GATE -1999

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Du rn t ion, Three hOUTS

Maximum Marks: 150

SECTION A (75 Marks)

1. This question consists 0125 (Twenty Fi vel rnnl tiple choice questions, each carrying one mark. For each questions (1.1 -1.25), four alternatives (n, b, (and d) are given, out of which only one is correct.

(25 x 1 = 25)

1.1 Identify which of the following is NOT a true of the graph shown in the given figure is

(a) begl! (c) adh

(11) dels (d) aeg"

1.2 The a-transform F(z) 01 the function l(nT) == a"T is

z (a) z_nT

z (b) z+IlT


(el --:T



(d) ----T


1.3 If (fUll == F{s), then jf(1- T)1 is equal to

(a) ("T F(s) (b) l'-,T F(s)

F(s) (e) 1 _ e,r

F(s) (d) 1- e-·r


A 2-port network is shown in the given figure. TIle

Parameter II for this network can be given by 21

1_ _t2



(a) -1/2 (e) - 3/2

(b) + 1/2 (d) + 3/2


The early effect in a bipolar junction transistor is caused by

(a) fast tum-on (b) fast tum-off

(c) large collector-base reverse bias (d) large emitter-base forward bias

1.6 The first dominant pole encountered in the frequency response of a compensated op - amp is approximately at

(a) 5 Hz (uj 10 kHz

(el 1 MHz (d) 100 MHz


Negative feedback in an amplifier (n) reduces gain

(b) increases frequency and phase distortions (c) reduces bandwidth

(d) increases noise


In the cascade amplifier shown in the given figure, if the common - emitter stage (Q1l has a Ir~nsconductance glllj' and the common base stage ·1 ,ll;~j a transconductance gm" then the overall lr,~'n5conductance ~ (= i Iv)- of the cascade

, 0'

amplifier is

(a) Sml

(b) 3m2

gmt (e)


(d) g ... 2 2

1.9 Crossover distortion behaviour is characteristic of (a) Class A output stage

(b) Class B output stage

(e) Class AB output stage

(d) Common - base output stage

1.10 The logical expresion y == A + A B is equivalent to

(a) y == AB (b) .'I = A B

(e) y == A + B

(d) Y == A + B

1.11 A Darlington emitter - follower circuit is somtimes used in the output stage of a TIL gate in order to

(a) increase its IOL

(b) reduce its Iml

(e) increase its speed of operation (tI) reduce power dissip"tioll

1.12 Commercia 11)' available ECL gcars use two ground lines and one negative supply in order to

(n) reduce power d issipa tion

(b) increase fan- out

(e) reduce loading effect

(d) eliminate the ef".cct of power line glitches or the biasing circuit

1.13 The resoh .• tion ofa 4 - bit counting ADC i50.5 volts.

For an analog input of 6.6 volts, the digital output of the ADC will be

(n) 1011 (b) 110]

(e) 11 00 (d) I'll 0

1-14 For a second - order system with the closed - loop transfer function


T(s) = Sl +45+9

the settling time for 2 - percent band, in seconds, is

(n) 1.5 (b) 2.0

(c) 3.0 (d) 4.0

1.15 The gain margin (in riB) of a system ahaving the loop transfer function


G(s) H(s) '" 5(5+ 1) is

(a) 0 (e) 6

(b) 3 (d) 00

1.16 The system rnoded described by the stale equations is

y = [1 l)x

(n) controllable and observable

(b) controllable, but not observable (e) observable, but not controllable

(d) neither controllable nor observable

1_17 The phase margin (in degrees) of a system having the loop transfer function

G ( 2..[3

(s)H s)= -- is s(s + 1)

(b) -300 (d) 30°

1_18 A signal x(l) has a Fourier transform X(~»). If x (I) is a real and odd function of I, then X{Ol) is

(n) a real and even function of i»

(DJ a imaginary and odd function of OJ Ct") an imaginary and even function of rQ (d) "real '1I1d odd function of w

1.19 The input to a channel is a bandpass signal. It is obtained by linearly modulating a sinusoidal carrier with a single-tone signal. The ou tput 01 the channel due to this input is given by

y(t) = (1/100) cos (1001 - 1O-Q) cos (10bl - 1.56) The group delay U.> and the phase delay (tp) in seconds, of the channel are

(n) Is = '10"", Ip = 156

(b) t.~ = 1.56, tp == 10--<'

(e) = 1O~ I = 1.56 x 10~

s I ,J

(rI) I = 108 I = 1.56

s ' p

1.20 A modulated signal is given by,

s{t) = 1111 (t) cos (2nf..I) + mpl sin (21if. t) where: the baseband signa I III 1 (I) and m2 (I) have bandwidthsoflO kHz and 15 kl-lz.respectively. The bandwid th of the modulated signal. in kHz, is

(n) 10 (b) 15

(e) 25 (d) 30

1.21 A modulated signal is given by

s(t) ==,' --.rI cos [(w,_ + Aw)t] u(/),

where n, w" and l'lro are positive constants, and (0),.» I'I(~.

The complex envelope of s(t) is given by (a) expt-at) expU(lQ,. + 1'1(1)/]11(1)

(/,) exp (-at) exp (jl'lwl) 11(1)

(e) exp (jfl.w/). 11(1)

«(i) expUw, + l'lw} IJ

1.22 An electric field .on a plane is described by its potential

V = 20(r-1 + ,-2)

where r is the distance from the source. The field is due to

(a) a monopole (b) a dipole

(c) both a monopole and a dipole (d) a quadrupole

LZ.1 "\s~umt"g perft;'cl conductors ul 11 rrnnsnussron linl" 1'111'0.' TEl'v1 propag.uion is NOT possible in (,1) coaxial cable

(1'1 .nr-Iilled C),I,ndrie;,1 \\'''''l'gllidc (e) parallel twin-wire line in .';1'

(d) semi-infinite parallel plate wave guide

1.24 lndicate which one of the following will NOTcx;Si ill (J recl:tr1gu if! r resonant CtJ \.' i 1 _\',

(n) TE II" (b) TE ""

(el TM IHl (d) TNI tu

1.25 Identify which one of the f, llowinj; will NOT satisfy the wave equation.

(n) 50 ,.( .• ,- ~'l (el cos (,,~ + 51)

(b) sin !(,)(l0: + 51)J (iI) sin (x) cos (I)

2. This question consists 0125 (Twenty Five) multiple choice questions, each carrying two marks, For each question (2.1 - 2.25). lou r alternatives (a, b, c and iI) Me given, out 01 which only one IS correct. (25 " 2 = 50)

2.1 The Fourier series representation of an impules train denoted by


s(t) = 2.: d (1- II To) is given by

t,. - :n

(n) To



I' .. -v.

(b) To

trwl exp- To



}'1Il1 exp To


The Thevenin equivalent voltage VTIi appearing between the terminals A and B of the network shown in the given ligwe is given by

(II) j16(3 - j4) ,n A

fbi ,16(3,,4) ,",,1, t C :" :.~" (.) 16{3+j4) L 1 I 1 ~

rd) 16(3 - j4)

2 .. ,

TIle value of R (in iHlln~) r:_:.qllin:d (or m .. '1v.:I01urr. power transfer In lhC" network shown In the ~Ivcr, li~lIre

!Il) 2 [il) 4 Il) 8 (iI) 16

A Delta-cOllnecl<'J net work with i t~ Wvc.equivalent is shown In the given figure rs . Tlw resist~nces R" ~ and R, (m ohms) are respect ivelv

(,,) 1.5,3 and 9 k) 9,3 and 1.5

(vi .1, 9 and 1.5

(d) 3, 1.5 and <)

2.5 An u-channel J EFr has I,",,, = 21llA and VI' = -4 V.

Its transconductance gin (in milliohm) for an applied gate· to-source voltage V cs of ~2 V is

(.l) 0.25 (b) 0.5

k) 0.75

(d) 1.0


All "1'11 transistor (with C ,. 0.3 pr) has ,I unitygain cu rolf frequencyj, of 400 M Hz at a de bias current J, = 1 rnA. The value of its C" (in pF) is approximately (VI = 26 mV)

(II) 15 (i» 30

("J 50 (d) 96


An amplifier has an open - loop g.ain of 100, an input impedance of 1 ki:l, and an output impedance 01 100 n. A feedback network with a fcedback fodor of 0.99 is connected to the amplifier in a voltage series feedback mode. The new input and output impedances, respectively. ~rt>

ill) 10 n and 1 Q (b) 10 n and 10 h1

if) 100 Q and I Q (d) 100 kQ In.i Jl,.n

A Iff power supply has a no-load ",),i:lgC '" ,~O V, and a lull-load voltage of 25 Ii ill ,1 full load cu rrent of 1 A. Its output rcsist.mce and load rl!)!;ul"tion, respectively. are

VI) :; n ~nd 20':·" (l,) 25.1.l .lIld 20",.

(,-) 5 nand 16.7':,. (d) 2:; Q .ml~ I n.:-".,


An .implificr )$ tlSSUlnl~d 10 have l\ sins.'e . pole hiSh,f"cqucllc}, transfer runcuon. The rise lime of its output response to J step function input is 35 usee. The upper -3 .113 frequency (in MHz)

for the a mpl if ier approximately <11 (n) 455

(e) 20

to a strrusoid a l input is

(II) 10 (d) 28.6

2.10 The minimized form of the 10gic<11 expression (A B C + ABC + A Be + ABE ) is

(a) AC +BC + AS

(b) A C + B C + A B

(e) A C + B C + A B

(d) A C + B C + A i3

2.11 For a binary half - subtracter hnving two inputs A and B, the correct set of logica I expressions for the outputs D (= A minus B) and X (= borrow) are

(n) D;;AB+ AB,X" AB

(11) D;; A B + A IT + A B , X " A B (c) D" A B + A B , X " A B

(d) D;; A B + A B , X = A B

2.12 The ripple counter shown in the given figure is works as a

(n) mod - 3 lip counter (b) mod - 5 lip counter

(c) mod - 3 down counter (d) mod - 5 down counter

2.13 IfCS = A,s At4 Al~ is used as the chip select logic of a 4 K RAM in an 8085 system, then its memory range will be

(a) 3000 H - 3 FFF H (b) 7000 H • 7 FFF H

(e) 5000 H - 5 FFF Hand 6000 H - 6 FFF H (d) 6000 rl - 6 FFF Hand 7000 H - 7 fFF H

2.14 If the dosed -loop t runsfcrIunction T(s) o] i\ unily negative fe<!db~ck system is ~ivcn by

then the steady state error for a unit ramp input is

(Il) !!..!L UI) ~
(111_1 llll_l
(c) ~ (d)
(l ,,~2 zero 2.15 Consider the points 5, = - 3 + j4 and 5, = -:3 -j2 in the s-plane, Then, for a system with the open-loop trans fer function

(Il) 51 is 011 the root locus.but nOI s~ (/» $, is on the root locus. but not s,

(e) both 51 and 52 are on the root locus (d) neither $1 nor $2 is on the root locus,

2.16 For the system described by the state equation


x- 0 0.5

If the control signal !I is given by II = [--D5 -3 -5J \' + t', then the eigenvalues of the dosed-loop system will be

(Il) 0.-1,-2 (b) 0,-1,-3

(c) -1,-1,-2

(d) 0,-1,-1

2.17 The z-transform of a signal is given by

Its final value is (Il) 1/4

(e) 1.0

(b) zero

(d) infinity

2.18 The Nyquist sampling frequency (in Hz) of a sigwl given by

6 x 10' sin c·2 (4001)'lO~ sin cJ (1001) is

(a) 200 (b) 300

(el 500 (d) 1000

2.19 The peak-to-peak input to an 8-bit rCM coder is 2 volts. The signal power-to-quantization noise power ratio (in dB) for an input of 0.5 cos (m", t) is

(II) 47.8 (b) 49.8

(e) 95,6 (d) 99,6

2.20 The inpu t to a rna tched filter is given by

s(t) = {~O sin(2" x 1 o" t]

0<1 < 10'" sec

otherwise The peak amplitude of the filter output is

(a) 10 volts (b) 5 volts

(c) 10 millivolts

(d) 5 millivolts

2.21 Four independent messages have bandwidths of 100 Hz, 200 Hz, and 400 Hz, respecivaly. Each is sampled at the Nyquist rate, and the samples are time div ision mul tiplexed (TOM) and transmitted. The transmitted sample rate (in Hz) is

(a) 1600 (b) 800

(e) 400

(d) 200

2.22 In a twin-wire transmission line in air, the adjacent voltage maxima are at 12.5 em and 27.5 em, The operating frequency is

(a) 300 MHz (b) 1 GHz

(e) 2 GHz

(d) 6.28 GHz

2.23 A trasmitting antenna radiates 251 W isotropically.

A receiving antenna, located 100 m away from the transmitting antenna. has an effective aperture of 500 cm2, The total received by the antenna is

(a) 10 ~IW (b) 1 ~W

(e) 20 JlW (d) 100 JlW

2.24 In air, a lossless transmission line of length 50 em with L = 10 IIH I In, C = 40 pF 1m is operated at 25 MHz. Its electrical path length is

(al 0.5 meters (b) ),_ meters

(e) Te/2 radians (d) 180 degrees

2.25 A plane wave propagating through a medium [e, = 8, v r = 2, and (1' = 0] has its electric field given

by E = 0.5 X I' -{,nl sin (10~ t - ~z) V /rn.

The wave impedance, in ohms is

(a) 377 (b) 198.5 L 1800

(c) 182.9 L 14° (d) 133.3

SECTION B (75 Marks)

This section consists of TWENTY questions of FIVE marks each. ANY FIFTEEN out of them have to be answered. (15 x 5 = 75)

EC 3. In the circuit of the the Switch 'S' has remained open for a long time. The switch closes tnst~ntaneO\lsly a I t = 0

(a) Find Vo for t so and as t ~ OX>

(b) Write an expression for VI) as function of lime for 0 SI Sa;

(c) Evaluate V 0 at 1= 25 .usee.

EC 4. For the network shown in the given figure is evaluate the current I flOWing through the 20 resistor using superposi tion theorem,

EC 5. A coil with a quality factor (Q) of 10 is put in series with a capacitor C, of 10 )/F, and the combination is found to draw maximum current when a sinusoidal voltage of frequency 50 Hz is applied. A second capacitor C2 is now in parallel with the circuit. What should be the capacitance of C2 for combined circuit to act purely as a resistance for a sinusoidal excitation at a frequency of 100 Hz ? Calculate the rms current drawn by the combined circuit at 100 Hz if the applied voltage is 100 V (rms),

EC 6. A bipolar junction transistor amplifier circuit is shown in the figure is Assume that the current source Ihios is ideal, and the transistor has vary large b, 'I' = O. and '0 ~ ca:

Determine the lie small-Signal midband voltage gain (V/V,), input resistance (R,l, and output resistance (R) of the circuit. Assume V T = 26 rn V

EC 7. A JFIT having u = 50 and rd = 10 Kn is used in a common - source configuration as shown in the

, given figure. The JFET capacitances are Cs• '" 5pF, Cgd';' 2 pF, and Cd, = 2 pF. Determine the lie smallsignal midband voltage gain (Vo/V,) and the upper -3 dB frequency of the circuit

EC 8. Neatly sketch and label the de transfer characteristic (i.e., V 0 us. Vi) of the circuit shown in the given figure as V in varies from -2 V to + 2 V. Assume ideal op-amp, and the diodes have a forward voltage of 0.6 V and zero incremental resistance.

EC 9. A transistor LC oscillator circuit is shown in the given figure. Assume that the transistor has very high ~ (so that you may neglect rd). Derive an equation governing the circuit operation, and find the frequency of oscillation. Also, state the gain condition required for oscillation 10 start.

EC 10.ln the CMOS inverter circuit shown in the figure is the input vi makes a transition from VOL (= 0 V) toY OH (= 5V). Determine the high-te>tow propagation delay time (lpHL) when itis driving a capacitive load (eL) of20 pF. Device data:

NMOS: VTN '" 1 V; kN = I'" COX (W/Ll"

= 40 pA/VI., ,t = 0, PMOS: VTP=-l V, kp=JlpCox(W/L)p

'" 20 JlA/V'I., ,t = O.

Neglect body effect.

EC 11.The circuit diagram of a synchronous counter is shown in the given figure. Determine the sequence of states of the counter assuming that the initial state is '000'. Give your answer in a

tabular form showing the present state QAI"I' QIlIn1 Oc(n)' J-K inputs aN KA' Jw J,. K), and the next state QAln~J)' QU("+l)' QC(n+lf From the table, determine the modulus of the counter.

EC 12. In a certain application, four inputs A, B, C, D (both true and complement forms available) are fed to logic circuit, producing an output F which operates a relay. The relay turns on when F (ABCD) = 1 for the following states of the inputs (ABCD): '0000', '0010', '0101', '0110', '1101' and '1110'. States '1000' and '1001' do not occur, and for the remaining states, the relay is off. Minimize F with the help of a Karnaugh map and realize il using a minimum number of 3 - input NAND gates.

EC 13. An 8l\,~5 assembly langu~ge program is given b"'I",,,,

Mvrc, 031-1 LX! l-l, 2DDDH




DCRC jNZLooPl STA 21001-1 I-lLT

Contents of the memory locations 2000 H to 2.002 Hare

2000; 18 H 2001 : 101"1, 2002: 2 BH.

(a) What does the above program do ?

(b) At the end of the program, what will be

(I) the contents of the registers A, S, C, H and L?

(ii) the condi lien of the carry and zero flags? (iii) the contents of the memory locations 2000 H, 2001 H, 2002 H, and 2100 H.



EC 14. The loop transfer function of a feedback control system is given by


C(s)H(s) = s(t + T~}(1 +2s)' K > 0

Using Routh - Hurwitz criterion, determine the region of K - T plane in which the dosed - loop system is stable. .

EC 15. The asymptotic Sode plot of the minimum phase open-loop transfer function G(s) H{s) in as shown in the figure is Obtain the transfer functfon G{s) I-I(s)

I ~,tQd/1I) :t~,,~)

·20 ~-_ •• - - ----= --=- -~ -_ .. - ---,--- ,--"

EC 16.Co[1sidc'· a feedb'Kk system with the open-loop I ransfer f unction, gi ven by

K G(:;)H(s) '" ~(~2-~ .$+ 1)

Examine the stability of the closed-loop system using Nyquist stability theory.

EC 17. A baseband signal mill modulates il

carrier to' produce the angle modulated signal. Ac cos 12 11 x lOs I + k" m( r)], where m( /) is shown in the figure is Determine the value of k so thai


the peak-to-peak frequency deviation of the

carrier is 100 kHz.


(~11~1 L~



EC 18. Input to a linear delta modulator is a sinusoidal signal whose frequency can vary from 200 Hz to 4000 Hz. TIle input is sampled' at eight times the Nyquist rate. The peak amplitude of the sinusoidal signal is I vol t.

(n) Determine the minimum value of the step size in order to avoid slope overload when the input signal frequency is 800 Hz.

(b) What is the peak amplitude of the input signal, 10 just overload the modulator, when the input signal frequency is 200 Hz ?

(c) Is the modul a tor overlaoded when the inpu t slgnal frequency is 4000 Hz?

EC 19.The power spectral density (PSD) 'of a noise process is given by

{10.-~(. 1/1-'J08)

5/11 '1+-·-

. N ')' = 0 1O~

II < lO~ II:> 1O~

The noise is passed through a unity-gain ideal bandpass filter, centered at 50 MHz and having a bandwid th of 2 MHz.

(11) Sketch neatly the PSD of the output noise . process.

(b) Determine the output noise power.

(c) Using the bandpass representation for tlw output noise process, sketch the PSD of the inphase and quadrature noise components, and determine their respective powers.

EC 20. A plane wave in free space with E = (.J1I") (10.0 ); + 11.8 y). exp /(4lf" 108f - kz)j,

where x and if are unit vectors in the x- .11- dire<:t.ions, respectively, is incident normally on" semi-infinite block of ice as shown in the figure is

For ice, I-l '" f.lry G' = 0, and E'" 9co (1 - jO.001).



(n) Calculate the average power density associated with the incident wave.

(b) Calculate the skin depth in ice.

(c) Estimate the average power density at a distance of S times the skine depth

in the ice block, measured from the interface.

EC 21.A 100 m section of an air-fined rectangular waveguide operating in the TE10 mode has a crosssectional dimension of 1.071 ern x O.Scm. Two pulses of 21 GHz and 28 GHz are simultaneously launched at one end of the waveguide section. Wha t is the time delay difference between the two pulses at the other end of the waveguide?

EC 22. TIle average power of an ornni directional antenna varies as the magnitude of cosO, where 0 is the az imuthal angle. Ca leu late the maximum Directive Gain of the antenna and the angles at which it occurs.

1.1 (e) 1. 2 (n) 1.3 (b) 1.4 (n) 1.5 (el 1.6«(1) 1.7 (n) 1.8 (a) 1.9 (b) 1. 10 (d)
1.11 (e) 1.12 (d) 1.13 (b) 1.14 (b) 1.15 (d) 1. 16 (d) 1.17 (a) 1.18 (a) 1. 19 (d) 1. 20 (el
1.21 (el 1.22 (el 1.23 (d) 1. 24 (a) 1.25 (e) 2.1 (a! 2.2 (d) 2.3(°) 2.4 (d) 2.5 (b)
2.6 (d) 2.1 (r) 2.8 (d) 2.9 (d) 2.10 (a) 2.11 (r) 2. 12 (d) 2.13 (d) 2.14 (dl 2.15 (d)
2.16 (d) 2.11 (b) 2.18 (d) 2.19 (e) 2. 20 (Il) 2.21 (b) 2. n(b) 2.23 (d) 2.24 (a) 2.25 (a)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful