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Stephen Pinter Ryerson University firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
Erbium doped ﬁber ampliﬁer (EDFA) is an imperative element in DWDM networks. This all-optical ampliﬁer enables simultaneous ampliﬁcation of multiple wavelengths. Nevertheless, uneven gain across the usable wavelength region remains a concern. Understanding and modelling the dynamic characteristics of an EDFA is an important step towards achieving a ﬂat gain spectrum. A Simulink model for investigating EDFA dynamics has been developed by Novak and Gieske (2002). Following their work, we have developed an enhanced version of the EDFA Simulink model with more capabilities. Previous results were veriﬁed for the given doped ﬁber length without noise. In addition, the forward Ampliﬁed Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise is added to the model and the optimum length is determined (with and without considering ASE) by simulation and used in all subsequent stages. A signiﬁcant addition to the model is the ability to handle multiple channels using the absorption and emission coefﬁcients previously obtained experimentally. The resulting model accurately represents EDFA gain dynamics and forward ASE. Simulation results show a 12 dB gain ﬂuctuation across a 40 nm window per EDFA. Keywords: EDFA Simulink model, multiple channels, gain dynamics, ASE integration.
Jean Jiang Ryerson University email@example.com
Xavier Fernando Ryerson University firstname.lastname@example.org
is important to compensate for this non-uniform gain spectrum. Currently, the simulation tools available to investigate EDFA dynamics consist of OASIX and the photonic transmission design suite (PTDS) . These software programs allow for simulations of EDFA models that are mostly static. However, the Simulink model developed in  provides for a dynamic EDFA model with the ability to modify the input signal power and more importantly the input pump power. Also, Simulink is a well-known simulation tool that is less specialized than PTDS and OASIX, therefore being readily available. Last year, the EDFA Simulink model produced in  was reproduced by Jean Jiang in . In this project we reverse-engineered the model in . Jean Jiang provided her MATLAB and Simulink ﬁles as a starting point for the project. The MATLAB code and the Simulink models were thoroughly analyzed and certain corrections made (which will be discussed later). The dynamics of the corrected EDFA model were then veriﬁed. Additions made to the EDFA model include: 1) determined the optimum length to perform simulations, 2) expanded the model to show the various gains over the entire 1550 nm window, and 3) integrated forward ASE into the EDFA model.
2. OVERVIEW OF EDFA EQUATIONS
An ordinary nonlinear differential equation for studying EDFA gain dynamics has been derived by Sun et al. , and is shown below. ∂ N2 = PS (0, t)[1 − eBS N2 −CS ] ∂t + PP (0, t)[1 − eBP N2 −CP ] −
Optical ampliﬁers are interesting because they provide a method by which long distance communication over optical ﬁber can be done. However, when transmitting over long distances, signal attenuation can occur. In this case an optical ampliﬁer must be used to regenerate the signal. One of the most widely used ampliﬁers for long-haul telecommunication applications are erbium doped ﬁber ampliﬁers (EDFA) . A major concern with using EDFA’s in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems is the non-uniform gain over the 1550 nm window (i.e. 1530 nm - 1560 nm). Different wavelength signals experience different gains and therefore experience a different signal to noise ratio. It CCECE 2004 - CCGEI 2004, Niagara Falls, May/mai 2004 0-7803-8253-6/04/$17.00 c 2004 IEEE
Equation (1) is the key equation for studying gain dynamics in an EDFA and is implemented in Simulink as shown in Fig. 1. The co-directional input pump power is PP (0, t) and the input signal power is PS (0, t). These input powers are in photons/second and are related to the power in Watts ˜ by PP,S = PP,S (hν), where ν is the frequency in Hertz and h is Plank’s constant in units of J/Hz . For our purposes
Simulink EDFA module for EDFA dynamics where we must consider the wavelength. 3) where the peak occurs. This is important because the gain produced by the EDFA model is in base e and must be multiplied by 4. one around 12 m and the other around 30 m. CS ] is proportional to the length of the ﬁber and had to be recalculated for each ﬁber length. 2 shows the gain as a function of ampliﬁer length in the range of 0 m to 50 m. the equation is re˜ written as PP. quantities B and C characterize the physical EDFA and are given by α+β [BP . Optimum Length Before performing simulations. −60 −80 1520nm ≤ λs ≤ 1570nm −100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 length (m) Fig. This length is optimal only in the sense that the signal gain of the ampliﬁer .Fig. CS ] = 4.S = PP. and that there are two distinct peaks. The output pump and signal powers are PP (L. t) = PS (0. where c is the speed of light in λ m/s and λ is the wavelength in m (note: in .3429 to convert it to decibels.S hc . β is the emission coefﬁcient in dB/m and the scale factor 1/4. The wavelengths that reach maximum at 12 m on Fig.1.3429ρA αL (3) [CP . t) = PP (0. Dependance of gain on ampliﬁer length in the range of wavelength’s indicated 2. 2. this relationship was incorrectly implemented and the results of the gain simulations were inaccurate). 1 by the numbers beside the block connecting lines. In this case there are 26 signal wavelengths and 1 pump wavelength. The effect of the emission/absorption peak is of key interest so the optimum length is chosen as 12 m. It is clear that the gain varies signiﬁcantly over wavelength. The multiple input channels are shown in Fig.8 dBm. α is the absorption coefﬁcient in dB/m. 2 correspond to the wavelengths on the emission and absorption spectra (Fig. The EDFA module in Fig. t)eBS N2 −CS Gain (dB) −20 (2) −40 In equation (2).3429 In this equation. 1 is called from the main Simulink model where the input signal power is -30 dBm and the input pump power is 17. the optimum length (Lopt ) of the EDFA model was determined.3429 converts decibels to log base e. Fig. 1. The parameter [CP . t)e BP N2 −CP 40 20 0 PS (L. BS ] = 4.
the optimum length is determined by maximizing the signal gain in the presence of ASE. How much of the energy each of the channels takes from the pump depends on the details of the emission and absorption spectra. G is the gain. For this project the signal was expanded to 26 wavelength channels. respectively. and nsp is the population-inversion factor which is dimensionless. 4. h is Plank’s constant. For this project. different variations in gain can be produced when using different cross-sectional data. t) is also wavelength de˜ pendent as shown by the formula PS = PS hc . 3. particularly the peak value. The forward ASE power is given in  by PASE = 2nsp hν∆ν(G − 1) 1 where. EDFA’s are designed to work in the nonlinear regime. So. the emission and absorption crosssection coefﬁcients. The input signal power PS (0. the small signal gain over 1520 nm ≤ λS ≤ 1570 nm is plotted as shown in Fig. The ASE power versus length relationship is shown in Fig.38 36 34 32 30 Gain (dB) 28 26 24 22 20 18 1520 1525 1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560 1565 1570 wavelength (nm) Fig. at 980 nm βP = 0 and therefore nsp = 1. The shape of the gain in Fig. Fig. 3. When ASE is included. which is also a function of the length . Therefore λ PS (0. so properties like linear superposition don’t hold. nsp = 1 − βP αS αP βS (4) (5) The ASE power is in Watts. the emission and absorption coefﬁcients used were those from Fig. λP of 980 nm. 5. Emission and absorption cross-section coefﬁcients  is maximized. more channels can be used to get a more accurate representation. t) was also a multidimensional quantity and had to be calculated for each wavelength. Gain versus wavelength for a length of 12 m. This provided an adequate representation of gain versus wavelength. 4. HANDLING MULTIPLE WAVELENGTHS Multiple signal wavelengths are handled by allowing BS and CS in equation (3) to be multidimensional . 4 is highly dependant on the parameters α and β. 4. 3. The Simulink model in  uses only one channel along with the pump. however. This is because when there are several channels in an EDFA there is an effect called gain stealing. ∆ν and ν refer to the wavelength deviation of the ASE power around λ. i. So. The parameters that determine the wavelength dependency of BS and CS are α and β. In this ﬁgure it is clear that the ASE power builds up as the length of the ﬁber increases. It is important to note that simulating one wavelength at a time will give different results than simulating all the wavelengths simultaneously. An input signal power of -30 dBm is used because a large signal would drive the EDFA into saturation – causing the difference in the gains at different wavelengths to be small. The ratio between the absorption and emission cross-sections at a particular wavelength is critical in determining the gain for the ampliﬁer . an important relationship for EDFA’s is found. pump power of 18 dBm and signal power of -30 dBm gain versus wavelength.e. The ASE dependance on length will be discussed in section 4. Using a length of 12 m. This is an expected result because as spontaneously emitted photons travel down the . complete inversion can only be obtained when being pumped at 980 nm. AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION The forward ASE is now considered for the EDFA model. In an EDFA.
at 4 m the EDFA gain is reduced as shown in Fig.1. 975-985.5 7 −10 ASE power (mW) 5 ASE Power (dBm) 6 −12. San Diego: Academic Press. The output spectrum of the ASE is shown in Fig. 6 for a signal wavelength of 1530 nm. “Analytic Model for Gain Modulation in EDFAs. 20.R. 6. pp. the ASE spectrum varies from -5.5 1 −20 1520 0 1525 1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560 1565 1570 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 length (m) wavelength (nm) Fig. References  G.” EE8114 Course Project.C. this is one of the compromises that has to be considered when making a selection of ampliﬁer length. 986-992. 1999. Optical Fiber Communications. However.pdf 5.  P. “Simulink Model for EDFA Dynamics Applied to Gain Modulation. CONCLUSIONS This paper presented a method for investigating EDFA dynamics using the tools MATLAB and Simulink. New York: McGraw-Hill. From Fig. Novak and A.” [course notes]. In the EDFA usable range of 1530 nm ≤ λS ≤ 1560 nm.95 dBm to -14. The optimum simulation length was determined and the model in  was expanded to include multiple wavelengths. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 5 it is observed that the ASE power is relatively small at lengths around 4 m.  J. Forward ASE was also added to the model and the simulation results veriﬁed with . Jiang. 2. Gieske. Keiser.edu.5 4 −15 3 2 −17. 6. June 2002. ASE power versus ampliﬁer length for λS of 1530 nm and λP of 980 nm ﬁber they get ampliﬁed and they also stimulate the emission of more photons .” Journal of Lightwave Technology. vol.A. June 2002. Novak for useful discussions regarding the Simulink model.  S. Mermer. “Simulink Model for EDFA Dynamics in a WDM System. Essentially. http://bornova. Moesle. 2002. Erbium-Doped Fiber Ampliﬁers Fundamentals and Technology. This is expected because of the relationship in equation (4). vol.−5 9 8 −7. “EDFA Gain Flattening By Using Optical Fiber Grating Techniques. In this case the optimum length is chosen to be 4 m compared to 12 m obtained in section 2. pp.ege. 4. ASE power versus wavelength for λS of 1530 nm and λP of 980 nm for an ampliﬁer length of 4 m where numerous EDFA parameters can be changed and the effect on the output easily observed. 423-447. 2000.7 dBm. pp. we successfully improved the model to simulate gain spectrum and forward ASE. thereby providing a simulation tool . ¨  O. no. Fig. the ASE is present over the whole operational range of the EDFA. Simpson. Ryerson University. Also. The obvious difference between the ASE spectrum and the gain spectrum is the output power. 20. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank S.” Journal of Lightwave Technology. The ASE spectrum is very similar to that of the gain spectrum shown above in Fig. Using the Simulink model implemented by Novak and Gieske . October 2001. Novak and R. N. and J. Clearly. 6. Ege University.  S. Becker. 5. A signiﬁcant application is in the area of gain ﬂattening where innovative approaches to gain ﬂattening can be simulated/tested using our model.tr/∼wwweee/ docs/seminer. thereby reducing the overall gain of the system. Olsson. The resulting model accurately represented EDFA gain dynamics and forward ASE. no. ASE is a dominant noise generated in the ampliﬁer. [Third Edition].
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