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Prebiotic (nutrition)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system which are beneficial to the health of the body. They were first identified and named by Marcel Roberfroid in 1995.[1] They are considered a functional food. Typically, prebiotics are carbohydrates (such as oligosaccharides), but the definition may include non-carbohydrates. The most prevalent forms of prebiotics are nutritionally classed as soluble fiber. To some extent, many forms of dietary fiber exhibit some level of prebiotic effect.[citation
needed]

Roberfroid offered a refined definition in the 2007 Journal of Nutrition [2] stating: "A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-being and health." Additionally, in his 2007 revisit of Prebiotics, Roberfroid clarified that only two particular fructooligosaccharides fully meet this definition: oligofructose and inulin[3]. Caution may be in order when referring to other substances as "prebiotic," and it is increasingly common to refer to other similar substances as "possible" or "likely" prebiotics in order to distinguish. Many authorities also classify galactooligosaccharides as a "true" prebiotic. GOS is an animalderived substance manufactured by extracting milk sugars from dairy products and using enzymes to break them down[citation needed]. Researchers now also focus on the distinction between short-chain, long-chain, and full-spectrum prebiotics. "short-chain" prebiotics, e.g. oligofructose, contain 2-8 links per saccharide molecule, are typically fermented more quickly in the right-side of the colon providing nourishment to the bacteria in that area. Longer-chain prebiotics, e.g. Inulin, contain 9-64 links per saccharide molecule, and tend to be fermented more slowly, nourishing bacteria predominantly in the leftside colon. Full-spectrum prebiotics provide the full range of molecular link-lengths from 2-64 links per molecule, and nourish bacteria throughout the colon, e.g. Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin (OEI). The majority of research done on prebiotics is based on full-spectrum prebiotics, typically using OEI as the research substance.[4][5][6][7][8]

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1 Function 2 Sources 3 Effects

especially in terms of improving digestion (including enhancing mineral absorption[9]) and the effectiveness and intrinsic strength of the immune system. unrefined barley and yacon.5% 24. jicama.8% 1% . and chicory root). Top 10 Foods Containing Prebiotics Food Raw Chicory Root Raw Jerusalem Artichoke Raw Dandelion Greens Raw Garlic Raw Leek Raw Onion Cooked Onion Raw Asparagus Raw Wheat bran Whole Wheat flour. raw oats.6% 31. honey and other foods (most commonly in promotional materials from growers of those foods) as "a prebiotic" are not accurate. ranging from fairly large portions (chicory root." Jerusalem artichoke is a frequently referred to as a rich source of prebiotic fiber. inulin sources (such as Jerusalem artichoke. Some of the oligosaccharides that naturally occur in breast milk are believed to play an important role in the development of a healthy immune system in infants. unrefined wheat.7% 8. however. Jerusalem artichoke) to only trace quantities (thousands of other plant-based foods).5% 11.• • • 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit] Function The prebiotic definition does not emphasize a specific bacterial group. but the two concepts are not identical. No plant or food is a prebiotic: Wheat. Referring to a food as "a prebiotic" is no more accurate than calling a food "a vitamin. it is assumed that a prebiotic should increase the number and/or activity of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. The importance of the bifidobacteria and the lactic acid bacteria (AKA lactobacillus or LABs) is that these groups of bacteria have several beneficial effects on the host. honey and many other foods contain prebiotics to a greater or lesser extent.3% 17. Generally.[10] A product that stimulates bifidobacteria is considered a bifidogenic factor. References to almonds. Cooked Raw Banana [12] Prebiotic Fiber Content by Weight 64. It is becoming more common to properly distinguish between prebiotic substances and the food that contains them. Some prebiotics may thus also act as a bifidogenic factor and vice versa.6% 5% 5% 5% 4.[11] [edit] Sources Traditional dietary sources of prebiotics include soybeans.

as well as what caloric/nutritive load comes along with it: e.3g (about 1/3 oz) 19g (about 3/4 oz) 24. bowel pH. [14] .2 oz) 51.[citation needed] Recent human trials have reinforced the role of Prebiotics in preventing and possibly stopping early stage colon cancer. Some monosaccharides such as tagatose are also used sometimes as prebiotics. below are the amounts of prebiotic foods required to achieve a daily serving of prebiotic fiber: Food Raw Chicory Root Raw Jerusalem Artichoke Raw Dandelion Greens Raw Garlic Raw Leek Raw Onion Cooked Onion Raw Asparagus Raw Wheat Bran Whole Wheat Flour. Genetically engineering plants for the production of inulins has also become more prevalent [13]. While research does clearly demonstrate that prebiotics lead to increased production of these SCFA's[22].3 g (about 1. to 15g or more for those with active digestive disorders. inflammatory bowel disorders (Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis) [19] Hypertension (high blood pressure) [20] and intestinal regularity. Thus food supplements specifically enhancing the growth of SCFA producing intestinal bacteria (such as clostridia and bacteroides species) are widely recognized to be beneficial. immune system effectiveness[17]. Given an average 6g serving. Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly added to foods for their health benefits.8 oz) 69. [edit] Effects Studies have demonstrated positive effects on calcium and other mineral absorption[16].3g (about 1.5 oz) 120g (about 1/4 lb) 120g (about 1/4 lb) 120g (about 1/4 lb) 125g (about 1/4 lb) 600g (about 1.g. xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Prebiotic fiber supplements with minimal caloric/fat/sugar load are also available. and beneficial to Ulcerative Colitis through reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide gas due . It has been argued that prebiotics are beneficial to Crohn's Disease through production of SCFAs to nourish the colon walls.While there is no broad consensus on an ideal daily serving of prebiotics. despite the still limited insight into the immunological mechanisms activated by such food supplementation [15].3 pounds of bananas daily is likely to provide an excess of calories & sugars/carbohydrates to the diet.7g (just under 1 oz) 34.3 lb) Those wishing to ensure sufficient prebiotic intake should carefully consider the prebiotic content of their diet. eating 1.8g (about 2. reduction of colorectal cancer risk[18]. Cooked Raw Banana [12] Amount of food to achieve 6g serving of prebiotics 9.[21] It has been argued that many of these health effects emanate from increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by the stimulated beneficial bacteria. polydextrose and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). recommendations typically range from 4-8g for general digestive health support. more research is required to establish a direct causal connection. Some oligosaccharides that are used in this manner are fructooligosaccharides (FOS).[citation needed] In petfood also mannooligosaccharides are being used for prebiotic purposes.

[24] [edit] See also • • Prebiotic scores Probiotic [edit] References 1. PMID 2. ^ Gibson GR. Prebiotics: The Concept Revisited. 1995 Jun.125(6):1401-12.[21] It has been argued that many of these health effects emanate from increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by the stimulated beneficial bacteria. Thus food supplements specifically enhancing the growth of SCFA producing intestinal bacteria (such as clostridia and bacteroides species) are widely recognized to be beneficial. J Nutr. Oligofructose and long-chain inulin: influence on the gut microbial ecology of rats associated with a human faecal flora British Journal of Nutrition (2001). ^ Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics: The Concept Revisited. immune system effectiveness[17]. which do not thrive in the slightly acidic environment SCFAs create. bloating or bowel movement. 2007. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. bloating or bowel movement. [citation needed] Human colonic bacteria substrates are relatively stable. 137: 830S 3. bowel pH. While research does clearly demonstrate that prebiotics lead to increased production of these SCFA's[22].[23] Until bacterial flora are gradually established to habilitate or restore intestinal tone. It has been argued that chronically low consumption of prebiotic-containing foods in the typical Western diet may exaggerate this effect. 86. The immediate addition of substantial quantities of prebiotics to the diet may result in a temporary increase in gas. Ludger Hartmann and Michael Blaut. [citation needed] Studies have demonstrated positive effects on calcium and other mineral absorption[16]. It has been argued that chronically low consumption of prebiotic-containing foods in the typical Western diet may exaggerate this effect. J Nutr. [citation needed] Recent human trials have reinforced the role of Prebiotics in preventing and possibly stopping early stage colon cancer. 137: 830S 4.to reduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria. inflammatory bowel disorders (Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis) [19] Hypertension (high blood pressure) [20] and intestinal regularity. Production of SCFA and fermentation quality are reduced during long-term diets of low fiber intake. 2007. 291–300 . ^ Brigitta Kleessen*. reduction of colorectal cancer risk[18]. Roberfroid MB. ^ Marcel Roberfroid. more research is required to establish a direct causal connection. nutrient absorption will be impaired and colonic transit time temporarily increased with an immediate addition of higher prebiotic intake. J Nutr. which do not thrive in the slightly acidic environment SCFAs create. and beneficial to Ulcerative Colitis through reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide gas due to reduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The immediate addition of substantial quantities of prebiotics to the diet may result in a temporary increase in gas. It has been argued that prebiotics are beneficial to Crohn's Disease through production of SCFAs to nourish the colon walls.

129:1407S-1411S 13. TRESSOL. 11. Nijs M. 2007. Jérôme Salfati*. Annibale Biggeri2. J Nutr. 5(10): P-1265-9 . Probiotics. UK 18. Lommel M. Piero Dolara. Maddalena Salvadori. 1 JOSIANE ARNAUD. J Nutr. Jürgen Schrezenmeir . Rowland. Philippe Pochart*. 129 No. Francis Bornet. 1 January 1999. ^ Angelo Pietro Femia. 1 CHARLES COUDRAY1. 5 FRED BROUNS. Alain Attar*. Kevin J. 3 CORINNE BOUTELOUP-DEMANGE. Lefèbvre M. Immunology of pre. Philippe Marteau*. 2007. Walraven B. Lotfi Achour*. 1999. Friday. Southampton. 22. Vol. 2006. Smeekens SC. infection and inflammation: a review of the evidence. 43-47. 1 VÉRONIQUE DUCROS. Engineering fructan metabolism in plants. ^ R. 1 JEAN C. 23.R. ^ MAHA TAHIRI. Inulin and Oligofructose and Mineral Metabolism: The Evidence from Animal Trials. Vol. ^ Food-Info. 137: 2563S 11. ^ Geier MS et al. Cristina Luceri. Moshfegh2. 3. ^ Ritsema T. Inulin and Oligofructose: Review of Experimental Data on Immune Modulation. Tossens A. ^ Peppelenbosch MP. Joseph P. immune function. ^ Coxam V. ^ Yoram Bouhnik*. Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats Carcinogenesis. 113-116 8. ^ Lomax AR. Van Dun K. Smeekens S. targeting bone health in adults. 137: 2513S 17. Chug Ahuja. Bink S. Turk S.6 ANNE M. Br J Nutr. pp. School of Medicine. 1. Ritsema T. November 2002 6. University of Southampton. J Nutr. Rosquin I. Meyer D. Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium. 2009 101:2-4. Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon Carcinogenesis. Calder PC. Presence of Inulin and Oligofructose in the Diets of Americans. Production of tailor-made fructans in sugar beet by expression of onion fructosyltransferase genes. ^ a b Alanna J. 137(11 Suppl): P-2527S 10. Collins3. 2007. PMID: 18577301 16. Institute of Human Nutrition. 1953-1960. Kouroche Vahedi*. ^ Katharina E. 4 CHRISTINE FEILLETCOUDRAY. Ferreira CV. Milena Paglierani4 and Giovanna Caderni5. 2 YVES RAYSSIGUIER. . J Plant Physiol. Denys P. . Bernard Flourié*. ROUSSEL. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research November 2001:16:2152-216 9. Plant Biotechnol J 2004 2:321-7.5. No. 2 FRANCIS BORNET. Five-Week Intake of Short-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides Increases Intestinal Absorption and Status of Magnesium in Postmenopausal Women Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Journal of Nutrition.net Wageningen University 12. 15. Augusto Giannini1. Yvonne Clune3. prebiotics and synbiotics: a role in chemoprevention for colorectal cancer? Cancer Biol Ther. James E. and Jean-Claude Rambaud*. Tremona Road. ^ Weyens G. January 2001 7. 2003 160:811-20 14. Scholz-Ahrens. Gerrits N. Short-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharide Administration Dose-Dependently Increases Fecal Bifidobacteria in Healthy Humans The Journal of Nutrition Vol.and probiotic supplementation. Goldman and Jaspreet K. 2 DENISE PÉPIN. ^ Stephanie Seifert and Bernhard Watzl. No. Prebiotics. Lathouwers J. Hughes and I.

Lay-Gaik Ooi. S.google. fermentation products. Symposium 2. B. M. Pool-Zobel. 2006. D Cloarec. Collins.htm http://www. Fermentation of non- digestible oligosaccharides by human colonic bacteria. 66(3): P-307-15 20.sciencedaily. Proc Nutr Soc.M1 http://books.com/releases/2008/06/080627163121.. S Bruley des Varannes. ^ Hedin C et al. Willems.wikipedia. Volume 102.. and Min-Tze Liong* School of Industrial Technology. Prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract Aliment Pharmacol Ther. J L Barry. Ting-Jin Lim. 11800 Penang. 23. F Bornet. Malaysia 21. ^ 24Givson.google. Glei.uk/health/article-400681/The-facts-prebiotics.co.com/health/nutrition/biotics/prebiot. and J P Galmiche Relations between transit time. D.ca/prebiotic_fibre.net on prebiotics and bifidogenic factors International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics http://www. Reading.com/releases/2008/04/080401200444. 38(6): 870–877. G.dailymail. pp 663-671. “Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tumour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis” Authors: U. A. and hydrogen consuming flora in healthy humans.htm http://www. Gut. Universiti Sains Malaysia. ^ Macfarlane S et al.html http://www.raysahelian.html http://www. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (1996). PMCID: PMC1383195 24.htm http://books.19. 24(5): P-701-14.prebiotic.html http://www. ^ British Journal of Nutrition. 55.com/books?id=XgF_VEDw-REC&printsec=frontcover Retrieved from "http://en.com/books?id=y2rvBwMy6HgC&printsec=frontcover#PPA43. ^ Antihypertensive Properties of Plant-Based Prebiotics: Siok-Koon Yeo.com/prebiotic. 899-912. [edit] External links • • • • • • • • • • Food-Info.sciencedaily.L. ^ 23L El Oufir.. Evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of clinical trials. Scharlau 22. September 2009. D. Munjal. R.org/wiki/Prebiotic_(nutrition)" Categories: Bacteriology | Digestive system | Prebiotics Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009 Personal tools • • • New features Log in / create account Article Namespaces . B Flourié. M. 2007. 1996 June.innvista. Issue 05.

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