HOW WE CAN MAKE THE CHANGE EFFECTIVE«

ACTIVITIES-EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANAGEMENT

1. MOTIVATING CHANGE 2. CREATING VISION 3. DEVOLOPING POLITICAL SUPPORT 4. MANAGING THE TRANSITION 5. SUSTAINING MOMENTUM

MOTIVATING CHANGE-

1. Creating Readiness for change Sensitize organizations to pressures for change  Reveal difference between current and desired states  Convey credible positive expectations for change

2. Overcoming Resistance to
Change 
Empathy & support  Communication  Participation & involvement

Sensitize the pressure1.High pressure leads to change 2.Heavy foreign competition, rapidly changing technology, draw of global markets 3.New leadership, poor product quality, high production cost, absenteeism.

Make more sensitive to pressure 1.keep watching the surroundings 2.visiting other organizations-new ideas , methods 3.benchmarks

Reveal difference between current & desired state1.generating a felt need for change 2.Information about the current functioning is gathered & compared with desired states of operation. 2.difference motivate to initiate corrective changes 3.provide the feedback about current organizational functioning-it energize the action of change

Convey credible positive expectations for the change1.Positive expectation play a major role 2.Expectation about success develop greater commitment. 3.Communicate realistic, positive expectations about change.

Empathy & support1.Learn how people are experiencing change 2. Active listening 3. Make aware every one that they are responsible for managing change.

Communication1.rumors & gossips adds to the anxiety 2.change information-through meeting & presentations

Participation & involvement 1.Make aware that everyone is important 2.Results in diversity of ideas & information

CREATING A VISION
A vision describes the core values & purpose that guide the organization as well as an envisioned future toward change is directed. It provides a valued direction for designing , implementing and assessing organizational change.

3. vision energize commitment to change. 4. leaders have an active role.

a)-DESCRIBING THE CORE IDEOLOGY. b)-CONSTRUCTING THE ENVISIONED FUTURE.

DESCRIBING THE CORE IDEOLOGY .core ideology describes organization¶s core values & purpose. .stable over time. .core values-normally 3 to 5 principles / beliefs that have stood the test of time & represent what the organization stand for?

.core values are µvalues in use¶ &
inform members what is organization. important in the

.eg- DISNEY companies have values around wholesomeness & imagination. .define true nature of the firm & can¶t be separated from them.

Core purpose-idealistic motivation that brings people to work each day. It is not a strategy , it describes why the organization exists. strategy describes how an objective will be achieved.

Example-slogan
DISNEYLAND was guided by essential purpose of -³creating a place where people can feel like kids again´. APPLE- ³changing the way people do their work´.

CONSTRUCTING AN ENVISIONED FUTURE Includes the following elements that can be communicated to members««. Bold & Valued outcomes: .Descriptions of envisioned future often include specific performance& human outcomes that the organization would like to achieve.

Desired future state: .This element specifies what the organization should look like to achieve bold & valued outcomes. .It is a passionate & engaging statement intended to draw organization members to future. .The organization features described in the statement help define a desired future state toward which change activities should move.

DEVOLOPING POLITICAL SUPPORT:
.Attempts to change organization may threaten the balance of power among groups. .it results in political conflicts & struggles. .some groups will become less powerful & others will gain influence.

1.ASSESSING CHANGE AGENT POWER 2.IDENTIFYING KEY STAKE HOLDERS 3.INFLUENCING STAKEHOLDERS

ASSESSING CHANGE AGENT POWERChange agent may be the leader of the organization/department undergoing change. In addition to one¶s formal positionthree sources of personal power«. 1.knowledge 2.personality 3.others support

IDENTIFYING KEY STAKEHOLDERSChange agents can identify powerful individuals & groups. Staff groups, unions, departmental managers, top level executives. Once stakeholders are identified, crating a map of their influence This provide information about which people & groups need to be influenced to accept & support the changes.

INFLUENCING STAKEHOLDERSGaining the support of key stakeholders to motivate a critical mass for change. 3 strategies 1.Playing it straight 2.Using social network. 3.Going around social system.

PLAYING STRAIGHT:
Determining the needs of particular stakeholders and presenting information about how the change can benefit them. Information & knowledge can persuade people about the need & direction for change. Success lies on change agent¶s knowledge base.

Using social networksForming alliances with other powerful individuals and groups. Dealing directly with key decision makers, using formal & informal contacts to gain information. Change agents try to use their social relationship to gain support for change.

Going around the formal system:
This strategy relies on a strong personality base of power. It involves purposely circumventing organizational structures and procedures to get the changes made.

MANAGING THE TRANSITION:
Transition state is quite different from the present state of the organization & require special management structures & activities. 1.Activity planning 2.Commitment planning 3.Management structures

ACTIVITY PLANNING:
This involves making a road map for change, citing specific activities and events that must occur if the transition is to be successful. It should gain top management approval, be cost effective. Provide mid point goals: It represents desirable organizational condition between the current state & desired future state It give more concrete & manageable steps and benchmark for change.

COMMITMENT PLANNING:
Identifying key people & groups whose commitment is needed for change. A part of developing political support.

CHANGE- MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES:
This management structures should include people who have the power to mobilize resources to promote change, respect of existing leadership & interpersonal and political skills to guide the change process. Alternative management structures: 1 .the chief executive manages the change effort.

2.A project manager is temporarily assigned to coordinate the transition. 3.Representatives of the major departments involved in the change jointly manage the project. 4.Natural leaders who have confidence & trust of large employees are selected.

SUSTAINING MOMENTUM:
FOLLOWING FIVE ACTIVITIES CAN HELP TO SUSTAIN MOMENTUM FOR CHANGE««.. PROVIDING RESOURCES FOR CHANGE. BUILDING A SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR CHANGE AGENTS. DEVOLOPING NEW COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS. REINFORCING NEW BEHAVIORS STAYING THE COURSE.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PROVIDING RESOURCES FOR CHANGE: ADDITIONAL FINANCIAL & HUMAN RESOURCES. TRAINING CONSULTATION DATA COLLECTION FEEDBACK SPECIAL MEETING

A SEPARATE ³CHANGE BUDGET´ THAT EXISTS ALONG WITH CAPITAL & OPERATING BUDGET CAN ENMARK RESOURCES NEEDED FOR TRAINING MEMBERS««

BUILDING A SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR CHANGE AGENTS: TENSION FOR CHANGE AGENTS. CHANGE AGENTS MAY NEED TO CREATE THEIR OWN SUPPORT SYSTEM« IT INCLUDES A NETWORK OF PEOPLE WITH WHOM THE CHANGE AGENT HAS CLOSE PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP.

DOVELOPING NEW COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS:
Changes can not be implemented unless members gain new competencies Change agents must ensure the learning They must provide multiple learning opportunities 1.traditional training programs 2.on the job counseling 3.simulation Aim is to develop both technical & social skills«..

REINFORCING NEW BEHAVIOURS:
Reinforce the kind of behaviors needed to implement the change. Link formal rewards directly to the desired behaviours. Desired behaviours can be reinforced more frequently through« 1.informal recognition 2.encouragement& praise

STAYING THE COURSE If the organization changes again too quickly or abandons the change before it is fully implemented the desired results may never materialize.. Major reasons for why managers fail to keep a study focus on change implementation are«..

1. Many managers fail to anticipate the decline in performance, productivity, satisfaction as change is implemented« 2. Change need additional expense.. 3. Perfectly good change project often stopped when questions are raised about short- term performance declines.. 4. Lack of patience.. 5. Bulk of ideas«

Reference
Stephen P Robbins, Organizational behaviour,12e,PHI. Fred luthans, Organizational Behaviour,8e,Irvin/McGrawHill. R.K.Gupta, Managing Change, PHI. Dr.K.Harigopal,Management of change Cummings&Worley,Organizational change and development,7th edition

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