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Instruments (Part II)
¾Bridge Circuits (DC and AC)
¾Electronic Instruments (Analog & Digital)
¾Signal Generators
¾Frequency and Time Interval Measurements
¾Introduction to Transducers
Textbook:
A.D. Helfrick, and W.D. Cooper, “Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement
Techniques” Prentice Hall, 1994.
 D.A. Bell, “Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements”, 2nd ed., Prentice Hell, 1994.
อาภรณ ธีรมงคลรั ศมี
ตึกไฟฟา 6 ชั้ น หอง 306
±200~±500 ±2~±10 1~10 100m~100k
Metal oxide film
±0.4~±10 ±0.05~±5 0.1~1 10m~100k
Metal film
(precision)
±10~±200 ±0.5~±5 0.1~3 100m~1M
Metal film
±100~±200 ±2~±10 0.1~3 1~1M
Carbon film
±3~±30 ±0.005~±1 0.1~1 10m~1M
Wire wound
(precision)
±30~±300 ±1~±10 3~1k
10m~3k
Wire wound
(power)
picture
Temperature
coefficient
(ppm/°C)
Tolerance (%)
Power rating
(W)
Values (Ω) Type
Data: Transistor technology (10/2000)
Resistor Types
Resistor Types
Importance parameters
Value
Power rating
Tolerance
Temperature coefficient
Resistor Values
Resistor Values
Color codes
Alphanumeric
M
±20 



10
9
9 White
A
±1


10
8
8 Gray
B
±5
B
±0.1
10
7
7 Violet
C
±10
C
±0.25
10
6
6 Blue
E
±20
D
±0.5
10
5
5 Green
F
±25

10
4
4 Yellow
D
±15


10
3
3 Orange
G
±50
G
±2 10
2
2 Red
H
±100
F
±1 10
1
1 Brown
K
±250

 10
0
0 Black
J
±5 10
1
Gold
 
K
±10 10
2

Silver
Temperature
coefficient
(ppm/°C)
Tolerance
(%)
Multiplier Digit Color
Most sig. fig.
of value
Least sig. fig.
of value
Multiplier
Tolerance
Red
Green
Blue
Brown
Ex.
R = 560 Ω ± 2%
R, K, M, G, and T =
x10
0
, x10
3
, x10
6
, x10
9
, and x10
12
Ex. 6M8 = 6.8 x 10
6
Ω
59Ρ04 = 59.04 Ω
4 band color codes
Alphanumeric
Data: Transistor technology (10/2000)
Commonly available resistance for a fixed resistor
R = x ± %∆x
Nominal value
Tolerance
Ex. 1 kΩ ± 10% ≡ 9001100 Ω
Resistor Values
For 10% resistor
10, 12, 15, 18, …
10 12 15
R
R ≈ √10
n
E
where E = 6, 12, 24, 96
for 20, 10, 5, 1% tolerance
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …
For 10% resistor E = 12
n = 0; R = 1.00000…
n = 1; R = 1.21152…
n = 2; R = 1.46779…
n = 3; R = 1.77827…
Resistance Measurement Techniques
Resistance Measurement Techniques
Bridge circuit
Voltmeterammeter
Substitution
Ohmmeter
A
V
R
A
V
R
R
x
A
Supply
Unknow
resistance
A
Supply
Decade resistance
box substituted in
place of the
unknown
Voltmeterammeter
Substitution
Voltmeterammeter method
V
A
V
S
+

R
x
I
I
V
I
x
V
+

V V
S
+

R
x
I
A
+  V
A
+

V
x
V

Pro and con:
•Simple and theoretical oriented
•Requires two meter and calculations
•Subject to error: Voltage drop in ammeter (Fig. (a))
Current in voltmeter (Fig. (b))
Fig. (a)
Fig. (b)
Measured R
x
:
meas x
R R ≈
meas
x A A
x
V V V V
R R
I I I
+
= = = +
if V
x
>>V
A
Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure
large resistance
Measured R
x
:
meas
1 /
x
x V V x
R V V
R
I I I I I
= = =
+ +
meas x
R R ≈
if I
x
>>I
V
Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure
small resistance
Ohmmeter
•Voltmeterammeter method is rarely used in practical applications
(mostly used in Laboratory)
•Ohmmeter uses only one meter by keeping one parameter constant
Example: series ohmmeter
15k
0
∞
2
5
50
7
5
1
0
0
u
A
4
5
k
5
k
0
Infinity
R
x
Resistance to
be measured
Standard
resistance
R
m
Meter
resistance
Meter
Battery
V
S
R
1
Basic series ohmmeter consisting of a PMMC and a seriesconnected standard resistor (R
1
). When
the ohmmeter terminals are shorted (R
x
= 0) meter full scale defection occurs. At half scale defection
R
x
= R
1
+ R
m
, and at zero defection the terminals are opencircuited.
Basic series ohmmeter
Ohmmeter scale
Nonlinear scale
1
s
x m
V
R R R
I
= − −
Bridge Circuit
DC Bridge
(Resistance)
AC Bridge
Inductance Capacitance Frequency
Schering Bridge Wien Bridge
Maxwell Bridge
Hay Bridge
Owen Bridge
Etc.
Wheatstone Bridge
Kelvin Bridge
Megaohm Bridge
Bridge Circuit
Bridge Circuit is a null method, operates on the principle of
comparison. That is a known (standard) value is adjusted until it is
equal to the unknown value.
Wheatstone Bridge and Balance Condition
V
R
1
R
3
R
2
R
4
I
1
I
2
I
3
I
4
Suitable for moderate resistance values: 1 Ω to 10 MΩ
A
B
C
D
Balance condition:
No potential difference across the
galvanometer (there is no current through
the galvanometer)
Under this condition: V
AD
= V
AB
1 1 2 2
I R I R =
And also V
DC
= V
BC
3 3 4 4
I R I R =
where I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, and I
4
are current in resistance
arms respectively, since I
1
= I
3
and I
2
= I
4
1 2
3 4
R R
R R
=
or
2
4 3
1
x
R
R R R
R
= =
1 Ω
2 Ω 2 Ω
1 Ω
12 V
1 Ω
2 Ω 20 Ω
10 Ω
12 V
1 Ω
2 Ω 10 Ω
10 Ω
12 V
1 Ω
1 Ω 1 Ω
1 Ω
12 V
(a) Equal resistance
(b) Proportional resistance
(c) Proportional resistance
(d) 2Volt unbalance
Example
Measurement Errors
( )
2 2
3 3
1 1
x
R R
R R R
R R
 
±∆
= ±∆

±∆
\ .
V
R
1
R
3
R
2
R
x
A
B
C
D
1. Limiting error of the known resistors
3 2 1 2
3
1 1 2 3
1
x
R R R R
R R
R R R R
 
∆ ∆ ∆
= ± ± ±

\ .
2. Insufficient sensitivity of Detector
3. Changes in resistance of the bridge
arms due to the heating effect (I
2
R) or
temperatures
4. Thermal emf or contact potential in the
bridge circuit
5. Error due to the lead connection
Using 1st order approximation:
3, 4 and 5 play the important role in the
measurement of low value resistance
Example In the Wheatstone bridge circuit, R
3
is a decade resistance with a specified in
accuracy ±0.2% and R
1
and R
2
= 500 Ω ± 0.1%. If the value of R
3
at the null position is
520.4 Ω. determine the possible minimum and maximum value of R
X
3 2 1 2
3
1 1 2 3
1
x
R R R R
R R
R R R R
 
∆ ∆ ∆
= ± ± ±

\ .
SOLUTION Apply the error equation
520.4 500 0.1 0.1 0.2
1 520.4( 1 0.004) 520.4 0.4%
500 100 100 100
x
R
×
 
= ± ± ± = ± = ±

\ .
Therefore the possible values of R
3
are 518.32 to 522.48 Ω
Example A Wheatstone bridge has a ratio arm of 1/100 (R
2
/R
1
). At first balance, R
3
is
adjusted to 1000.3 Ω. The value of R
x
is then changed by the temperature change, the new
value of R
3
to achieve the balance condition again is 1002.1 Ω. Find the change of R
x
due to
the temperature change.
SOLUTION At first balance:
2
3
1
1
old 1000.3 10.003
100
x
R
R R
R
= = × = Ω
After the temperature change:
2
3
1
1
new 1002.1 10.021
100
x
R
R R
R
= = × = Ω
Therefore, the change of R
x
due to the temperature change is 0.018 Ω
Sensitivity of Galvanometer
A galvanometer is use to detect an unbalance condition in
Wheatstone bridge. Its sensitivity is governed by: Current sensitivity
(currents per unit defection) and internal resistance.
Thévenin Equivalent Circuit
G
A
B
C D
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
4
I
1 I
2
V
S
Thévenin Voltage (V
TH
)
1 1 2 2 CD AC AD
V V V I R I R = − = −
where
1 2
1 3 2 4
and
V V
I I
R R R R
= =
+ +
Therefore
1 2
1 3 2 4
TH CD
R R
V V V
R R R R
 
= = −

+ +
\ .
consider a bridge circuit under a small unbalance condition, and apply circuit
analysis to solve the current through galvanometer
Sensitivity of Galvanometer (continued)
Thévenin Resistance (R
TH
)
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
4
A
B
C D
1 3 2 4
// //
TH
R R R R R = +
Completed Circuit
V
TH
R
TH
G
C
D
I
g
=
V
TH
R
TH
+R
g
TH
g
TH g
V
I
R R
=
+
where I
g
= the galvanometer current
R
g
= the galvanometer resistance
Example 1 Figure below show the schematic diagram of a Wheatstone bridge with values of
the bridge elements. The battery voltage is 5 V and its internal resistance negligible. The
galvanometer has a current sensitivity of 10 mm/uA and an internal resistance of 100 Ω.
Calculate the deflection of the galvanometer caused by the 5Ω unbalance in arm BC
SOLUTION The bridge circuit is in the small unbalance condition since the value of
resistance in arm BC is 2,005 Ω.
G
A
C
B
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
4
100 Ω
1000 Ω
2005 Ω 200 Ω
5 V
(a)
100 Ω A
B
C D
200 Ω 2005 Ω
1000 Ω
(b)
R
TH
= 734 Ω
G
C
D
I
g
=3.34 uA
R
g
= 100 Ω
V
TH
2.77 mV
(c)
D
Thévenin Voltage (V
TH
)
Thévenin Resistance (R
TH
)
100// 200 1000// 2005 734
TH
R = + = Ω
The galvanometer current
2.77 mV
3.32 A
734 100
TH
g
TH g
V
I
R R
u = = =
+ Ω+ Ω
Galvanometer deflection
10 mm
3.32 A 33.2 mm
A
d u
u
= × =
mV 2.77
2005 1000
1000
200 100
100
V 5
≈

.

\

+
−
+
× = − =
AC AD TH
V V V
Example 2 The galvanometer in the previous example is replaced by one with an internal
resistance of 500 Ω and a current sensitivity of 1mm/uA. Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm
can be observed on the galvanometer scale, determine if this new galvanometer is capable
of detecting the 5Ω unbalance in arm BC
SOLUTION Since the bridge constants have not been changed, the equivalent circuit
is again represented by a Thévenin voltage of 2.77 mV and a Thévenin resistance of
734 Ω. The new galvanometer is now connected to the output terminals, resulting a
galvanometer current.
2.77 mV
2.24 A
734 500
TH
g
TH g
V
I
R R
u = = =
+ Ω+ Ω
The galvanometer deflection therefore equals 2.24 uA x 1 mm/uA = 2.24 mm,
indicating that this galvanometer produces a deflection that can be easily observed.
Example 3 If all resistances in the Example 1 increase by 10 times, and we use the
galvanometer in the Example 2. Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm can be observed on the
galvanometer scale, determine if this new setting can be detected (the 50Ω unbalance in
arm BC)
SOLUTION
Application of Wheatstone Bridge
Murray/Varrley Loop Short Circuit Fault (Loop Test)
•Loop test can be carried out for the location of either a ground or a short
circuit fault.
Power or
communication cable
Murray Loop Test
Short
circuit
fault
X
1
X
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
ground
fault
short
circuit fault
Let R = R
1
+R
2
At balance condition:
3 1
4 2
R R
R R
=
3
1
3 4
R
R R
R R
 
=

+
\ .
4
2
3 4
R
R R
R R
 
=

+
\ .
The value of R
1
and R
2
are used to calculate back into distance.
Assume: earth is a
good conductor
X
1
X
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
5
R
4
Short
circuit
fault
Varley Loop Test
Let R = R
1
+R
2
and define Ratio = R
4
/R
5
At balance condition:
4 1
5 2 3
Ratio
R R
R R R
= =
+
1 3
Ratio
Ratio 1
R R R = +
+
3
2
 Ratio
Ratio 1
R R
R =
+
Murray/Varrley Loop Short Circuit Fault (Loop Test)
36.76 27.2 0.90
18.35 54.5 0.63
11.90 84.0 0.50
7.35 136.0 0.40
4.59 218.0 0.32
Meter per ohm Ohms per km. Wire dia. In mm
Examples of commonly used cables (Approx. R at 20
o
C)
Remark The resistance of copper increases 0.4% for 1
o
C rise in Temp.
Example Murray loop test is used to locate ground fault in a telephone system. The total
resistance, R = R
1
+ R
2
is measured by Wheatstone bridge, and its value is 300 Ω. The
conditions for Murray loop test are as follows:
R
3
= 1000 Ω and R
4
= 500 Ω
Find the location of the fault in meter, if the length per Ohm is 36.67 m.
SOLUTION
Power or
communication cable
Murray Loop Test
Short
circuit
fault
X
1
X
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
3
1
3 4
1000
300 200
1000 500
R
R R
R R
 
= = × = Ω

+ +
\ .
4
2
3 4
500
300 100
1000 500
R
R R
R R
 
= = × = Ω

+ +
\ .
100 36.67 m/ 3667 m Ω× Ω=
Therefore, the location from the measurement point is
Application of Wheatstone Bridge
Unbalance bridge
G
A
B
C D
R
R R
R+∆R
V
R
TH
= R
G
C
D
V
TH
=V
∆R
4R
Consider a bridge circuit which have identical
resistors, R in three arms, and the last arm has the
resistance of R +∆R. if ∆R/R << 1
Small unbalance
occur by the external
environment
Thévenin Voltage (V
TH
)
4
TH CD
R
V V V
R
∆
= ≈
Thévenin Resistance (R
TH
)
TH
R R ≈
This kind of bridge circuit can be found in sensor
applications, where the resistance in one arm is
sensitive to a physical quantity such as pressure,
temperature, strain etc.
5 kΩ
R
v
6 V
Output
signal
5 kΩ
5 kΩ
(a)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Temp (
o
C)
R
v
(
k
Ω
)
(b)
Example Circuit in Figure (a) below consists of a resistor R
v
which is sensitive to the
temperature change. The plot of R VS Temp. is also shown in Figure (b). Find (a) the
temperature at which the bridge is balance and (b) The output signal at Temperature of
60
o
C.
SOLUTION (a) at bridge balance, we have
3 2
1
5 k 5 k
5 k
5 k
v
R R
R
R
× Ω× Ω
= = = Ω
Ω
The value of R
v
= 5 kΩ corresponding to the temperature of 80
o
C in the given plot.
(b) at temperature of 60
o
C, R
v
is read as 4.5 kΩ. thus ∆R = 5  4.5 = 0.5 kΩ. We will
use Thévenin equivalent circuit to solve the above problem.
0.5 k
6 V 0.15 V
4 4 5 k
TH
R
V V
R
∆ Ω
= = × =
× Ω
It should be noted that ∆R = 0.5 kΩ in the problem does not satisfy the assumption ∆R/R
<< 1, the exact calculation gives V
TH
= 0.158 V. However, the above calculation still gives
an acceptable solution.
4.5 kΩ
G
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
x
V
m
p
n
R
y
Low resistance Bridge: R
x
< 1 Ω
The effects of the connecting lead and the connecting
terminals are prominent when the value of R
x
decreases
to a few Ohms
Effect of connecting lead
At point m: R
y
is added to the unknown R
x
, resulting in too
high and indication of R
x
At point n: R
y
is added to R
3
, therefore the measurement of R
x
will be lower than it should be.
R
y
= the resistance of the connecting lead from R
3
to
R
x
At point p:
( )
1
3
2
x np mp
R
R R R R
R
+ = +
1 1
3
2 2
x mp np
R R
R R R R
R R
= + − rearrange
Where R
mp
and R
np
are the lead resistance
from m to p and n to p, respectively.
The effect of the connecting lead will be
canceled out, if the sum of 2
nd
and 3
rd
term is
zero.
1 1
2 2
0 or
np
mp np
mp
R
R R
R R
R R R
− = =
1
3
2
x
R
R R
R
=
Kelvin Double Bridge: 1 to 0.00001 Ω
FourTerminal Resistor
Current
terminals
Voltage
terminals
Current
terminals
Voltage
terminals
Fourterminal resistors have current terminals
and potential terminals. The resistance is
defined as that between the potential
terminals, so that contact voltage drops at the
current terminals do not introduce errors.
r
4
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
x
r
1
r
2
r
3
R
a
R
b
G
FourTerminal Resistor and Kelvin Double Bridge
• r
1
causes no effect on the balance condition.
• The effects of r
2
and r
3
could be minimized, if R
1
>>
r
2
and R
a
>> r
3
.
• The main error comes from r
4
, even though this value
is very small.
Kelvin Double Bridge: 1 to 0.00001 Ω
G
R
3
R
1
R
2
R
x
p
m
n
R
y
o
k
l
V
I
R
b
R
a
2 ratio arms: R
1
R
2
and R
a
R
b
the connecting lead between m and n: yoke
The balance conditions: V
lk
= V
lmp
or V
ok
= V
onp
2
1 2
lk
R
V V
R R
=
+
here
3
[ ( ) // ]
lo x a b y
V IR I R R R R R = = + + +
3
y
lmp b
a b y
R
V I R R
R R R
= +
+ +
(1)
(2)
Eq. (1) = (2) and rearrange:
1 1
3
2 2
b y
a
x
a b y b
R R
R R R
R R
R R R R R R
 
= + −

+ +
\ .
If we set R
1
/R
2
= R
a
/R
b
, the second term of the right hand side will be zero, the relation
reduce to the well known relation. In summary, The resistance of the yoke has no effect
on the measurement, if the two sets of ratio arms have equal resistance ratios.
1
3
2
x
R
R R
R
=
(a) Circuit that measures insulation volume
resistance in parallel with surface leakage
resistance
(b) Use of guard ring to measure only volume
resistance
High Resistance Measurement
Guard ring technique:
//
meas s v
s v
V
R R R
I I
= =
+
meas v
v
V
R R
I
= =
Volume resistance, R
V
Surface leakage resistance, R
s
High
voltage
supply
uA
V
I
s
I
v
High
voltage
supply
uA
V
Material
under test
Guard
ring
I
v
I
s
I
s
Example The Insulation of a metalsheath electrical cable is tested using 10,000 V supply
and a microammeter. A current of 5 uA is measured when the components are connected
without guard wire. When the circuit is connect with guard wire, the current is 1.5 uA.
Calculate (a) the volume resistance of the cable insulation and (b) the surface leakage
resistance
SOLUTION
(a ) Volume resistance:
I
V
=1.5 uA
9
10000 V
6.7 10
1.5 µA
V
V
V
R
I
= = = × Ω
(b ) Surface leakage resistance:
I
V
+I
S
= 5 uA
9
10000 V
2.9 10
3.5 µA
S
S
V
R
I
= = = × Ω
I
S
= 5 uA – I
V
= 3.5 uA
High Resistance Measurement
MegaOhm Bridge
Just as lowresistance measurements are affected by series lead impedance, high
resistance measurements are affected by shuntleakage resistance.
the guard terminal is connect to a bridge
corner such that the leakage resistances
are placed across bridge arm with low
resistances
1
//
C C
R R R ≈
2
//
g g
R R R ≈
since R
1
>> R
C
since R
2
>> R
g
C
x A
B
R
R R
R
≈
G
R
A
R
B
R
C
E
G
R
A
R
B
R
C
E
R
x
R
1
R
2
Capacitor
Capacitance – the ability of a dielectric to store electrical charge per
unit voltage
Dielectric, ε
r
conductor
50600
100 pF to 100 uF
Foil or Metallized Plastic film
2001,600
0.0011 uF
Rolled foil Paper
50020,000 105000 pF Stacked sheets Mica
650
0.047 to 330 uF
Tantalum
10450
16800 uF
Aluminum Electrolytic
1pF to 1 uF Disk
50020,000 0.51600 pF Tubular Ceramic
100 (0.02in air gap) 10400 pF Meshed plates Air
Breakdown,V Capacitance Construction Dielectric
d
A
C
r
ε ε
0
=
Area, A
thickness, d
Typical values pF, nF or uF
Inductor
A
N turns
l
l
A N
L
r o
2
u u
=
u
o
= 4π×10
7
H/m
u
r
– relative permeability of core material
Ni ferrite: u
r
> 200
Mn ferrite: u
r
> 2,000
Equivalent circuit of an RF coil
Distributed capacitance C
d
between turns
C
d
L
R
e
Air core inductor
Iron core inductor
Inductance – the ability of a conductor to produce induced voltage
when the current varies.
Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor
Equivalent circuit of capacitance
Parallel equivalent circuit
C
p
R
p
Series equivalent circuit
R
s
C
s
2 2
s s
p
s
R X
R
R
+
=
2 2
s s
p
s
R X
X
X
+
=
Equivalent circuit of Inductance
Series equivalent circuit
Parallel equivalent circuit
R
s
L
s
L
p
R
p
2
2 2
p p
s
p p
R X
R
R X
=
+
2
2 2
p p
s
p p
X R
X
R X
=
+
Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor
Inductance series circuit:
s s
s s
X L
Q
R R
ω
= =
Quality factor of a coil: the ratio of reactance to resistance (frequency
dependent and circuit configuration)
Typical D ~ 10
4
– 0.1
Typical Q ~ 5 – 1000
Inductance parallel circuit:
p p
p p
R R
Q
X L ω
= =
Dissipation factor of a capacitor: the ratio of reactance to resistance
(frequency dependent and circuit configuration)
Capacitance parallel circuit:
Capacitance series circuit:
1
p
p p p
X
D
R C R ω
= =
s
s s
s
R
D C R
X
ω = =
2
2 2 2
P
S P
P P
R
L L
R L ω
= ⋅
+
2 2
2 2 2
P
S P
P P
L
R R
R L
ω
ω
= ⋅
+
2 2 2
2 2
S S
P S
S
R L
L L
L
ω
ω
+
= ⋅
2 2 2
2
S S
P S
S
R L
R R
R
ω +
= ⋅
S
S
L
Q
R
ω
=
P
P
R
Q
L ω
=
S S
D C R ω =
2 2 2
1
1
S P
P P
R R
C R ω
= ⋅
+
2 2 2
1
1
P S
S S
C C
C R ω
= ⋅
+
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
S S
P S
S S
C R
R R
C R
ω
ω
+
= ⋅
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
P P
S P
P P
C R
C C
C R
ω
ω
+
= ⋅
V
I
R
S
L
S
V I
R
P
L
P
V
I
R
S
L
S
V I
R
P
C
P
1
P P
D
C R ω
=
IR
S
IωL
S
V
θ
V/ωL
P
V/R
P
I
θ
IR
S
I/ωC
S
V
δ
δ
I
V/R
P
VωC
P
Inductor and Capacitor
AC Bridge: Balance Condition
D
Z
1
Z
2
Z
4
Z
3
A
C
D
B
I
1
I
2
all four arms are considered as impedance
(frequency dependent components)
The detector is an ac responding device:
headphone, ac meter
Source: an ac voltage at desired frequency
General Form of the ac Bridge
Z
1
, Z
2
, Z
3
and Z
4
are the impedance of bridge arms
At balance point:
or
BA BC 1 1 2 2
E = E I Z = I Z
and
1 2
1 3 2 4
V V
I = I =
Z + Z Z + Z
V
1 4 2 3
Z Z = Z Z
( ) ( )
1 4 1 4 2 3 2 3
Z Z =Z Z θ θ θ θ ∠ + ∠ ∠ + ∠
Complex Form:
Polar Form:
Magnitude balance:
Phase balance:
1 4 2 3
Z Z =Z Z
1 4 2 3
= θ θ θ θ ∠ + ∠ ∠ + ∠
Example The impedance of the basic ac bridge are given as follows:
o
1
2
100 80 (inductive impedance)
250 (pure resistance)
= Ω ∠
= Ω
Z
Z
Determine the constants of the unknown arm.
SOLUTION The first condition for bridge balance requires that
o
3
4
400 30 (inductive impedance)
unknown
= ∠ Ω
=
Z
Z
2 3
4
1
250 400
1, 000
100
Z Z
Z
Z
×
= = = Ω
The second condition for bridge balance requires that the sum of the phase angles of
opposite arms be equal, therefore
o
4 2 3 1
= 0 30 80 50 θ θ θ θ ∠ ∠ + ∠ −∠ = + − = −
Hence the unknown impedance Z
4
can be written in polar form as
o
4
1, 000 50 = Ω ∠− Z
Indicating that we are dealing with a capacitive element, possibly consisting of a
series combination of at resistor and a capacitor.
Example an ac bridge is in balance with the following constants: arm AB, R = 200 Ω
in series with L = 15.9 mH R; arm BC, R = 300 Ω in series with C = 0.265 uF; arm CD,
unknown; arm DA, = 450 Ω. The oscillator frequency is 1 kHz. Find the constants of
arm CD.
SOLUTION
The general equation for bridge balance states that
This result indicates that Z
4
is a pure inductance with an inductive reactance of 150 Ω
at at frequency of 1kHz. Since the inductive reactance X
L
= 2πfL, we solve for L and
obtain L = 23.9 mH
D
Z
1
Z
2
Z
4
Z
3
A
C
D
B
I
1
I
2
V
1
2
3
4
200 100
1/ 300 600
450
unknown
R j L j
R j C j
R
ω
ω
= + = + Ω
= + = − Ω
= = Ω
=
Z
Z
Z
Z
1 4 2 3
Z Z = Z Z
1
450 (200 100)
150
(300 600)
j
j
j
× +
= = Ω
−
2 3
4
Z Z
Z =
Z
Comparison Bridge: Capacitance
Measure an unknown inductance or
capacitance by comparing with it with a known
inductance or capacitance.
Diagram of Capacitance
Comparison Bridge
Unknown
capacitance
At balance point:
3 x 1 2
Z Z = Z Z
where
1 1 2 2 3 3
3
1
= ; ; and R R R
j C ω
= + Z Z = Z
1 2 3
3
1 1
x
x
R R R R
j C j C ω ω
   
+ = +
 
\ . \ .
Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields:
2 3
1
x
R R
R
R
=
1
3
2
x
R
C C
R
=
and
Frequency independent
To satisfy both balance conditions, the bridge must contain two variable
elements in its configuration.
D
R
2
R
1
R
x
C
3
R
3
C
x
V
s
Comparison Bridge: Inductance
Measure an unknown inductance or
capacitance by comparing with it with a known
inductance or capacitance.
Diagram of Inductance
Comparison Bridge
Unknown
inductance
At balance point:
3 x 1 2
Z Z = Z Z
where
1 1 2 2 3 3 3
= ; ; and R R R j L ω = + Z Z = Z
( ) ( )
1 2 x x S S
R R j L R R j L ω ω + = +
Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields:
2 3
1
x
R R
R
R
=
2
3
1
x
R
L L
R
=
and
Frequency independent
To satisfy both balance conditions, the bridge must contain two variable
elements in its configuration.
D
R
2
R
1
L
3
R
x
L
x
R
3
V
s
Maxwell Bridge
Measure an unknown inductance in terms of
a known capacitance
D
R
2
R
1
C
1
R
3
R
x
L
x
Diagram of Maxwell Bridge
V
Unknown
inductance
At balance point:
3 1 x 2
Z = Z Z Y
where
2 2 3 3 1 1
1
1
; ; and = R R j C
R
ω = + Z = Z Y
2 3 1
1
1
x x x
R j L R R j C
R
ω ω
 
+ = +

\ .
Z =
Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields:
2 3
1
x
R R
R
R
=
2 3 1 x
L R R C =
and
Frequency independent
Suitable for Medium Q coil (110), impractical for high Q coil: since R
1
will be very
large.
Hay Bridge
Similar to Maxwell bridge: but R
1
series with C
1
Diagram of Hay Bridge
V
At balance point:
1 3 x 2
Z Z = Z Z
where
1 1 2 2 3 3
1
; ; and
j
R R R
C ω
− = = Z = Z Z
( )
1 2 3
1
1
x x
R R j L R R
j C
ω
ω
 
+ + =

\ .
which expands to
Unknown
inductance
D
R
2
R
1
C
1
R
3
R
x
L
x
1 1 2 3
1 1
x x
x x
L jR
R R j L R R R
C C
ω
ω
+ − + =
1 2 3
1
x
x
L
R R R R
C
+ =
1
1
x
x
R
L R
C
ω
ω
=
Solve the above equations simultaneously
(1)
(2)
Hay Bridge: continues
2 3 1
2 2 2
1 1
1
x
R R C
L
C R ω
=
+
2 2
1 1 2 3
2 2 2
1 1
1
x
C R R R
R
C R
ω
ω
=
+
ωL
x
R
x
Z
θ
L
R
1
Z
θ
C
ωC
1
1
and
Phasor diagram of arm 4 and 1
tan
x L
L
x
L X
Q
R R
ω
θ = = =
1 1
1
tan
C
C
X
R C R
θ
ω
= =
1 1
1
tan tan or
L C
Q
C R
θ θ
ω
= =
Thus, L
x
can be rewritten as
2 3 1
2
1 (1/ )
x
R R C
L
Q
=
+
For high Q coil (> 10), the term (1/Q)
2
can be neglected 2 3 1 x
L R R C ≈
Schering Bridge
Used extensively for the measurement of capacitance
and the quality of capacitor in term of D
D
R
2
R
1
C
1
C
3
R
x
C
x
V
Unknown
capacitance
Diagram of Schering Bridge
At balance point:
3 1 x 2
Z = Z Z Y
where
2 2 3 1
3 1
1 1
; ; and = R j C
j C R
ω
ω
= + Z = Z Y
2 1
1
1
x
x x
j j
R R j C
C C R
ω
ω ω
  
−
− = +
 
\ . \ .
which expands to
2 1 2
3 3 1
x
x
j R C jR
R
C C C R ω ω
− = −
Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields:
1
2
3
x
C
R R
C
=
1
3
2
x
R
C C
R
= and
Schering Bridge: continues
Dissipation factor of a series RC circuit:
x
x x
x
R
D R C
X
ω = =
Dissipation factor tells us about the quality of a capacitor, how close the
phase angle of the capacitor is to the ideal value of 90
o
1 1 x x
D R C RC ω ω = =
For Schering Bridge:
For Schering Bridge, R
1
is a fixed value, the dial of C
1
can be calibrated directly in D
at one particular frequency
Wien Bridge
Measure frequency of the voltage source using series
RC in one arm and parallel RC in the adjoining arm
D
R
2
R
1
C
1
C
3
R
4
R
3
V
s
Diagram of Wien Bridge
At balance point:
2 1 4 3
= Z Z Z Y
2 1 4 3
1 3
1 j
R R R j C
C R
ω
ω
   
= − +
 
\ . \ .
Unknown
Freq.
which expands to
4 3 1 4 4
2 3 1 4
3 1 3 1
R C R R jR
R j C R R
R C R C
ω
ω
= + − +
3 2 1
4 3 1
C R R
R R C
= +
3 1
1 3
1
C R
C R
ω
ω
=
(1)
(2)
1 3 1 3
1
2
f
C C R R π
= Rearrange Eq. (2) gives
In most, Wien Bridge, R
1
= R
3
and C
1
= C
3
2 4
2 R R =
1
2
f
RC π
=
(1)
(2)
4 4 3
3
3 2 2
1
1 1
and ;
1
; ;
1
R C j
R
R
C j
R = + = = + = Z Y Z Z ω
ω
Wagner Ground Connection
D
R
2
R
1
C
3
R
x
1
2
R
3 C
x
R
w
C
w
C
1
C
2
D
A B
C
Diagram of Wagner ground
Wagner ground connection eliminates some
effects of stray capacitances in a bridge circuit
Simultaneous balance of both bridge makes the
point 1 and 2 at the ground potential. (short C
1
and C
2
to ground, C
4
and C
5
are eliminated from
detector circuit)
The capacitance across the bridge arms e.g. C
6
cannot be eliminated by Wagner ground.
Wagner ground
Stray across arm
Cannot eliminate
One way to control stray capacitances is by
Shielding the arms, reduce the effect of stray
capacitances but cannot eliminate them
completely.
C
4
C
5
C
6
Capacitor Values
Ceramic Capacitor
Capacitor Values
Film Capacitor
Capacitor Values
Chip Capacitor
Capacitor Values
Tantalum Capacitor
Capacitor Values
Chip Capacitor
Resistor Types Resistor Types
Importance parameters Value Tolerance Power rating Temperature coefficient
Type
Values (Ω)
Power rating (W)
Tolerance (%)
Temperature coefficient (ppm/°C) ±30~±300 ±3~±30 ±100~±200 ±10~±200 ±0.4~±10 ±200~±500
picture
Wire wound (power) Wire wound (precision) Carbon film Metal film Metal film (precision) Metal oxide film
10m~3k 10m~1M 1~1M 100m~1M 10m~100k 100m~100k
3~1k 0.1~1 0.1~3 0.1~3 0.1~1 1~10
±1~±10 ±0.005~±1 ±2~±10 ±0.5~±5 ±0.05~±5 ±2~±10
Data: Transistor technology (10/2000)
Resistor Values Resistor Values
Color Digit Multiplier Tolerance (%) ±10 ±5 ±1 ±2 ±0.5 ±0.25 ±0.1 ±20 K J F G D C B M
Color codes Alphanumeric
Temperature coefficient (ppm/°C) ±250 ±100 ±50 ±15 ±25 ±20 ±10 ±5 ±1 K H G D F E C B A 
4 band color codes
Silver Gold Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
102 101 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109
Ex.
Most sig. fig. of value Tolerance Least sig. fig. Multiplier of value
Green Blue Brown Red
R = 560 Ω ± 2%
Alphanumeric
R, K, M, G, and T = x100, x103 , x106 , x109 , and x1012 Ex. 6M8 = 6.8 x 106 Ω 59Ρ04 = 59.04 Ω
Data: Transistor technology (10/2000)
Resistor Values
R = x ± %∆x
Tolerance Nominal value
Ex. 1 kΩ ± 10% ≡ 9001100 Ω
Commonly available resistance for a fixed resistor
For 10% resistor 10, 12, 15, 18, … 10 12 15 R
R ≈ √10n
where E = 6, 12, 24, 96 for 20, 10, 5, 1% tolerance n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …
E
For 10% resistor E = 12 n = 0; R = 1.00000… n = 1; R = 1.21152… n = 2; R = 1.46779… n = 3; R = 1.77827…
Resistance Measurement Techniques Resistance Measurement Techniques Bridge circuit Voltmeterammeter Substitution Ohmmeter
Voltmeterammeter
V A R A R V
Substitution
A
Supply Unknow resistance
A Rx
Supply
Decade resistance box substituted in place of the unknown
(b) Measured Rx: Rmeas = if Ix>>IV V V + VA V Measured Rx: Rmeas = = x = Rx + A I I I if Vx>>VA Rmeas ≈ Rx Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure large resistance Rx V V = = I I x + IV 1 + IV / I x Rmeas ≈ Rx Therefore this circuit is suitable for measure small resistance . (b)) + + VS V V VA A I Rx Vx  I + + A + V V  IV Ix Rx VS  Fig.Voltmeterammeter method Pro and con: •Simple and theoretical oriented •Requires two meter and calculations •Subject to error: Voltage drop in ammeter (Fig. (a) Fig. (a)) Current in voltmeter (Fig.
and at zero defection the terminals are opencircuited. .Ohmmeter •Voltmeterammeter method is rarely used in practical applications (mostly used in Laboratory) •Ohmmeter uses only one meter by keeping one parameter constant Example: series ohmmeter Resistance to be measured Standard resistance Nonlinear scale 15k 50 75 5k Rx Battery R1 Rm k 45 Meter Infinity resistance Meter 25 VS Rx = Vs − R1 − Rm I ∞ 0 10 0 A 0µ Basic series ohmmeter Ohmmeter scale Basic series ohmmeter consisting of a PMMC and a seriesconnected standard resistor (R1). At half scale defection Rx = R1 + Rm. When the ohmmeter terminals are shorted (Rx = 0) meter full scale defection occurs.
Bridge Circuit DC Bridge (Resistance) Inductance Wheatstone Bridge Kelvin Bridge Megaohm Bridge Maxwell Bridge Hay Bridge Owen Bridge Etc. operates on the principle of comparison. AC Bridge Capacitance Schering Bridge Frequency Wien Bridge .Bridge Circuit Bridge Circuit is a null method. That is a known (standard) value is adjusted until it is equal to the unknown value.
and I4 are current in resistance arms respectively. since I1 = I3 and I2 = I4 C R1 R2 or = R3 R4 R2 Rx = R4 = R3 R1 . I3.Wheatstone Bridge and Balance Condition Suitable for moderate resistance values: 1 Ω to 10 MΩ A R1 I1 V I2 I4 R4 R2 Balance condition: No potential difference across the galvanometer (there is no current through the galvanometer) D I3 R3 B Under this condition: VAD = VAB I1R1 = I 2 R2 And also VDC = VBC I3 R3 = I 4 R4 where I1. I2.
Example 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω 12 V 1Ω 1Ω 12 V 2Ω 2Ω (a) Equal resistance (b) Proportional resistance 1Ω 10 Ω 1Ω 10 Ω 12 V 12 V 2Ω 20 Ω 2Ω 10 Ω (c) Proportional resistance (d) 2Volt unbalance .
Measurement Errors 1. Insufficient sensitivity of Detector 3. Thermal emf or contact potential in the bridge circuit A R1 V R2 D R3 B C Rx 5. Limiting error of the known resistors Using 1st order approximation: R ± ∆R2 Rx = ( R3 ± ∆R3 ) 2 R1 ± ∆R1 R2 ∆R1 ∆R2 ∆R3 Rx = R3 1 ± ± ± R1 R1 R2 R3 2. Changes in resistance of the bridge arms due to the heating effect (I2R) or temperatures 4. 4 and 5 play the important role in the measurement of low value resistance . Error due to the lead connection 3.
1 0. Find the change of Rx due to the temperature change. R3 is a decade resistance with a specified in accuracy ±0. the new value of R3 to achieve the balance condition again is 1002.4 Ω. R2 1 = 1000.Example In the Wheatstone bridge circuit.1 0.4% 500 100 100 100 Therefore the possible values of R3 are 518.4( 1 ± 0. determine the possible minimum and maximum value of RX SOLUTION Apply the error equation R2 ∆R1 ∆R2 ∆R3 Rx = R3 1 ± ± ± R1 R1 R2 R3 Rx = 520.3 × = 10.018 Ω . R3 is adjusted to 1000.1%.2% and R1 and R2 = 500 Ω ± 0. the change of Rx due to the temperature change is 0. The value of Rx is then changed by the temperature change.4 × 500 0.4 ± 0.003 Ω SOLUTION At first balance: R1 100 R2 1 = 1002.32 to 522.2 ± ± 1 ± = 520.1 Ω.48 Ω Example A Wheatstone bridge has a ratio arm of 1/100 (R2/R1).3 Ω.1× = 10.004) = 520.021 Ω After the temperature change: Rx new = R3 R1 100 Rxold = R3 Therefore. At first balance. If the value of R3 at the null position is 520.
Its sensitivity is governed by: Current sensitivity (currents per unit defection) and internal resistance. consider a bridge circuit under a small unbalance condition.Sensitivity of Galvanometer A galvanometer is use to detect an unbalance condition in Wheatstone bridge. and apply circuit analysis to solve the current through galvanometer Thévenin Equivalent Circuit Thévenin Voltage (VTH) I1 VS C R3 A I2 R1 G R4 B R2 D Therefore VCD = VAC − VAD = I1 R1 − I 2 R2 where I1 = V V = and I 2 R1 + R3 R2 + R4 R1 R2 − VTH = VCD = V R1 + R3 R2 + R4 .
Sensitivity of Galvanometer (continued) Thévenin Resistance (RTH) R1 C R3 B A R2 R4 D RTH = R1 // R3 + R2 // R4 Completed Circuit RTH C Ig= VTH D G VTH RTH+Rg Ig = VTH RTH + Rg where Ig = the galvanometer current Rg = the galvanometer resistance .
34 µA VTH 2.77 mV = = 3. A 100 Ω R1 5V D R3 200 Ω B (a) 100 Ω C A 1000 Ω D G R4 2005 Ω R2 C 1000 Ω Thévenin Voltage (VTH) 1000 100 VTH = VAD − VAC = 5 V × − 100 + 200 1000 + 2005 ≈ 2.2 mm µA .32 µ A × 10 mm = 33. The galvanometer has a current sensitivity of 10 mm/µA and an internal resistance of 100 Ω.77 mV Thévenin Resistance (RTH) RTH = 100 // 200 + 1000 // 2005 = 734 Ω 200 Ω B (b) RTH= 734 Ω C 2005 Ω The galvanometer current Ig = VTH 2.005 Ω.Example 1 Figure below show the schematic diagram of a Wheatstone bridge with values of the bridge elements.77 mV D (c) G Rg= 100 Ω Galvanometer deflection d = 3.32 µ A RTH + Rg 734 Ω + 100 Ω Ig=3. The battery voltage is 5 V and its internal resistance negligible. Calculate the deflection of the galvanometer caused by the 5Ω unbalance in arm BC SOLUTION The bridge circuit is in the small unbalance condition since the value of resistance in arm BC is 2.
the equivalent circuit is again represented by a Thévenin voltage of 2. determine if this new galvanometer is capable of detecting the 5Ω unbalance in arm BC SOLUTION Since the bridge constants have not been changed. resulting a galvanometer current.Example 2 The galvanometer in the previous example is replaced by one with an internal resistance of 500 Ω and a current sensitivity of 1mm/µA.24 mm. The new galvanometer is now connected to the output terminals. indicating that this galvanometer produces a deflection that can be easily observed.24 µ A RTH + Rg 734 Ω + 500 Ω The galvanometer deflection therefore equals 2.77 mV and a Thévenin resistance of 734 Ω. Ig = VTH 2.77 mV = = 2.24 µA x 1 mm/µA = 2. Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm can be observed on the galvanometer scale. .
Example 3 If all resistances in the Example 1 increase by 10 times. determine if this new setting can be detected (the 50Ω unbalance in arm BC) SOLUTION . and we use the galvanometer in the Example 2. Assuming that a deflection of 1 mm can be observed on the galvanometer scale.
Application of Wheatstone Bridge Murray/Varrley Loop Short Circuit Fault (Loop Test) •Loop test can be carried out for the location of either a ground or a short Power or circuit fault. R3 X1 communication cable R1 R2 short circuit fault R4 X2 Short circuit fault ground fault Murray Loop Test Let R = R1+R2 At balance condition: R3 R1 = R4 R2 Assume: earth is a good conductor R3 R1 = R R3 + R4 R4 R2 = R R3 + R4 The value of R1 and R2 are used to calculate back into distance. .
59 7.RatioR3 R2 = Ratio + 1 Short circuit fault Varley Loop Test . R at 20oC) Wire dia.0 54.0 136.35 36.2 Meter per ohm 4.40 0. In mm 0.90 Ohms per km.76 Remark The resistance of copper increases 0.50 0.63 0.32 0.90 18.Murray/Varrley Loop Short Circuit Fault (Loop Test) Examples of commonly used cables (Approx. 218.0 84.5 27.4% for 1oC rise in Temp. Let R = R1+R2 and define Ratio = R4/R5 R4 R5 R3 X1 R R1 At balance condition: Ratio = 4 = R5 R2 + R3 R1 R2 X2 Ratio R1 = R + R3 Ratio + 1 R .35 11.
The conditions for Murray loop test are as follows: R3 = 1000 Ω and R4 = 500 Ω Find the location of the fault in meter.67 m. Power or communication cable X1 SOLUTION R3 R1 R2 R4 X2 R3 1000 R1 = R = 200 Ω = 300 × 1000 + 500 R3 + R4 Short circuit fault Murray Loop Test R4 500 R2 = R = 300 × = 100 Ω 1000 + 500 R3 + R4 Therefore. the location from the measurement point is 100 Ω× 36. and its value is 300 Ω. if the length per Ohm is 36. R = R1+ R2 is measured by Wheatstone bridge.Example Murray loop test is used to locate ground fault in a telephone system.67 m/Ω = 3667 m . The total resistance.
. temperature. strain etc. R in three arms. if ∆R/R << 1 Thévenin Voltage (VTH) D VTH = VCD ≈ V R+∆R ∆R 4R RTH = R Small unbalance occur by the external environment C Thévenin Resistance (RTH) RTH ≈ R VTH=V ∆R 4R D G This kind of bridge circuit can be found in sensor applications. and the last arm has the resistance of R +∆R.Application of Wheatstone Bridge Unbalance bridge A R V C R B G R Consider a bridge circuit which have identical resistors. where the resistance in one arm is sensitive to a physical quantity such as pressure.
5 kΩ in the problem does not satisfy the assumption ∆R/R << 1. 6V R v (kΩ ) 5 kΩ 5 kΩ 5 kΩ Rv Output signal 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4.Example Circuit in Figure (a) below consists of a resistor Rv which is sensitive to the temperature change.5 kΩ. R3 × R2 5 kΩ× 5 kΩ SOLUTION (a) at bridge balance. (b) at temperature of 60oC. We will use Thévenin equivalent circuit to solve the above problem.5 kΩ. However. ∆R 0.4. is also shown in Figure (b).158 V.5 kΩ = 6 V× = 0. Rv is read as 4. The plot of R VS Temp. the exact calculation gives VTH = 0. we have Rv = = = 5 kΩ R1 5 kΩ (a) VTH = V It should be noted that ∆R = 0. Find (a) the temperature at which the bridge is balance and (b) The output signal at Temperature of 60oC.15 V 4R 4 × 5 kΩ . thus ∆R = 5 .5 = 0.5 kΩ 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temp (oC) (b) The value of Rv = 5 kΩ corresponding to the temperature of 80oC in the given plot. the above calculation still gives an acceptable solution.
respectively. Rnp R1 R1 At point p: rearrange R Rx + Rnp = ( R3 + Rmp ) 1 R2 R R Rx = R3 1 + Rmp 1 − Rnp R2 R2 Rmp R2 − Rnp = 0 or Rx = R3 Rmp = R2 Where Rmp and Rnp are the lead resistance from m to p and n to p. resulting in too high and indication of Rx At point n: Ry is added to R3. R1 R2 . if the sum of 2nd and 3rd term is zero.Low resistance Bridge: Rx < 1 Ω Effect of connecting lead R2 V R1 G R3 m p n The effects of the connecting lead and the connecting terminals are prominent when the value of Rx decreases to a few Ohms Ry Ry = the resistance of the connecting lead from R3 to Rx Rx At point m: Ry is added to the unknown Rx. therefore the measurement of Rx will be lower than it should be. The effect of the connecting lead will be canceled out.
even though this value is very small.Kelvin Double Bridge: 1 to 0. • The effects of r2 and r3 could be minimized. The resistance is defined as that between the potential terminals. • The main error comes from r4. so that contact voltage drops at the current terminals do not introduce errors. FourTerminal Resistor and Kelvin Double Bridge R2 Rb G R3 Ra R1 r3 r2 r1 Rx r4 • r1 causes no effect on the balance condition.00001 Ω FourTerminal Resistor Current terminals Current terminals Voltage terminals Voltage terminals Fourterminal resistors have current terminals and potential terminals. . if R1 >> r2 and Ra >> r3.
the relation reduce to the well known relation. (1) = (2) and rearrange: Rb Ry R Rx = R3 1 + R2 Ra + Rb + Ry Rx = R3 R1 R2 If we set R1/R2 = Ra/Rb. . In summary. the second term of the right hand side will be zero. The resistance of the yoke has no effect on the measurement.00001 Ω l R2 k I Rb G p R3 2 ratio arms: R1R2 and RaRb the connecting lead between m and n: yoke The balance conditions: Vlk = Vlmp or Vok = Vonp m V Ry n o Vlk = Ra R1 R2 V R1 + R2 (1) here V = IRlo = I [ R3 + Rx + ( Ra + Rb ) // Ry ] Rx Vlmp Ry Rb = I R3 + Ra + Rb + Ry R1 Ra − R2 Rb (2) Eq.Kelvin Double Bridge: 1 to 0. if the two sets of ratio arms have equal resistance ratios.
High Resistance Measurement Guard ring technique: Volume resistance. Rs Guard ring µA High voltage supply Is V Iv Is High voltage supply µA Iv Material under test V Is (a) Circuit that measures insulation volume resistance in parallel with surface leakage resistance (b) Use of guard ring to measure only volume resistance Rmeas = Rs // Rv = V I s + Iv Rmeas = Rv = V Iv . RV Surface leakage resistance.
5 µA .5 µA V 10000 V = = 2.9 × 109 Ω IS 3. Calculate (a) the volume resistance of the cable insulation and (b) the surface leakage resistance SOLUTION (a ) Volume resistance: IV =1.High Resistance Measurement Example The Insulation of a metalsheath electrical cable is tested using 10.5 µA RV = V 10000 V = = 6.000 V supply and a microammeter.5 µA. A current of 5 µA is measured when the components are connected without guard wire.7 ×109 Ω IV 1. the current is 1. When the circuit is connect with guard wire.5 µA (b ) Surface leakage resistance: IV+ IS = 5 µA RS = IS = 5 µA – IV = 3.
highresistance measurements are affected by shuntleakage resistance. RA E G RB E RA R2 G R1 RB RC the guard terminal is connect to a bridge corner such that the leakage resistances are placed across bridge arm with low resistances Rx RC R1 // RC ≈ RC R2 // Rg ≈ Rg since R1 >> RC since R2 >> Rg RC Rx ≈ RA RB .MegaOhm Bridge Just as lowresistance measurements are affected by series lead impedance.
0011 µF 100 pF to 100 µF 100 (0.51600 pF 1pF to 1 µF 16800 µF 0.047 to 330 µF 105000 pF 0. d Dielectric Construction A ε 0ε r C = d Capacitance Typical values pF.000 10450 650 50020. A Dielectric.02in air gap) 50020.V Air Ceramic Electrolytic Mica Paper Plastic film Meshed plates Tubular Disk Aluminum Tantalum Stacked sheets Rolled foil Foil or Metallized 10400 pF 0.Capacitor Capacitance – the ability of a dielectric to store electrical charge per unit voltage conductor Area.600 50600 . nF or µF Breakdown. εr thickness.000 2001.
Inductor Inductance – the ability of a conductor to produce induced voltage when the current varies. N turns A l L = µo µ r N l 2 A µo = 4π×107 H/m Air core inductor µr – relative permeability of core material Ni ferrite: µr > 200 Mn ferrite: µr > 2.000 L Re Cd Equivalent circuit of an RF coil Iron core inductor Distributed capacitance Cd between turns .
Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor Equivalent circuit of capacitance Cp Rp Parallel equivalent circuit Series equivalent circuit Cs Rs Equivalent circuit of Inductance Ls Rs Lp Rp Series equivalent circuit Parallel equivalent circuit Rs2 + X s2 Rp = Rs Rs2 + X s2 Xp = Xs Rs = 2 Rp X p R +X 2 p 2 p Xs = 2 X p Rp 2 2 Rp + X p .
Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor Quality factor of a coil: the ratio of reactance to resistance (frequency dependent and circuit configuration) Inductance series circuit: Q= X s ω Ls = Rs Rs Rp Xp = Rp Typical Q ~ 5 – 1000 Inductance parallel circuit: Q = ω Lp Dissipation factor of a capacitor: the ratio of reactance to resistance (frequency dependent and circuit configuration) Capacitance parallel circuit: Capacitance series circuit: D= D= Xp Rp = 1 ω C p Rp Typical D ~ 104 – 0.1 Rs = ω Cs Rs Xs .
Inductor and Capacitor 2 RP LS = 2 ⋅ LP RP + ω 2 L2 P V RS LS I V LP RP 2 RS + ω 2 L2 S LP = ⋅ LS 2 2 ω LS 2 RS + ω 2 L2 S RP = ⋅ RS 2 RS ω 2 L2 I P RS = 2 ⋅ RP RP + ω 2 L2 P Q= ω LS RS V IωLS V/ωLP θ V/RP Q= RP ω LP θ IRS I CS = RS = 1+ ω C R ⋅ CP 2 2 ω 2CP RP 2 2 P 2 P V I RS LS IRS I/ωCS I V CP RP I VωCP δ CP = 1 ⋅ CS 2 2 1 + ω 2CS RS 1 ⋅ RP 2 2 1 + ω CP RP 2 2 2 1 + ω 2CS RS ⋅ RS RP = 2 ω 2CS RS2 D = ω CS RS δ V D= V/RP 1 ω CP RP .
ac meter Source: an ac voltage at desired frequency Z4 D Z1.AC Bridge: Balance Condition B Z1 I1 I2 Z2 C V A Z3 D all four arms are considered as impedance (frequency dependent components) The detector is an ac responding device: headphone. Z2. Z3 and Z4 are the impedance of bridge arms At balance point: EBA = EBC or I1 Z1 = I 2 Z 2 V V and I 2 = Z1 + Z 3 Z2 + Z4 Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z4 =Z2 Z3 General Form of the ac Bridge Complex Form: Polar Form: Z1Z4 ( ∠θ1 + ∠θ 4 ) =Z2 Z3 ( ∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3 ) I1 = Magnitude balance: Phase balance: ∠θ1 + ∠θ 4 =∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3 .
Example The impedance of the basic ac bridge are given as follows: Z1 = 100 Ω ∠80o (inductive impedance) Z 2 = 250 Ω (pure resistance) Z3 = 400 ∠30o Ω (inductive impedance) Z 4 = unknown Determine the constants of the unknown arm. possibly consisting of a series combination of at resistor and a capacitor. SOLUTION The first condition for bridge balance requires that Z4 = Z 2 Z 3 250 × 400 = = 1. therefore ∠θ 4 =∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3 − ∠θ1 = 0 + 30 − 80 = −50o Hence the unknown impedance Z4 can be written in polar form as Z 4 = 1. 000 Ω Z1 100 The second condition for bridge balance requires that the sum of the phase angles of opposite arms be equal. 000 Ω ∠ − 50o Indicating that we are dealing with a capacitive element. .
The oscillator frequency is 1 kHz.265 µF. unknown. Since the inductive reactance XL = 2πfL.Example an ac bridge is in balance with the following constants: arm AB.9 mH . Find the constants of arm CD. arm CD.9 mH R. arm DA. we solve for L and obtain L = 23. arm BC. R = 300 Ω in series with C = 0. B Z1 Z2 I1 I2 SOLUTION Z1 = R + jω L = 200 + j100 Ω V A Z3 D C Z 2 = R + 1/ jω C = 300 − j 600 Ω Z3 = R = 450 Ω Z 4 = unknown Z4 D The general equation for bridge balance states that Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z4 = Z 2 Z 3 450 × (200 + j100) = = j150 Ω (300 − j 600) Z1 This result indicates that Z4 is a pure inductance with an inductive reactance of 150 Ω at at frequency of 1kHz. = 450 Ω. R = 200 Ω in series with L = 15.
and Z 3 = R3 + jω C3 1 1 R1 Rx + = R2 R3 + jω Cx jω C3 R2 R3 Rx = R1 and C x = C3 R1 R2 Frequency independent To satisfy both balance conditions. At balance point: where Z Z1 Z x = Z 2 Z 3 Unknown capacitance Diagram of Capacitance Comparison Bridge Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields: 1 1 =R1 . Z 2 = R2 .Comparison Bridge: Capacitance R1 Vs C3 R3 Cx D Rx R2 Measure an unknown inductance or capacitance by comparing with it with a known inductance or capacitance. . the bridge must contain two variable elements in its configuration.
and Z3 = R3 + jω L3 R1 ( Rx + jω Lx ) = R2 ( RS + jω LS ) R2 R3 Rx = R1 Lx = L3 R2 R1 Unknown inductance Diagram of Inductance Comparison Bridge Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields: and Frequency independent To satisfy both balance conditions.Comparison Bridge: Inductance R1 Vs L3 R3 Rx D R2 Measure an unknown inductance or capacitance by comparing with it with a known inductance or capacitance. . At balance point: Z1 Z x = Z 2 Z 3 Lx where Z1 =R1 . Z 2 = R2 . the bridge must contain two variable elements in its configuration.
Z3 = R3 . impractical for high Q coil: since R1 will be very large.Maxwell Bridge R1 R2 C1 D R3 Lx Rx Measure an unknown inductance in terms of a known capacitance At balance point: where V Z x = Z 2 Z3 Y1 Unknown inductance Diagram of Maxwell Bridge 1 Z 2 = R2 . . and Y1 = + jω C1 R1 1 Z x = Rx + jω Lx = R2 R3 + jω C1 R1 Rx = R2 R3 R1 and Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields: Lx = R2 R3C1 Frequency independent Suitable for Medium Q coil (110).
Hay Bridge R1 C1 V Similar to Maxwell bridge: but R1 series with C1 R2 D Lx R3 Rx At balance point: where Z1Z x = Z 2 Z3 Z1 = R1 − j . Z 2 = R2 . and Z3 = R3 ω C1 1 R1 + ( Rx + jω Lx ) = R2 R3 jω C1 Diagram of Hay Bridge L (1) R1 Rx + x = R2 R3 C1 Lx jRx − + jω Lx R1 = R2 R3 which expands to R1 Rx + C1 ω C1 Rx (2) = ω Lx R1 ω C1 Unknown inductance Solve the above equations simultaneously .
the term (1/Q)2 can be neglected R2 R3C1 Lx = 1 + (1/ Q 2 ) Lx ≈ R2 R3C1 . Lx can be rewritten as For high Q coil (> 10).Hay Bridge: continues ω 2C12 R1 R2 R3 Rx = 1 + ω 2C12 R12 ωLx Z and Lx = R2 R3C1 1 + ω 2C12 R12 θC R1 X L ω Lx tan θ L = = =Q R Rx X 1 tan θ C = C = R ω C1 R1 tan θ L = tan θ C or Q = 1 ω C1 R1 θL Rx 1 ωC1 Z Phasor diagram of arm 4 and 1 Thus.
Z = 1 .Schering Bridge C1 R1 V D R2 Used extensively for the measurement of capacitance and the quality of capacitor in term of D C3 Cx Rx Z x = Z 2 Z3 Y1 where Z = R . and Y = 1 + jω C 2 2 3 1 jω C3 R1 At balance point: Unknown capacitance Rx − − j 1 j = R2 + jω C1 ω Cx ω Cx R1 Diagram of Schering Bridge which expands to j R2C1 jR2 Rx − = − C3 ω C3 R1 ω Cx Rx = R2 C1 C3 and Separation of the real and imaginary terms yields: C x = C3 R1 R2 .
Schering Bridge: continues Dissipation factor of a series RC circuit: D= Rx = ω Rx C x Xx Dissipation factor tells us about the quality of a capacitor. how close the phase angle of the capacitor is to the ideal value of 90o For Schering Bridge: D = ω Rx Cx = ω R1C1 For Schering Bridge. the dial of C1 can be calibrated directly in D at one particular frequency . R1 is a fixed value.
Wien Bridge Unknown Freq. R1 = R3 and C1 = C3 (1) R2 = 2 R4 (2) f = 1 2π RC . Z 2 = R2 . Y3 = + jωC3 . (2) gives f = 1 2π C1C3 R1 R3 1 ω C1 R3 In most. and Z 4 = R4 jωC1 R3 At balance point: Diagram of Wien Bridge which expands to R2 = j 1 R2 = R1 − R4 + jω C3 ω C1 R3 R2 R1 C3 = + R4 R3 C1 (1) (2) RC R1 R4 jR4 + jω C3 R1 R4 − + 4 3 R3 C1 ω C1 R3 ω C3 R1 = Rearrange Eq. Wien Bridge. R1 R2 D R3 C3 R4 C1 Measure frequency of the voltage source using series RC in one arm and parallel RC in the adjoining arm Vs Z 2 = Z1Z 4 Y3 1 1 Z1 = R1 + .
C4 and C5 are eliminated from detector circuit) The capacitance across the bridge arms e. B Rx C3 R3 Cx D C4 Wagner ground Diagram of Wagner ground . (short C1 and C2 to ground. reduce the effect of stray capacitances but cannot eliminate them completely. C6 cannot be eliminated by Wagner ground. Stray across arm Cannot eliminate Wagner ground connection eliminates some effects of stray capacitances in a bridge circuit Simultaneous balance of both bridge makes the point 1 and 2 at the ground potential.g.Wagner Ground Connection C C5 Rw A Cw R1 1 2 C1 C6 R2 D C2 One way to control stray capacitances is by Shielding the arms.
Capacitor Values Ceramic Capacitor .
Capacitor Values Film Capacitor .
Capacitor Values Chip Capacitor .
Capacitor Values Tantalum Capacitor .
Capacitor Values Chip Capacitor .