to resist buckling. This is because it has an equal radius of gyration in all directions and it has its area distributed as far away as possible from the centroid. For the purpose of Analysis a long column with central loading case was considered. Euler column equation was used and the equation was formed by using boundary condition for the case where both ends of the column are fixed. For obtaining the Euler column formula we began by assuming a pipe of length l loaded by a force P acting along the centroid axis as the bar is bent a negative moment is required, and hence

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RESTRICTED Fig. showing pipe bending under compressive loads M = -Py Comparing with the beam deflection formula d2ydx2=MEI we get the equation

d2y P + y=0 2 dx EI
Solving the differential equation for initial conditions gives us the final buckling analysis

4π 2 EI Pcr = l2
Since the maximum compressive force to be experienced by the pipes is known we need to keep all variables constant while finding out one variable. In our case P, E, l is known. We decided to keep pipe thickness and internal diameter constant and find out the minimum required outer diameter to keep the pipe from buckling. The Moment of Inertia of pipe is given by

π ( d o 4 − di 4 ) I= 64
Substituting in Euler Equation and solving we got the final equation:

16 Pcr l 2 do4 = 3 + di 4 π E
All the variables were substituted in the equation the result we got for minimum outer diameter requirement was 1.42 inch. Hence it was verified that a pipe of outer diameter 1.5 inch, thickness 2mm would not buckle under the given loads. As with aviation rules a Factor of Safety of 1.5 was also kept in mind while doing calculations.

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Fig. showing condition for Euler equation use To ensure that it’s an Euler column one last check is done the slenderness ratio of this size pipe was found out to be l/k=105.3 which is greater than the limiting slenderness ratio of

( l k)

hence the use of Euler Equation is justified
l

= 82.3

Bolt Size Calculation In the aircraft bolts have been used to join different members. In order to prevent rotation of members, two bolts were used on each connection point. Before bolt selection the bolt size was determined. The three basic types of failures associated with bolts are: 1. Crushing/bearing failure 2. Tearing failure 3. Shearing failure

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Fig. (a) Crushing failure (b) tearing failure (c) shearing failure In our case the Crushing or bearing failure is the bolt size determining factor. In order to prevent pipes from crushing during tightening a small 3 in piece of wood was inserted in the pipe before drilling. Hence, the bolt passed through the wood sandwiched between aluminum pipe of thickness 2mm. To calculate the bolt size software, MITCALC was used however two calculations were also done manually and the answers matched with the software to validate MITCALC.
Pc=t.d.σc

Where, t= pipe thickness d= diameter of the bolt
σc= safe permissible crushing stress

The calculated bolt sizes were as follows: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Member/ connections Cabin connections Wing - cabin attachments Control surfaces / horizontal/vertical stabilizers Truss-empennage connections Landing gear attachments Engine mount
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Lock nuts were used with bolts. These nuts are not manufactured locally and are imported. However, at the moment lock nuts for size smaller than 6 mm were not available. As a result we were forced to use only 6mm and 8mm bolts. The carbon steel bolts selected were of highest available grade of 12.9. Allen Key bolts were selected as Hex Bolts of the specified grades were not available. Bolts of length 2.0 and 2.5 inch were used.

Fig. Allen key bolts with wrenches

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POWER PLANT SELECTION Power requirement for the aircraft was first found out from the initial design which was coming out to be 60 hp. Although aviation engines which fulfilled our requirement were available but financial constraints prevented us from purchasing them. Therefore a market survey was performed to find a suitable car engine which would fulfill our needs.

Car Cultus Cuore Alto City Corolla

Engine name G-10 ED-10 SS80 1.3 L (~79 cu in) I4 i-VTEC 2NZ-FE

Rpm 5100-5500 5500 5500 5500-6000 6000

Hp 50 48 62 100 80

Torque (Nm) 65 83 87 128 119

Weight (lb) 139 N/A N/A N/A N/A

However, all these engines were water-cooled and added weight. Therefore it was decided to use air-cooled engines and hence it was decided to use VW engines another advantage of an original VW engine is that VW claims that its engines can automatically adjust fuel requirement with altitude. An extensive search for VW engines was carried out and a list of VW engines available in Pakistan was made:

Production Date
Dec. 1953 through July 1960 August 1965 through July 1966 August 1965 through July 1970 August 1966 through July 1967 August 1967 through July 1969 August 1967 through July 1970 August 1969 through July 1970 August 1969 through July 1970 August 1970 through July 1973 August 1970 through Sept. 1971 1971 through July 1973 August August 1973 through July 1975 August 1973 through Dec 1980 From Dec. 1974 (fuel-injected)

Displacement
1200cc 1300cc 1300cc 1600cc 1600cc 1600cc 1600cc 1800cc 1300cc 1800cc 1800cc 1300cc 1800cc 1800cc

Engine Number

Horsepower
36 50 37 53 50 50 53 57 44 60 65 48 60 60

1, 2, 3 FO E low comp HO H5 low comp L H1 B AC AE AD AR AS AJ

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RESTRICTED After the survey it was decided to use 1800cc VW engine or 1600cc engine produced in 1966 or 1969. For this purpose the five major VW mechanics and engine suppliers were contacted in Karachi in May and they provided us with surety that the engine would be provided. The estimate engine cost was Rs 20,000/-.

Modifications: For engine modifications local mechanics and ultra light aircraft owners were consulted. Although help was also taken from internet but local mechanics were unfamiliar with most of these foreign techniques as a result following modifications were finalized:
• •

Removal of outer cowl: This would assist in more efficient cooling Removal of gear box: As our aircraft would operate at a constant rpm therefore gearbox use was judged irrelevant.

Fig. the removal of bulky gear box would significantly reduce weight

Double carburetor: This would allow the pistons to work differentially allowing for a much better and efficient compression Engine Overhaul: As these engines are about 30 years old therefore engine overhaul is necessary to ensure optimum performance. Replacing flywheel: The standard and heavier steel flywheel would be replaced with Al. flywheel. This would cause significant weight reduction.

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Fig: A standard flywheel and a custom made flywheel

Reduction drive installation: In order to change the RPM of engine a reduction drive was necessary. This modification is held till last so as to achieve the most favorable RPM. It is suggested to use engine piston material for making pulleys and thrust bearings should also be used as car engines are not designed to take thrust loads and therefore in order to increase their life thrust bearings should also be used

Fig. a reduction drive popularly used in auto conversion engines

Change Generator: To reduce weight the heavier original generator could be replaced with a lighter generator or the generator could be fully removed and battery can be charged on ground.

Fig. as can be seen the VW generator is quite bulky

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Alternative engine suggestions: Despite promises made by engine suppliers an 1800cc VW engine as required was not made available. As a result a survey was done on the internet for alternate powerplants:

Rotax engine: A second hand dual carburetor Rotax 503 engine was available in Peshawar at a cost of Rs 2 lakh. The engine had flown for 40 hours. It provided 47 hp but at the same time its weight was 85 lbs which is almost half the estimated weight of VW engine. Propeller specifications for Rotax engines are directly available on the internet. For Rotax 503 carrying a weight in the range of 700-850 lbs the propeller specs are: 56x32 where 56 is the diameter and 32 degrees is the pitch.

Fig. Rotax 503

Water-cooled engines: Using water-cooled engine would increase our aircraft weight as the whole cooling mechanism had to be added. However, as a last resort these engines too can be considered. Increasing weight would also increase the Hp requirement as a result cultus and Coure engine were considered inadequate. City and Corolla engines would exceed our requirement. This leaves Alto SS80 engine as the best available option. However this engine was introduced in 2008 and a brand new engine costs a staggering Rs 1.8 lakh. While a used engine costs Rs 50,000/-. For the given Rpm and new weight the propeller was designed using javaprop® software which gave us propeller specification of 58x26.

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PROPELLER DESIGN Initially it was decided that a propeller would be bought directly from the market for the ultra light aircraft. However, no ready made wood propellers were available for sale in the market leaving us with no choice but to fabricate the propeller. A manufacturer was contacted and he asked for the diameter and pitch of the propeller. For propeller design a free software javaprop® was used. The software is based on Adkins, C. N.: Design of Optimum Propellers, AIAA-83-0190. The main improvements were: • • •
• • •

Elimination of the small angle approximation Elimination of Light loading approximations prevalent in the classical design theory An iterative scheme is introduced for accurate calculation of the vortex displacement velocity and the flow angle distribution. Momentum losses due to radial flow can be estimated by either the Prandtl or Goldstein momentum loss function. In the analysis portion "Blade Element Method" is used and it uses the same airfoil polars as the design procedure The influence of blade number and tip loss are taken into account by the "Prandtl Tip-Loss Factor

Four major design criterions were kept in mind while carrying out propeller design: THE NUMBER OF BLADES The number of blades has a small effect on the efficiency only. Usually a propeller with more blades will perform slightly better, as it distributes its power and thrust more evenly in its wake. But for a given power or thrust, more blades also mean more narrow blades with reduced chord length, so it’s difficult to manufacture. DENSITY: The density of the fluid has no influence on the efficiency of a propeller, but strongly affects its size and shape. As the forces and the power are directly proportional to the fluid density. Aircraft operating at high alt. usually need a smaller diameter then those operating at low alt.

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PITCH Large pitch propellers may have a good efficiency in their design point, but may run into trouble when the have to operate at axial velocity. In this case, the blades tend to stall. Usually the best overall propellers will have a pitch to diameter ratio in the order of 1. DIAMETER The propeller diameter has a big impact on performance. Usually a larger propeller will have a higher efficiency, as it catches more incoming fluid and distributes its power and thrust on a larger fluid volume. Results The software javaprop® is a very user friendly software a six step procedure was followed to come to final result. Number of Blades Diameter Rpm Thrust at design condition Efficiency at design condition Blade angle at 75% R Geometric Pitch 2 blades 4.6ft 2700 220 lb 65% 25 3.8ft

Airfoils were selected according to the most popularly used airfoils in ultralight propellers At r/R=0 MH 126

Fig. MH 126

MH 126, this airfoil was designed for the root section of a full size propeller. It covers a wide angle of attack range without separation and has the required thickness for this region. At r/R=0.33 MH 112

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Fig. MH 112

MH 112 16.2%, this airfoil was designed to follow the root section. It covers the typically needed range of lift coefficients for the inboard region. At r/R=0.67 MH 114

Fig. MH 114

MH 114 13%, this airfoil is well suited for the middle part of the propeller halfway between root and tip. At r/R=1.0 MH 116

Fig. MH 116

MH 116 9.8%, this airfoil can be used for the tip of propellers operating at tip Mach numbers of 0.6 and below. Then the front and side view of propeller was found

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Fig. Front and side view of the propeller

Next the thrust graph with respect to velocity were found

Fig. Thrust vs Velocity graph

The thrust graph was then imported to MS Excel and required thrust vs available thrust graph was made

Fig. Thrust comparison As can be seen there is excessive thrust available. Especially at cruise Mach which is about 0.067.

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Next Cl, Cd plots were made against r/R. As desired the Cl value is greater than Cd throughout the blade diameter

Fig. Cl, Cd vs r/R A Mach number vs r/R curve was also plotted. The Mach number throughout the diameter remained below 0.7 Mach as desired.

Fig. Mach vs r/R

A chart showing the velocity of the slipstream of propeller was also made. Vx is the axial velocity, V is the inflow velocity. The graph shows that the flow has accelerated by about 80%.

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Fig. Velocity variation graph

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Conclusion: The propeller design was satisfactory as it was close to common propeller results for ultra light aircrafts with 50hp engine as shown in the table below Commonly used propeller Prop Dia. (") Pitch (degrees) Thrust (lb.) 52 56 59 28 158 Propeller designed using javaprop® 55.2 25 230

The propeller efficiency is 65% which is less than the ideal 80%. However the efficiency is dependent on a number of factors like HP, RPM, Diameter, Velocity etc.In our case the HP is fixed. The rpm and diameter are also restricted with the thrust requirement and the need to keep the tip velocity below 0.75 Mach. All these restraints have resulted in a lower efficiency. An iterative method was used to get the best combination of Diameter and Rpm. Solid edge view of the designed propeller:

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Fuel system Two types of fuel systems were considered: • • Gravity fed fuel system Pressure fed fuel system

Gravity-Feed Systems use only the force of gravity to push fuel to the engine fuelcontrol mechanism. The bottom of the fuel tank must be high enough to provide adequate pressure to the fuel-control component. This type of system is often used in high-wing light aircraft. We have preferred gravity fed system as it is simple, does not need any installation of pump and suits our aircraft configuration i.e. high-wing light aircraft. However, we need to install two valves to ensure fuel supply at all time Thus, our fuel tank has two valves to counter for every phase of flight. Fuel from these valves merged together before entering into the engine. Fuel System Components: • • • • • Tanks Lines Valves Fuel Flow-meters Filters and Strainers

Fuel line routing: Fuel lines and hoses should be routed free of conflict with moving parts and should be secured so they will not vibrate against the airframe. It should also be ensured that fuel lines do not hinder pilot’s movement. The fuel line from the tank to the engine must be routed continuously down hill. If this is not maintained, air pockets or bubbles can get trapped in any high spots and severely restrict the flow of fuel.

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Solid edge view:

Towards engine

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CHAPTER V FABRICATION
Material Selection Before starting fabrication it was imperative to select material which had a high strength to weight ratio. Al 6061-T6 is the most commonly used material in ultralight aircraft industry. However, this material is not available locally and hence an alternate Al 6063T6 was used in aircraft structure. A comparison of AL6061-T6 and AL 6063-T6 is given below:
T 6063 Density (lb / cu. in.) Specific Gravity Melting Point (Deg F) Modulus of Elasticity Tension Modulus of Elasticity Torsion Tensile strength Yield strength 0.098 2.7 1090 10 3.8 42,000 psi (290 MPa) 35,000 psi (241 MPa) T 6061 0.097 2.7 1150 10 3 30,000 psi (207 MPa) 25,000 psi (172 MPa)

Although AL 6061-T6 was a better option, AL 6063-T6 is used as it fulfills our requirement.

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Tools Used Fabrication process started with acquisition of tools. Due to unavailability of resources expensive tooling equipment could not be purchased that’s why stress was given upon using simple and cheap yet effective tools. A few parts needed welding or machining, and those were farmed out to local professionals. Following tools were used during the fabrication process. Tools Used: Flexible tape measure 5 m long Carpenters square Water level 2 foot Rivet gun 1/4-inch Socket wrench set Open end wrench set 4-inch bench vise Hand Drill Center punch Hacksaw High Speed Electric Cutter Electric Baby Grinder Assorted metal files Handheld Pipe cutter Pop Rivet Gun Had Access to: Sheet Metal Shear Sheet Metal Break Drill press Metal Lathe Metal Mill Welding torch

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Fabrication Process Steps Following steps were taken in building and assembling of the designed ultra light aircraft. Some steps like pipe marking and cutting are in series while others were completed in parallel. it should be noted that all the fabrication work was done in backyard of a house and therefore this project is a true home built product. Pipe Marking and Cutting As the standard size of aluminum pipes available from local market was 12 ft..So they had to be cut into smaller pieces so that they can be used on different locations as required by structural design of the aircraft. This Task was completed in two steps 1) Marking: Marking scheme was such that a single 12 ft piece could be fully utilized in making different size pieces and minimum material was wasted. Also the defined nomenclature for different members was used to write Name, Length and Diameter of each piece

2) Cutting: Pipe Cutter was used to cut the larger pipes into smaller precise pieces which were to be used in different parts of aircraft. Procedure followed for cutting purpose was to hold the marked pipe in bench vise and provide a support to keep balance then a straight cut was made which ensured dimensions to be exact as marked on pipes.

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Fabrication of Connectors Following connectors were obtained from market directly. I. 3d Elbow connector These are 3d joints which were used to join cabin pipes meeting at 90 degree angles. Mild steel material joints were used due to availability and cost constraints.

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II. 3d TEE connector These connectors are used to join 04 pipes meeting at 90 degree angles simultaneously. They are also made of Mild steel. They provide ease of assembling as strength to highly stressed portions of cabin.

Fabrication of Custom Designed Joints and Hinges Due to unavailability of required connectors and joint members from local market, a number of connectors were designed, analyzed and fabricated with the help of local professionals, given below are the details of design and fabrication of different type of joining members I. 90’ Clip Connectors These types of connectors were most commonly used in fabrication of wing, empennage and control surfaces; they were used to join any 02 pipe members which were at right (90deg) angle to each other. Their fabrication started with cutting a piece of aluminum plate of 6inx4inx04mm and shaping it into desired joint with the help of soft hammering???? and sheet bending techniques.

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II. Angled Clip Connectors This type of connectors were used to join the main members which were inclined to each other at some specified angle, different angle connectors were used in different parts of cabin and empennage assembly, they were fabricated in the same fashion as 90 deg connectors and special care was taken in making the correct angle of joint as well as to prevent the shear of soft aluminum sheet .

III. Plate Connectors This special type of joint was used on rear portion of the cabin; their main purpose was to support the extruded cabin members which support rear struts coming from wing. As this portion is highly stressed and requires stronger joints than simple angled joint, plate joints were designed and fabricated using 04mm thick aluminum plate which connected angled members of rear cabin to extruded strut attachment members.

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IV. Ring Connectors Connecting Wing airfoils with the main spar was a difficult task. As these types of connectors are unavailable in the market therefore an innovative new ring connector was designed. For their fabrication purpose, Mild steel pipes were found which would snugly fit on the Spar and would be having thickness only1mm as these connectors won’t be taking much stress. Then a jig was made that copied the exact wing dimensions. Once the jig was made exact welding location of the smaller pipe onto the 2in pipe was confirmed and the ring connectors were made accordingly. Control Surface connectors/Hinges For deflection of flaps and control surfaces some rotating mechanism was necessary, market survey showed that desired deflection could not be achieved using ordinary hinges and so male female couple type hinges of different desired sizes were designed and fabricate, for this purpose MS bars were machined and welded over MS pipes of different required diameters, then these completed hinges were clipped to control surfaces mounted on Horizontal and vertical tail as well as on wing spars.

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RESTRICTED Fuselage Construction Fuselage design consisted of two main components 1) Cabin compartment 2) 2d Truss Structure

Both the components were fabricated separately and then joined to complete the fuselage structure. Details of both the processes are given below.

Cabin Construction: Cabin is a critical portion of aircraft as it gives places for attachment of wing, rear truss, engine mounts, and landing gear ,it also houses the pilot and works as a base for placement of control components. List of members used is given below followed by steps taken to complete the cabin structure.

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Material used in Cabin Fabrication Vertical Cabin Members

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SN. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Members FC 001 FC 002 FC 003 FC 004 FC 005 FC 006

Length(in) 30 30 54 54 54 54

Diameter(in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Thickness(mm) 2 2 2 2 2 2

Material

Al 6063

Lateral Cabin Members:

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SN. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Members FCL 015 FCL 016 FCL 017 FCL 018 FCL 019 FCL 020

Length 18 18 58 58 50 50

Diameter/Widt h 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Thickness 2 2 2 2 2 2

Material

AL6063

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Horizontal and Angled Cabin members:

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Members FCH 007 FCH 008 FCH 009 FCH 010 FCA 021 FCA 022 FCA 023 FCA 024

Length(in) 30 30 30 30 30 30 35 35

Diameter(in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Thickness(mm) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Material

AL6063

Landing Gear and Wing Mounts:

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S No. 1 2 3 4 5

L/g & Wing Mounts FLB01 X 02 FLB02 X 02 FLB03 X 02 FLB04 X 02 FLB05 X 02

Length(in) 50 50 50 50 32

Width(in) 2 2 2 2 2

Thickness(mm) Material 5 AL6063 5 5 Steel 5 5

Connectors Used S No. 1 2 3 4 5 Connector Type 3d Elbow 3d Tee 90’ Clip Angled Clip Plate Joint Quantity 4 2 4 4 2 Material Mild steel Mild steel Al 6063 Al 6063 Al 6063

Other Materials Used:

S No. 1 2 3

Part Flooring Windshield Firewall

Material Hard Plywood Plastic Sheet,Al pipes Galvanized Iron

Length(in) 50 32,32 66
88

Width/Dia(in) 30 24,15mm 54

Thickness(mm) 20 7 2

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I. Pipe Structure and Connections The pipes were connected using Elbow, TEE and Clip joints????Reason of using MS (Mild steel) for Tee and elbow joints was unavailability of Aluminum joints. The joints were strengthened using wooden pieces of 3inch length and were snugly fit inside the Aluminum pipes .This procedure has been proved effective by previous designs fabricated worldwide.

Rear portion joints of the cabin were specially designed and custom fabricated to ensure strength and sleekness of this portion. All the joints were Bolted using 6mm diameter,2 and 2.5 inch length Allen Bolts. Lock nuts were used to ensure safety and reliability.

II. Wing Mount and Landing Gear attachments: As wing and landing gear are two main loads bearing components of the aircraft, their attachments to the cabin needed to be strong enough to bear loads transferred from this component.

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To fulfill this requirement L beam of Aluminum and Stain less steel were used for Wing and landing gear attachment respectively. These beams were joined to base pipe structure using nuts and bolts.

III. Cabin Floor , Wind shield and Cabin Firewall

Cabin floor is required for mounting of pilot seat, control stick and pedals; it also provides a base for installment of various subsidiary components. For construction purpose hard plywood sheet was used. After cutting the sheet in precise dimensions it was attached to base members (pipes and L beams) with the help of nuts bolts and washers.

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Wind Shield serves the purpose of protecting the pilot from prop wash, bird strike and foreign objects .It also gives aerodynamic shape to cabin front portion thus reducing drag and increasing performance. It was constructed using plastic sheet which were cut to size. Front portion of wind shield was bended to give curvature, for this purpose aluminum pipes of 15 mm diameter were used. Finally sheet was riveted to Cabin Pipes. Cabin Firewall is used for thermal insulation or the cabin thus providing a safety wall between engine and cabin so that engine heat might not injure the pilot or damage instruments inside cabin. Galvanized iron sheet was used for this purpose as suggested by Daniel P Raymer.

2d Truss Construction Second main portion of fuselage fabrication was construction of rear truss, it provides connections for Empennage assembly and is structural backbone of the aircraft, structural analysis showed adequate strength of simple 2d truss and its ease of construction made it an attractive choice for fabrication. Given below is the list of members used in fabricating this part followed by the procedure of construction

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Material Used:

No. 1 2

MEMBERS FT 001 FT 002

LENGTH (in) 114 116.5
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Diameter(in) 1.5 1.5

Thickness(mm ) 2 2

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RESTRICTED 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 FT 003 FT 004 FT 005 FT 006 FT 007 FT 008 FT009 23.1 27.6 18.8 28.9 15.6 23 10.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Table 8: Fuselage Truss members Construction Process: Designed 2d truss was constructed using aluminum members which were joined using 4 ft long,6 in wide and 5mm thick al plates. Members were fitted in two such aluminum plated and bolted to complete the truss ,all the joints which had drilling holes were strengthened by using 3in long snugly fit wooden pieces. Truss also contained the connections for empennage assembly, for tail connection smaller pieces of aluminum plates and L beams were used. Assembling of Fuselage: After completion of both cabin and truss structures, they were joined, following joints and strengthening members were used to make the fuselage rigid and to constraint it in all degrees of freedom.

Members Used:
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No. MEMBERS LENGTH (in) Diameter(in) Thickness(mm) 1 2 3 4 FA001 FA002 FA 003 FA 004 48 48 36 36 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 2 2 2 2

Connector Used: Connecto r Quantity Material 90’ Clip 02 Al 6063

Assembling Procedure: Assembly was joined first with the help of 90 deg clip connectors but they were unable to take all the loads acting on truss so to strengthen the structure members FA001 and FA002 were used which joined the cabin roof L beams to truss while Elements FA003 and FA004 supported the truss by connecting it to cabin base members. Fuel Tank Installation: Fuel tank provides the engine with required fuel, gravity feed fuel system was used as it is simple and easy to use there is no need of special fuel pump. Following component complete the fuel system I. Fuel Tank Locally available Fuel tank of 5KVA electric generator which has 25 liter fuel capacity was used. It is fitted with fuel level indicator.

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II. Fuel Tank Supports Two (02) MS pipes of 0.7in diameter and 1mm thickness were used to support fuel tank, they also served the purpose of giving aerodynamic shape to rear fuselage portion. Wing Construction Wing is the lift producing surface. It bears aerodynamic loads like lift and drag and also provides resistance towards flutter and fatigue phenomenon.

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Material Required

S No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

member W 001 W 002 W 003 W 004 Rib 001 Rib 002 Rib 003 Rib 004

Length 13 ft 13 ft 13 ft 13 ft 40 in 40 in 40 in 40 in

Diameter 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in
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Thickness 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm

material AL 6063

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RESTRICTED 9 10 11 12 Rib 005 Rib 006 Rib 007 (Qty 14) Airfoil 001 (Qty 14) 40 in 40 in 40 in 46.2 in 2 in 2 in 15 mm 15 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm

Table 9: Wing members

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Connectors Used: S No. 1 2 3 4 5 Connectors Used MS pipes 5 ft long 90⁰ clip Airfoil ring connectors U bolts (dia 8mm grade 12.9) Allen bolts(dia 6mm length 2.5in grade 12.9) Quantity 2 12 28 8 36 Material Mild Steel AL 6063 Mild Steel Carbon Steel Carbon Steel

The aircraft’s wing span was calculated to be 28ft. however; 14ft aluminum pipes were not available in the market. As a result 13ft pipes were bought and to join then a 5ft Mild steel pipe was snugly inserted into the two pipes. This meant that a 1.5ft MS pipe was inserted into each Spar.

The two main spars were connected with 6 ribs of AL diameter 2 inch while 14 15mm ribs were also attached. The positioning of the 2 in Ribs was done to accommodate the control system pulley besides providing strength to the wing. The 2 in ribs were connected with clip joints and were bolted. Riveting was also an option but since the aircraft had to be transported to Risalpur therefore Bolts were given preference. Next Step was the bending of pipe into airfoil shape. For this purpose a full scale airfoil shape was taken from plotter. Next this shape was cut onto a card board. This template was given to the pipe bender who accurately bent 14 pipes according to the template.
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Airfoils were connected to main wing spars using specially designed ring connectors which gave not only ease of installation of rib but also came up as strong and light weight solution to the problem Pictures: • • • • • • Full wing MS pipe Clip connector Welded connector U bolts Jig

Empennage Assembly Empennage

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Horizontal Tail Horizontal stabilizer is an integral part of any airplane it provides stability to the aircraft and prevents it from going into spin. As before the material required is tabulated followed by the joints required and then the fabrication process is mentioned

MATERIAL REQUIRED S.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 member HT 001 (i) HT 001 (ii) HT 002 (i) HT 002 (ii) HT 003 (i) HT 003 (ii) HT 004 HT 005 (i) HT 005 (ii) Length (in) 24 24 29 29 34 34 114 59 59 Diameter (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Thickness (mm) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063 material

Table 10: Horizontal Tail members JOINTS USED Joints Used L beams ( length 6 inch )
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Material AL 6063

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Plate ( thickness = 5mm) 90⁰ clip Angle clip Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 12.9) MS Struts

1 6 6 40 2

AL 6063 AL 6063 AL 6063 Carbon Steel Mild Steel

During Horizontal tail construction it was of utmost importance that the horizontal tail be kept symmetric. So that during flight the aircraft won’t tilt to one side. At first the 90⁰ clips were attached to HT 004. Afterwards members HT001, HT002, HT003 were cut accurately and joined with the angle clip to HT 004. During this entire process it was necessary that the members should be kept perpendicular to HT 004 for this reason a triangle was kept with the connecting members.

After assembling the horizontal tail a pendulum was used to confirm the symmetry of the Horizontal tail. The pendulum pointed at the midpoint of HT 004 which confirmed that the HT is symmetric. For final test of symmetry diagonal length of the HT was measured from both sides and was found equal.

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RESTRICTED The horizontal tail was connected by sandwiching the horizontal stabilizer between the L beam and plate. It was ensured that the centre of horizontal stabilizer matched the centre of fuselage truss structure. As these connections were not sufficient therefore they were enforced by attaching struts to the horizontal stabilizer. Pics • • • • • Uncut pipes at 90 Full HT Connectors Struts Pendulum hanging

VERTICAL STABILIZER Vertical stabilizer is an integral part of any airplane it provides stability to the aircraft and prevents it from going into spin. MATERIAL REQUIRED

S.n

member Length

Diameter
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Thickness (mm) material

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RESTRICTED o 1 2 3 4 5 VT 001 VT 002 VT 003 VT 004 VT 005 (in) 18 22 26 64 49.5 (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063

Table 11: Vertical Tail members JOINTS USED Joints Used L beams ( length 8 inch ) Plate ( thickness = 5mm) 90⁰ clip Angle clip Qty Material 2 2 4 3 AL 6063 AL 6063 AL 6063 AL 6063 Carbon Steel

Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 25 12.9)

Horizontal tail fabrication was relatively easy first we joined members with 90 clips at a distance of 18 in from centre to centre. Afterwards the pipes were cut to size and joined using angle connectors. It should be remembered that the members were cut at an angle to fit them in the vertical stabilizer.

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The vertical tail was attached to the truss structure by using two plates of dimension 6x6 in front and by using a 90 connector and 2 L beams at the rear. Control Surfaces Four control surfaces were to be fabricated: elevators, ailerons, flaps and rudder. The construction of control surfaces was relatively easy.

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Ailerons

MATERIAL REQUIRED S.no 1 2 3 4 5 member AL 001 (i) AL 001 (ii) AL 002 (i) AL 002 (ii) AL 003 (Qty 6) Length (in) 60 60 60 60 18 Diameter (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Thickness (mm) 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063 material

JOINTS USED Joints Used 90⁰ clip Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 12.9) Qty 12 36 Material AL 6063 Carbon Steel

The construction of Ailerons was straight forward the Connector’s centre was placed at a distance of 30in from each other. While joining the AL 003 members to AL 001 members it is suggested that first the connector should be placed at the marked position
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RESTRICTED and checked for its perpendicularity with member AL 001. Even a slight mishap in this case would render the whole Aileron useless. Once the AL 003 members have been joined with AL 001 the members should then be joined with AL 002 members if the procedure is correctly followed the AL 003 members should automatically come perpendicular to AL 002.

Flaps

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MATERIAL REQUIRED S.no 1 2 3 4 5 Member FL 001 FL 002 FL 003 FL 004 FL 005 (Qty 8) Length (in) 90 90 90 90 18 Diameter (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Thickness (mm) 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063 material

JOINTS USED Joints Used 90⁰ clip AL connecting pipe (ID 1.5in Length 5ft) Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 12.9) Qty 16 3 48 Material AL 6063 AL 6063 Carbon Steel

For flaps it was necessary that the flap leading edge be a single piece as it was to be connected with control system. This would ensure equal and timed movement of the entire flap. To achieve this Aluminum pipe was bought whose internal diameter was 1.5 inch and hence the two FL 001 members would snugly fit into the pipe both the members were inserted 1 ft into the Aluminum pipe.

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Once through with the leading edge of the flap rest of the procedure is same with the connectors joined at a distance of 30 inch from each other and perpendicular to the FL 001 and FL 002. Rudder

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MATERIAL REQUIRED S.no 1 2 3 4 5 member RR 001 RR 002 RR 003 RR 004 VT 005 Length (in) 9 15 21 60 61.34 Diameter (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Thickness (mm) 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063 material

JOINTS USED Joints Used 90⁰ clip Angle clip Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 12.9) Qty 3 3 18 Material AL 6063 AL 6063 Carbon Steel

Rudder fabrication is similar to Vertical stabilizer construction the 90⁰ clips are placed at a distance of 29 inch from centre to centre. Rest it should be kept in mind that a triangle should be used while fixing the 90⁰ clip.

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Elevator

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MATERIAL REQUIRED S.no 1 2 3 4 5 member EL 001 (Qty 2) EL 002 (Qty 2) EL 003 (Qty 2) EL 004 (Qty 2) EL 005 (Qty 2) Length (in) 11 15.25 32 21 50 Diameter (in) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Thickness (mm) 2 2 2 2 2 AL 6063 material

JOINTS USED Joints Used 90⁰ clip Angle clip (12⁰) Angle clip (30⁰) Allen bolts (dia 6mm length 2 in grade 12.9) Qty 4 4 4 36 Material AL 6063 AL 6063 AL 6063 Carbon Steel

Since the hinges designed for the movement of control surfaces did not allow for a single elevator therefore the two elevators had to be fabricated. The first 90⁰ clip was positioned at the end while the second was placed at a distance of 20 inch from the centre of the first.

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Although the lengths stated above are accurate but it is highly suggested that the angle pipes be kept a bit longer and later cut down after fixing the members. Again it is imperative that both the elevators be kept symmetric.

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Fabrication of Landing Gear Landing gear plays a vital role during taxing, taking off and most important at landing, it bears the ground loads and impact loads; landing gear was designed following 3g impact regulation of Federal Aviation Authority (FAA).So it had to be one of strongest components of the aircraft. The design included a shock absorbing system which reduces the impact loads on aircraft. Coming to the fabrication of the finally selected landing gear design following members were used followed by the steps taken in fabrication.

Members of Landing Gear: No. 1 2 3 4 Component LR001 LR002 LR003 LR004 LENGTH (in) 45 45 50 50 Table 12: Landing Gear members Mild Steel Diameter(in) Thickness(mm) Material

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Tires Used: No. Tire 1 2 3 Diameter(in) Thickness(In ) 4 4 3 All Hard Rubber Lock mechanism Material Feature

TR01 14 TR02 14 TR03 6

Rubber tire and tube Inbuilt brake system

Shock absorber: No. Tire 1 2 SA01 SA02 Spring Constant NA Damping Coefficient Rated load(lb)

NA

800

Fabrication Process: I. Main landing Gear
a) Connecting Members: In main landing gear design four (04) connecting

members (LR001,LR002,LR003,LR004) were used which bear and transferred the impact load to base cabin members(FLB05,06,07,08),they were cut into size and two (LR003,LR004) of them were bent to take the desired shape as per design. These rods were connecting to cabin base by pin joints so that they can move in 02 degree of freedom, the angle between the aircraft centerlines and front members was set as 27degrees which is in conjunction with FAR regulation of minimum of 25degree of landing gear angle.

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b) Tires: Two tires were selected for main landing gear design, for this

purpose local market survey was done to find the closest match to our designed landing gear tires. Finally tires were obtained which met the design specifications and also incorporated the feature of in build shoe brake system for ground brake purposes These tires were welded to landing gear rods to ensure strong joints.

c) Shock Absorbers: As mentioned previously, two shock absorbers were

selected using standard testing procedure. They were attached to members (LR001, LR002) with the help of custom made welded holder which acted as pin joints for shock absorbers.
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I. Rear Landing Gear As the aircraft has a tail dragger configuration third landing was placed at rear tail section of aircraft. Rear landing gear is not designed to bear heavy impact loads rather its main purpose is to help in movement and directional control while at ground. An all rubber tire has been used for rear landing gear which is fixed into lower end of vertical tail rear spar. Rear landing gear also features a locking mechanism which enables us to lock its rotational motion as well as its translational motion or both.

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Final Assembling of Aircraft: After completion of each component separately they were attached as a final assembly consisting of cabin fuselage truss, wing and tail assemblies and in the end control surfaces and landing gears were attached to give the aircraft final shape. All the components fit perfectly and were bolted, hinged and welded to make the whole structure as one piece.

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Fabrication of Aircraft Skin Covering: Aircraft covering is necessary to complete the structure such that it could be installed with propulsion system, covering of wing, empennage and control surface is necessary for production of aerodynamic forces on these parts while fuselage covering gives the aircraft aerodynamic shape hence reducing drag and increasing efficiency. Material Used: ➢ Parachute material having dimensions 40 x 05 yards was used for fabricating skin of the aircraft. ➢ Rivets of 3mm diameter and 12 mm thickness were used to fix the stitched skin cloth to the aircraft Fabrication Process: First of all clothing material was cut to dimension of wing, empennage and control surfaces then it was stitched to give a tight fitting so that there won’t be any slack or loose surface left. Last step was to fix the skin with aircraft components with the help of riveting process. Thus giving the aircraft a complete aerodynamic shape.

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Solid Edge Figures

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RESTRICTED CONCLUSION Full detail design of the aircraft was carried out which would ensure the integrity of the aircraft. Every possible aspect of design was taken care off from the selection of Bolt size to installation of aircraft engine. Due to shortage of time the fabrication could not be completed. However, the most important part of fabrication, aircraft structure, was fully completed. Material for aircraft covering and controls has also been acquired while the propeller has also been fabricated. The entire fabrication process was carried out using the most economical resources and it was proven that an aircraft can be fabricated in Pakistan using local resources and that too at an extremely low cost. It is suggested that this project be continued. Inshallah by next semester this project would be fully completed and CAE would be able to claim that its students have successfully designed and flown their own aircraft.

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