P. 1
Injection Molding1

Injection Molding1

|Views: 30|Likes:
Published by Dejvid Ajk

More info:

Published by: Dejvid Ajk on Sep 09, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/17/2015

pdf

text

original

Injection Molding

2.810 Fall 2002 Professor Tim Gutowski

Short history of plastics
1862 1866 1891 1907 1913 1926 1933 1938 1939 1957 1967 first synthetic plastic Celluloid Rayon Bakelite Cellophane PVC Polyethylene Teflon Nylon stockings velcro “The Graduate”

Outline
Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment

Readings
Tadmore and Gogos

Molding and Casting pp584 -610

Boothroyd Dewhurst

Design for Injection Molding pp 319 - 359

Kalpakjian see Ch 18 Injection molding case study;Washing machine augers; see on web page

30 ton.5 oz (45 cm3) Engel Injection Molding Machine for wheel fabrication . 1.

Process & machine schematics * * Schematic of thermoplastic Injection molding machine * Source: http://www.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.idsa-mp.htm .

Thermal degradation Flash Shortshot Melt Pressure . hold.Process Operation Temperature: barrel zones. tool opening Shot size: screw travel Processing window Temp. die zone Pressures: injection max. hold Times: injection. tool.

Typical pressure/temperature cycle * * Time(sec) Time(sec) Cooling time generally dominates cycle time * Source: http://islnotes.cps.html α α = 10 −3 cm3 sec for polymers tcool ( half thickness) 2 = .msu.edu/trp/inj/inj_time.

2 cavity 800 ton .Calculate clamp force.8 lbs = 2245 cm3 =75 oz Actual . & shot size F=P X A = 420 tons 3.

Clamp force and machine cost .

Heat transfer qx qx + ∆ qx Note. α To ol >α p ly er om 1-dimensional heat conduction equation : Fourier’s law ∂q ∂ ( ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ T )∆x∆y = − x ∆x∆y ∂t ∂x ∂T q x = −k ∂x ∂T ∂ 2T ∂T ∂ 2T ρ ⋅ cp = k 2 or =α 2 ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x 1st kind 2nd kind 3rd kind T ( x = x' ) = constant ∂T ( x = x' ) = constant ∂x ∂T −k ( x = x' ) = h (T − T∞ ) ∂x −k Boundary Conditions: The boundary condition of 1st kind applies to injection molding since the tool is often maintained at a constant temperature .

tch = L2/α . ξ = + 1.C. – wall temp. FO ) = ∑ f ( FO ) g (ξ ) .) θ Non-dimensionalize: = +L -L T − TW x α ⋅t .C.Heat transfer Tii t TW x Let Lch = H/2 (half thickness) = L . matching I. θ (ξ . matching B.. FO = 2 Ti − TW L L Dimensionless equation: Initial condition Boundary condition ∂θ ∂ 2θ = 2 ∂FO ∂ξ FO = 0 θ =1 θ =0 θ =0 ξ =0 ξ =2 Separation of variables . ∆ Tch = Ti – TW (initial temp.

θ = 0. Fo = α t/L2 = 1 Bi-1 =k/hL .1.Temperature in a slab Centerline.

Fill time 1s −1 µ = 103 N ⋅ s m 2 Re = 10 −4 For Die casting 3 ⋅103 ×10 −1 ×10 −3 Re ≈ = 300 −3 10 * Source: http://www.idsa-mp. LZ = 10 −3 m thickness V≈ Part length 10 = .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm .Reynolds Number Reynolds Number: V2 ρ inertia ρVL L Re = = V µ µ 2 viscous L For typical injection molding ρ = 1 g cm3 = 103 N m 4 s 2 .

Viscous Shearing of Fluids F h 1 v F/A µ F v ∝ A h Generalization: τ = η (γ ) γ v τ =µ h v/h Newtonian Viscosity τ = µγ γ : shear rate Typical shear rate for Polymer processes (sec)-1 Extrusion 102~103 Calendering 10~102 Injection molding Injection molding “Shear Thinning” ~ 1 sec-1 for PE γ .

order of magnitude ~ 0.1 to 10 .Viscous Heating Rate of Heating = Rate of Viscous Work Rate of Temperature rise P F ⋅v F v v = = ⋅ = µ  Vol Vol A h h 2 ρ ⋅ cp dT v = µ  dt h 2 or dT µ = dt ρ ⋅ c p v   h 2 Rate of Conduction out dT k d 2T k ∆T = ~ 2 dt ρ ⋅ c p dx ρ ⋅ c p h2 Brinkman number Viscous heating µv 2 = Conduction k∆T For injection molding.

therefore it requires thick runners .3cm 2 / s 10cm * Very small.1cm ~ ⋅ = 2.5 −3 2 Heat xfer rate 4 10 cm / s 10cm For Die casting of aluminum Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0.1cm ~ ⋅ ≅ 10 − 2 Heat xfer rate 4 0.Non-Isothermal Flow v Flow rate: 1/t ~V/Lx Heat transfer rate: 1/t ~a/(Lz/2)2 Flow rate V ⋅ L2 1 VLz Lz z ~ = ⋅ Heat xfer rate 4α ⋅ Lx 4 α Lx For injection molding Small value => Short shot Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.

Injection mold mold die cast .

edu/trp/inj/flw_froz.Fountain Flow * ** * Source: http://islnotes. Tadmore and C.cps. ** Z.html . Gogos.msu. “Principles of Polymer Processing” .

5cm/ s V=8cm/s * Source: G. Menges and W.Shrinkage distributions sample Transverse direction V=3. “Influence of processing conditions on Molecular Orientation in Injection Molds” . Wubken.

air entrapment Diagonal gate: radial flow – twisting End gates: linear flow – minimum warping .012 2.32° Shrinkage Direction of flow – 0.976 Before shrinkage After shrinkage Air entrapment Gate Center gate: radial flow – severe distortion Edge gate: warp free.020 in/in Perpendicular to flow – 0.Gate Location and Warping Sprue 2.96 60.0 1.0 60° 1.

030 0.025 LDPE PP Acetal LDPE Acetal PP with flow PP across flow PMMA 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Shrinkage 0.030 0.015 Nylon 6/6 0.020 0.005 PMMA 0.01 5 0.01 0 0.000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Mold Temperature (F) Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .02 0 0.00 0 Shrinkage Nylon 6/6 0.00 5 0.02 5 0.Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage 0.010 0.

Where would you gate this part? .

htm Basic rules in designing ribs to minimize sink marks .idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7. Sink mark Gate Weld line Mold Filling Solidified part Sink mark * Source: http://www.Weld line.

Injection Molding * * * Source: http://www.idsa-mp.htm .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_2.

Where is injection molding? ∆ Ltotal = ∆ Lmld + o ∆ Lshrinkage .

015 PP across flow Nylon 6/6 0.030 LDPE Acetal PP with flow 0.010 0.020 Shrinkage 0.005 PMMA 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 0.Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage 0.025 0.000 Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .

Tooling Basics Sprue Nozzle Cavity Plate Core Plate Moulding Core Cavity Cavity Basic mould consisting of cavity and core plate Gate Runner Melt Delivery .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Knob Runner Cavity Part Stripper plate Core .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Kno b Part Part Strippe r plate .

co.hzs.) .Ltd. ** http://www.org/proc/plastic/injection/.idsa-mp.htm (E-trainer by HZS Co.jp/english/products/e_trainer/mold/basic/basic..Tooling * * * * * ** * * Source: http://www.

In some cases. with final drilling to eliminate weld lines . etc.025 in Avoid sharp corners Hide weld lines  Holes may be molded 2/3 of the way through the wall only. small angles (1/4°) will do Problem for gears Draft angle to remove part   Even wall thickness Minimum wall thickness ~ 0.Part design rules Simple shapes to reduce tooling cost  No undercuts.

New developments.Gas assisted injection molding .

injection molding with cores Injection Molded Housing shown in class Cores used in Injection Molding Cores and Part Molded in Clear Plastic .

Environmental issues Petroleum and refining Primary processing Out gassing & energy during processing End of life .

000) Toxic Mat'ls (lb/$1000) Manufacturing industries EPA 2001.5 2 1.Environmental loads by manufacturing sector Carbon Dioxide and Toxic Materials per Value of Shipments 5 4.5 0 Primary Metal Plastics and Rubber Transportation Fabricated Metal Petroleum and Coal Chemicals Machinery Electronic Weight/Dollars CO2 (metric ton/$10.5 4 3.5 1 0. DOE 2001 .5 3 2.

normalized by the melt energy ** total raw mat’l normalized by the part wt. .The estimated environmental performance of various mfg processes (not including auxiliary requirements) *Energy per wt.

The printer goes in the hopper… .

.And comes out….

The problem with plastics is… .

.Or remanufacture….

Summary Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->