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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I NTRODUCTI ON ...................................................................................................... 3
BROADBAND DEVELOPMENTS ................................................................................ 5
WI RELESS DATA MARKET ....................................................................................... 8
Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
EDGE/ HSPA/ HSPA+ Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
St at ist ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
WI RELESS TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTI ON AND MI GRATI ON ....................................... 15
Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3GPP Evolut ionary Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Spect rum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Core- Net work Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Service Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Broadband- Wireless Deployment Considerat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Feat ure and Net work Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
COMPETI NG TECHNOLOGI ES ................................................................................ 29
CDMA2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
I EEE 802. 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Wi- Fi and Municipal Wi- Fi Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
COMPARI SON OF WI RELESS TECHNOLOGI ES ....................................................... 36
Dat a Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
HSDPA Throughput in Represent at ive Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
LTE Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Lat ency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Spect ral Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Cost , Volume and Market Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Compet it ive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
CONCLUSI ON ........................................................................................................ 56
APPENDI X: TECHNOLOGY DETAI LS ...................................................................... 58
EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Evolved EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
UMTS/ HSPA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
UMTS Release 99 Dat a Capabilit ies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Evolut ion of HSPA ( HSPA+ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
HSPA Voice Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3GPP LTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4G, I MT- Advanced and LTE Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
UMTS TDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
TD- SCDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
I MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Broadcast / Mult icast Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
EPC/ SAE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... 96
ADDI TI ONAL I NFORMATI ON .............................................................................. 100
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 100
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 3
Through const ant innovat ion, Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em ( UMTS) wit h
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) t echnology and it s evolut ion t o beyond t hird generat ion
( 3G) has est ablished it self as t he global, mobile- broadband solut ion. Building on t he
phenomenal success of Global Syst em for Mobile Communicat ions ( GSM) , t he GSM/ UMTS
ecosyst em is becoming t he most successful communicat ions t echnology family ever.
Through a process of const ant improvement , t he GSM family of t echnologies has not only
mat ched or exceeded t he capabilit ies of all compet ing approaches, but has significant ly
ext ended t he life of each of it s member t echnologies.
UMTS/ HSPA, in part icular, has many key t echnical and business advant ages over ot her
mobile wireless t echnologies. Operat ors worldwide are now deploying bot h High Speed
Downlink Packet Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) , t he
combinat ion of t he t wo t echnologies called simply HSPA. HSPA is one of t he most powerful
cellular- dat a t echnologies ever developed. HSPA, already widely available, follows t he
successful deployment of UMTS net works around t he world and is now a st andard feat ure.
Any operat or deploying UMTS t oday is doing so wit h HSPA. The UMTS- t o- HSPA upgrade is
similar t o Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion ( EDGE) , which has already proven t o be a
remarkably effect ive upgrade t o GSM net works, and HSPA ( or HSDPA for some net works) is
now support ed by an overwhelming number of operat ors and vendors worldwide.
HSPA is st rongly posit ioned t o be t he dominant mobile- dat a t echnology for t he rest of t he
decade. To leverage operat or invest ment s in HSPA, t he 3GPP ( Third Generat ion Part nership
Proj ect ) st andards body has developed a series of enhancement s t o creat e “ HSPA
Evolut ion, ” also referred t o as “ HSPA+ . ” HSPA Evolut ion represent s a logical development of
t he Wideband Code Division Mult iple Access ( WCDMA) approach, and it is t he st epping st one
t o an ent irely new Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect ( 3GPP) radio plat form called 3GPP
Long Term Evolut ion ( LTE) . LTE, which uses Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
( OFDMA) , should be ready for deployment in t he 2010 t imeframe. Simult aneously, 3GPP —
recognizing t he significant worldwide invest ment s in GSM net works—has defined
enhancement s t hat will significant ly increase EDGE dat a capabilit ies t hrough an effort called
Combined wit h t hese improvement s in radio- access t echnology, 3GPP has also spearheaded
t he development of maj or core- net work archit ect ure enhancement s such as t he I P
Mult imedia Subsyst em ( I MS) and t he Evolved Packet Core ( or EPC, previously called Syst em
Archit ect ure Evolut ion or SAE) , as well as development s in Fixed Mobile Convergence ( FMC) .
These development s will facilit at e new t ypes of services, t he int egrat ion of legacy and new
net works, t he convergence bet ween fixed and wireless syst ems, and t he t ransit ion from
circuit - swit ched approaches for voice t raffic t o a fully packet - swit ched model.
The result is a balanced port folio of complement ary t echnologies t hat covers bot h radio-
access and core net works, provides operat ors maximum flexibilit y in how t hey enhance t heir
net works over t ime, and support s bot h voice and dat a services.
This paper discusses t he evolut ion of EDGE, HSPA enhancement s, 3GPP LTE, t he capabilit ies
of t hese t echnologies, and t heir posit ion relat ive t o ot her primary compet ing t echnologies.
The following are some of t he import ant observat ions and conclusions of t his paper:
Persist ent innovat ion creat ed EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS;
HSPA and HSPA+ , which are bringing UMTS t o it s full pot ent ial; and is now delivering
LTE, t he most powerful, wide- area wireless t echnology ever developed.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 4
GSM/ UMTS has an overwhelming global posit ion in t erms of subscribers,
deployment , and services. I t s success will marginalize ot her wide- area wireless
I n current deployment s, HSPA users regularly experience t hroughput rat es well in
excess of 1 megabit per second ( Mbps) , under favorable condit ions, on bot h
downlinks and uplinks. Planned enhancement s will increase t hese peak user-
achievable t hroughput rat es, wit h 4 Mbps on commercial net works being commonly
HSPA Evolut ion provides a st rat egic performance roadmap advant age for incumbent
GSM/ UMTS operat ors. HSPA+ wit h 2x2 MI MO, successive int erference cancellat ion,
and 64 Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion ( QAM) is more spect rally efficient t han
compet ing t echnologies including Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
( WiMAX) Wave 2 wit h 2x2 MI MO and Evolved Dat a Opt imized ( EV- DO) Revision B.
The LTE Radio Access Net work t echnical specificat ion was approved in January 2008
and is being incorporat ed int o 3GPP Release 8, which is close t o complet ion. I nit ial
deployment s are likely t o occur around 2010. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in
LTE mat ches or exceeds t he capabilit ies of any ot her OFDMA syst em. Peak
t heoret ical rat es are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidt h. LTE assumes a full
I nt ernet Prot ocol ( I P) net work archit ect ure, and it is designed t o support voice in t he
LTE has become t he t echnology plat form of choice as GSM/ UMTS and CDMA/ EV- DO
operat ors are making st rat egic long- t erm decisions on t heir next - generat ion
plat forms. I n June of 2008, aft er ext ensive evaluat ion, LTE was t he first and only
t echnology recognized by t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net work alliance t o meet it s
broad requirement s.
GSM/ HSPA will comprise t he overwhelming maj orit y of subscribers over t he next five
t o t en years, even as new wireless t echnologies are adopt ed. The deployment of LTE
and it s coexist ence wit h UMTS/ HSPA will be analogous t o t he deployment of
UMTS/ HSPA and it s coexist ence wit h GSM.
3GPP is now st udying how t o enhance LTE t o meet t he requirement s of I MT-
Advanced in a proj ect called LTE Advanced.
UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE have significant economic advant ages over ot her wireless
WiMAX has developed an ecosyst em support ed by many companies, but it will st ill
only represent a very small percent age of wireless subscribers over t he next five t o
t en years.
EDGE t echnology has proven ext remely successful and is widely deployed on GSM
net works globally. Advanced capabilit ies wit h Evolved EDGE can double and
event ually quadruple current EDGE t hroughput rat es.
Wit h a UMTS mult iradio net work, a common core net work can efficient ly support
GSM, WCDMA, and HSPA access net works and offer high efficiency for bot h high and
low dat a rat es, as well as for bot h high- and low- t raffic densit y configurat ions. I n t he
fut ure, EPC/ SAE will provide a new core net work t hat support s bot h LTE and
int eroperabilit y wit h legacy GSM/ UMTS radio- access net works.
I nnovat ions such as EPC/ SAE and UMTS one- t unnel archit ect ure will “ flat t en” t he
net work, simplifying deployment and reducing lat ency.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 5
Circuit - swit ched, voice over HSPA, t hen moving t o Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
( VoI P) over HSPA will add t o voice capacit y and reduce infrast ruct ure cost s. I n t he
meant ime, UMTS/ HSPA enj oys high circuit - swit ched voice spect ral efficiency, and it
can combine voice and dat a on t he same radio channel.
This paper begins wit h an overview of t he market , looking at t rends, EDGE and UMTS/ HSPA
deployment s, and market st at ist ics. I t t hen examines t he evolut ion of wireless t echnology,
part icularly 3GPP t echnologies, including spect rum considerat ions, core- net work evolut ion,
broadband- wireless deployment considerat ions, and a feat ure and net work roadmap. Next ,
t he paper discusses ot her wireless t echnologies, including Code Division Mult iple Access
2000 ( CDMA2000) , Ult ra Mobile Broadband ( UMB) , and WiMAX. Finally, it compares t he
different wireless t echnologies t echnically, based on feat ures such as performance and
spect ral efficiency.
The appendix explains in det ail t he capabilit ies and workings of t he different t echnologies
including EDGE, Evolved EDGE, WCDMA
, HSPA, HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , LTE, I MS, and
As wireless t echnology represent s an increasing port ion of t he global communicat ions
infrast ruct ure, it is import ant t o underst and overall broadband t rends and t he role bet ween
wireless and wireline t echnologies. Somet imes wireless and wireline t echnologies compet e
wit h each ot her, but in most inst ances t hey are complement ary. For t he most part , backhaul
t ransport and core infrast ruct ure for wireless net works are based on wireline approaches,
whet her opt ical or copper. This applies as readily t o Wi- Fi net works as it does t o cellular
Given t hat t he inherent capacit y of one fiber opt ical link exceeds t he ent ire available radio
frequency ( RF) spect rum, dat a flow over wireless links will never represent more t han a
small percent age of t he t ot al global communicat ions t raffic. Nevert heless, wireless
t echnology is playing a profound role in net working and communicat ions, because it
provides t wo fundament al capabilit ies: mobilit y and access. Mobilit y refers t o unt et hered
communicat ion whet her st at ionery or in mot ion. Access refers t o communicat ion services,
whet her t elephony or I nt ernet , easily provided across geographic areas and oft en more
easily accomplished t han wit h wireline approaches, especially in greenfield sit uat ions where
t here is lit t le exist ing communicat ions infrast ruct ure. Thus, given t hese charact erist ics,
mobile communicat ions volume may be less t han wireline, but it s overall cont ribut ion t o
communicat ions in t he world and it s social, polit ical and economic impact , is j ust as
The overwhelming global success of mobile t elephony, and now t he growing adopt ion of
mobile dat a, conclusively demonst rat e t he desire for mobile- orient ed communicat ions. The
quest ion of using wireless t echnology, however, for access is more complex. One must
consider t he performance and capacit y of wireless t echnologies relat ive t o wireline
approaches, what wireline infrast ruct ure may already be available, and ongoing
development s wit h wireline t echnology. I n part icular, wireline net works have always had
great er capacit y, and hist orically have delivered fast er t hroughput rat es. Figure 1 shows
advances in t ypical user t hroughput rat es, and a consist ent 10x advant age of wireline
t echnologies over wireless t echnologies.
Alt hough many use t he t erms “ UMTS” and “ WCDMA” int erchangeably, in t his paper we use “ WCDMA”
when referring t o t he radio int erface t echnology used wit hin UMTS and “ UMTS” t o refer t o t he
complet e syst em. HSPA is an enhancement t o WCDMA.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 6
Fi gur e 1: Wi r el i ne and Wi r el ess Advances
2010 2000 2005
GPRS 40 kbps
UMTS 350 kbps
HSDPA 1 Mbps
HSPA+ 5 Mbps
LTE 10 Mbps
EDGE 100 kbps
ADSL 1 Mbps
ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps
ADSL2+ 25 Mbps
FTTH 100 Mbps
Mobile broadband combines compelling high- speed dat a services wit h mobilit y. Thus, t he
opport unit ies are limit less when considering t he many diverse market s mobile broadband
can successfully address. I n developing count ries, t here is no doubt t hat 3G t echnology will
cat er t o bot h ent erprises and t heir high- end mobile workers and consumers, for whom 3G
can be a cost - effect ive opt ion, compet ing wit h digit al subscriber line ( DSL) , for home use.
I n t he developed world, users’ desire t o be connect ed anyt ime, anywhere will be a primary
source of demand. While consumer demand for social and search services, such as
Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Yahoo, and Google, increases t he demand for mobile-
broadband capabilit ies, t he maj orit y of early adopt ers of mobile broadband have been
ent erprises. Bet t er connect ivit y means a business is more efficient . As a result , ent erprise
broadband- connect ivit y adopt ion is t aking on t he same “ look and feel” as early mobile-
phone service adopt ion. I n t he early 1990s, doct ors, lawyers, salespeople, and execut ives
already had home phones, office desk phones, and even recept ionist s. I t was t he
product ivit y increases associat ed wit h being connect ed t o a cellular net work, however, t hat
accelerat ed mobile- broadband growt h t hroughout t he world. Port io Research predict ed in
June 2008 t hat worldwide mobile dat a revenue would increase at an annual rat e of 16
percent t o reach $252 billion t he end of 2012.
Overall, whet her in business or in our personal lives, t he world of voice and dat a is quickly
becoming one t hat must be unt et hered, but always connect ed.
Alt hough it is t rue t hat most 3G syst ems are now offering t hroughput s of about 1 Mbps—
which is comparable t o what many users experience wit h a basic DSL or cable- modem
service—t he overall capacit y of wireless syst ems is generally lower t han it is wit h wireline
syst ems. This is especially t rue when wireless is compared t o opt ical fiber, which some
“ Mobile Dat a Services Market s 2008” , Port io Research, June 11, 2008
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 7
operat ors are now deploying t o people’s homes. Wit h wireline operat ors looking t o provide
20 t o 100 Mbps t o eit her people’s homes or businesses via next - generat ion cable- modem
services, very high- speed DSL ( VDSL) , or fiber—especially for services such as high-
definit ion I P Television ( I PTV) —t he quest ion becomes, is it possible t o mat ch t hese rat es
using wireless approaches? The answer is “ yes” from a purely t echnical perspect ive, but it is
“ no” from a pract ical point of view. I t is only possible t o achieve t hese rat es by using large
amount s of spect rum, generally more t han is available for current 3G syst ems, and by using
relat ively small cell sizes. Ot herwise, it simply will not be possible t o deliver t he hundreds of
gigabyt es per mont h t hat users will soon be consuming over t heir broadband connect ions
wit h wide- area wireless net works. Consider t oday’s high definit ion ( HD) t elevision cont ent
t hat demands 6 t o 9 Mbps of cont inuous connect ivit y, where one subscriber could
essent ially consume t he ent ire capacit y of a WiMAX or HSPA cell sect or. The only possible
wireless approach t o address such high- dat a consumpt ion is wit h FMC approaches, such as
femt o cells ( or dual mode Wi- Fi/ 3G devices, as shown in Figure 2. This presupposes,
however, an exist ing wireline I nt ernet connect ion ( e. g. , DSL) .
Fi gur e 2: FMC Used t o Ex pand Capaci t y
capacity far exceeds
for same amount
What makes much more sense t oday is using wireless t echnology for access only when
t here are no good wireline alt ernat ives. Hence, t he int erest developing count ries have in
broadband- wireless t echnologies. What changes t he dynamics of t he business model in
t hese areas is t hat operat ors can cost - effect ively deploy voice ( which is inherent ly low
bandwidt h) and lower- speed dat a services, most ly because of t he lack of wireline offerings.
Deploying at lower capacit y—as measured by lower bit s per second ( bps) per square
kilomet er—means larger cell sizes, and t hus fewer cell sit es and much lower deployment
Table 1 summarizes t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of wireless versus wireline broadband
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 8
Tabl e 1: St r engt hs and Weak ness of Br oadband Appr oaches
St r engt h Weak ness
Mobi l e br oadband ( EDGE,
Const ant connect ivit y
Broadband capabilit y across
ext remely wide areas
Good access solut ion for
areas lacking wireline
infrast ruct ure
Capacit y enhancement
opt ions via FMC
Lower capacit y t han wireline
I nabilit y t o serve high-
bandwidt h applicat ions such
as I P TV
Wi r el i ne br oadband ( e.g.,
DSL, DOCSI S, FTTH)
High capacit y broadband at
very high dat a rat es
Evolut ion t o ext remely high
t hroughput rat es
Expensive t o deploy new
net works, especially in
lacking infrast ruct ure
This is not a st at ic sit uat ion, however. I n t he longer t erm, a number of development s could
make high- capacit y broadband- wireless syst ems more compet it ive wit h wireline
approaches. Among t hese development s are mesh capabilit ies t o reduce deployment cost s,
higher spect ral efficiency, low- cost commodit ized base st at ions, and fut ure spect rum
allocat ions for mobile- broadband syst ems. However, any such fut ure success is somewhat
speculat ive and dependent on many development s including t echnology and broadband
applicat ion evolut ion.
3GPP t echnologies clearly address proven market needs; hence, t heir overwhelming
success. The 3GPP roadmap, which ant icipat es cont inual performance and capacit y
improvement s, provides t he t echnical means t o deliver on proven business models. As t he
applicat ions for mobile broadband cont inue t o expand, HSPA, HSPA+ , LTE and LTE
Advanced will cont inue t o provide a compet it ive plat form for t omorrow’s new business
opport unit ies.
Wireless Data Market
By August 2008, over 3. 2 billion subscribers were using GSM/ UMTS
ast onishing 50 percent of t he world’s t ot al 6. 7 billion populat ion.
I nforma’s World Cellular
I nformat ion Service proj ect s over 4 billion GSM/ UMTS cust omers by 2010, wit h 742 million
of t hese subscribers using UMTS services.
3G Americas President Chris Pearson st at es,
“ This level of wireless t echnology growt h exceeds t hat of almost all ot her lifest yle- changing
I nforma Telecoms & Media, August 2008.
ht t p: / / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ World_populat ion, July 2008
I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, July 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 9
Clearly, GSM/ UMTS has est ablished global dominance. Alt hough voice st ill
const it ut es most cellular t raffic, wireless dat a worldwide now comprises 17 percent of
average revenue per user ( ARPU) . I n t he Unit ed St at es, wireless dat a is more t han 20
percent of ARPU for t he t hree largest operat ors.
This number could easily double wit hin
t hree years, and operat ors across Nort h and Sout h America are confirming t his growt h wit h
t heir report s of rising dat a ARPU.
This sect ion examines t rends and deployment , and t hen provides market dat a t hat
demonst rat es t he rapid growt h of wireless dat a.
Users are adopt ing wireless dat a across a wide range of applicat ions, including e- mail,
social net working, game downloads, inst ant messaging ( I M) , ringt ones, and video.
Wireless dat a in ent erprise applicat ions like group collaborat ion, ent erprise resource
planning ( ERP) , cust omer relat ionship management ( CRM) , and dat abase access is also
gaining accept ance. The simult aneous adopt ion by bot h consumers, for ent ert ainment -
relat ed services, and businesses, t o enhance product ivit y, increases t he ret urn- on-
invest ment pot ent ial for wireless operat ors.
A number of import ant fact ors are accelerat ing t he adopt ion of wireless dat a. These
include increased user awareness, innovat ive “ feat ure phones” , powerful smart phones,
and global coverage. But t wo fact ors st and out : net work capabilit y and applicat ions.
Technologies such as GSM, UMTS, and HSPA support a wide range of applicat ions,
including st andard net working applicat ions and t hose designed for wireless. Meanwhile,
applicat ion and cont ent suppliers are opt imizing t heir offerings or, in many cases,
developing ent irely new applicat ions and cont ent t o t arget t he needs and desires of
Comput ing it self is becoming more mobile, and not ebook comput ers and smart phones
are now prevalent . I n fact , all mobile phones are becoming “ smart , ” wit h some form of
dat a capabilit y, and leading not ebook vendors are now offering comput ers wit h
int egrat ed 3G ( e. g. , HSPA) capabilit ies. Modems are available in mult iple format s
including USB devices, PC Cards and Express cards.
Comput er manufact urers are also experiment ing wit h new form fact ors, such as ult ra-
mobile PCs, “ net book” comput ers and mobile I nt ernet devices ( MI Ds) . Lifest yles at home
and at work are increasingly mobile wit h more people t raveling more oft en for business,
for pleasure or in ret irement . Meanwhile, t he I nt ernet is becoming progressively more
int ert wined wit h people’s lives providing communicat ions, social net working,
informat ion, enhancement s t o memberships and subscript ions, communit y involvement ,
and commerce. Wireless access t o t he I nt ernet in t his environment is a powerful cat alyst
for t he creat ion of new services. I t also provides operat ors and ot her t hird- part y
providers wit h many new business opport unit ies.
As dat a const it ut es a rising percent age of t ot al cellular t raffic, it is essent ial t hat
operat ors deploy spect rally efficient dat a t echnologies t hat meet cust omer requirement s
for performance—especially because dat a applicat ions can demand significant ly more
net work resources t han t radit ional voice services. Operat ors have a huge invest ment in
spect rum and in t heir net works; dat a services must leverage t hese invest ment s. I t is
only a mat t er of t ime before t oday’s more t han 3 billion cellular cust omers st art t aking
3G Americas press release of June 5, 2007.
ht t p: / / www.chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 10
full advant age of dat a capabilit ies. This adopt ion will offer t remendous opport unit ies and
t he associat ed risks t o operat ors as t hey choose t he most commercially viable
evolut ionary pat h for migrat ing t heir cust omers. The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE evolut ionary pat hs
provide dat a capabilit ies t hat address market needs and deliver ever- higher dat a
t hroughput s, lower lat ency, and increased spect ral efficiency.
Alt hough wireless dat a has always offered a t ant alizing vision of always- connect ed
mobile comput ing, adopt ion has been slower t han t hat for voice services. I n t he past
several years, however, adopt ion has accelerat ed t hanks t o a number of key
development s. Net works are much more capable, delivering higher t hroughput s at lower
cost . Awareness of dat a capabilit ies has increased, especially t hrough t he pervasive
success of Short Message Service ( SMS) , wireless e- mail, downloadable ringt ones, and
downloadable games. Widespread availabilit y of services has also been import ant . The
feat ures found in cellular t elephones are expanding at a rapid rat e and t oday include
large color displays, graphics viewers, st ill cameras, movie cameras, MP3 players, I M
client s, e- mail client s, Push- t o- Talk over Cellular ( PoC) , downloadable execut able
cont ent capabilit ies, and ever more powerful browsers. All t hese capabilit ies consume
Meanwhile, smart phones, which emphasize a rich comput ing environment on a phone,
represent t he convergence of t he personal digit al assist ant , a fully capable mobile
comput er, and a phone, all in a device t hat is only slight ly larger t han t he average
cellular t elephone. Many users would prefer t o carry one device t hat “ does it all. ”
Smart phones, originally t arget ed for t he high end of t he market , are now available at
much lower price point s and t hus affordable t o a much larger market segment . ABI
Research predict s t hat t he smart phone market , which was 10% of t he t ot al market in
2007, will become 31% of t he market in 2013.
This number may be conservat ive as t he
iPhone demonst rat es t he lat ent market demand for devices t hat enable rich mult imedia
and communicat ions capabilit ies.
As a consequence, t his rich net work and device environment is spawning t he availabilit y
of a wide range of wireless applicat ions and cont ent . Because of it s growing size—and it s
unassailable pot ent ial—applicat ion and cont ent developers simply cannot afford t o ignore
t his market . And t hey aren’t . Consumer cont ent developers are already successfully
providing downloadable ringt ones and games. Enabled by 3G net work capabilit ies,
downloadable and st reaming music and video are not far behind. I n t he ent erprise
space, all t he maj or developers now offer mobilized “ wireless- friendly” component s for
t heir applicat ions. A recent art icle in Net work Comput ing surveyed maj or ent erprise
applicat ion vendors, including I BM, Oracle, Salesforce. com, SAP, and Sybase and found
comprehensive support for mobile plat forms from each of t hese vendors.
Act ing as cat alyst s, a wide array of middleware providers are addressing issues such as
increased securit y ( for example, Virt ual Privat e Net works [ VPNs] ) , swit ching bet ween
different net works ( for example, WLANs t o 3G) , session maint enance under adverse
radio condit ions, and policy mechanisms t hat cont rol applicat ion access t o net works.
A number of ot her powerful cat alyst s are spurring wireless- dat a innovat ion. Pricing for
usage has declined subst ant ially for bot h lapt op and handset plans, t hus
encouraging great er numbers of users t o adopt dat a services. Operat ors are seeing
“ One in Three Handset s Will Be a Smart phone by 2013” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. wirelessweek. com/ art icle.aspx?id= 158452
“ Reach Me if You Can, ” May 2007, Pet er Rysavy, ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com/ papers. ht ml
Typically, some rest rict ions apply.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 11
considerable success wit h music sales. New services such as video sharing are being
enabled by I MS, which will also facilit at e FMC and seamless communicat ions experiences
t hat span cellular and Wi- Fi net works. Meanwhile, users are responding ent husiast ically
t o locat ion- based services, banks are let t ing t heir account holders manipulat e t heir
account s using handheld devices, and users have an increasing number of mobile
opt ions for real- t ime t ravel informat ion and manipulat ion of t hat informat ion.
I n t he ent erprise space, t he first st age of wireless t echnology adopt ion was essent ially t o
replace modem connect ivit y. The next was t o offer exist ing applicat ions on new
plat forms like smart phones. But t he final, and much more import ant , st age is where
j obs are reengineered t o t ake full advant age of cont inuous connect ivit y. Select ive
t act ical adopt ion of mobile applicat ions such as wireless e- mail is a good st art ing point
for many organizat ions. However, companies t hat carefully adopt mobile applicat ions in
a more st rat egic fashion across mult iple business unit s are finding t hey can significant ly
increase t heir compet it iveness.
Based on one leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor’s st at ist ics, Figure 3 compares
t he rapid growt h in wireless dat a t raffic compared t o voice t raffic. By t he end of 2007, in
HSPA coverage areas on a global basis, t he volume of dat a t raffic ( indicat ed in gigabit
per radio net work cont roller [ RNC] per hour) exceeded voice t raffic.
Fi gur e 3: UMTS/ HSPA Voi ce and Dat a Tr af f i c
Based on leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor st at ist ics.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 12
Over t ime, dat a demands are expect ed t o grow significant ly. Figure 4 shows a leading
operat or’s assessment of dat a demands on it s net work.
Fi gur e 4: Oper at or Assessment of Gr ow t h i n Dat a Demand on Rel at i ve Basi s
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
AO - 12/17/07
1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic
Data Traffic Growth
Data Traffic Growth
Voice Traffic Growth
2G Data Traffic Growth
This figure is consist ent wit h growt h in mobile- broadband dat a consumpt ion present ed in
a report from Value Part ners
. The report proj ect s for European count ries 1
GByt e/ user/ mont h using conservat ive assumpt ions, 8 GByt es/ user/ mont h wit h medium
assumpt ions, and 30 Gbyt es/ user/ mont h wit h aggressive assumpt ions.
Anot her driver for broadband dat a growt h beyond mobile applicat ions is t he use of
HSPA/ LTE net works as alt ernat ives t o wireline net works where running wire or fiber is
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
Value Part ners, “ Get t ing t he Most Out of t he Digit al Divide – Allocat ing UHF Spect rum t o Maximise
t he Benefit s for European Societ y” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. spect rumst rat egy. com/ Pages/ GB/ perspect ives/ Spect rum- Get t ing- t he- most - out - of- t he-
digit a- dividend- 2008. pdf.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 13
problemat ic. This includes developing economies, as well as remot e areas. For example,
Telst ra is ext ending it s HSPA net work t o remot e mining locat ions and oil product ion
A final fact or accelerat ing adopt ion of mobile/ wireless t echnologies is environment al
considerat ions, where enhanced communicat ions t echnologies facilit at e business
int eract ion wit h fewer face- t o- face meet ings, and make it easier for workers t o eit her
t elecommut e or st ay involved wit h work proj ect s as t hey conduct t heir personal affairs.
Wit h huge energy cost s and pollut ion from fossil fuels, mobile broadband may
increasingly be viewed as a “ green” t echnology, and t here is even a Web sit e ( ht t p: / /
www. green4g. com) t hat promot es t his cause.
The key for operat ors is enhancing t heir net works t o support t he demands of consumer
and business applicat ions as t hey grow, along wit h offering complement ary capabilit ies
such as I P- based mult imedia. This is where t he GSM family of wireless- dat a t echnologies
is t he undisput ed leader. Not only does it provide a plat form for cont inual improvement s
in capabilit ies, but it does so over huge coverage areas and on a global basis.
Three quart ers of GSM net works t oday support EDGE, represent ing more t han 350
net works in approximat ely 150 count ries.
Because of t he very low increment al cost of including EDGE capabilit y in GSM net work
deployment s, virt ually all new GSM infrast ruct ure deployment s are also EDGE- capable
and nearly all new mid- t o high- level GSM devices include EDGE radio t echnology.
Meanwhile, UMTS has est ablished it self globally. Nearly all WCDMA handset s are also
GSM handset s, so WCDMA users can access t he wide base of GSM net works and
services. There are more t han 251 million UMTS cust omers globally spanning 236
commercial net works. 211 operat ors in 90 count ries offer HSDPA and 46 of t hese have
All UMTS operat ors are deploying HSPA for t wo reasons: first , t he
increment al cost of HSPA is relat ively low and second, HSPA makes such efficient use of
spect rum for dat a t hat it result s in a much lower overall cost per megabyt e of dat a
delivered. Already, t here are more t han 724 commercial HSPA devices available
Devices include handset s, dat a cards, modems, rout ers, lapt ops, media
players and cameras.
As for HSPA+ , a number of operat ors have commit t ed t o t he t echnology including AT&T
and Telst ra. As t he t echnology mat ures, upgrading t o HSPA+ will likely represent a
minimal invest ment for operat ors in order t o significant ly boost net work performance.
A variet y of st at ist ics show t he growt h in wireless dat a. For inst ance, SNL Kagan st at es
in a recent press release t hat Apple’s iPhone 3G combined wit h ot her smart phone
offerings will result in mobile dat a dominat ing t he wireless indust ry. The report proj ect s
Telst ra present at ion “ HSPA as an Open Eco- Syst em Today – Telst ra Next G Net work” , 2008.
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.
GSA HSPA Devices Survey, July 21, 2008
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 14
mobile dat a revenues in t he US t o increase at a compound annual growt h rat e of 16%
( from $24 billion in 2007 t o over $100 billion in 2017.
Similarly, Chet an Sharma Consult ing report s t hat US wireless dat a grew 8. 6% in t he
second quart er of 2008 compared t o t he previous quart er and 40% compared t o Q1 of
2007, reaching $8. 2 billion in revenue.
On a global basis, I nforma Telecoms and Media
report ed first quart er revenue of $49 billion, a 42. 7% year- t o- year increase, result ing in
more t han $200 billion of revenue for t he year
. Meanwhile, ABI Research found t hat
cellular modem sales including PC Cards, Express Cards, USB modems, embedded
modems and 3G/ Wi- Fi rout ers t oget her increased 300% in 2007 compared t o t he
I n research conduct ed by Wireless I nt elligence and AT Kearney for t he GSM Associat ion,
findings included 40% growt h of t he European Union’s mobile dat a market in 2007 t o 7
billion Euros, excluding SMS.
The number of devices t hat support wireless dat a has
part ly fueled t hat dat a use. According t o a st udy by t he Online Publishers Associat ion, 76
percent of all mobile phones are Web- enabled.
3G is also fueling dat a adopt ion.
According t o Lehman Global Equit y Research, 3G subscribers t hat use mobile dat a
applicat ions spend t wice as much on dat a each mont h as 2G subscribers.
From a device perspect ive, I nforma WCI S proj ect ed in July 2008 t he following sales
growt h rat e for WCDMA handset s:
2008: 283 million
2009: 422 million
2010: 558 million
2011: 701 million
2012: 861 million
2013: 1. 01 billion
I t is clear t hat bot h EDGE and UMTS/ HSDPA are dominant wireless t echnologies. And
powerful dat a capabilit ies and global presence mean t hese t echnologies will likely
cont inue t o capt ure most of t he available wireless- dat a market .
ht t p: / / www1. snl. com/ press/ 20080731. asp
Chet an Sharma: “ US Wireless Dat a Market Updat e – Q2 2008” ,
ht t p: / / www. chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m.
Source: I nforma Telecoms and Media, press release, July 23, 2008
ht t p: / / www.fiercewireless. com/ press- releases/ led- asia- pacific- suppliers- cellular- modem- indust ry-
will- exceed- 200- million- unit s- 2013
ht t p: / / www. cellular- news. com/ st ory/ 31730. php?source= newslet t er
Online Publishers Associat ion st udy, March 8, 2007
Lehman Global Equity Research, Paul Wuh, “Global 3G Developments: 3G subs accelerate; more data revenue in
’09.” May 23, 2008.
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, July 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 15
Wireless Technology Evolution and Migration
This sect ion discusses t he evolut ion and migrat ion of wireless- dat a t echnologies from EDGE
t o LTE, as well as t he evolut ion of underlying wireless approaches. Progress has occurred in
mult iple phases, first wit h EDGE, and t hen UMTS, followed by t oday’s enhanced 3G
capabilit ies such as HSPA, HSPA+ and, before long, LTE. Meanwhile, underlying approaches
have evolved from Time Division Mult iple Access ( TDMA) t o CDMA, and now from CDMA t o
OFDMA, which is t he basis of LTE.
Technical Approaches (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA)
Considerable discussion in t he wireless indust ry has focused on t he relat ive benefit s of
TDMA, CDMA, and, more recent ly, OFDMA. Many t imes, one t echnology or t he ot her is
posit ioned as having fundament al advant ages over anot her. However, any of t hese t hree
approaches, when fully opt imized, can effect ively mat ch t he capabilit ies of any ot her.
GSM, which is based on TDMA, is a case in point . Through innovat ions like frequency
hopping, t he Adapt ive Mult i Rat e ( AMR) vocoder for voice, and EDGE for dat a
performance opt imizat ion, GSM is able t o effect ively compet e wit h t he capacit y and dat a
t hroughput of CDMA2000 One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology ( 1xRTT) .
Despit e t he evolut ion of TDMA capabilit ies, t he cellular indust ry has generally adopt ed
CDMA for 3G net working t echnology. Alt hough t here are some significant differences
bet ween CDMA2000 and WCDMA/ HSPA, such as channel bandwidt hs and chip rat es,
bot h t echnologies use many of t he same t echniques t o achieve roughly t he same degree
of spect ral efficiency and t ypical performance. These t echniques include efficient
schedulers, higher order modulat ion, Turbo codes, and adapt ive modulat ion and coding.
Today, people are asking whet her Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing ( OFDM)
provide any inherent advant age over TDMA or CDMA. For syst ems
employing 10 MHz or less of bandwidt h, t he answer is largely “ no.” Because it t ransmit s
mut ually ort hogonal subchannels at a lower symbol rat e, t he fundament al advant age of
OFDM is t hat it elegant ly addresses t he problem of int ersymbol int erference induced by
mult ipat h and great ly simplifies channel equalizat ion. As such, OFDM syst ems, assuming
t hey employ all t he ot her st andard t echniques for maximizing spect ral efficiency, may
achieve slight ly higher spect ral efficiency t han CDMA syst ems. However, advanced
receiver archit ect ures—including opt ions such as pract ical equalizat ion approaches and
int erference cancellat ion t echniques—are already commercially available in UMTS and
CDMA chipset s and can nearly mat ch t his performance advant age.
I t is wit h larger bandwidt hs of great er t han 10 MHz and in combinat ion wit h advanced
ant enna approaches such as MI MO or Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems ( AAS) , t hat OFDM
enables less comput at ionally complex implement at ions t han t hose based on CDMA.
Hence, OFDM is more readily realizable in mobile devices. However, st udies have shown
t hat t he complexit y advant age of OFDM may be quit e small ( t hat is, less t han a fact or of
t wo) if frequency domain equalizers are used for CDMA- based t echnologies. St ill, t he
advant age of reducing complexit y is one reason 3GPP chose OFDM for it s LTE proj ect . I t
is also one reason newer WLAN st andards, which employ 20 MHz radio channels, are
based on OFDM. I n ot her words, OFDM is current ly a favored approach under
considerat ion for radio syst ems t hat have ext remely high peak rat es. OFDM also has an
advant age in t hat it can scale easily for different amount s of available bandwidt h. This in
OFDMA is simply OFDM in which t he syst em assigns different subcarriers t o different users.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 16
t urn allows OFDM t o be progressively deployed in available spect rum by using different
numbers of subcarriers.
An OFDMA t echnology like LTE can also t ake bet t er advant age of wider radio channels
( for example, 10 MHz) by not requiring guard bands bet ween radio carriers ( for
example, HSPA carriers) . I n recent years, t he abilit y of OFDM t o cope wit h mult ipat h has
also made it t he t echnology of choice for t he design of Digit al Broadcast Syst ems.
I n 5 MHz of spect rum, as used by UMTS/ HSPA, cont inual advances wit h CDMA
t echnology—realized in HSPA+ t hrough approaches such as equalizat ion, MI MO,
int erference cancellat ion, and higher- order modulat ion—will allow CDMA- based syst ems
t o largely mat ch OFDMA- based syst ems.
Table 2 summarizes t he at t ribut es of t he different wireless approaches.
Tabl e 2: Summar y of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Appr oaches
Appr oach Technol ogi es Empl oy i ng
TDMA GSM, GPRS, EDGE,
Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry
Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry
Associat ion ( TI A/ EI A) - 136 TDMA
First digit al cellular
successful wit h GSM.
New enhancement s being
designed for GSM/ EDGE.
CDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT, CDMA2000
EV- DO, WCDMA, HSPA, HSPA+
I nst it ut e of Elect rical and
Elect ronic Engineers ( I EEE)
Basis for nearly all new 3G
net works. Mat ure, efficient ,
and will dominat e wide-
area wireless syst ems for
t he remainder of t his
decade and well int o next .
OFDM/ OFDMA 802. 16/ WiMAX, Flarion Fast Low-
Lat ency Access wit h Seamless
Handoff OFDM ( Flash OFDM) ,
3GPP LTE, I EEE 802. 11a/ g/ n,
I EEE 802. 20, Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2)
UMB, 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast
Mult icast Services ( EBCMCS) ,
Digit al Video Broadcast ing- H
( DVB- H) , Forward Link Only
Effect ive approach for
broadcast syst ems, higher
bandwidt h radio syst ems,
and high peak dat a rat es in
large blocks of spect rum.
Also provides flexibilit y in
t he amount of spect rum
used. Well suit ed for
syst ems planned for t he
Because OFDMA has only modest advant ages over UMTS in 5 MHz channels, t he
advancement of HSPA is a logical and effect ive st rat egy. I n part icular, it ext ends t he life
of operat ors’ large 3G invest ment s reducing overall infrast ruct ure invest ment s,
decreasing capit al and operat ional expendit ures, and allowing operat ors t o offer
compet it ive services.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 17
3GPP Evolutionary Approach
Rat her t han emphasizing any one wireless approach, 3GPP’s evolut ionary plan is t o
recognize t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of every t echnology and t o exploit t he unique
capabilit ies of each one accordingly. GSM, based on a TDMA approach, is mat ure and
broadly deployed. Already ext remely efficient , t here are nevert heless opport unit ies for
addit ional opt imizat ions and enhancement s. St andards bodies have already defined
“ Evolved EDGE, ” which will be available for deployment in t he 2009 t o 2010 t imeframe
and bring more t han a doubling of performance over current EDGE syst ems. By t he end
of t he decade, because of sheer market moment um, t he maj orit y of worldwide
subscribers will st ill be using GSM/ EDGE t echnologies.
Meanwhile, CDMA was chosen as t he basis of 3G t echnologies, including WCDMA for t he
frequency division duplex ( FDD) mode of UMTS, and Time Division CDMA ( TD- CDMA) for
t he t ime division duplex ( TDD) mode of UMTS. The evolved dat a syst ems for UMTS, such
as HSPA and HSPA+ , int roduce enhancement s and simplificat ions t hat help CDMA- based
syst ems mat ch t he capabilit ies of compet ing syst ems, especially in 5 MHz spect rum
allocat ions. Over t he remainder of t his decade, GSM and UMTS will const it ut e a growing
proport ion of subscript ions and, by t he end of t he decade, t hese t echnologies will likely
account for most new subscript ions.
Given some of t he advant ages of an OFDM approach, 3GPP has specified OFDMA as t he
basis of it s Long Term Evolut ion
effort . LTE incorporat es best - of- breed radio
t echniques t o achieve performance levels beyond what will be pract ical wit h CDMA
approaches, part icularly in larger channel bandwidt hs. However, in t he same way t hat
3G coexist s wit h Second Generat ion ( 2G) syst ems in int egrat ed net works, LTE syst ems
will coexist wit h bot h 3G syst ems and 2G syst ems. Mult imode devices will funct ion
across LTE/ 3G or even LTE/ 3G/ 2G, depending on market circumst ances. Beyond radio
t echnology, EPC/ SAE provides a new core archit ect ure t hat enables bot h flat t er
archit ect ures, and int egrat ion of LTE wit h bot h legacy GSM/ UMTS net works, as well as
ot her wireless t echnologies. The combinat ion of EPC and EPS is referred t o as t he
Evolved Packet Syst em ( EPS) .
Though lat er sect ions quant ify performance, and t he appendix of t he whit e paper
present s funct ional det ails of t he different t echnologies, t his sect ion provides a quick
summary int ended t o provide a frame of reference for t he subsequent discussion. Table
3 summarizes t he key 3GPP t echnologies and t heir charact erist ics.
Tabl e 3: Char act er i st i cs of 3GPP Technol ogi es
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
GSM TDMA Most widely deployed
cellular t echnology in t he
world. Provides voice and
dat a service via
EDGE TDMA Dat a service for GSM
net works. An enhancement
t o original GSM dat a service
t o 130 kbps
t o 130 kbps
3GPP also refers t o LTE as Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work ( E- UTRAN) .
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 18
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
TDMA Advanced version of EDGE
t hat can double and
event ually quadruple
t hroughput rat es.
t o 500 kbps
t o 500 kbps
UMTS CDMA 3G t echnology providing
voice and dat a capabilit ies.
Current deployment s
implement HSPA for dat a
200 t o 300
200 t o 300
HSPA CDMA Dat a service for UMTS
net works. An enhancement
t o original UMTS dat a
1 Mbps t o
t o 2 Mbps
HSPA+ CDMA Evolut ion of HSPA in
various st ages t o increase
t hroughput and capacit y
and t o lower lat ency.
> 5 Mbps
> 3 Mbps
LTE OFDMA New radio int erface t hat
can use wide radio channels
and deliver ext remely high
t hroughput rat es. All
communicat ions handled in
I P domain.
Typical user rat es may
exceed 10 Mbps.
> 10 Mbps
> 5 Mbps
OFDMA Advanced version of LTE
designed t o meet I MT-
Advanced requirement s.
User achievable rat es and great er det ails on t ypical rat es are covered in Table 5 in t he
sect ion “ Dat a Throughput ” lat er in t his paper. Figure 5 shows t he evolut ion of t he
different wireless t echnologies and t heir peak net work performance capabilit ies.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 19
Fi gur e 5: Ev ol ut i on of TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA Sy st ems
The development of GSM and UMTS/ HSPA happens in st ages referred t o as 3GPP
releases, and equipment vendors produce hardware t hat support s part icular versions of
each specificat ion. I t is import ant t o realize t hat t he 3GPP releases address mult iple
t echnologies. For example, Release 7 opt imizes VoI P for HSPA but also significant ly
enhances GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved EDGE. A summary of t he different 3GPP
releases is as follows:
Rel ease 99: Complet ed. First deployable version of UMTS. Enhancement s t o
GSM dat a ( EDGE) . Maj orit y of deployment s t oday are based on Release 99.
Provides support for GSM/ EDGE/ GPRS/ WCDMA radio- access net works.
Rel ease 4: Complet ed. Mult imedia messaging support . First st eps t oward using
I P t ransport in t he core net work.
Aft er Release 99, release versions went t o a numerical designat ion inst ead of designat ion by year.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 20
Rel ease 5: Complet ed. HSDPA. First phase of I MS. Full abilit y t o use I P- based
t ransport inst ead of j ust Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM) in t he core net work.
Rel ease 6: Complet ed. HSUPA. Enhanced mult imedia support t hrough
Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Services ( MBMS) . Performance specificat ions for
advanced receivers. WLAN int egrat ion opt ion. I MS enhancement s. I nit ial VoI P
Rel ease 7: Complet ed. Provides enhanced GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved
EDGE. Specifies HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , which includes higher order modulat ion
and MI MO. Provides fine- t uning and increment al improvement s of feat ures from
previous releases. Result s include performance enhancement s, improved spect ral
efficiency, increased capacit y, and bet t er resist ance t o int erference. Cont inuous
Packet Connect ivit y ( CPC) enables efficient “ always- on” service and enhanced
uplink UL VoI P capacit y as well as reduct ions in call set - up delay for PoC. Radio
enhancement s t o HSPA include 64 QAM in t he downlink DL and 16 QAM in t he
uplink. Also includes opt imizat ion of MBMS capabilit ies t hrough t he
mult icast / broadcast single- frequency net work ( MBSFN) funct ion.
Rel ease 8: Under development . Comprises furt her HSPA Evolut ion feat ures such
as simult aneous use of MI MO and 64 QAM. I ncludes work it em for dual- carrier
HSPA ( DC- HSPA) where t wo WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a
doubling of t hroughput performance. Specifies OFDMA- based 3GPP LTE. Defines
Rel ease 9: Expect ed t o include HSPA and LTE enhancement s.
Rel ease 10: Expect ed t o specify LTE Advanced t hat meet s t he requirement s set
by I TU’s I MT- Advanced proj ect .
Whereas operat ors and vendors act ively involved in t he development of wireless
t echnology are heavily focused on 3GPP release versions, most users of t he
t echnology are more int erest ed in part icular feat ures and capabilit ies, such as
whet her a device support s HSDPA. For t his reason, t he det ailed discussion of t he
t echnologies in t his paper emphasizes feat ures as opposed t o 3GPP releases.
Anot her import ant aspect of UMTS/ HSPA deployment is t he expanding number of
available radio bands, as shown in Figure 6, and t he corresponding support from
infrast ruct ure and mobile- equipment vendors. The fundament al syst em design and
net working prot ocols remain t he same for each band; only t he frequency- dependent
port ions of t he radios have t o change.
As ot her frequency bands become available for deployment , st andards bodies are
adapt ing UMTS for t hese bands as well. This includes 450 and 700 MHz. UMTS- TDD
equipment is already available for 450 MHz. 1710- 1770 uplink was mat ched wit h 2110-
2170 downlink t o allow for addit ional global harmonizat ion of t he 1. 7/ 2. 1GHz band.
Meanwhile, t he Federal Communicat ions Commission auct ioned t he 700 MHz band in t he
Unit ed St at es in January 2008. The availabilit y of t his band, t he Advanced Wireless
Services ( AWS) band at 1710- 1755 MHz wit h/ 2110- 2155 MHz in t he US, and t he
fort hcoming 2. 6 GHz frequency band in Europe are providing operat ors wit h wider
deployment opt ions. An increasing number of operat ors are also deploying UMTS at 900
MHz, a t radit ional GSM band.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 21
As t he t ot al amount of available spect rum increases and as t echnologies simult aneously
become spect rally more efficient , t ot al capacit y rises rapidly, support ing more
subscribers, and make many new t ypes of applicat ions feasible.
The following figure shows t he FDD bands defined for 3GPP t echnologies.
Fi gur e 6: FDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
1700 MHz Band 9
800 MHz Band 6
Ext 1.7/2.1MHz Band 10 2x60 MHz 1710-1770 2110-2170
1500 MHz Band 11 2x25 MHz 1427.9 - 1452.9 1475.9 - 1500.9
Lower 700 MHz Band 12 2x18 MHz 698-716 728-746
Upper 700 MHz Band 13 2x10 MHz 777-787 746-756
Upper 700 MHz,
Band 14 2x10 MHz 788-798 758-768
I t should be not ed t hat , alt hough t he support of a new frequency band may be
int roduced in a part icular release, t he 3GPP st andard also specifies ways t o implement
devices and infrast ruct ure operat ing on any frequency band according t o release ant erior
t o t he int roduct ion of t hat part icular frequency band. For example, alt hough band 5 ( US
Cellular Band) was int roduced n Release 6, t he first devices operat ing on t his band were
compliant wit h t he release 5 of t he st andard.
Figure 7 shows TDD bands defined for 3GPP Technologies.
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 22
Fi gur e 7: TDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
Band 38 50 MHz 2570-2620
Band 37 20 MHz
Different count ries have regulat ed spect rum more loosely t han ot hers. For example,
operat ors in t he Unit ed St at es can use eit her 2G or 3G t echnologies in cellular, Personal
Communicat ions Service ( PCS) , and 3G bands; whereas in Europe t here are great er
rest rict ions—t hough effort s are underway t hat are result ing in great er flexibilit y,
including t he use of 3G t echnologies in current 2G bands.
Wit h t he proj ect ed increase in t he use of mobile- broadband t echnologies, t he amount of
spect rum required by t he next generat ion of wireless t echnology ( t hat is, aft er 3GPP LTE
in proj ect s such as I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions ( I MT) Advanced) could be
subst ant ial, given t he desire t o operat e radio channels as wide as 100 MHz. I deally, t his
spect rum would fall below 5 GHz. This search for new spect rum is a long- t erm
undert aking, and it may be well int o t he next decade before any such new spect rum
becomes available. However, given t he expanding size and economic significance of t he
mobile- comput ing indust ry, decisions made on new spect rum—especially wit h respect t o
global harmonizat ion—will have profound consequences.
3GPP is defining a series of enhancement s t o t he core net work t o improve net work
performance and t he range of services provided and t o enable a shift t o all- I P
archit ect ures.
One way t o improve core- net work performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures. The
more hierarchical a net work, t he more easily it can be managed cent rally; however, t he
t radeoff is reduced performance, especially for dat a communicat ions, because packet s
must t raverse and be processed by mult iple nodes in t he net work. To improve dat a
performance and, in part icular, t o reduce lat ency ( delays) , 3GPP has defined a number
of enhancement s in Release 7 and Release 8 t hat reduce t he number of processing
nodes and result in a flat t er archit ect ure.
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 23
I n Release 7, an opt ion called one- t unnel archit ect ure allows operat ors t o configure t heir
net works so t hat user dat a bypasses a serving node and t ravels direct ly via a gat eway
node. There is also an opt ion t o int egrat e t he funct ionalit y of t he radio- net work
cont roller direct ly int o t he base st at ion.
For Release 8, 3GPP has defined an ent irely new core net work, called t he Evolved Packet
Core, previously called Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion. The key feat ures and capabilit ies
of EPC/ SAE include:
Reduced lat ency and higher dat a performance t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure.
Support for bot h LTE radio- access net works and int erworking wit h GSM/ UMTS
radio- access net works.
The abilit y t o int egrat e non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX.
Opt imizat ion for all services provided via I P.
This paper provides furt her det ails in t he sect ions on HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) and
Not only do 3GPP t echnologies provide cont inual improvement s in capacit y and dat a
performance, t hey also evolve capabilit ies t hat expand t he services available t o
subscribers. Key service advances include FMC, I MS, and broadcast ing t echnologies. This
sect ion provides an overview of t hese t opics, and t he appendix provides great er det ail
on each of t hese it ems.
FMC refers t o t he int egrat ion of fixed services ( such as t elephony provided by wireline or
Wi- Fi) wit h mobile cellular- based services. Though FMC is st ill in it s early st ages of
deployment by operat ors, it promises t o provide significant benefit s t o bot h users and
operat ors. For users, FMC will simplify how t hey communicat e, making it possible for
t hem t o use one device ( for example, a cell phone) at work and at home, where it might
connect via a Wi- Fi net work or a femt o cell. When mobile, users connect via a cellular
net work. Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and single phone numbers
as well as t he abilit y t o cont rol how and wit h whom t hey communicat e. For operat ors,
FMC allows t he consolidat ion of core services across mult iple- access net works. For
inst ance, an operat or could offer complet e VoI P- based voice service t hat support s access
via DSL, Wi- Fi, or 3G. FMC also offloads t he macro net work from dat a- int ensive
applicat ions such as movie downloads.
FMC has various approaches, including enabling t echnologies such as Unlicensed Mobile
Access ( UMA) , femt ocells, and I MS. Wit h UMA, GSM/ UMTS devices can connect via Wi- Fi
or cellular connect ions for bot h voice and dat a. UMA is a 3GPP t echnology, and it has
been deployed by a number of operat ors, including T- Mobile in t he Unit ed St at es. An
alt ernat ive t o using Wi- Fi for t he “ fixed” port ion of FMC is femt ocells. These are t iny base
st at ions t hat cost lit t le more t han a Wi- Fi access point and, like Wi- Fi, femt ocells
leverage a subscriber' s exist ing wireline- broadband connect ion ( for example, DSL) .
I nst ead of operat ing on unlicensed bands, femt ocells use t he operat or’s licensed bands
at very low power levels. The key advant age of t he femt o cell approach is t hat any
single- mode, mobile- communicat ions device a user has can now operat e using t he femt o
I MS is anot her key t echnology for convergence. I t allows access t o core services and
applicat ions via mult iple- access net works. I MS is more powerful t han UMA, because it
support s not only FMC but also a much broader range of pot ent ial applicat ions. I n t he
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 24
Unit ed St at es, AT&T has commit t ed t o an I MS approach and has already deployed an
I MS- based video sharing service. Though defined by 3GPP, t he Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2) , CableLabs and WiMAX have adopt ed I MS.
I MS allows t he creat ive blending of different t ypes of communicat ions and informat ion,
including voice, video, I M, presence informat ion, locat ion, and document s. I t provides
applicat ion developers t he abilit y t o creat e applicat ions t hat have never before been
possible, and it allows people t o communicat e in ent irely new ways by dynamically using
mult iple services. For example, during an int eract ive chat session, a user could launch a
voice call. Or during a voice call, a user could suddenly est ablish a simult aneous video
connect ion or st art t ransferring files. While browsing t he Web, a user could decide t o
speak t o a cust omer- service represent at ive. I MS will be a key plat form for all- I P
archit ect ures for bot h HSPA and LTE.
Anot her import ant new service is support for mobile TV t hrough what is called mult icast
or broadcast funct ions. 3GPP has defined mult icast / broadcast capabilit ies for bot h HSPA
Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations
Much of t he debat e in t he wireless indust ry is on t he merit s of different radio
t echnologies, yet ot her fact ors are equally import ant in det ermining t he services and
capabilit ies of a wireless net work. These fact ors include t he amount of spect rum
available, backhaul, and net work t opology.
Spect rum has always been a maj or considerat ion for deploying any wireless net work,
but it is part icularly import ant when looking at high- performance broadband syst ems.
HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high t hroughput rat es on t he downlink and uplink wit h low
lat ency in 5 MHz channels when deployed in single frequency ( 1/ 1) reuse. By t his, we
mean t hat every cell sect or ( t ypically t hree per cell) in every cell uses t he same radio
channel( s) .
As previously discussed, an OFDMA approach in a 5 MHz radio channel yields only a
small performance advant age. To achieve higher dat a rat es requires wider radio
channels, such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels in combinat ion wit h emerging OFDMA
radio t echnologies. Very few operat ors t oday, however, have access t o t his much
spect rum. I t was challenging enough for GSM operat ors t o obt ain UMTS spect rum. I f
delivering very high dat a rat es is t he obj ect ive, t hen t he syst em must minimize
int erference. This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse, such as having
every sect or use only one- t hird of t he available radio channels ( 1/ 3 reuse) . The 10 MHz
radio channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of available spect rum.
Backhaul is anot her fact or. As t he t hroughput of t he radio link increases, t he circuit s
connect ing t he cell sit es t o t he core net work must be able t o handle t he increased load.
Wit h many cell sit es t oday serviced by j ust a small number of T1/ E1 circuit s, each able
t o carry only 1. 5/ 2. 0 Mbps, operat ors will have t o significant ly upgrade backhaul
capacit y t o obt ain t he full benefit of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. An OFDMA
syst em wit h 1. 5 bps per hert z ( Hz) of spect ral efficiency in 10 MHz on t hree sect ors has
up t o 45 Mbps average cell t hroughput .
Addit ionally, any t echnology’s abilit y t o reach it s peak spect rum efficiency is somewhat
cont ingent on t he syst em’s abilit y t o reach t he inst ant aneous peak dat a rat es allowed by
t hat t echnology. For example, a syst em claiming spect rum efficiency of 1. 5 bps/ Hz ( as
described above) might rely on t he abilit y t o reach 100 Mbps inst ant aneously t o achieve
t his level of spect rum efficiency. Any const raint on t he t ransport syst em below 100 Mbps
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 25
will rest rict t he range of achievable t hroughput and, in t urn, impact t he spect ral
efficiency of t he syst em.
The mismat ch bet ween backhaul capabilit ies and radio performance in some net works is
one reason t hat user rat es on some 3G syst ems are lower t han t heoret ical rat es.
Operat ors are act ively enhancing t heir backhaul approaches, and t here are many
available and emerging wireline t echnologies—such as VDSL and opt ical Et hernet —as
well as compet it ive point - t o- point microwave syst ems t hat make t his possible.
Finally, t he overall net work t opology also plays an import ant role, especially wit h respect
t o lat ency. Low lat ency is crit ical t o achieving very high dat a rat es, because of t he way it
affect s TCP/ I P t raffic. How t raffic rout es t hrough t he core net work—how many hops and
nodes it must pass t hrough—can influence t he overall performance of t he net work. One
way t o increase performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures, meaning a less
hierarchical net work wit h more direct rout ing from mobile device t o end syst em. The
core EPC/ SAE net work for 3GPP LTE emphasizes such a flat t er archit ect ure.
I n summary, it can be misleading t o say t hat one wireless t echnology out performs
anot her wit hout a full underst anding of how t hat t echnology will be deployed in a
complet e syst em t hat also t akes spect rum int o account .
Feature and Network Roadmap
GSM operat ors first enhanced t heir net works t o support dat a capabilit y t hrough t he
addit ion of GPRS infrast ruct ure wit h t he abilit y t o use exist ing cell sit es, t ransceivers,
and int erconnect ion facilit ies. Since inst alling GPRS, GSM operat ors have largely
upgraded dat a service t o EDGE, and any new GSM net work includes EDGE capabilit y.
Operat ors have deployed UMTS/ HSPA worldwide. Alt hough UMTS involves a new radio-
access net work, several fact ors facilit at e deployment . First , most UMTS cell sit es can be
collocat ed in GSM cell sit es enabled by mult i- radio cabinet s t hat can accommodat e
GSM/ EDGE as well as UMTS equipment . Second, much of t he GSM/ GPRS core net work
can be used. This means t hat all core- net work element s above t he Serving GPRS
Support Node ( SGSN) and Mobile Swit ching Cent er ( MSC) —t he Gat eway GPRS Support
Node ( GGSN) , t he Home Locat ion Regist er ( HLR) , billing and subscriber administ rat ion
syst ems, service plat forms, and so fort h—need, at most , a soft ware upgrade t o support
3G UMTS/ HSPA. And while early 3G deployment used separat e 2G/ 3G SGSNs and MSCs,
all- new MSC and/ or SGSN product s are capable of support ing bot h GSM and UMTS/ HSPA
radio- access net works.
New feat ures such as HSDPA, HSUPA, and MBMS are being designed so t hat t he same
upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixt ure of t erminals including t hose based
on 3GPP Release 99, Release 5, and Release 6. I n ot her words, a net work support ing
Release 5 feat ures ( for example, HSDPA) can support Release 99, Release 5, and
Release 6 t erminals ( for example, HSUPA) operat ing in a Release 5 mode. Alt ernat ively,
a net work support ing Release 6 feat ures can support Release 99, Release 5, and Release
6 t erminals. This flexibilit y assures t he maximum degree of forward- and backward-
compat ibilit y. Not e also t hat most UMTS t erminals t oday support GSM, t hus facilit at ing
use across large coverage areas and mult iple net works.
Once deployed, operat ors can minimize t he cost s of managing GSM/ EDGE and UMTS
net works, because t hese net works share many of t he same aspect s including:
Packet - dat a archit ect ure
Cell sit es
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 26
Ant enna syst ems
Backhaul circuit s
Subscriber account management
Service plat forms
Users largely don’t even need t o know t o what t ype of net work t hey are connect ed,
because t heir mult imode GSM/ UMTS devices can seamlessly hand off bet ween net works.
The changes being planned for t he core net work are anot her aspect of evolut ion. Here,
t he int ent is t o reduce t he number of nodes t hat packet s must t raverse. This will result
in bot h reduced deployment cost s and reduced lat ency. The key enabling t echnology is
EPC/ SAE, which is described in det ail lat er in t his paper.
The upgrade t o LTE will be relat ively st raight forward, wit h new infrast ruct ure support ing
HSPA, but soft ware upgradeable t o HSPA+ and LTE. Beginning at t he end of 2008,
UMTS/ HSPA base st at ions from some vendors will have LTE soft ware upgrades available
by t he second half of 2009. Base st at ion equipment is available for many bands
including t he 1. 7/ 2. 1 GHz AWS band and t he recent ly auct ioned 700 MHz bands in t he
US. Vendors and operat ors are planning LTE field t rials in 2008- 09 and commercial
deployment s by 2010.
On t he device side, mult i- mode chipset s will enable devices t o easily operat e across
UMTS and LTE net works. For example, one chipset vendor has announced a series of
chips t hat support t he following combinat ion of t echnologies: UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE;
EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE; and UMTS, HSPA+ , EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE.
One import ant and int erest ing aspect of t echnology deployment is t hat an advanced
t echnology such as LTE enables operat ors t o upgrade prior t echnologies, such as HSPA.
VoI P for HSPA. Since LTE uses an I P core, once it is deployed, support ing voice
on HSPA via VoI P will be a much simpler t ask as it can share t he same core I P
net work as LTE.
Device processing power. Support ing t he high t hroughput rat es wit h LTE ( e. g.,
50 Mbps or higher) will provide sufficient processing in t he device t o also support
very high HSPA rat es ( e. g. , 30 Mbps or higher) .
Table 4 shows t he rollout of EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE feat ures over t ime.
Tabl e 4: Ex pect ed UMTS/ LTE Feat ur e and Capabi l i t y Avai l abi l i t y
Year Feat ur es
2008 HSUPA seeing significant deployment moment um in net works and device
First HSUPA net works wit h 5. 8 Mbps peak uplink speed capabilit y.
HSPA devices wit h 7. 2 Mbps downlinks widely available.
Various operat ors offering FMC based on UMA.
Operat ors announcing commit ment s t o femt o cell approaches.
ht t p: / / www. qualcomm. com/ press/ r eleases/ 2008/ 080207_Qualcomm_t o_Ship. ht ml
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 27
Year Feat ur es
Great er availabilit y of FMC
2009 Net works and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+ , including MI MO,
boost ing HSPA peak speeds t o 28 Mbps
Enhanced I MS- based services ( for example, int egrat ed
voice/ mult imedia/ presence/ locat ion)
2010 Evolved EDGE capabilit ies available t o significant ly increase EDGE
t hroughput rat es
HSPA+ peak speeds furt her increased t o peak rat es of 42 Mbps based on
LTE int roduced for next - generat ion t hroughput performance using 2X2
Advanced core archit ect ures available t hrough EPC/ SAE, primarily for LTE
but also for HSPA+ , providing benefit s such as int egrat ion of mult iple
net work t ypes and flat t er archit ect ures for bet t er lat ency performance
Most new services implement ed in t he packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE
LTE enhancement s such as 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO
LTE Advanced specificat ions complet ed.
2012 LTE Advanced pot ent ially deployed in init ial st ages.
Over t ime, t he separat e GSM/ EDGE Access Net work ( GERAN) , UMTS Access Net work
( UTRAN) , and core- infrast ruct ure element s will undergo consolidat ion, t hus lowering
t ot al net work cost and improving int egrat ed operat ion of t he separat e access net works.
For act ual users wit h mult imode devices, t he net works t hey access will be largely
t ransparent . Today, nearly all UMTS phones and modems support GSM / EDGE.
Figure 8 present s t he cont inuing advances in HSPA and LTE, plot t ed over t ime, showing
an approximat e doubling of t hroughput per year.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 28
Fi gur e 8: Peak Rat es f or Dow nl i nk and Upl i nk Ov er Ti me
MIMO 2x2 28M
DL LTE(10MHz) 140M
DL LTE(20MHz) 300M
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
UL R’99 384k
UL LTE (10MHz) 25M
UL LTE (10MHz) 50M
• HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected
to double every year on average
• Limitations not induced by the technology itself
but time frames required to upgrade
infrastructure and transport networks, obtain
devices with corresponding capabilities and
Despit e rapid UMTS deployment , market moment um means t hat even by t he end of t he
decade most worldwide subscribers will st ill be using GSM. By t hen, however, most new
subscribers will be t aking advant age of UMTS. Only over many years, as subscribers
upgrade t heir equipment , will most net work usage migrat e t o UMTS. Similarly, even as
operat ors st art t o deploy LTE net works at t he end of t his decade and t he beginning of
t he next , it will probably be t he middle of t he next decade before a large percent age of
subscribers are act ually using LTE. During t hese years, most net works and devices will
be t ri- mode—support ing GSM, UMTS, and LTE. The hist ory of wireless- net work
deployment provides a useful perspect ive. GSM, which in 2008 is st ill growing it s
subscriber base, was specified in 1990, wit h init ial net works deployed in 1991. The
UMTS Task Force est ablished it self in 1995, Release 99 specificat ions were complet ed in
2000, and HSPA+ specificat ions were complet ed in 2007. Alt hough it ’s been more t han a
decade since work began on t he t echnology, only now is UMTS deployment and adopt ion
st art ing t o surge.
Figure 9 shows t he relat ive adopt ion of t echnologies over a mult i- decadal period and t he
lengt h of t ime it t akes for any new t echnology t o be adopt ed widely on a global basis.
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 29
Fi gur e 9: Rel at i ve Adopt i on of Technol ogi es
1990 2000 2020 2010
One opt ion for GSM operat ors t hat have not yet commit t ed t o UMTS, and do not have an
immediat e pressing need t o do so, is t o migrat e direct ly from GSM/ EDGE or Evolved
EDGE t o LTE wit h net works and devices support ing dual- mode GSM- EDGE/ LTE
Alt hough GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA net works are dominat ing global cellular- t echnology
deployment s, operat ors are deploying ot her wireless t echnologies t o serve bot h wide and
local areas. This sect ion of t he paper looks at t he relat ionship bet ween GSM/ UMTS/ LTE and
some of t hese ot her t echnologies.
CDMA2000, consist ing principally of 1xRTT and One Carrier- Evolved, Dat a- Opt imized
( 1xEV- DO) versions, is t he ot her maj or cellular t echnology deployed in many part s of
t he world. 1xRTT is current ly t he most widely deployed CDMA2000 version. A number of
operat ors have deployed or are deploying 1xEV- DO, where a radio carrier is dedicat ed t o
high- speed dat a funct ions. I n July 2008 t here were 100 EV- DO Release 0 net works and
42 EV- DO Rev A net works deployed worldwide.
Source: Rysavy Research proj ect ion based on hist orical dat a.
Source: www. cdg. org, July 14, 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 30
EV- DO uses many of t he same t echniques for opt imizing spect ral efficiency as HSPA,
including higher order modulat ion, efficient scheduling, t urbo- coding, and adapt ive
modulat ion and coding. For t hese reasons, it achieves spect ral efficiency t hat is virt ually
t he same as HSPA. The 1x t echnologies operat e in t he 1. 25 MHz radio channels,
compared t o t he 5 MHz channels UMTS uses. This result s in lower t heoret ical peak rat es,
but average t hroughput s for high level of net work loading are similar. Under low t o
medium- load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es, EV- DO or EV-
DO Rev A achieves a lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA. Operat ors have quot ed
400 t o 700 kilobit s per second ( kbps) t ypical downlink t hroughput for EV- DO Rev 0
bet ween 600 kbps and 1. 4 Mbps for EV- DO Rev A.
Under low t o medium load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es,
EV- DO or EV- DO Rev A achieve a slight ly lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA.
Current ly deployed net work versions are based on eit her Rev 0 or Rev A radio- int erface
specificat ions. EV- DO Rev A incorporat es a more efficient uplink, which has spect ral
efficiency similar t o t hat of HSUPA. Operat ors st art ed t o make EV- DO Rev A
commercially available in 2007.
One challenge for EV- DO operat ors is t hat t hey cannot dynamically allocat e t heir ent ire
spect ral resources bet ween voice and high- speed dat a funct ions. The EV- DO channel is
not available for circuit - swit ched voice, and t he 1xRTT channels offer only medium-
speed dat a. I n t he current st age of t he market , where dat a only const it ut es a small
percent age of t ot al net work t raffic, t his is not a key issue. But as dat a usage expands,
t his limit at ion will cause subopt imal use of radio resources. Figure 10 illust rat es t his
severe limit at ion.
Source: Verizon BroadbandAccess Web page, July 29, 2005.
Source: Sprint press release January 30, 2007.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 31
Fi gur e 10: Radi o Resour ce Management 1x RTT/ 1x EV- DO v er sus UMTS/ HSPA
Speed Data Capacity
1xRTT and 1xEV-DO UMTS/HSPA
Efficient Allocation of Resources
Between Voice and Data
Anot her limit at ion of using a separat e channel for EV- DO dat a services is t hat it
current ly prevent s users from engaging in simult aneous voice and high- speed dat a
services, whereas t his is possible wit h UMTS and HSPA. Many users enj oy having a
t et hered dat a connect ion from t heir lapt op—by using Bluet oot h, for example—and being
able t o init iat e and receive phone calls while maint aining t heir dat a sessions.
EV- DO will event ually provide voice service using VoI P prot ocols t hrough EV- DO Rev A,
which includes a higher speed uplink, QoS mechanisms in t he net work, and prot ocol
opt imizat ions t o reduce packet overhead, as well as addressing problems such as j it t er.
Even t hen, however, operat ors will face difficult choices: How many radio channels at
each base st at ion should be made available for 1xRTT t o support legacy t erminals versus
how many radio channels should be allocat ed t o EV- DO. I n cont rast , UMTS allows bot h
circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched t raffic t o occupy t he same radio channel, where t he
amount of power each uses can be dynamically adj ust ed. This makes it simple t o
migrat e users over t ime from circuit - swit ched voice t o packet - swit ched voice.
Beyond Rev A, 3GPP2 has defined EV- DO Rev B as allowing t he combinat ion of up t o 15
1. 25 MHz radio channels in 20 MHz—significant ly boost ing peak t heoret ical rat es t o 73. 5
Mbps. More likely, an operat or would combine t hree radio channels in 5 MHz. Such an
approach by it self does not necessarily increase overall capacit y, but it does offer users
higher peak- dat a rat es. No operat ors have yet publicly commit t ed t o EV- DO Rev B.
Beyond Rev B, UMB will be based on an OFDMA approach like LTE. UMB support s radio
channels from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz. I n a 20 MHz radio channel, using 4X4 MI MO, UMB will
deliver a peak- dat a rat e of 280 Mbps. UMB and LTE are being developed basically
simult aneously, so it is logical t o assume t hat bot h t echnologies will exploit t he same
advances in wireless t echnology. Bot h UMB and LTE are more recent t han ot her OFDMA
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 32
t echnologies, like WiMAX, so it is also logical t o assume t hat t heir capabilit ies will exceed
init ial OFDMA designs.
No operat ors have commit t ed t o UMB, and t here are legit imat e quest ions about t he
commercial viabilit y of t he t echnology as more CDMA2000 operat ors such as Verizon
choose LTE as t heir next t echnology choice. Though t he migrat ion from CDMA2000 t o
LTE is feasible, it will be more complex t han for UMTS/ HSPA operat ors, especially in
achieving int erworking bet ween LTE and legacy net works.
CDMA2000 is clearly a viable and effect ive wireless t echnology and, t o it s credit , many
of it s innovat ions have been brought t o market ahead of compet ing t echnologies. Today,
however, t he GSM family of t echnologies—including UMTS—adds more cust omers in one
year t han t he ent ire base of CDMA2000 cust omers. And t he GSM family has in excess of
3. 6 billion subscribers—more t han nine t imes t he t ot al number of subscribers as t he
CDMA2000 family of t echnologies.
WiMAX has emerged as a pot ent ial alt ernat ive t o cellular t echnology for wide- area
wireless net works. Based on OFDMA and recent ly accept ed by t he I nt ernat ional
Telecommunicat ions Union ( I TU) as an I MT- 2000 ( 3G t echnology) under t he name
OFDMA TDD WMAN ( Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work) , WiMAX is t rying t o challenge
exist ing wireless t echnologies—promising great er capabilit ies and great er efficiencies
t han alt ernat ive approaches such as HSPA. But as WiMAX, part icularly mobile WiMAX,
has come closer t o realit y, vendors have cont inued t o enhance HSPA, and perceived
WiMAX advant ages are no longer apparent . I nst ead, WiMAX has gained t he great est
t ract ion in developing count ries as an alt ernat ive t o wireline deployment . I n t he Unit ed
St at es, Clearwire, Sprint Next el and ot hers ( I nt el, Google, Comcast , Time Warner Cable,
Bright House Net works) have creat ed a j oint vent ure t o deploy a nat ionwide WiMAX
net work t hat is await ing Unit ed St at es Regulat ory Approval. I n addit ion, at t he t ime of
t his paper, t here are st ill no wide area deployment s of WiMAX in t he US. At best , t he
promises of mobile WiMAX is appealing but it remains unproven in t he real world.
Like GSM/ HSPA, WiMAX is not a single t echnology; it is a family of int eroperable
t echnologies. The original specificat ion, I EEE 802. 16, was complet ed in 2001 and
int ended primarily for t elecom backhaul applicat ions in point - t o- point , line- of- sight
configurat ions using spect rum above 10 GHz. This original version of I EEE 802. 16 uses a
radio int erface based on a single- carrier waveform.
The next maj or st ep in t he evolut ion of I EEE 802. 16 occurred in 2004, wit h t he release
of t he I EEE 802. 16- 2004 st andard. I t added mult iple radio int erfaces, including one
based on OFDM- 256 and one based on OFDMA. I EEE 802. 16- 2004 also support s point -
t o- mult ipoint communicat ions, sub- 10 GHz operat ion, and non- line- of- sight
communicat ions. Like t he original version of t he st andard, operat ion is fixed, meaning
t hat subscriber st at ions are t ypically immobile. Pot ent ial applicat ions include wireless
I nt ernet Service Provider ( I SP) service, local t elephony bypass ( as an alt ernat ive t o
cable modem or DSL service) , and cellular backhaul for connect ions from cellular base
st at ions t o operat or infrast ruct ure net works. Vendors can design equipment for eit her
licensed or unlicensed bands.
Vendors are now delivering I EEE 802. 16- 2004- cert ified equipment . This st andard does
not compet e direct ly wit h cellular- dat a and privat e Wi- Fi net works; t hus, it can provide
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, June 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 33
complement ary services. I n addit ion t o operat or- host ed access solut ions, privat e ent it ies
such as municipal government s, universit ies, and corporat ions will be able t o use t his
version of WiMAX in unlicensed bands ( for example, 5. 8 GHz) for local connect ivit y,
t hough t here has been lit t le or no development in t his area.
The I EEE has also complet ed a mobile- broadband st andard—I EEE 802. 16e- 2005—t hat
adds mobilit y capabilit ies including support for radio operat ion while mobile, handovers
across base st at ions, and handovers across operat ors. Unlike I EEE 802. 16- 2004, which
operat es in bot h licensed and unlicensed bands, I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 ( referred t o as
mobile WiMAX) makes t he most sense in licensed bands. Operat ors have begun limit ed
mobile WiMAX net work deployment s in 2008. Current WiMAX profiles emphasize TDD
operat ion. Mobile WiMAX net works are not backward- compat ible wit h I EEE 802. 16- 2004
I nit ial mobile WiMAX net works will be deployed using 2X2 MI MO, TDD and 10 MHz radio
channels in a profile defined by t he WiMAX Forum known as WiMAX Wave 2. Beyond
Wave 2, WiMAX vendors are defining a new I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 profile called WiMAX
Release 1. 5, wit h product cert ificat ion expect ed by t he end of 2009. Mobile WiMAX
release 1. 5 includes various refinement s int ended t o improve efficiency and
performance, and will be available for deployment in a similar t imeframe as LTE. The
subsequent version, Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, will be designed t o address t he performance
requirement s being developed in t he I TU I MT- Advanced Proj ect , and will be st andardized
in a new I EEE st andard, I EEE 802. 16m. According t o Sprint Next el, I EEE 802. 16m will be
available in 2011.
I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 employs many of t he same mechanisms as HSPA t o maximize
t hroughput and spect ral efficiency, including high- order modulat ion, efficient coding,
adapt ive modulat ion and coding, and Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( HARQ) . The
principal difference from HSPA is I EEE 802. 16e- 2005’s use of OFDMA. As discussed in
t he sect ion “ Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) ” above, OFDM provides a
pot ent ial implement at ion advant age for wide radio channels ( for example, 10 t o 20
MHz) . I n 5 t o 10 MHz radio channels, t here is no evidence indicat ing t hat I EEE 802. 16e-
2005 will have any performance advant age compared t o HSPA+ .
I t should be not ed, however, t hat I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 cont ains some aspect s t hat may
limit it s performance, part icularly in scenarios in which a sect or cont ains a large number
of mobile users. The performance of t he MAC layer is inefficient when scheduling large
numbers of users, and some aspect s—such as power cont rol of t he mobile st at ion—are
provided using MAC signaling messages rat her t han t he fast power cont rol used in
WCDMA and ot her t echnologies. Thus, while WiMAX uses OFDMA, t he performance will
likely be somewhat less t han HSPA due t o increased overhead and ot her design issues.
Relat ive t o LTE, WiMAX has t he following t echnical disadvant ages: 5 msec frames
inst ead of 1 msec frames, Chase combining inst ead of increment al redundancy, coarser
granularit y for modulat ion and coding schemes and vert ical coding inst ead of horizont al
One deployment considerat ion is t hat TDD requires net work synchronizat ion. I t
is not possible for one cell sit e t o be t ransmit t ing and an adj acent cell sit e t o be
receiving at t he same t ime. Different operat ors in t he same band must eit her coordinat e
t heir net works or have guard bands t o ensure t hat t hey don’t int erfere wit h each ot her.
Ali Tabassi, Sprint Next el, Fierce Wireless Webcast , “ WiMAX: Mobilizing t he I nt ernet ” , March 5,
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 34
This may int roduce problems as more operat ors int roduce net works in t he same
spect rum band; for example, t he 2. 5 GHz band in t he Unit ed St at es may be used for
bot h TDD and FDD operat ion.
Alt hough I EEE 802. 16e exploit s significant radio innovat ions similar t o HSPA+ and LTE,
it faces challenges such economies of scale and t echnology mat urit y. Very few operat ors
t oday have access t o spect rum for WiMAX t hat would permit t hem t o provide widespread
I n reference t o economies of scale, GSM/ UMTS/ HSPA subscribers number in t he billions.
Even over t he next five years, t he number of WiMAX subscribers is likely t o be quit e low.
Forward Concept s predict ed in January 2008 38 million WiMAX subscribers in 2012
Juniper Research predict ed in May 2008 more t han 47 million subscribers by 2013.
This mat ches forecast s from a year ago when Art hur D. Lit t le summarized different
forecast s for t ot al WiMAX subscribers worldwide as bet ween 20 million and 100 million
a t iny fract ion of global wireless subscribers. Senza Fili Consult ing proj ect ed
54 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012 wit h emerging market s driving growt h.
t his int o perspect ive, t he GSM family of t echnologies adds more subscribers every four
mont hs ( about 100 million) t han t he expect ed worldwide t ot al subscriber predict ion of
WiMAX by 2012.
Finally, from a t echnology st andpoint , mobile WiMAX on paper may be slight ly more
capable t han t oday’s available versions of HSPA. But by t he t ime it becomes available,
mobile WiMAX will act ually have t o compet e against evolved HSPA syst ems t hat will
offer bot h similar capabilit ies and enhanced performance. Furt her, by t hen, LTE will not
be t hat far from deployment .
One specific area where WiMAX has a t echnical disadvant age is cell size. I n fact , 3G
syst ems have a significant link budget advant age over mobile WiMAX because of soft -
handoff diversit y gain and an FDD duplexing advant age over TDD.
Art hur D. Lit t le
report s t hat t he radii of t ypical HSPA cells will be t wo t o four t imes great er t han t ypical
mobile WiMAX cells for high- t hroughput operat ion.
One vendor est imat es t hat for t he
same power out put , frequency, and capacit y, mobile WiMAX requires 1. 7 t imes more cell
sit es t han HSPA.
Given t hat many real world deployment s of HSPA will occur at
frequencies such as 850 MHz, and LTE at 700 MHz, WiMAX deployment s at 2. 5 GHz will
be at a significant disadvant age.
Wit h respect t o spect ral efficiency, WiMAX is comparable t o HSPA+ , as discussed in t he
sect ion “ Spect ral Efficiency” t hat follows. As for dat a performance, HSPA+ in Release 8—
“ WiMAX ' 08 The 3G+ Broadband Alt ernat ive” , ht t p: / / www. fwdconcept s. com/ WiMAX8. ht m
ht t p: / / www. rcrnews. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ art icle?AI D= / 20080509/ SUB/ 940077592/ 1008/ newslet t er32
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
Source: Press release of June 19, 2007 describing t he report "WiMAX: Ambit ions and Realit y. A
det ailed market assessment and forecast at t he global, regional and count ry level ( 2006- 2012) "
Wit h a 2: 1 TDD syst em, t he reverse link only t ransmit s one t hird of t he t ime. To obt ain t he same
cell edge dat a rat es, t he mobile syst em must t ransmit at 4. 77 dB higher t ransmit power.
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 35
wit h a peak rat e of 42 Mbps—exceeds mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz in TDD 2: 1 DL: UL using
2X2 MI MO of 40 Mbps.
The somet imes- quot ed peak rat e of 63. 4 Mbps for mobile
WiMAX in 10 MHz assumes no bandwidt h applied t o t he uplink.
Some have cit ed int ellect ual propert y right s as an area where WiMAX has an advant age.
There is lit t le subst ant ial, publicly available informat ion, however t o support such claims.
First , t he large HSPA vendors have invest ed heavily in t hese t echnologies—hopefully
giving t hem significant leverage wit h which t o negot iat e reasonable int ellect ual propert y
right s ( I PR) rat es wit h ot her vendors. Second, t he mobile WiMAX indust ry is in it s
infancy, and t here is considerable lack of clarit y when it comes t o how different
companies will assert and resolve I PR issues.
Finally, wireless- dat a business models must also be considered. Today’s cellular
net works can finance t he deployment of dat a capabilit ies t hrough a successful voice
business. Building new net works for broadband wireless mandat es subst ant ial capacit y
per subscriber. Consumers who download 1 gigabyt e of dat a each mont h represent a t en
t imes great er load on t he net work t han a 1, 000- minut e- a- mont h voice user. And if t he
fut ure is in mult imedia services such as movie downloads, it is import ant t o recognize
t hat downloading a single DVD- qualit y movie—even wit h advanced compression—
consumes approximat ely 2 gigabyt es. I t is not clear how easily t he available revenue per
subscriber will be able t o finance large- scale deployment of net work capacit y. Despit e
numerous at t empt s, no t errest rial wireless- dat a- only net work has ever succeeded as a
Alt hough t here is discussion of providing voice services over WiMAX using
VoI P, mobile- voice users demand ubiquit ous coverage—including indoor coverage.
Mat ching t he cellular foot print wit h WiMAX will require nat ional roaming arrangement s,
complement ed by new dual- t echnology devices, or significant operat or invest ment s.
I EEE 802. 20 is a mobile- broadband specificat ion developed by t he Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access Working Group of t he I EEE t hat was complet ed in 2008. Wit h vendors
focused heavily on LTE, UMB, and WiMAX for next - generat ion wireless services, it is not
clear whet her t here is sufficient moment um in t his st andard t o make it a viable
t echnology. At t his t ime, no operat or has commit t ed t o t he possible st andard. Not e t hat
802. 20 is very similar t o UMB. However, neit her t echnology has gained any moment um
at t his point in t ime.
Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems
I n t he local area, t he I EEE 802. 11 family of t echnologies has experienced rapid growt h,
mainly in privat e deployment s. The lat est 802. 11 st andard, 802. 11n offers users
t hroughput s in excess of 100 Mbps, and improved range t hrough use of MI MO.
Complement ary st andards increase t he at t ract ion of t he t echnology. 802. 11e provides
qualit y- of- service enabling VoI P and mult imedia, and 802. 11i enables robust securit y.
Leveraging t his success, operat ors—including cellular operat ors—are offering hot spot
service in public areas such as airport s, fast - food rest aurant s, and hot els. For t he most
part , hot spot s are complement ary wit h cellular- dat a net works, because t he hot spot can
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
Source: Andy Seybold, January 18, 2006, comment ary: “ Will Dat a- Only Net works Ever Make
Money?” ht t p: / / www. out look4mobilit y. com/ comment ary2006/ j an1806. ht m
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 36
provide broadband services in ext remely dense user areas and t he cellular net work can
provide broadband services across much larger areas. Various organizat ions are looking
at int egrat ing WLAN service wit h GSM/ UMTS dat a services. The GSM Associat ion has
developed recommendat ions for SI M- based aut hent icat ion of hot spot s, and 3GPP has
mult iple init iat ives t hat address WLAN int egrat ion int o it s net works, including 3GPP
Syst em t o WLAN I nt erworking, UMA, I MS, and EPC/ SAE.
Many cit ies are now deploying met ro Wi- Fi syst ems t hat will provide Wi- Fi access in
downt own areas. These syst ems are based on a mesh t echnology, where access point s
forward packet s t o nodes t hat have backhaul connect ions. Alt hough some indust ry
observers are predict ing t hat t hese syst ems will have an adverse effect on 3G dat a
services, met ro Wi- Fi and 3G are more likely t o be complement ary in nat ure. Wi- Fi can
generally provide bet t er applicat ion performance over limit ed coverage areas, whereas
3G syst ems can provide access over much larger coverage areas.
Met ro syst ems t oday are st ill quit e immat ure and face t he following challenges:
Many cit y proj ect s have been discont inued due t o t he difficult y of providing a
viable business model.
Today’s mesh syst ems are all propriet ary. The I EEE is developing a mesh
net working st andard—I EEE 802. 16s—but t his may not be ready unt il 2008. Even
t hen, it is not clear t hat vendors will adopt t his st andard for out door syst ems.
Coverage in most met ro syst ems is designed t o provide an out door signal. As
such, t he signal does not penet rat e many buildings in t he coverage area and
repeat ers are needed t o propagat e t he signal indoors. Many early net work
deployment s have experienced poorer coverage t han init ially expect ed, and t he
number of recommended access point s per square mile has increased st eadily.
Operat ion is in unlicensed bands in t he 2. 4 GHz radio channel. Given only t hree
relat ively non- overlapping radio channels at 2.4 GHz, int erference bet ween public
and privat e syst ems is inevit able.
Though mesh archit ect ure simplifies backhaul, t here are st ill considerable
expenses and net working considerat ions in backhauling a large number of
out door access point s.
Nevert heless, met ro net works have at t ract ed considerable int erest , and some number of
proj ect s are st ill proceeding. Technical issues will likely be resolved over t ime, and as
more devices support bot h 3G and Wi- Fi, users can look forward t o mult iple access
Comparison of Wireless Technologies
This sect ion of t he paper compares t he different wireless t echnologies, looking at
t hroughput , lat ency, spect ral efficiency, and market posit ion. Finally, t he paper present s a
t able t hat summarizes t he compet it ive posit ion of t he different t echnologies across mult iple
Dat a t hroughput is an import ant met ric for quant ifying net work t hroughput
performance. Unfort unat ely, t he ways in which various organizat ions quot e t hroughput
st at ist ics vary t remendously, which oft en result s in misleading claims. The int ent of t his
paper is t o realist ically represent t he capabilit ies of t hese t echnologies.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 37
One met hod of represent ing a t echnology’s t hroughput is what people call “ peak
t hroughput ” or “ peak net work speed. ” This refers t o t he fast est possible t ransmission
speed over t he radio link, and it is generally based on t he highest order modulat ion
available and t he least amount of coding ( error correct ion) overhead. Peak net work
speed is also usually quot ed at layer 2 of t he radio link. Because of prot ocol overhead,
act ual applicat ion t hroughput may be 10 t o 20 percent lower ( or more) t han t his layer- 2
value. Even if t he radio net work can deliver t his speed, ot her aspect s of t he net work—
such as t he backhaul from base st at ion t o operat or- infrast ruct ure net work—can oft en
const rain t hroughput rat es t o levels below t he radio- link rat e.
Anot her met hod is t o disclose t hroughput s act ually measured in deployed net works wit h
applicat ions such as File Transfer Prot ocol ( FTP) under favorable condit ions, which
assume light net work loading ( as low as one act ive dat a user in t he cell sect or) and
favorable signal propagat ion. This number is useful because it demonst rat es t he high-
end, act ual capabilit y of t he t echnology. This paper refers t o t his rat e as t he “ peak user
rat e. ” Average rat es, however, are lower t han t his peak rat e and difficult t o predict
because t hey depend on a mult it ude of operat ional and net work fact ors. Except when
t he net work is congest ed, however, t he maj orit y of users should experience t hroughput
rat es higher t han one- half of t he peak- achievable rat e.
Some operat ors, primarily in t he US, also quot e t ypical t hroughput rat es. These rat es
are based on t hroughput t est s t he operat ors have done across t heir operat ing net works,
and incorporat e a higher level of net work loading. Though t he operat ors do not disclose
t he precise met hodology t hey use t o est ablish t hese figures, t he values provide a good
indicat ion of what users can t ypically expect .
Table 4 present s t he t echnologies in t erms of peak net work t hroughput rat es, peak user-
rat es ( under favorable condit ions) and t ypical rat es. I t omit s values t hat are not yet
known, such as t hose associat ed wit h fut ure t echnologies.
Tabl e 5: Thr oughput Per f or mance of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
( Bl ue I ndi cat es Theor et i cal Peak Rat es, Gr een Ty pi cal )
Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
EDGE ( t y pe 2 MS) 473. 6 kbps 473. 6 kbps
EDGE ( t y pe 1 MS)
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 1 MS)
A t ype 1 evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o eight t imeslot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o four t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
Type 1 mobile, class 12 hardware, 10 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) , MTCS- 8- B ( 118. 4 kbps/ slot )
4 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 38
Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 2 MS)
UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99 2. 048 Mbps 768 kbps
UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
384 kbps 350 kbps
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
384 kbps 350 kbps
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
HSDPA I ni t i al Devi ces
1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
384 kbps 350 kbps
HSDPA 14. 4 Mbps 384 kbps
I ni t i al
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps > 5 Mbps
700 kbps t o
1. 7 Mbps
2 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
500 kbps t o
1. 2 Mbps
HSPA Cur r ent
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA 14. 4 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA+ ( DL 64 QAM, UL
21. 6 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps
HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
28 Mbps > 5Mbps
11. 5 Mbps > 3 Mbps
HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
42 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps
LTE ( 2X2 MI MO)
173 Mbps > 10 Mbps
58 Mbps > 5 Mbps
A t ype 2- evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o 16 t imes slot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o eight t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
Type 2 mobile, 16 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) at MTCS- 8- B
Type 2 mobile, 8 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) consist s of syst ems support ing bot h High Speed Downlink Packet
Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) .
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on AT&T press release, June 4, 2008
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 39
Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Net w or k
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
LTE ( 4X4 MI MO) 326 Mbps 86 Mbps
153 kbps 130 kbps
153 kbps 130 kbps
CDMA2000 1XRTT 307 kbps 307 kbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev 0
2. 4 Mbps > 1 Mbps
153 kbps 150 kbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev A
3. 1 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
600 kbps t o
1. 4 Mbps
1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
300 t o 500
kbps t ypical
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
( 3 r adi o channel s MHz)
9. 3 Mbps 5. 4 Mbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
Theor et i cal ( 15 r adi o
73. 5 Mbps 27 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 2X2 MI MO)
140 Mbps 34 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 4X4 MI MO)
280 Mbps 68 Mbps
802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 1 ( 10 MHz TDD
DL/ UL= 3, 1X2 SI MO)
23 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 2 ( 10 MHz TDD,
DL/ UL= 3, 2x 2 MI MO)
46 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16m TBD TBD
Rysavy Research’s 2002 paper for 3G Americas on wireless dat a ant icipat ed EDGE
average performance of 110 t o 130 kbps and UMTS average performance of 200 t o 300
kbps. Act ual result s from operat or and vendor field t rials mat ched t hese predict ed
result s validat ing t he met hodology used t o predict performance. I n t he 2004 and 2005
versions of t his paper, t he 550 t o 800 kbps t hroughput performance of init ial HSDPA
devices has been borne out as fairly accurat e.
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on Sprint press release January 30, 2007.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 40
HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios
I t is inst ruct ive t o look at act ual HSDPA t hroughput in commercial net works. Figure 11
shows t he t hroughput s measured in one net work wit h voice and dat a in one West ern
European count ry across t hree larger cit ies. The dat a shows t he percent age of samples
on t he X axis t hat fall below t he t hroughput shown on t he Y axis. For example, t he 75
percent ile is at 5 Mbps, meaning t hat 75% of samples are below 5 Mbps and 25% are
above. Significant ly, half of all t he measurement s showed 4 Mbps or higher t hroughput .
Fi gur e 11: HSDPA Thr oughput Di st r i but i on i n Depl oy ed Net w or k s
I n anot her net work st udy, Figure 12 shows t he downlink t hroughput performance of a
7. 2 Mbps device. ( peak dat a rat e capabilit y) . I t result s in a median t hroughput of 1. 9
Mbps when mobile, 1. 8 Mbps wit h poor coverage, and 3. 8 Mbps wit h good coverage.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 41
Fi gur e 12: HSDPA Per f or mance of a 7.2 Mbps Devi ce i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for t wo deployed HSPA
net works t hat support ed 7. 2 Mbps HSDPA. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 2. 1 Mbps in t he first net work, and 1. 9 Mbps in t he second
Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance
HSUPA dramat ically increases uplink t hroughput s over 3GPP Release 99. However, even
Release 99 net works have seen significant uplink increases. Many net works were init ially
deployed wit h a 64 kbps uplink rat e. Lat er, t his increased t o 128 kbps. Lat er, operat ors
increased speeds t o 384 kbps peak rat es, wit h peak user- achievable rat es of 350 kbps.
The ant icipat ed 1 Mbps achievable uplink t hroughput wit h HSUPA can be seen in t he
measured t hroughput of a commercial net work, as document ed in Figure 13. The X axis
shows t hroughput rat e, t he Y axis shows t he cumulat ive dist ribut ion funct ion and t he
bars show t he number of samples obt ained for t hat t hroughput rat e on a relat ive basis.
The median bit rat e is 1. 0 Mbps.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 42
Fi gur e 13: Upl i nk Thr oughput i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for a deployed HSPA net work
t hat support ed 2. 0 Mbps HSUPA
uplink speed. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 1. 2 Mbps
As part of t he LTE/ SAE/ EPC Trial I nit iat ive ( LSTI ) , vendors are t est ing LTE t echnology.
Figure 14shows LTE t hroughput s in a 2X2 MI MO t rial net work reaching a maximum of
154 Mbps, a mean of 78 Mbps and a minimum of 16 Mbps. Unt il operat ors act ually
deploy complet e net works, t ypical rat es will not be available, but t he dat a suggest s t hat
users should be able t o obt ain t hroughput s an order of magnit ude higher t han t oday’s
3G net works.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
2 x spreading fact or ( 2xSF2) code configurat ion.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 43
Fi gur e 14: LTE Measur ed Thr oughput i n Test Net w or k
Base station located at x.
Max: 154 Mbps
Mean: 78 Mbps
Min: 16 Mbps
Max: 45 km/h
Mean: 16 km/h
Min: 0 km/h
Sub-urban area with line-
of-sight: less than 40%
of the samples
Heights of surrounding
buildings: 15-25 m
Just as import ant as t hroughput is net work lat ency, defined as t he round- t rip t ime it
t akes dat a t o t raverse t he net work. Each successive dat a t echnology from GPRS forward
reduces lat ency, wit h HSDPA net works having lat ency as low as 70 milliseconds ( msec) .
HSUPA brings lat ency down even furt her, as will 3GPP LTE. Ongoing improvement s in
each t echnology mean all t hese values will go down as vendors and operat ors fine t une
t heir syst ems. Figure 15 shows t he lat ency of different 3GPP t echnologies.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 44
Fi gur e 15: Lat ency of Di f f er ent Technol ogi es
LTE HSPA HSDPA
The values shown in Figure 15 reflect measurement s of commercially deployed
t echnologies. Some vendors have report ed significant ly lower values in net works using
t heir equipment , such as 150 msec for EDGE, 70 msec for HSDPA, and 50 msec for
HSPA. Wit h furt her refinement s and t he use of 2 msec Transmission Time I nt erval ( TTI )
in t he HSPA uplink, 25 msec roundt rip is a realist ic goal. LTE will reduce lat ency even
furt her, t o as low as 10 msec in t he radio- access net work.
To bet t er underst and t he reasons for deploying t he different dat a t echnologies and t o
bet t er predict t he evolut ion of capabilit y, it is useful t o examine spect ral efficiency. The
evolut ion of dat a services will be charact erized by an increasing number of users wit h
ever- higher bandwidt h demands. As t he wireless- dat a market grows, deploying wireless
t echnologies wit h high spect ral efficiency will be of paramount import ance. Keeping all
ot her t hings equal, such as frequency band, amount of spect rum, and cell sit e spacing,
an increase in spect ral efficiency t ranslat es t o a proport ional increase in t he number of
users support ed at t he same load per user—or, for t he same number of users, an
increase in t hroughput available t o each user. Delivering broadband services t o large
numbers of users can best be achieved wit h high spect ral efficiency syst ems, especially
Source: 3G Americas' member companies. Measured bet ween subscriber unit and Gi int erface,
immediat ely ext ernal t o wireless net work. Does not include I nt ernet lat ency. Not e t hat t here is some
variat ion in lat ency based on net work configurat ion and operat ing condit ions.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 45
because t he only ot her alt ernat ives are using more spect rum or deploying more cell
I ncreased spect ral efficiency, however, comes at a price. I t generally implies great er
complexit y for bot h user and base st at ion equipment . Complexit y can arise from t he
increased number of calculat ions performed t o process signals or from addit ional radio
component s. Hence, operat ors and vendors must balance market needs against net work
and equipment cost s. One core aspect of evolving wireless t echnology is managing t he
complexit y associat ed wit h achieving higher spect ral efficiency. The reason t echnologies
such as OFDMA are at t ract ive is t hat t hey allow higher spect ral efficiency wit h lower
overall complexit y; t hus t heir use in t echnologies such as LTE, UMB, and WiMAX.
The roadmap for t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies provides a wide port folio of
opt ions t o increase spect ral efficiency. The exact t iming for deploying t hese opt ions is
difficult t o predict , because much will depend on t he growt h of t he wireless dat a market ,
and what t ypes of applicat ions become popular.
When det ermining t he best area on which t o focus fut ure t echnology enhancement s, it is
int erest ing t o not e t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 all have highly
opt imized links—t hat is, physical layers. I n fact , as shown in Figure 16, t he link layer
performance of t hese t echnologies is approaching t he t heoret ical limit s as defined by t he
Shannon bound. ( The Shannon bound is a t heoret ical limit t o t he informat ion t ransfer
rat e [ per unit bandwidt h] t hat can be support ed by any communicat ions link. The bound
is a funct ion of t he Signal t o Noise Rat io [ SNR] of t he communicat ions link. ) Figure 16
also shows t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 are all wit hin 2 t o 3 decibels
( dB) of t he Shannon bound, indicat ing t hat t here is not much room for improvement
from a link layer perspect ive. Not e t hat differences do exist in t he design of t he MAC
layer ( layer 2) and t his may result in lower t han expect ed performance in some cases as
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 46
Fi gur e 16: Per f or mance Rel at i ve t o Theor et i cal Li mi t s
f or HSDPA, EV- DO, and I EEE 802.16e- 2005
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Required SNR (dB)
Shannon bound with 3dB margin
The curves in Figure 16 apply t o an Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel ( AWGN) . I f
t he channel is slowly varying and t he effect of frequency select ivit y can be overcome
t hrough an equalizer in eit her HSDPA or OFDM, t hen t he channel can be known almost
perfect ly and t he effect s of fading and non- AWGN int erference can be ignored—t hus
j ust ifying t he AWGN assumpt ion. For inst ance, at 3 km per hour, and fading at 2 GHz,
t he Doppler spread is about 5. 5 Hz. The coherence t ime of t he channel is t hus 1 sec/ 5. 5
or 180 msec. Frames are well wit hin t he coherence t ime of t he channel, because t hey
are t ypically 20 msec or less. As such, t he channel appears “ const ant ” over a frame and
t he Shannon bound applies. Much more of t he t raffic in a cellular syst em is at slow
speeds ( for example, 3 km/ hr) rat her t han at higher speeds. Thus, t he Shannon bound
is relevant for a realist ic deployment environment .
As t he speed of t he mobile st at ion increases and t he channel est imat ion becomes less
accurat e, addit ional margin is needed. However, t his addit ional margin would impact t he
different st andards fairly equally.
The Shannon bound only applies t o a single user; it does not at t empt t o indicat e
aggregat e channel t hroughput wit h mult iple users. However, it does indicat e t hat link
layer performance is reaching t heoret ical limit s. As such, t he focus of fut ure t echnology
enhancement s should be on improving syst em performance aspect s t hat maximize t he
experienced SNRs in t he syst em rat her t han on invest igat ing new air int erfaces t hat
at t empt t o improve t he link layer performance.
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 47
Examples of t echnologies t hat improve SNR in t he syst em are t hose t hat minimize
int erference t hrough int elligent ant ennas or int erference coordinat ion bet ween sect ors
and cells. Not e t hat MI MO t echniques using spat ial mult iplexing t o pot ent ially increase
t he overall informat ion t ransfer rat e by a fact or proport ional t o t he number of t ransmit
or receive ant ennas do not violat e t he Shannon bound, because t he per ant enna t ransfer
rat e ( t hat is, t he per communicat ions link t ransfer rat e) is st ill limit ed by t he Shannon
Figure 17 compares t he spect ral efficiency of different wireless t echnologies based on a
consensus view of 3G Americas cont ribut ors t o t his paper. I t shows t he cont inuing
evolut ion of t he capabilit ies of all t he t echnologies discussed. The values shown are
conservat ive and int ended t o be reasonably represent at ive of real- world condit ions. Most
simulat ion result s produce values under idealized condit ions; as such, some of t he
values shown are lower ( for all t echnologies) t han t he values indicat ed in ot her papers
and publicat ions. For inst ance, 3GPP st udies indicat e higher HSDPA and LTE spect ral
efficiencies t han t hose shown below.
Fi gur e 17: Compar i son of Dow nl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
UMTS to LTE
EV-DO Rev 0
CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX
SIC, 64 QAM
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. WiMAX Wave 2 AMC not included. Mix of mobile and
st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a preliminary, based on expect ed feat ures.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 48
The values shown in Figure 17 are not all t he combinat ions of available feat ures. Rat her,
t hey are represent at ive milest ones in ongoing improvement s in spect ral efficiency. For
inst ance, t here are t erminals t hat employ mobile- receive diversit y but not equalizat ion.
The figure does not include EDGE, but EDGE it self is spect rally efficient , at 0. 3
bps/ Hz/ sect or. Relat ive t o WCDMA Release 99, HSDPA increases capacit y by almost a
fact or of t hree. Type 3 receivers t hat include Minimum Mean Square Error ( MMSE)
equalizat ion and Mobile Receive Diversit y ( MRxD) will effect ively double HSDPA spect ral
efficiency. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes 2X2 MI MO, which furt her increases spect ral
efficiency by about 20 percent and mat ches WiMAX Wave 2 spect ral efficiency. Met hods
like successive int erference cancellat ion ( SI C) and 64 QAM allow gains in spect ral
efficiency as high as 1.3 bps/ Hz/ sect or, which is close t o LTE performance in 5+ 5 MHz
channel bandwidt h. Terminals wit h SI C can also be used wit h Release 7 syst ems.
Wit h respect t o act ual deployment , some enhancement s, such as 64 QAM, will be
simpler for some operat ors t o deploy t han ot her enhancement s, such as 2X2 MI MO. The
former can be done as a soft ware upgrade, whereas t he lat t er requires addit ional
hardware at t he base st at ion. Thus t he figure does not necessarily show t he act ual
progression of t echnologies t hat operat ors will deploy t o increase spect ral efficiency.
Beyond HSPA, 3GPP LTE will also result in furt her spect ral efficiency gains, init ially wit h
2X2 MI MO, and t hen opt ionally wit h SI C, 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO. LTE is even more
spect rally efficient wit h wider channels, such as 10 and 20 MHz.
Similar gains are available for CDMA2000. Mobile WiMAX also experiences gains in
spect ral efficiency as various opt imizat ions, like MRxD and MI MO, are applied. WiMAX
Wave 2 includes 2X2 MI MO. Enhancement s t o WiMAX will come from a new profile
defined in Release 1. 5, as well as ot her fut ure enhancement s.
The main reason t hat HSPA+ wit h MI MO is shown as more spect rally efficient t han
WiMAX Wave 2 wit h MI MO is because HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h
precode weight ing and mult icode- word MI MO, which enables t he use of SI C receivers.
Ot her reasons are t hat HSPA support s increment al- redundancy HARQ, while t he init ial
WiMAX profiles support only Chase combining HARQ, and t hat WiMAX has larger cont rol
overhead in t he downlink t han HSPA, because t he uplink in WiMAX is fully scheduled.
OFDMA t echnology requires scheduling t o avoid t wo mobile devices t ransmit t ing on t he
same t ones simult aneously. An uplink MAP zone in t he downlink channel does t his
LTE has higher spect ral efficiency t han WiMAX Wave 2 for a number of reasons:
- Closed- loop operat ion wit h precoded weight ing.
- Mult i codeword MI MO which enable t he use of SI C receivers.
- Lower Channel Qualit y I ndicat or delay t hrough use of 1 msec frames inst ead of 5
- Great er cont rol channel efficiency.
- I ncrement al redundancy in error correct ion.
- Finer granularit y of modulat ion and coding schemes.
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 49
WiMAX Release 1. 5 will address some of t hese it ems, and will t hus have increased
spect ral efficiency. Expect ed feat ures include reduced MAC overhead, adapt ive
modulat ion and coding, and ot her physical- layer enhancement s. At t he t ime of t his
paper, t he feat ure set is neit her public nor final, and hence t he spect ral efficiency values
shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change. Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range
from about 77% t o 98% of LTE spect ral efficiency for downlink dat a.
Thus if t he final
spect ral efficiency analysis for WiMAX Release 1. 5 comes at t he low end of t he range, it
would fall well below LTE performance and could also fall below HSPA+ spect ral
efficiency. Since t here is a wide range in proj ect ed spect ral efficiency, t he assessment of
act ual performance of WiMAX Release 1. 5 relat ive t o HSPA+ and LTE must await furt her
One available improvement for LTE spect ral efficiency not shown in t he figure is
successive int erference cancellat ion. This will result in a gain of 5% in a low mobilit y
environment and a gain of 10 t o 15% in environment s such as picocells in which t here is
cell isolat ion.
An import ant conclusion of t his comparison is t hat all t he maj or wireless t echnologies
achieve comparable spect ral efficiency t hrough t he use of comparable radio t echniques.
Figure 18 compares t he uplink spect ral efficiency of t he different syst ems.
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 50
Fi gur e 18: Compar i son of Upl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
UMTS to LTE
to Rel 5
HSUPA Rel 6
EV-DO Rev 0
EV-DO Rev B,
EV-DO Rev A
CDMA2000 to UMB
Rel 1.5 1X2
Rel 1.5 1X4
The implement at ion of HSUPA in HSPA significant ly increases uplink capacit y, as does
Rev A of 1xEV- DO, compared t o Rev 0. OFDM- based syst ems can exhibit improved
uplink capacit y relat ive t o CDMA t echnologies, but t his improvement depends on fact ors
such as t he scheduling efficiency and t he exact deployment scenario. Wit h LTE, spect ral
efficiency gains increase by use of receive diversit y. I nit ial syst ems will employ 1X2
receive diversit y ( t wo ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and lat er 1X4 diversit y, which
should increase spect ral efficiency by 50%. I t is also possible t o employ Mult i- User MI MO
( MU- MI MO) which allows simult aneous t ransmission by mult iple users on t he uplink on
t he same physical resource t o increase spect ral efficiency and is, in fact , easier t o
implement t han t rue MI MO because it does not require an addit ional t ransmit t er in t he
mobile device. Spect ral efficiency gains, however, wit h MU- MI MO are not as great as
wit h t he receive diversit y schemes.
Figure 18 shows WiMAX Wave 2 uplink spect ral efficiency t o be lower t han 3GPP and
3GPP2 t echnologies employing int erference cancellat ion. This is because of t he high pilot
overhead in I EEE 802. 16e, which account s for up t o 33 percent of t ones. Wit h t he
opt ional, but more efficient pilot st ruct ure implement ed, it is likely t hat I EEE 802. 16e
uplink spect ral efficiency will be on par.
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 51
Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range from about 57% t o 98% of LTE spect ral
efficiency for uplink dat a and t he values shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change.
Figure 19 compares voice spect ral efficiency. I t assumes a round- robin t ype of
scheduler, as opposed t o a proport ional- fair scheduler t hat is normally used for
asynchronous dat a.
Fi gur e 19: Compar i son of Voi ce Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
UMTS to LTE
AMR 7.95 kbps
AMR 5.9 kbps
EVRC 8 kbps
EVRC-B 6 kbps
EV-DO Rev A
EVRC 8 kbps Rel 7, VoIP
AMR 7.95 kbps
CDMA2000 to UMB
LTE AMR 5.9 kbps
Rel 7 VoIP
AMR 5.9 kbps
EVRC-B 6 kbps
EVRC-B 6 kbps
EVRC 8 kbps
EVRC 8 kbps
AMR 7.95 kbps
AMR 12.2 kbps
Figure 19 shows UMTS R’99 wit h bot h AMR 12. 2 kbps and 7. 95 kbps vocoders. The AMR
12. 2 kbps vocoder provides superior voice qualit y in good ( e. g. , st at ic, indoors) channel
condit ions. UMTS has dynamic adapt at ion bet ween vocoder rat es, enabling enhanced
voice qualit y compared t o EVRC at t he expense of capacit y in sit uat ions t hat are not
capacit y limit ed.
Opport unit ies will arise t o improve voice capacit y using VoI P over HSPA channels.
Depending on t he specific enhancement s implement ed, voice capacit y could double over
exist ing circuit - swit ched syst ems. I t should be not ed, however, t hat t he gains are not
relat ed specifically t o t he use of VoI P; rat her, gains relat e t o advances in radio
t echniques applied t o t he dat a channels. Many of t hese same advances may also be
applied t o current circuit - swit ched modes. This is what t he CS over HSPA work it em will
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 10 + 10 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 20 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 52
achieve. However, ot her benefit s of VoI P are driving t he migrat ion t o packet voice.
Among t hese benefit s are a consolidat ed I P core net work for operat ors and sophist icat ed
mult imedia applicat ions for users.
EV- DO t echnologies could possibly exhibit a slight ly higher spect ral efficiency for VoI P
t han HSPA t echnologies ( t hough not for packet dat a in general) , as t hey operat e purely
in t he packet domain and do not have circuit - swit ched cont rol overhead.
Unt il VoI P
over EV- DO becomes available, HSPA will have t he significant advant age, however, of
being able t o support simult aneous circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched users on t he
same radio channel.
Wit h respect t o codecs, in VoI P syst ems such as LTE, UMB and WiMAX, a variet y of
codecs can be used. The figures show performance assuming specific codecs at
represent at ive bit rat es. For codecs such as EVRC ( Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec) , t he
bit rat e shown is an average value.
Though WiMAX Release 1. 5 has high downlink and uplink spect ral efficiency for VoI P, it
has a disadvant age relat ive t o LTE because it only support s 5 msec frames while LTE
support s 1 msec frames. The use of 5 msec frames limit s t he number of HARQ
ret ransmissions in each 20 msec speech frame. LTE can support mult iple HARQ
ret ransmissions wit hin a 20 msec speech frame, whereas WiMAX can only support one.
Cost, Volume and Market Comparison
So far, t his paper has compared wireless t echnologies on t he basis of t echnical capabilit y
and demonst rat ed t hat many of t he different opt ions have similar t echnical at t ribut es.
This is for t he simple reason t hat t hey employ many of t he same approaches.
There is a point of comparison, however, in which t he differences bet ween t he
t echnologies diverge t remendously; namely, t he difference in volume involved including
subscribers and t he amount of infrast ruct ure required. This difference should t ranslat e t o
dramat ically reduced cost s for t he highest volume solut ions, specifically GSM/ UMTS.
Based on proj ect ions and numbers already present ed in t his paper, 3G subscribers on
UMTS net works will number in t he many hundreds of millions by t he end of t his decade,
whereas subscribers t o emerging wireless t echnologies such as I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 will
number in t he t ens of millions. See Figure 20 for det ails.
Transmit Power Cont rol ( TPC) bit s on t he uplink Dedicat ed Physical Cont rol Channel DPCCH in UMTS
R’99. See also I EEE Journal on Select ed Areas in Communicat ion, Vol 24, No. 1, Qi Bi, “ An Analysis of
VoI P Service Using 1 EV- DO Revision A Syst em” , January, 2006.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 53
Fi gur e 20: Rel at i ve Vol ume of Subscr i ber s Acr oss Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
Alt hough proponent s for t echnologies such as mobile WiMAX point t o lower cost s for
t heir alt ernat ives, t here doesn’t seem t o be any inherent cost advant age—even on an
equal volume basis. And when fact oring in t he lower volumes, any real- world cost
advant age is debat able.
From a deployment point of view, t he t ype of t echnology used ( for example, HSPA
versus WiMAX) only applies t o t he soft ware support ed by t he digit al cards at t he base
st at ion. This cost , however, is only a small fract ion of t he base st at ion cost wit h t he
balance covering ant ennas, power amplifiers, cables, racks, RF cards, . As for t he rest of
t he net work including const ruct ion, backhaul, and core- net work component s, cost s are
similar regardless of Radio Access Net work ( RAN) t echnology. Spect rum cost s for each
t echnology can differ great ly depending on a count ry’s regulat ions and t he spect rum
band. As a general rule in most part s of t he world, spect rum sold at 3.5 GHz will cost
much less t han spect rum sold at 850 MHz ( all ot her t hings being equal) .
As for UMTS/ HSPA versus CDMA2000, higher deployment —by a fact or of five—could
t ranslat e t o significant cost savings. For example, research and development
amort izat ion result s in a four- t o- one difference in base st at ion cost s.
Similarly, j ust as
GSM handset s are considered much less expensive t han 1xRTT handset s, UMTS
wholesale t erminal prices could be t he market leader in low- cost or mass- market 3G
t erminals. Development s such as single- chip UMTS complement ary met al oxide
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, WCI S Forecast , July 2008
Source: 3G Americas member analysis.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 54
semiconduct or ( CMOS) t ransceivers could be part icularly effect ive in making
UMTS/ HSDPA devices more affordable t o t he mass market .
Even LTE is on t he road t o a robust wireless ecosyst em and significant economies of
scale. I n June of 2008, t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net works ( NGMN) alliance confirmed
it s select ion of LTE. Dr. Pet er Meissner, Operat ing Officer of NGMN announced t hat ,
“ based on int ensive and det ailed t echnology evaluat ions, 3GPP LTE/ SAE is t he first
t echnology which broadly meet s it s recommendat ions and is approved by it s Board. ”
The NGMN is comprised of 18 mobile net work operat ors, 29 vendor sponsors and 3
Universit y research inst it ut es. I t s operat or members include: Allt el, AT&T, China Mobile,
France Telecom, Royal KPN, MSV Mobile Sat ellit e Vent ures, NTT DoComo, Reliance
Communicat ions, SK Telecom, Telecom I t alia, Telefonica, Telenor, TeliaSonera, Telst ra,
Telus, T- Mobile and Vodafone.
I n reference t o t he NGMN Alliance announcement , Michael Thelander, CEO and Founder
of Signals Research Group, a US- based wireless research consult ancy, st at ed t hat , “ t he
implicat ions could be significant , and if not hing else, eight een of t he world’s largest
mobile operat ors have spoken…”
Based on t he informat ion present ed in t his paper, Table 6 summarizes t he compet it ive
posit ion of t he different t echnologies discussed.
Tabl e 6: Compet i t i ve Posi t i on of Maj or Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Subscr i ber s Over 3 billion
t oday; 4 billion
expect ed by 2010
t oday; slower
growt h expect ed
t han GSM/ UMTS
Less t han 54 million
Mat ur i t y Ext remely mat ure Ext remely mat ure Emerging/ immat ure
Adopt i on Cellular operat ors
Cellular operat ors
globally for CDMA
commit ment s t o
Limit ed t o dat e
Cov er age/ Foot pr i nt Global Global wit h t he
general except ion
of West ern Europe
Very limit ed
Depl oy ment Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Many more cell
sit es required at 2. 5
Source: Qualcomm press release Feb 13, 2007.
ht t p: / / www. umt s- forum. org/ cont ent / view/ 2479/ 172/
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org/ English/ news_room/ DisplayPressRelease. cfm?id= 3359&s= ENG
Source: CDG, July 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 55
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Dev i ces Broad select ion of
GSM/ EDGE/ UMTS/
Broad select ion of
1xRTT/ EV- DO
None yet ; init ial
devices likely t o
emphasize dat a
Radi o Technol ogy Highly opt imized
TDMA for EDGE,
highly opt imized
CDMA for HSPA,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for LTE
Highly opt imized
Rev 0/ A/ B,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for Rev C
OFDMA in Wave 1,
more opt imized in
highly opt imized in
Release 1. 5
Spect r al Ef f i ci ency Very high wit h
HSPA, mat ches
in 5 MHz wit h
Very high wit h EV-
DO Rev A/ B
Very high, but not
higher t han HSPA+
Capabi l i t i es
rat es of over 4
Mbps t oday, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
rat es of over 1. 5
Mbps, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
Peak downlink user-
achievable rat es will
depend on net work
Lat ency As low as 70 msec
wit h HSPA t oday,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
As low as 70 msec
wit h EV- DO Rev A,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
To be det ermined
Voi ce Capabi l i t y Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday;
migrat ion t o VoI P
of any t echnology
Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday
EV- DO radio
channels wit h VoI P
circuit - voice users
Relat ively inefficient
VoI P init ially; more
efficient in lat er
st ages, but lower
t han LTE.
Voice coverage will
be much more
limit ed t han cellular
Si mul t aneous Voi ce
and Dat a
Available wit h
Not available t oday
Available wit h VoI P
Pot ent ially
available, t hough
init ial services will
emphasize dat a
Ef f i ci ent Spect r um
Ent ire UMTS radio
for any mix of
voice and high-
speed dat a
t oday limit ed t o
speed dat a or high-
Efficient for dat a-
cent ric net works
only unt il lat er
Wit h t he applicat ion of Dual Transfer Mode.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 56
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
speed dat a only
Thanks t o const ant innovat ion, t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies has proven it self
as t he predominant wireless net work solut ion, and offers operat ors and subscribers a t rue
mobile- broadband advant age. The cont inued use of GSM and EDGE t echnology t hrough
ongoing enhancement s allows operat ors t o leverage exist ing invest ment s. Wit h UMTS/ HSPA,
t he t echnologies’ advant ages provide for broadband services t hat will deliver increased dat a
revenue and provide a pat h t o all- I P archit ect ures. Wit h LTE, now t he most widely chosen
t echnology plat form for t he fort hcoming decade, t he advant ages offer a best - of- breed, long-
t erm solut ion t hat mat ches or exceeds t he performance of compet ing approaches. I n all
cases, t he different radio- access t echnologies can coexist using t he same core archit ect ure.
Today, HSPA offers t he highest peak dat a rat es of any widely available, wide- area wireless
t echnology. Wit h cont inued evolut ion, peak dat a rat es will cont inue t o increase, spect ral
efficiency will increase, and lat ency will decrease. The result is support for more users at
higher speeds wit h more applicat ions enabled. The scope of applicat ions will also increase as
new services become available such as locat ion informat ion and video. Great er efficiencies
will t ranslat e t o more compet it ive offers, great er net work usage, and increased revenues.
Because of pract ical benefit s and deployment moment um, t he migrat ion pat h from EDGE t o
HSPA t hen t o LTE is inevit able. Benefit s include t he abilit y t o roam globally, huge economies
of scale, widespread accept ance by operat ors, complement ary services such as messaging
and mult imedia, and an ast onishing variet y of compet it ive handset s and ot her devices.
Current ly more t han 210 commercial UMTS/ HSPA net works and 236 UMTS net works are
already in operat ion. UMTS/ HSPA offers an excellent migrat ion pat h for GSM operat ors, as
well as an effect ive t echnology solut ion for greenfield operat ors.
EDGE has proven t o be a remarkably effect ive and efficient t echnology for GSM net works. I t
achieves high spect ral efficiency and dat a performance t hat t oday support a wide range of
applicat ions. Evolved EDGE will great ly enhance EDGE capabilit ies—doubling and,
pot ent ially, quadrupling t hroughput s—making t he t echnology viable for many years t o
Whereas EDGE is efficient for narrowband dat a services, t he UMTS/ HSPA radio link is
efficient for wideband services. Unlike some compet ing t echnologies, UMTS t oday offers
users simult aneous voice and dat a. I t also allows operat ors t o support voice and dat a across
t heir ent ire available spect rum.
HSPA has significant ly enhanced UMTS by providing a broadband dat a service wit h user-
achievable rat es t hat oft en exceed 1 Mbps on t he downlink in init ial deployment s and t hat
now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial net works. Many net works are now being upgraded
t o include HSUPA providing users uplink rat es in excess of 1 Mbps.
Not only are t here cont inual improvement s in radio t echnology, but improvement s t o t he
core net work t hrough flat t er archit ect ures—part icularly EPC/ SAE—will reduce lat ency, speed
applicat ions, simplify deployment , enable all services in t he I P domain, and allow a common
core net work t o support bot h LTE and legacy GSM/ UMTS syst ems.
HSPA and it s advanced evolut ion can compet e against any ot her t echnology in t he world,
and it is widely expect ed t hat most UMTS operat ors will event ually upgrade t o t his
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 57
t echnology. Ot her innovat ions, such as MI MO and higher order modulat ion, will be deployed
over t he next several years. Evolved HSPA+ syst ems, wit h peak rat es of 42 Mbps, will
largely mat ch t he t hroughput and capacit y of OFDMA- based approaches in 5 MHz. 3GPP
adopt ed OFDMA wit h 3GPP LTE, which will provide a growt h plat form for t he next decade.
Wit h t he cont inued growt h in mobile comput ing, powerful new handheld- comput ing
plat forms, an increasing amount of mobile cont ent , mult imedia messaging, mobile
commerce, and locat ion services, wireless dat a has slowly, but inevit ably, become a huge
indust ry. EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE provides one of t he most robust port folios of mobile- broadband
t echnologies, and it is an opt imum framework for realizing t he pot ent ial of t his market .
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 58
Appendix: Technology Details
The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of dat a t echnologies provides ever- increasing capabilit ies t hat
support ever more demanding applicat ions. EDGE, now available globally, already makes a
wealt h of applicat ions feasible including ent erprise applicat ions, messaging, e- mail, Web
browsing, consumer applicat ions, and even some mult imedia applicat ions. Wit h UMTS and
HSDPA, users are enj oying videophones, high- fidelit y music, richer mult imedia applicat ions,
and efficient access t o t heir ent erprise applicat ions.
I t is import ant t o underst and t he needs ent erprises and consumers have for t hese services.
The obvious needs are broad coverage and high dat a t hroughput . Less obvious for users,
but as crit ical for effect ive applicat ion performance, are t he needs for low lat ency, QoS
cont rol, and spect ral efficiency. Spect ral efficiency, in part icular, is of paramount concern,
because it t ranslat es t o higher average t hroughput s ( and t hus more responsive
applicat ions) for more act ive users in a coverage area. The discussion below, which
examines each t echnology individually, det ails how t he progression from EDGE t o HSPA t o
LTE is one of increased t hroughput , enhanced securit y, reduced lat ency, improved QoS, and
increased spect ral efficiency.
I t is also helpful t o specifically not e t he t hroughput requirement s necessary for different
Microbrowsing ( for example, Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol [ WAP] ) : 8 t o 128 kbps
Mult imedia messaging: 8 t o 64 kbps
Video t elephony: 64 t o 384 kbps
General- purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps t o more t han 1 Mbps
Ent erprise applicat ions including e- mail, dat abase access, and VPNs: 32 kbps t o
more t han 1 Mbps
Video and audio st reaming: 32 kbps t o 2 Mbps
Not e t hat EDGE already sat isfies t he demands of many applicat ions. Wit h HSPA, applicat ions
operat e fast er and t he range of support ed applicat ions expands even furt her.
Under favorable condit ions, EDGE delivers peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es close t o
200 kbps and init ial deployment s of HSPA deliver peak user- achievable downlink t hroughput
rat es of well over 1 Mbps, easily meet ing t he demands of many applicat ions. Lat ency has
cont inued t o improve, t oo, wit h HSPA net works t oday having round- t rip t imes as low as 70
msec. The combinat ion of low lat ency and high t hroughput t ranslat es t o a broadband
experience for users, in which applicat ions are ext remely responsive.
I n t his sect ion, we consider different t echnical approaches for wireless and t he parallel
evolut ion of 3GPP t echnologies. We t hen provide det ails on EDGE, UMTS/ HSPA, HSPA+ ,
LTE, and support ing t echnologies such as I MS.
Today, most GSM net works support EDGE. I t is an enhancement t o GPRS, which is t he
original packet dat a service for GSM net works. GPRS provides a packet - based I P
connect ivit y solut ion support ing a wide range of ent erprise and consumer applicat ions.
GSM net works wit h EDGE operat e as wireless ext ensions t o t he I nt ernet and give users
I nt ernet access, as well as access t o t heir organizat ions from anywhere. Wit h peak user-
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 59
t hroughput rat es of up t o 200 kbps wit h EDGE using four t ime- slot devices,
users have t he same effect ive access speed as a modem, but wit h t he convenience of
connect ing from anywhere.
To underst and t he evolut ion of dat a capabilit y, we briefly examine how t hese dat a
services operat e, beginning wit h t he archit ect ure of GSM and EDGE, as depict ed in
Fi gur e 21: GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE Ar chi t ect ur e
Network (e.g., Internet)
EDGE is essent ially t he addit ion of a packet - dat a infrast ruct ure t o GSM. I n fact , t his
same dat a archit ect ure is preserved in UMTS and HSPA net works, and it is t echnically
referred t o as GPRS for t he core- dat a funct ion in all t hese net works. The t erm GPRS may
also be used t o refer t o t he init ial radio int erface, now supplant ed by EDGE. Funct ions of
t he dat a element s are as follows:
1. The base st at ion cont roller direct s/ receives packet dat a t o/ from t he SGSN, an
element t hat aut hent icat es and t racks t he locat ion of mobile st at ions.
2. The SGSN performs t he t ypes of funct ions for dat a t hat t he MSC performs for
voice. Each serving area has one SGSN, and it is oft en collocat ed wit h t he MSC.
3. The SGSN forwards/ receives user dat a t o/ from t he GGSN, which can be viewed
as a mobile I P rout er t o ext ernal I P net works. Typically, t here is one GGSN per
ext ernal net work ( for example, t he I nt ernet ) . The GGSN also manages I P
addresses, dynamically assigning t hem t o mobile st at ions for t heir dat a sessions.
Anot her import ant element is t he HLR, which st ores users’ account informat ion for bot h
voice and dat a services. Of significance is t hat t his same dat a archit ect ure support s dat a
services in GSM and in UMTS/ HSPA net works, t hereby simplifying operat or net work
I n t he radio link, GSM uses radio channels of 200 kilohert z ( kHz) widt h, divided in t ime
int o eight t imeslot s comprising 577 microseconds ( us) t hat repeat every 4. 6 msec, as
shown in Figure 22. The net work can have mult iple radio channels ( referred t o as
“ Peak user- achievable” means users, under favorable condit ions of net work loading and signal
propagat ion, can achieve t his rat e as measured by applicat ions such as file t ransfer. Average rat es
depend on many fact ors and will be lower t han t hese rat es.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 60
t ransceivers) operat ing in each cell sect or. The net work assigns different funct ions t o
each t imeslot such as t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( BCCH) , circuit - swit ched funct ions
like voice calls or dat a calls, t he opt ional Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( PBCCH) ,
and packet dat a channels. The net work can dynamically adj ust capacit y bet ween voice
and dat a funct ions, and it can also reserve minimum resources for each service. This
enables more dat a t raffic when voice t raffic is low or, likewise, more voice t raffic when
dat a t raffic is low, t hereby maximizing overall use of t he net work. For example, t he
PBCCH, which expands t he capabilit ies of t he normal BCCH, may be set up on a t imeslot
of a TDMA frame when j ust ified by t he volume of dat a t raffic.
Fi gur e 22: Ex ampl e of GSM/ EDGE Ti mesl ot St r uct ur e
EDGE offers close coupling bet ween voice and dat a services. I n most net works, while in
a dat a session, users can accept an incoming voice call, which suspends t he dat a
session, and t hen resume t heir dat a session aut omat ically when t he voice session ends.
Users can also receive SMS messages and dat a not ificat ions
while on a voice call. Wit h
net works support ing DTM, users wit h DTM- capable devices can engage in simult aneous
voice/ dat a operat ion.
Wit h respect t o dat a performance, each dat a t imeslot can deliver peak user- achievable
dat a rat es of up t o about 50 kbps. The net work can aggregat e up t o four of t hese
t imeslot s on t he downlink wit h current devices.
Table 7 shows t he different modulat ion and coding schemes for EDGE.
Tabl e 7: EDGE Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 1 GMSK 8. 8
MCS- 2 GMSK 11. 2
MCS- 3 GMSK 14. 8
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
Example: WAP not ificat ion message delivered via SMS.
Radio Link Cont rol ( RLC) – layer 2 - t hroughput s. Applicat ion rat es are t ypically 20 percent lower.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 61
Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 4 GMSK 17. 6
MCS- 5 8- PSK 22. 4
MCS- 6 8- PSK 29. 6
MCS- 7 8- PSK 44. 8
MCS- 8 8- PSK 54. 4
MCS- 9 8- PSK 59. 2
I f mult iple dat a users are act ive in a sect or, t hey share t he available dat a channels. As
demand for dat a services increases, however, an operat or can accommodat e cust omers
by assigning an increasing number of channels for dat a service t hat is limit ed only by
t hat operat or’s t ot al available spect rum and radio planning.
EDGE is an official 3G cellular t echnology t hat can be deployed wit hin an operat or' s
exist ing 850, 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz spect rum bands. EDGE capabilit y is now largely
st andard in new GSM deployment s. A GPRS net work using t he EDGE radio int erface is
t echnically called an Enhanced GPRS ( EGPRS) net work, and a GSM net work wit h EDGE
capabilit y is referred t o as GERAN. EDGE has been an inherent part of GSM
specificat ions since Release 99. I t is fully backward- compat ible wit h older GSM
net works, meaning t hat GPRS devices work on EDGE net works and t hat GPRS and EDGE
t erminals can operat e simult aneously on t he same t raffic channels. I n addit ion, any
applicat ion developed for GPRS will work wit h EDGE.
Many operat ors t hat originally planned t o use only UMTS for next - generat ion dat a
services have deployed EDGE as a complement ary 3G t echnology. There are mult iple
reasons for t his including:
1. EDGE provides average dat a capabilit ies for t he “ sweet spot ” of approximat ely
100 kbps, t hereby enabling many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
2. EDGE has proven it self in t he field as a cost - effect ive solut ion and is now a
mat ure t echnology.
3. EDGE is spect rally efficient , t hereby allowing operat ors t o support large numbers
of voice and dat a users in exist ing spect rum.
4. EDGE provides a cost - effect ive wide- area dat a service t hat offers cont inuit y and
is complement ary wit h a UMTS/ HSPA net work deployed in high t raffic areas.
I t is import ant t o not e t hat EDGE t echnology is cont inuing t o improve. For example,
Release 4 significant ly reduced EDGE lat ency ( net work round- t rip t ime) —from t he
t ypical 500 t o 600 msec t o about 300 msec. Operat ors also cont inue t o make
improvement s in how EDGE funct ions, including net work opt imizat ions t hat boost
capacit y and reduce lat ency. The impact for users is t hat EDGE net works t oday are more
robust wit h applicat ions funct ioning more responsively. Release 7’s Evolved EDGE will
also int roduce significant new feat ures.
Devices t hemselves are increasing in capabilit y. Dual Transfer Mode ( DTM) devices,
already available from vendors, allow simult aneous voice and dat a communicat ions. For
example, during a voice call, users will be able t o ret rieve e- mail, do mult imedia
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 62
messaging, browse t he Web, and do I nt ernet conferencing. This is part icularly useful
when connect ing phones t o lapt ops via cable or Bluet oot h and using t hem as modems.
DTM is a 3GPP- specified t echnology t hat enables new applicat ions like video sharing
while providing a consist ent service experience ( service cont inuit y) wit h UMTS. Typically,
a DTM end- t o- end solut ion requires only a soft ware upgrade t o t he GSM/ EDGE radio
net work. There are a number of net works and devices now support ing DTM.
Alt hough HSPA net works provide an even bet t er user experience for some applicat ions,
t he fact is t hat many applicat ions—such as e- mail on smart phones—are served perfect ly
well by EDGE. Combining t he efficiency of EDGE for dat a wit h t he efficiency of GSM for
voice, operat ors can use GSM t echnology t o deliver a broad range of services t hat will
sat isfy t heir cust omers for many years.
Recognizing t he value of t he huge inst alled base of GSM net works, 3GPP is current ly
working t o improve EDGE capabilit ies for Release 7. This work is part of t he GERAN
Evolut ion effort , which also includes voice enhancement s not discussed in t his paper.
Alt hough EDGE t oday already serves many applicat ions like wireless e- mail ext remely
well, it makes good sense t o cont inue t o evolve EDGE capabilit ies. From an economic
st andpoint , it is less cost ly t han upgrading t o UMTS, because most enhancement s are
designed t o be soft ware based, and it is highly asset efficient , because it involves fewer
long- t erm capit al invest ment s t o upgrade an exist ing syst em. Wit h 85 percent of t he
world market using GSM, which is already equipped for simple roaming and billing, it is
easy t o offer global service t o subscribers. Evolved EDGE offers higher dat a rat es and
syst em capacit y, and cable- modem speeds are realist ically achievable.
I n addit ion, many regions t o not have licensed spect rum for deployment of a new radio
t echnology such as UMTS/ HSPA or LTE. Also, Evolved EDGE also provides bet t er service
cont inuit y bet ween EDGE and HSPA, meaning t hat a user will not have a hugely different
experience when moving bet ween environment s.
Alt hough GSM and EDGE are already highly opt imized t echnologies, advances in radio
t echniques will enable furt her efficiencies. Some of t he obj ect ives of Evolved EDGE
A 100 percent increase in peak dat a rat es.
A 50 percent increase in spect ral efficiency and capacit y in C/ I - limit ed scenarios.
A sensit ivit y increase in t he downlink of 3 dB for voice and dat a.
A reduct ion of lat ency for init ial access and round- t rip t ime, t hereby enabling
support for conversat ional services such as VoI P and PoC.
To achieve compat ibilit y wit h exist ing frequency planning, t hus facilit at ing
deployment in exist ing net works.
To coexist wit h legacy mobile st at ions by allowing bot h old and new st at ions t o
share t he same radio resources.
To avoid impact s on infrast ruct ure by enabling improvement s t hrough a soft ware
To be applicable t o DTM ( simult aneous voice and dat a) and t he A/ Gb mode
int erface. The A/ Gb mode int erface is part of t he 2G core net work, so t his goal is
required for full backward- compat ibilit y wit h legacy GPRS/ EDGE.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 63
The met hods st andardized in Release 7 t o achieve t hese obj ect ives include:
Downlink dual- carrier recept ion t o increase t he number of t imeslot s t hat can be
received wit hout a need t o receive and t ransmit on t he same carrier from four on
one carrier t o 10 on t wo carriers for a 150 percent increase in t hroughput .
The addit ion of Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying ( QPSK) , 16 QAM, and 32 QAM as
well as an increased symbol rat e ( 1. 2x) in t he uplink and a new set of
modulat ion/ coding schemes t hat will increase maximum t hroughput per t imeslot
by 38 percent . Current ly, EDGE uses 8- PSK modulat ion. Simulat ions indicat e a
realizable 25 percent increase in user- achievable peak rat es.
A reduct ion in overall lat ency. This is achieved by lowering t he TTI t o 10 msec
and by including t he acknowledgement informat ion in t he dat a packet . These
enhancement s will have a dramat ic effect on t hroughput for many applicat ions.
Downlink diversit y recept ion of t he same radio channel t o increase t he robust ness
in int erference and t o improve t he receiver sensit ivit y. Simulat ions have
demonst rat ed sensit ivit y gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/ I of up t o 18
dB for a single cochannel int erferer. Significant increases in syst em capacit y can
be achieved, as explained below.
Dual - Car r i er Recei ver
A key part of t he evolut ion of EDGE is t he ut ilizat ion of more t han one radio frequency
carrier. This overcomes t he inherent limit at ion of t he narrow channel bandwidt h of GSM.
Using t wo radio- frequency carriers requires t wo receiver chains in t he downlink, as
shown in Figure 23. As previously st at ed, using t wo carriers enables t he recept ion of
more t han t wice as many radio blocks simult aneously.
Fi gur e 23: Ev ol v ed EDGE Tw o- Car r i er Oper at i on
Neighbor Cell Measurements
Slot N + 1
Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3
Alt ernat ively, t he original number of radio blocks can be divided bet ween t he t wo
carriers. This eliminat es t he need for t he net work t o have cont iguous t imeslot s on one
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 64
Fi gur e 24: EDGE Mul t i - Car r i er Recei ve Logi c – Mobi l e Par t
resource control logic
Timeslot and frequency
Radio resource control
Channel capacit y wit h dual- carrier recept ion improves great ly, not by increasing basic
efficiencies of t he air int erface, but because of st at ist ical improvement in t he abilit y t o
assign radio resources, which increases t runking efficiency.
As net work loading increases, it is st at ist ically unlikely t hat cont iguous t imeslot s will be
available. Wit h t oday’s EDGE devices, it is not possible t o change radio frequencies when
going from one t imeslot t o t he next . Wit h an Evolved EDGE dual receiver, however, t his
becomes possible, t hus enabling cont iguous t imeslot s across different radio channels.
The result is t hat t he syst em can allocat e a large set of t ime slot s for dat a even if t hey
are not cont iguous, which ot herwise is not possible. Figure 25 shows why t his is
import ant . As t he net work becomes busy, t he probabilit y of being assigned 1 t imeslot
decreases. As t his probabilit y decreases ( X axis) , t he probabilit y of being able t o obt ain
5 t imeslot s on t he same radio carrier decreases dramat ically. Being able t o obt ain
t imeslot s across t wo carriers in Evolved EDGE, however, significant ly improves t he
likelihood of obt aining t he desired t imeslot s.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 65
Fi gur e 25: Pr obabi l i t i es of Ti me Sl ot Assi gnment s
Figure 26 shows a dual- radio receiver approach opt imizing t he use of available t imeslot s.
( “ Rx1” refers t o receiver 1, “ Rx2” refers t o receiver 2, “ NCM” refers t o neighbour cell
monit oring, and “ M2” refers t o receiver 2 doing syst em monit oring. )
Fi gur e 26: Opt i mi zat i on of Ti mesl ot Usage Ex ampl e
Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot
5 Timeslot Allocation “Scavenged” from
Different Frequency Carriers
F5 F3 F1
F5 F3 F1
F5 F3 F1
Each Receiver Changes
Tuned Frequency Between
F5 F3 F1
F5 F3 F1
Through int elligent select ion, a dual- carrier receiver archit ect ure can support eit her
dual- carrier recept ion or mobile- st at ion receive diversit y, depending on t he operat ing
Mobi l e St at i on Recei v e Di ver si t y
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 66
Figure 27 illust rat es how mobile- st at ion receive diversit y increases syst em capacit y.
( BCCH refers t o t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel and TCH refers t o t he Traffic Channel. )
The BCCH carrier repeat s over 12 cells in a 4/ 12 frequency reuse pat t ern, which requires
2. 4 MHz for GSM. A fract ionally loaded syst em may repeat f12 t hrough f15 on each of
t he cells. This is a 1/ 1 frequency reuse pat t ern wit h higher syst em ut ilizat ion, but also
pot ent ially high co- channel int erference in loaded condit ions.
Fi gur e 27: Ex ampl e of 4/ 12 Fr equency Reuse w i t h 1/ 1 Ov er l ay
I n t oday’s EDGE syst ems, f12 t hrough f15 in t he 1/ 1 reuse layer can only be loaded t o
around 25 percent of capacit y. Thus, wit h four of t hese frequencies, it is possible t o
obt ain 100 percent of t he capacit y of t he frequencies in t he 4/ 12 reuse layer or t o
double t he capacit y by adding 800 KHz of spect rum.
Using Evolved EDGE and receive- diversit y- enabled mobile devices t hat have a high
t olerance t o co- channel int erference, however, it is possible t o increase t he load on t he
1/ 1 layer from 25 t o 50 percent and possibly t o as high as 75 percent . An increase t o 50
percent t ranslat es t o a doubling of capacit y on t he 1/ 1 layer wit hout requiring any new
spect rum and t o a 200 percent gain compared t o a 4/ 12 reuse layer.
Hi gher Or der Modul at i on and Hi gher Symbol Rat e Schemes
The addit ion of higher order modulat ion schemes enhances EDGE net work capacit y wit h
lit t le capit al invest ment by ext ending t he range of t he exist ing wireless t echnology. More
bit s- per- symbol means more dat a t ransmit t ed per unit t ime. This yields a fundament al
t echnological improvement in informat ion capacit y and fast er dat a rat es. Use of higher
order modulat ion exploit s localized opt imal coverage circumst ances, t hereby t aking
advant age of t he geographical locat ions associat ed wit h probabilit ies of high C/ I rat io
and enabling very high dat a t ransfer rat es whenever possible.
These enhancement s are only now being considered, because fact ors such as processing
power, variabilit y of int erference, and signal level made higher order modulat ions
impract ical for mobile wireless syst ems j ust a few years ago. Newer t echniques for
demodulat ion, however, such as advanced receivers and receive diversit y, help enable
t heir use.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 67
Two different levels of support for higher order modulat ion are defined for bot h t he
uplink and t he downlink. I n t he uplink, t he first support level includes GMSK, 8- PSK,
and 16 QAM at t he legacy symbol rat e. This level of support reuses Modulat ion and
Coding Schemes ( MCSs) 1 t hrough 6 from EGPRS and adds five new 16 QAM modulat ed
schemes called uplink “ A” level schemes ( UAS) .
Tabl e 8: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
MCS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
MCS- 6 8- PSK 118. 4
UAS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UAS- 8 16 QAM 204. 8
UAS- 9 16 QAM 236. 8
UAS- 10 16 QAM 268. 8
UAS- 11 16 QAM 307. 2
The second support level in t he uplink includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ion
as well as a higher ( 1. 2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 from EGPRS are reused, and
eight new uplink “ B” level schemes ( UBS) are added.
Tabl e 9: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps)
– 4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
UBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
UBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
UBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UBS- 8 16 QAM 236. 8
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 68
UBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
UBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
UBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
UBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6
The first downlink support level int roduces a modified set of 8- PSK coding schemes and
adds 16 QAM, and 32 QAM all at t he legacy symbol rat e. Turbo codes are used for all
new modulat ions. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ A” level
schemes ( DAS) are added.
Tabl e 10: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DAS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
DAS- 6 8- PSK 108. 8
DAS- 7 8- PSK 131. 2
DAS- 8 16 QAM 179. 2
DAS- 9 16 QAM 217. 6
DAS- 10 32 QAM 262. 0
DAS- 11 32 QAM 326. 4
DAS- 12 32 QAM 393. 6
The second downlink support level includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ions at
a higher ( 1.2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ B”
level schemes ( DBS) are defined.
Tabl e 11: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
These dat a r at es require a wide- pulse shaping filt er t hat is not part of Release 7.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 69
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
DBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
DBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
DBS- 8 16 QAM 2368
DBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
DBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
DBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
DBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6
The combinat ion of Release 7 EDGE Evolut ion enhancement s shows a dramat ic pot ent ial
increase in t hroughput . For example, in t he downlink, a Type 2 mobile device ( one t hat
can support simult aneous t ransmission and recept ion) using DBS- 12 as t he MCS and a
dual- carrier receiver can achieve t he following performance:
Highest dat a rat e per t imeslot ( layer 2) = 118. 4 kbps
Timeslot s per carrier = 8
Carriers used in t he downlink = 2
Tot al downlink dat a rat e = 118. 4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894. 4 kbps
This t ranslat es t o a peak net work rat e close t o 2 Mbps and a user- achievable dat a rat e
of well over 1 Mbps!
Ot her Met hods Under Consi der at i on
This paper has emphasized t hose Evolved EDGE feat ures t hat 3GPP has agreed upon for
Release 7. However, t here are ot her feat ures being proposed t hat would boost EDGE
capabilit ies even furt her.
Advanced modulat ion enhancement s include t he addit ion of t urbo coding and 64 QAM t o
t he higher order modulat ion enhancement s already described. These enhancement s
increase t he robust ness of t he channel and t ake advant age of local areas of high C/ I
A second uplink carrier could also double uplink t hroughput . Two approaches have been
discussed. The first is a fully flexible dual- t ransmit t er approach. This approach has no
impact on t he net work, but may have significant impact on t he feasibilit y of t he mobile
st at ion, part icularly in t he handheld form fact or; it is current ly being researched and
discussed. The second approach is a const rained form of uplink dual carrier in which t he
spacing of t he t wo carriers is less t han 1 MHz and a single wideband t ransmit t er
generat es t he signal. This approach is easier t o implement in a mobile handset , but it
may impact legacy frequency planning. Proposals have been put forward out lining ways
For t he near fut ure, t wo carriers will be a scenario more pract ically realized on a not ebook comput er
plat form t han handheld plat forms.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 70
t o coexist wit h legacy frequency planning; t hese ideas are being researched and
Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
Table 12 shows what is involved in implement ing t he different feat ures defined for
Evolved EDGE. For a number of feat ures, t here are no hardware changes required for
t he base t ransceiver st at ion ( BTS) . For all feat ures, Evolved EDGE is compat ible wit h
legacy frequency planning.
Tabl e 12: Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
I n conclusion, it is int erest ing t o not e t he sophist icat ion and capabilit y t hat is achievable
wit h, and planned for, GSM.
UMTS has garnered t he overwhelming maj orit y of new 3G spect rum licenses wit h 236
commercial net works already in operat ion.
Compared t o emerging wireless
t echnologies, UMTS t echnology is mat ure and benefit s from research and development
t hat began in t he early 1990s. I t has been t horoughly t rialed, t est ed, and commercially
deployed. UMTS deployment is now accelerat ing wit h st able net work infrast ruct ures and
at t ract ive, reliable mobile devices t hat have rich capabilit ies. Wit h t he addit ion of HSPA
for high- speed packet dat a services, UMTS/ HSPA is quickly emerging as t he dominant
global mobile- broadband net work.
UMTS employs a wideband CDMA radio- access t echnology. The primary benefit s of
UMTS include high spect ral efficiency for voice and dat a, simult aneous voice and dat a
capabilit y for users, high user densit ies t hat can be support ed wit h low infrast ruct ure
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 71
cost s, support for high- bandwidt h dat a applicat ions, and a clean migrat ion t o VoI P in t he
fut ure. Operat ors can also use t heir ent ire available spect rum for bot h voice and high-
speed dat a services.
Addit ionally, operat ors can use a common core net work t hat support s mult iple radio-
access net works including GSM, EDGE, WCDMA, HSPA, and evolut ions of t hese
t echnologies. This is called t he UMTS mult iradio net work, and it gives operat ors
maximum flexibilit y in providing different services across t heir coverage areas ( see
Figure 28) .
Fi gur e 28: UMTS Mul t i r adi o Net w or k
Radio-Access Networks External Networks
The UMTS radio- access net work consist s of base st at ions referred t o as Node B
( corresponding t o GSM base t ransceiver syst ems) t hat connect t o RNCs ( corresponding
t o GSM base st at ion cont rollers [ BSCs] ) . The RNCs connect t o t he core net work as do
t he BSCs. When bot h GSM and WCDMA access net works are available, t he net work can
hand over users bet ween t hese net works. This is import ant for managing capacit y, as
well as in areas in which t he operat or has cont inuous GSM coverage, but has only
deployed WCDMA in some locat ions.
Whereas GSM can effect ively operat e like a spread- spect rum syst em
, based on t ime
division in combinat ion wit h frequency hopping, WCDMA is a direct - sequence, spread-
spect rum syst em. WCDMA is spect rally more efficient t han GSM, but it is t he wideband
nat ure of WCDMA t hat provides it s great est advant age—t he abilit y t o t ranslat e t he
available spect rum int o high dat a rat es. This wideband t echnology approach result s in
t he flexibilit y t o manage mult iple t raffic t ypes including voice, narrowband dat a, and
wideband dat a.
WCDMA allocat es different codes for different channels, whet her for voice or dat a, and it
can adj ust t he amount of capacit y, or code space, of each channel every 10 msec wit h
WCDMA Release 99 and every 2 msec wit h HSPA. WCDMA creat es high- bandwidt h t raffic
channels by reducing t he amount of spreading ( using a short er code) wit h WCDMA
Spread spect rum syst ems can eit her be direct sequence or frequency hopping.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 72
Release 99 and higher order modulat ion schemes for HSPA. Packet dat a users can share
t he same codes as ot her users, or t he net work can assign dedicat ed channels t o users.
To furt her expand t he number of effect ively operat ing applicat ions, UMTS employs a
sophist icat ed QoS archit ect ure for dat a t hat provides four fundament al t raffic classes
1. Conv er sat i onal . Real- t ime int eract ive dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and
minimum delay such as VoI P or video conferencing.
2. St r eami ng. Cont inuous dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and some delay such as
music or video.
3. I nt er act i ve. Back- and- fort h dat a wit hout bandwidt h cont rol and some delay
such as Web browsing.
4. Back gr ound. Lower priorit y dat a t hat is non- real- t ime such as bat ch t ransfers.
This QoS archit ect ure involves negot iat ion and priorit izat ion of t raffic in t he radio- access
net work, t he core net work, and t he int erfaces t o ext ernal net works such as t he I nt ernet .
Consequent ly, applicat ions can negot iat e QoS paramet ers on an end- t o- end basis
bet ween a mobile t erminal and a fixed- end syst em across t he I nt ernet or privat e
int ranet s. This capabilit y is essent ial for expanding t he scope of support ed applicat ions,
part icularly mult imedia applicat ions including packet ized video t elephony and VoI P.
UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities
I nit ial UMTS net work deployment s were based on 3GPP Release 99 specificat ions, which
included voice and dat a capabilit ies. Since t hen, Release 5 has defined HSDPA and
Release 6 has defined HSUPA. Wit h HSPA- capable devices, t he net work uses HSPA
( HSDPA/ HSUPA) for dat a. Operat ors wit h Release 99 net works are upgrading t hem t o
Release 5 or Release 6. Because Release 99 net works and devices are st ill in t he field,
t his sect ion describes t he dat a service available wit h Release 99. I n advance of Release
6, t he uplink in HSDPA ( Release 5) net works uses t he Release 99 approach.
I n UMTS Release 99, t he maximum t heoret ical downlink rat e is j ust over 2 Mbps.
Alt hough exact t hroughput depends on t he channel sizes t he operat or chooses t o make
available, t he capabilit ies of devices, and t he number of users act ive in t he net work limit
t he peak t hroughput rat es a user can achieve t o about 350 kbps in commercial
net works. Peak downlink net work speeds are 384 kbps. Uplink peak- net workt hroughput
rat es are also 384 kbps in newer deployment s, wit h user- achievable peak rat es of 350
This sat isfies many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
Channel t hroughput s are det ermined by t he amount of channel spreading. Wit h more
spreading, as in voice channels, t he dat a st ream has great er redundancy, and t he
operat or can employ more channels. I n comparison, a high- speed dat a channel has less
spreading and fewer available channels. Voice channels use downlink spreading fact ors
of 128 or 256, whereas a 384 kbps dat a channel uses a downlink spreading fact or of 8.
The commonly quot ed rat e of more t han 2 Mbps downlink t hroughput for UMTS can be
achieved by combining t hree dat a channels of 768 kbps, each wit h a spreading fact or of
I nit ial UMTS net works had peak uplink rat es of 64 kbps or 128 kbps, but many deployment s
emphasize 384 kbps.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 73
The act ual t hroughput speeds a user can obt ain wit h WCDMA Release 99 depend on t he
Radio Access Bearer ( RAB) assigned by t he net work. Possible values include 768, 384,
128, 64, 32, and 16 kbps. The different rat es correspond t o t he amount of spreading. A
lower degree of spreading result s in more code space assigned t o t hat RAB; hence,
higher t hroughput . I n t oday’s Release 99 net works, operat ors have limit ed t he range of
operat ional dat a rat es using Release 99 channels t o 384 kbps as a result of t he
emergence of HSDPA, which provides a much more elegant way t o reach dat a
t hroughput in t he 2 Mbps range and higher.
Beyond t he maximum t hroughput support ed by t he RAB assigned by t he net work, user
t hroughput is also impact ed by t he radio condit ions and t he amount of dat a t o t ransfer.
The RAN t akes t hese element s int o account t o cont inuously adj ust t he inst ant aneous
t ransfer rat e based on operat ional condit ions and wit hin t he QoS const raint s of t he RAB.
The net work assigns RABs based on available resources. How t he net work assigns RABs
varies by infrast ruct ure vendor.
WCDMA has lower net work lat ency t han EDGE, wit h about 100 t o 200 msec measured in
act ual net works. Alt hough UMTS Release 99 offers at t ract ive dat a services, t hese
services become much more efficient and more powerful wit h HSPA.
HSPA refers t o net works t hat support bot h HSDPA and HSUPA. Most new deployment s
t oday are HSPA, and many operat ors are upgrading t heir HSDPA net works t o HSPA. For
example, in 2008, AT&T had upgraded most of it s net work t o HSPA. By t he end of 2008,
HSPA will be deployed t hroughout t he Americas. This sect ion covers t echnical aspect s of
HSDPA, while t he next sect ion covers HSUPA.
HSDPA, specified in 3GPP Release 5, is a high- performance packet - dat a service t hat
delivers peak t heoret ical rat es of 14 Mbps. Peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es in
init ial deployment s are well over 1 Mbps, and as high as 4 Mbps in some net works.
HSDPA is fully backward- compat ible wit h UMTS Release 99, and any applicat ion
developed for Release 99 will work wit h HSDPA. The same radio carrier can
simult aneously service UMTS voice and dat a users as well as HSDPA dat a users. HSDPA
also has significant ly lower lat ency, measured t oday on some net works as low as 70
msec on t he dat a channel.
HSDPA achieves it s high speeds t hrough t echniques similar t o t hose t hat push EDGE
performance past GPRS including higher order modulat ion, variable coding, and soft
combining, as well as t hrough t he addit ion of powerful new t echniques such as fast
scheduling. HSDPA elevat es t he performance level of WCDMA t echnology t o provide
broadband services, and it has t he highest t heoret ical peak t hroughput of any cellular
t echnology current ly available. The higher spect ral efficiency and higher dat a rat es not
only enable new classes of applicat ions, but also support a great er number of users
accessing t he net work.
HSDPA achieves it s performance gains from t he following radio feat ures:
High- speed channels shared in bot h code and t ime domains
Fast scheduling and user diversit y
Higher order modulat ion
Fast link adapt at ion
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 74
These feat ures funct ion as follows:
Hi gh- Speed Shar ed Channel s and Shor t Tr ansmi ssi on Ti me I nt er v al : First ,
HSDPA uses high- speed dat a channels called High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channels ( HS- PDSCH) . Up t o 15 of t hese channels can operat e in t he 5 MHz WCDMA
radio channel. Each uses a fixed spreading fact or of 16. User t ransmissions are assigned
t o one or more of t hese channels for a short TTI of 2 msec, significant ly less t han t he
int erval of 10 t o 20 msec used in Release 99 WCDMA. The net work can t hen readj ust
how users are assigned t o different HS- PDSCH every 2 msec. The result is t hat
resources are assigned in bot h t ime ( t he TTI int erval) and code domains ( t he HS- PDSCH
channels) . Figure 29 illust rat es different users obt aining different radio resources.
Fi gur e 29: Hi gh Speed–Dow nl i nk Shar ed Channel s ( Ex ampl e)
User 4 User 3 User 2 User 1
Fast Schedul i ng and User Di v er si t y : Fast scheduling exploit s t he short TTI by
assigning users channels t hat have t he best inst ant aneous channel condit ions, rat her
t han in a round- robin fashion. Because channel condit ions vary somewhat randomly
across users, most users can be serviced wit h opt imum radio condit ions and t hereby
obt ain opt imum dat a t hroughput . Figure 30 shows how a scheduler might choose
bet ween t wo users based on t heir varying radio condit ions t o emphasize t he user wit h
bet t er inst ant aneous signal qualit y. Wit h about 30 users act ive in a sect or, t he net work
achieves significant user diversit y and significant ly higher spect ral efficiency. The syst em
also makes sure t hat each user receives a minimum level of t hroughput . This approach
is somet imes called proport ional fair scheduling.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 75
Fi gur e 30: User Di v er si t y
High data rate
Low data rate
User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1
Hi gher Or der Modul at i on: HSDPA uses bot h t he modulat ion used in WCDMA—namely
QPSK—and, under good radio condit ions, an advanced modulat ion scheme—16 QAM.
The benefit of 16 QAM is t hat 4 bit s of dat a are t ransmit t ed in each radio symbol as
opposed t o 2 bit s wit h QPSK. Dat a t hroughput is increased wit h 16 QAM, while QPSK is
available under adverse condit ions. HSPA Evolut ion will add 64 QAM modulat ion t o
furt her increase t hroughput rat es. Not e t hat 64QAM was available in Release 7 and t he
combinat ion of MI MO and 64QAM will be in Release 8.
Fast Li nk Adapt at i on: Depending on t he condit ion of t he radio channel, different levels
of forward- error correct ion ( channel coding) can also be employed. For example, a
t hree- quart er coding rat e means t hat t hree quart ers of t he bit s t ransmit t ed are user bit s
and one quart er are error- correct ing bit s. The process of select ing and quickly updat ing
t he opt imum modulat ion and coding rat e is referred t o as fast link adapt at ion. This is
done in close coordinat ion wit h fast scheduling, as described above.
Fast Hybr i d Aut omat i c Repeat Request : Anot her HSDPA t echnique is Fast Hybrid
Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( Fast Hybrid ARQ) . “ Fast ” refers t o t he medium- access
cont rol mechanisms implement ed in Node B ( along wit h scheduling and link adapt at ion) ,
as opposed t o t he BSC in GPRS/ EDGE, and “ hybrid” refers t o a process of combining
repeat ed dat a t ransmissions wit h prior t ransmissions t o increase t he likelihood of
successful decoding. Managing and responding t o real- t ime radio variat ions at t he base
st at ion, as opposed t o an int ernal net work node, reduces delays and furt her improves
overall dat a t hroughput .
Using t he approaches j ust described, HSDPA maximizes dat a t hroughput s and capacit y
and minimizes delays. For users, t his t ranslat es t o bet t er net work performance under
loaded condit ions, fast er applicat ion performance, a great er range of applicat ions t hat
funct ion well, and increased product ivit y.
Field result s validat e t he t heoret ical t hroughput result s. Wit h init ial 1. 8 Mbps peak- rat e
devices, vendors measured consist ent t hroughput rat es in act ual deployment s of over 1
Mbps. These rat es rose t o over 2 Mbps for 3.6 Mbps devices and are close t o 4 Mbps for
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 76
7. 2 Mbps devices, assuming ot her port ions of t he net work ( for example, backhaul) can
support t he high t hroughput rat es.
I n 2008, t ypical devices support ing peak dat a rat es of 3.6 Mbps or 7. 2 Mbps became
available. Many operat or net works support 7. 2 Mbps peak operat ion, and some even
support t he maximum rat e of 14. 4 Mbps.
Table 13 defines t he different cat egories of HSDPA devices. ( Soft channel bit s are t he
number of bit s t he syst em uses for error correct ion. )
Tabl e 13: HSDPA Ter mi nal Cat egor i es
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Rat e ( Mbps)
HS- DSCH codes
Cat egor y
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Rat e ( Mbps)
HS- DSCH codes
Cat egor y
HSPA t echnology is not st anding st ill. Advanced radio t echnologies are becoming
available. Among t hese t echnologies are mobile- receive diversit y and equalizat ion ( for
example, MMSE) , which improve t he qualit y of t he received radio signal prior t o
demodulat ion and decoding. This improvement enables not only higher peak HSDPA
t hroughput speeds, but makes t hese speeds available over a great er percent age of t he
Whereas HSDPA opt imizes downlink performance, HSUPA—which uses t he Enhanced
Dedicat ed Channel ( E- DCH) —const it ut es a set of improvement s t hat opt imizes uplink
performance. Net works and devices support ing HSUPA became available in 2007. These
improvement s include higher t hroughput s, reduced lat ency, and increased spect ral
efficiency. HSUPA is st andardized in Release 6. I t result s in an approximat ely 85 percent
increase in overall cell t hroughput on t he uplink and more t han 50 percent gain in user
t hroughput . HSUPA also reduces packet delays, a significant benefit result ing in
significant ly improved applicat ion performance on HSPA net works
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 77
Alt hough t he primary downlink t raffic channel support ing HSDPA serves is a shared
channel designed for t he support of services delivered t hrough t he packet - swit ched
domain, t he primary uplink t raffic channel defined for HSUPA is a dedicat ed channel t hat
could be used for services delivered t hrough eit her t he circuit - swit ched or t he packet -
swit ched domains. Nevert heless, by ext ension and for simplicit y, t he WCDMA- enhanced
uplink capabilit ies are oft en ident ified in t he lit erat ure as HSUPA.
Such an improved uplink benefit s users in a number of ways. For inst ance, some user
applicat ions t ransmit large amount s of dat a from t he mobile st at ion such as sending
video clips or large present at ion files. For fut ure applicat ions like VoI P, improvement s
will balance t he capacit y of t he uplink wit h t he capacit y of t he downlink.
HSUPA achieves it s performance gains t hrough t he following approaches:
An enhanced dedicat ed physical channel
A short TTI , as low as 2 msec, which allows fast er responses t o changing radio
condit ions and error condit ions
Fast Node B- based scheduling, which allows t he base st at ion t o efficient ly
allocat e radio resources
Fast Hybrid ARQ, which improves t he efficiency of error processing
The combinat ion of TTI , fast scheduling, and Fast Hybrid ARQ also serves t o reduce
lat ency, which can benefit many applicat ions as much as improved t hroughput . HSUPA
can operat e wit h or wit hout HSDPA in t he downlink, t hough it is likely t hat most
net works will use t he t wo approaches t oget her. The improved uplink mechanisms also
t ranslat e t o bet t er coverage and, for rural deployment s, larger cell sizes.
HSUPA can achieve different t hroughput rat es based on various paramet ers including t he
number of codes used, t he spreading fact or of t he codes, t he TTI value, and t he
t ransport block size in byt es, as illust rat ed in Table 14.
Tabl e 14: HSUPA Peak Thr oughput Rat es
2 Mbps 10 2 x SF2 4
2.9 Mbps 2 2 x SF2 4
1.46 Mbps 10 2 x SF4 2
1.46 Mbps 2 2 x SF4 2
2 Mbps 10 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 6
2xSF2 + 2xSF4
2 x SF2
2 x SF4
1 x SF4
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 78
I nit ial devices are Cat egory 5 enabling peak user rat es of close t o 2 Mbps as measured
in act ual net work deployment s. Cat egory 6 devices will ult imat ely allow speeds close t o
5 Mbps, alt hough only wit h t he addit ion of int erference cancellat ion met hods t hat boost
Beyond t hroughput enhancement s, HSUPA also significant ly reduces lat ency. I n
opt imized net works, lat ency will fall below 50 msec, relat ive t o current HSDPA net works
at 70 msec. And wit h a lat er int roduct ion of a 2 msec TTI , lat ency will be as low as 30
Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+)
OFDMA syst ems have at t ract ed considerable at t ent ion t hrough t echnologies such as
3GPP LTE, WiMAX, and UMB. As already discussed in t his paper, however, CDMA
approaches can mat ch OFDMA approaches in reduced channel bandwidt hs. The goal in
evolving HSPA is t o exploit available radio t echnologies—largely enabled by increases in
digit al signal processing power—t o maximize CDMA- based radio performance. This not
only makes HSPA compet it ive, it significant ly ext ends t he life of sizeable operat or
infrast ruct ure invest ment s.
Wireless and net working t echnologist s have defined a series of enhancement s for HSPA,
some of which are specified in Release 7 and some of which are being finalized in
Release 8. These include advanced receivers, MI MO, Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y,
Higher- Order Modulat ion and One Tunnel Archit ect ure.
Adv anced Recei v er s
One import ant area is advanced receivers for which 3GPP has specified a number of
advanced designs. These designs include Type 1, which uses mobile- receive diversit y;
Type 2, which uses channel equalizat ion; and Type 3, which includes a combinat ion of
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion. Type 3i devices, which are not yet available,
will employ int erference cancellat ion. Not e t hat t he different t ypes of receivers are
release- independent . For example, Type 3i receivers will work and provide a capacit y
gain in a Release 5 net work.
The first approach is mobile- receive diversit y. This t echnique relies on t he opt imal
combinat ion of received signals from separat e receiving ant ennas. The ant enna spacing
yields signals t hat have somewhat independent fading charact erist ics. Hence, t he
combined signal can be more effect ively decoded, which result s in an almost doubling of
downlink capacit y when employed in conj unct ion wit h t echniques such as channel
equalizat ion. Receive diversit y is effect ive even for small devices such as PC Card
modems and smart phones.
Current receiver archit ect ures based on rake receivers are effect ive for speeds up t o a
few megabit s per second. But at higher speeds, t he combinat ion of reduced symbol
period and mult ipat h int erference result s in int er- symbol int erference and diminishes
rake receiver performance. This problem can be solved by advanced- receiver
archit ect ures wit h channel equalizers t hat yield addit ional capacit y gains over HSDPA
wit h receive diversit y. Alt ernat e advanced- receiver approaches include int erference
cancellat ion and generalized rake receivers ( G- Rake) . Different vendors are emphasizing
different approaches. The performance requirement s for advanced- receiver
archit ect ures, however, are specified in 3GPP Release 6. The combinat ion of mobile-
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion ( Type 3) is especially at t ract ive, because it
result s in a large capacit y gain independent of t he radio channel.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 79
What makes such enhancement s at t ract ive is t hat t he net works do not require any
changes ot her t han increased capacit y wit hin t he infrast ruct ure t o support t he higher
bandwidt h. Moreover, t he net work can support a combinat ion of devices, including bot h
earlier devices t hat do not include t hese enhancement s and lat er devices t hat do. Device
vendors can select ively apply t hese enhancement s t o t heir higher performing devices.
Anot her st andardized capabilit y is MI MO, a t echnique t hat employs mult iple t ransmit
ant ennas and mult iple receive ant ennas, oft en in combinat ion wit h mult iple radios and
mult iple parallel dat a st reams. The most common use of t he t erm “ MI MO” applies t o
spat ial mult iplexing. The t ransmit t er sends different dat a st reams over each ant enna.
Whereas mult ipat h is an impediment for ot her radio syst ems, MI MO—as illust rat ed in
Figure 31—act ually exploit s mult ipat h, relying on signals t o t ravel across different
uncorrelat ed communicat ions pat hs. This result s in mult iple dat a pat hs effect ively
operat ing somewhat in parallel and, t hrough appropriat e decoding, in a mult iplicat ive
gain in t hroughput .
Fi gur e 31: MI MO Usi ng Mul t i pl e Pat hs t o Boost Thr oughput and Capaci t y
Test s of MI MO have proven very promising in WLANs operat ing in relat ive isolat ion
where int erference is not a dominant fact or. Spat ial mult iplexing MI MO should also
benefit HSPA “ hot spot s” serving local areas such as airport s, campuses, and malls,
where t he t echnology will increase capacit y and peak dat a rat es. I n a fully loaded
net work wit h int erference from adj acent cells, however, overall capacit y gains will be
more modest —in t he range of 20 t o 33 percent over mobile- receive diversit y. Relat ive t o
a 1x1 ant enna syst em, however, 2X2 MI MO can deliver cell t hroughput gains of about
80 percent . 3GPP has st andardized spat ial mult iplexing MI MO in Release 7 using Double
Transmit Adapt ive Array ( D- TxAA) .
For furt her det ails on t hese t echniques, refer t o t he 3G Americas whit e paper “ Mobile Broadband:
The Global Evolut ion of UMTS/ HSPA. 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. ”
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 80
Alt hough MI MO can significant ly improve peak rat es, ot her t echniques such as Space
Division Mult iple Access ( SDMA) —also a form of MI MO—may be even more effect ive
t han MI MO for improving capacit y in high spect ral efficiency syst ems employing a reuse
fact or of 1.
Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
I n Release 7, CPC enhancement s reduce t he uplink int erference creat ed by t he
dedicat ed physical cont rol channels of packet dat a users when t hose channels have no
user dat a t o t ransmit . This, in t urn, increases t he number of simult aneously connect ed
HSUPA users. CPC allows bot h discont inuous uplink t ransmission and discont inuous
downlink recept ion, where t he modem can t urn off it s receiver aft er a cert ain period of
HSDPA inact ivit y. CPC is especially beneficial t o VoI P on t he uplink, which consumes t he
most power, because t he radio can t urn off bet ween VoI P packet s. See Figure 32.
Fi gur e 32: Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
Hi gher Or der Modul at i on
Anot her way of increasing performance is t o use higher order modulat ion. HSPA uses 16
QAM on t he downlink and QPSK on t he uplink. But radio links can achieve higher
t hroughput s—adding 64 QAM on t he downlink and 16 QAM on t he uplink—precisely what
is added in HSPA+ . Higher order modulat ion requires a bet t er SNR, which is enabled
t hrough ot her enhancement s such as receive diversit y and equalizat ion.
Taking advant age of t hese various radio t echnologies, 3GPP has st andardized a number
of feat ures in Release 7 including higher order modulat ion and MI MO. Collect ively, t hese
capabilit ies are referred t o as HSPA+ . Release 8 will include furt her enhancement s.
The goals of HSPA+ are t o:
Exploit t he full pot ent ial of a CDMA approach before moving t o an OFDM plat form
in 3GPP LTE.
Achieve performance close t o LTE in 5 MHz of spect rum.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 81
Provide smoot h int erworking bet ween HSPA+ and LTE, t hereby facilit at ing t he
operat ion of bot h t echnologies. As such, operat ors may choose t o leverage t he
EPC/ SAE planned for LTE.
Allow operat ion in a packet - only mode for bot h voice and dat a.
Be backward- compat ible wit h previous syst ems while incurring no performance
degradat ion wit h eit her earlier or newer devices.
Facilit at e migrat ion from current HSPA infrast ruct ure t o HSPA+ infrast ruct ure.
Depending on t he feat ures implement ed, HSPA+ can exceed t he capabilit ies of I EEE
802. 16e- 2005 ( mobile WiMAX) in t he same amount of spect rum. This is mainly because
HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h precode weight ing, as well as
mult icode- word MI MO, and enables t he use of SI C receivers. I t is also part ly because
HSPA support s I ncrement al Redundancy ( I R) and has lower overhead t han WiMAX.
Table 15 summarizes t he capabilit ies of HSPA and HSPA+ based on various met hods.
Tabl e 15: HSPA Thr oughput Evol ut i on
Technol ogy Dow nl i nk
Peak Dat a
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a
HSPA as def i ned i n Rel ease 6
14. 4 5. 76
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM,
UL 16 QAM
21. 1 11. 5
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM
28. 0 11. 5
Rel ease 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM
HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO, Dual Car r i er
( ant i ci pat ed i n Rel ease 9)
Beyond t he peak rat e of 42 Mbps defined in Release 8, Release 9 may specify 2X2 MI MO
in combinat ion wit h dual carrier operat ion which would furt her boost peak net work rat es
t o 84 Mbps.
HSPA+ will also have improved lat ency performance of below 50 msec, and improved
packet call set up t ime of below 500 msec.
HSPA+ wit h 28 Mbps capabilit y will be available for deployment by t he end of 2009, and
HSPA+ wit h 42 Mbps capabilit y on t he downlink and 11. 5 Mbps on t he uplink could be
ready for deployment by 2009 or 2010.
Given t he large amount of backhaul bandwidt h required t o support HSPA+ , as well as
addit ional MI MO radios at cell sit es, operat ors are likely t o init ially deploy HSPA+ in
limit ed “ hot spot ” coverage areas such as airport s, ent erprise campuses, and in- building
net works. Wit h advances in backhaul t ransport like met ropolit an Et hernet , however,
operat ors will be able t o expand coverage.
The prior discussion emphasizes t hroughput speeds, but HSPA+ will also more t han
double HSPA capacit y as well as reduce lat ency below 25 msec. Sleep- t o- dat a- t ransfer
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 82
t imes of less t han 200 msec will improve users’ “ always- connect ed” experience, and
reduced power consumpt ion wit h VoI P will result in t alk t imes t hat are more t han 50
From a deployment point of view, operat ors will be able t o int roduce HSPA+ capabilit ies
t hrough eit her a soft ware upgrade or hardware expansions t o exist ing cabinet s t o
increase capacit y. Cert ain upgrades will be simpler t han ot hers. For example, upgrading
t o 64- QAM support will be easier t o implement t han 2X2 MI MO for many net works. For
net works t hat have implement ed uplink diversit y in t he base st at ion, however, t hose
mult iple ant ennas will facilit at e MI MO deployment .
Dual - Car r i er HSPA
3GPP has defined a work it em for Release 8 t o invest igat e dual- carrier HSPA operat ion.
This approach coordinat es t he operat ion of HSPA on t wo adj acent 5 MHz carriers so t hat
dat a t ransmissions can achieve higher t hroughput rat es. The work it em assumes t wo
adj acent carriers, downlink operat ion and no MI MO. I n t his configurat ion, it will be
possible t o achieve a doubling of t he 21 Mbps maximum rat e available on each channel
t o 42 Mbps.
Alt hough t here is no increase in overall spect ral efficiency, t here are benefit s:
Significant ly higher peak t hroughput s available t o users, especially in light ly-
loaded net works.
Same maximum- t hroughput rat e of 42 Mbps as using MI MO, but wit h a less
expensive infrast ruct ure upgrade.
The following figure shows an analysis of dual- carrier performance using a cumulat ive
dist ribut ion funct ion. CDF indicat es t he probabilit y of achieving a part icular t hroughput
rat e and t he figure demonst rat es a consist ent doubling of t hroughput .
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 83
Fi gur e 33: Dual - Car r i er Per f or mance
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Achievable bitrate [Mbps]
Ped A, 10% load
One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
Anot her way HSPA performance can be improved is t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure. I n
Release 7, t here is t he opt ion of a one- t unnel archit ect ure by which t he net work
est ablishes a direct t ransfer pat h for user dat a bet ween RNC and GGSN while t he SGSN
st ill performs all cont rol funct ions. This brings several benefit s such as eliminat ing
hardware in t he SGSN and simplified engineering of t he net work.
There is also an int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB opt ion in which RNC funct ions are int egrat ed in
t he Node B. This is part icularly beneficial in femt o cell deployment s, as an RNC would
ot herwise need t o support t housands of femt ocells. The int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB for
HSPA+ has been agreed- upon as an opt ional archit ect ure alt ernat ive for packet -
swit ched- based services.
These new archit ect ures, as shown in Figure 34, are similar t o t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure,
especially on t he packet - swit ched core net work side where t hey provide synergies wit h
t he int roduct ion of LTE.
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 84
Fi gur e 34: HSPA One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
Cont r ol Pl ane
Tradi t i onal HSPA
Archi t ect ure
Possi bl e HSPA+ wi t h
One-Tunnel Archi t ect ure
HSPA wi t h One-Tunnel
Ar chi t ect ur e
HSPA, HSPA+ , and ot her advanced funct ions provide a compelling advant age for UMTS
over compet ing t echnologies: The abilit y t oday t o support voice and dat a services on t he
same carrier and across t he whole available radio spect rum; t o offer t hese services
simult aneously t o users; t o deliver dat a at ever- increasing broadband rat es; and t o do
so in a spect rally efficient manner.
HSPA Voice Support
Voice support wit h WCDMA dedicat ed channels in UMTS net works is spect rally very
efficient . Moreover, current net works support simult aneous voice and dat a operat ion.
There are, however, reasons t o consider alt ernat e approaches including reducing power
consumpt ion and being able t o support even more users. One approach is called circuit -
swit ched voice over HSPA. The ot her is VoI P.
CS Voi ce ov er HSPA
HSPA channels employ many opt imizat ions t o obt ain a high degree of dat a t hroughput ,
which is why it makes sense t o use t hem t o carry voice communicat ions. Doing so wit h
VoI P, however, requires not only support ing packet ized voice in t he radio channel, but
also wit hin t he infrast ruct ure net work. There is an elegant alt ernat ive: To packet ize t he
circuit - swit ched voice t raffic which is already in digit al form, use t he HSPA channels t o
carry t he CS voice, but t hen t o connect t he CS voice t raffic back int o t he exist ing CS
infrast ruct ure ( MSCs, et c. ) immediat ely beyond t he radio access net work. This requires
relat ively st raight forward changes in j ust t he radio net work and in devices. The following
figure shows t he infrast ruct ure changes required at t he Node B and wit hin t he RNC.
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 85
Fi gur e 35: I mpl ement at i on of HSPA CS Voi ce
CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer
depending on terminal capability
Wit h t his approach, legacy mobile phones can cont inue using WCDMA- dedicat ed t raffic
channels for voice communicat ions while new devices use HSPA channels. HSPA CS
voice can be deployed wit h Release 7 or lat er net works.
The many benefit s of t his approach, list ed below, make it highly likely t hat operat ors will
adopt it :
Relat ively easy t o implement and deploy.
Transparent t o exist ing CS infrast ruct ure.
Support s bot h narrowband and wideband codecs.
Significant ly improves bat t ery life wit h voice communicat ions.
Enables fast er call connect ions.
Provides a 50 t o 100% capacit y gain over current voice implement at ions.
Act s as a st epping st one t o VoI P over HSPA/ LTE in t he fut ure.
Once HSDPA and HSUPA are available, operat ors will have anot her opt ion of moving
voice t raffic over t o t hese high- speed dat a channels, which is using VoI P. This will
event ually increase voice capacit y, allow operat ors t o consolidat e t heir infrast ruct ure on
an I P plat form, and enable innovat ive new applicat ions t hat combine voice wit h dat a
funct ions in t he packet domain. VoI P is possible in Release 6, but it is enhancement s in
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 86
Release 7 t hat make it highly efficient and t hus at t ract ive t o net work operat ors. VoI P will
be implement ed in conj unct ion wit h I MS, discussed lat er in t his paper.
One at t ract ive aspect of deploying VoI P wit h HSPA is t hat operat ors can smoot hly
migrat e users from circuit - swit ched operat ion t o packet - swit ched operat ion over t ime.
Because t he UMTS radio channel support s bot h circuit - swit ched voice and packet -
swit ched dat a, some voice users can be on legacy circuit - swit ched voice and ot hers can
be on VoI P. Figure 36 shows a syst em’s voice capacit y wit h t he j oint operat ion of circuit -
swit ched and I P- based voice services.
Fi gur e 36: Abi l i t y f or UMTS t o Suppor t Ci r cui t and Pack et Voi ce User s
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
VoI P capacit y gains are quant ified in det ail in t he main part of in t his paper. They range
from 20 percent t o as high as 100 percent wit h t he implement at ion of int erference
cancellat ion and t he minimizat ion of I P overhead t hrough a scheme called Robust
Header Compression ( ROHC) .
Whereas packet voice is t he only way voice will be support ed in LTE, wit h HSPA+ , it may
not be used immediat ely for primary voice services. This is because UMTS already has a
highly efficient circuit - swit ched voice service and already allows simult aneous voice/ dat a
operat ion. Moreover, packet voice requires a considerable amount of new infrast ruct ure
in t he core net work. As a result , packet voice will likely be used init ially as part of ot her
services ( for example, t hose based on I MS) , and only over t ime will it t ransit ion t o
primary voice service.
Alt hough HSPA and HSPA+ offer a highly efficient broadband- wireless service t hat will
enj oy success for t he remainder of t his decade and well int o t he next , 3GPP is working
on a proj ect called Long Term Evolut ion as part of Release 8. LTE will allow operat ors t o
achieve even higher peak t hroughput s in higher spect rum bandwidt h. Work on LTE
Source: 3G Americas member cont ribut ion.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 87
began in 2004 wit h an official work it em st art ed in 2006 and a complet ed specificat ion
expect ed in early 2009. I nit ial possible deployment is t arget ed for 2010.
LTE uses OFDMA on t he downlink, which is well suit ed t o achieve high peak dat a rat es in
high- spect rum bandwidt h. WCDMA radio t echnology is basically as efficient as OFDM for
delivering peak dat a rat es of about 10 Mbps in 5 MHz of bandwidt h. Achieving peak
rat es in t he 100 Mbps range wit h wider radio channels, however, would result in highly
complex t erminals, and it is not pract ical wit h current t echnology. This is where OFDM
provides a pract ical implement at ion advant age. Scheduling approaches in t he frequency
domain can also minimize int erference, t hereby boost ing spect ral efficiency. The OFDMA
approach is also highly flexible in channelizat ion, and LTE will operat e in various radio
channel sizes ranging from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz.
On t he uplink, however, a pure OFDMA approach result s in high Peak t o Average Rat io
( PAR) of t he signal, which compromises power efficiency and, ult imat ely, bat t ery life.
Hence, LTE uses an approach called SC- FDMA, which is somewhat similar t o OFDMA, but
has a 2 t o 6 dB PAR advant age over t he OFDMA met hod used by ot her t echnologies such
as I EEE 802. 16e.
LTE capabilit ies include:
Downlink peak dat a rat es up t o 326 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
Uplink peak dat a rat es up t o 86.4 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
Operat ion in bot h TDD and FDD modes.
Scalable bandwidt h up t o 20 MHz, covering 1. 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz in t he
st udy phase.
I ncreased spect ral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a fact or of t wo t o four.
Reduced lat ency, t o 10 msec round- t rip t imes bet ween user equipment and t he
base st at ion, and t o less t han 100 msec t ransit ion t imes from inact ive t o act ive.
The overall obj ect ive is t o provide an ext remely high performance, radio- access
t echnology t hat offers full vehicular speed mobilit y and t hat can readily coexist wit h
HSPA and earlier net works. Because of scalable bandwidt h, operat ors will be able t o
easily migrat e t heir net works and users from HSPA t o LTE over t ime.
Table 16 shows LTE peak dat a rat es based on different downlink and uplink designs.
Tabl e 16: LTE Peak Thr oughput Rat es
LTE Conf i gur at i on Dow nl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Using 2X2 MI MO in t he Downlink and
16 QAM in t he Uplink
172. 8 57. 6
Using 4X4 MI MO in t he Downlink and
64 QAM in t he Uplink
326. 4 86. 4
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 88
LTE is not only efficient for dat a but , because of a highly efficient uplink, is ext remely
efficient for VoI P t raffic. I n 10 MHz of spect rum, LTE VoI P capacit y will reach almost 500
LTE implement s OFDM in t he downlink. The basic principle of OFDM is t o split a high- rat e
dat a st ream int o a number of parallel low- rat e dat a st reams, each a narrowband signal
carried by a subcarrier. The different narrowband st reams are generat ed in t he
frequency domain, and t hen combined t o form t he broadband st ream using a
mat hemat ical algorit hm called an I nverse Fast Fourier Transform ( I FFT) t hat is
implement ed in digit al- signal processors. I n LTE, t he subcarriers have 15 kHz spacing
from each ot her. LTE maint ains t his spacing regardless of t he overall channel bandwidt h,
which simplifies radio design, especially in support ing radio channels of different widt hs.
The number of subcarriers ranges from 72 in a 1. 4 MHz channel t o 1, 200 in a 20 MHz
The composit e signal is obt ained aft er t he I FFT is ext ended by repeat ing t he init ial part
of t he signal ( called t he Cyclic Prefix [ CP] ) . This ext ended signal represent s an OFDM
symbol. The CP is basically a guard t ime during which reflect ed signals will reach t he
receiver. I t result s in an almost complet e eliminat ion of mult ipat h induced I nt ersymbol
I nt erference ( I SI ) , which ot herwise makes ext remely high dat a rat e t ransmissions
problemat ic. The syst em is called ort hogonal, because t he subcarriers are generat ed in
t he frequency domain ( making t hem inherent ly ort hogonal) , and t he I FFT conserves t hat
charact erist ic. OFDM syst ems may lose t heir ort hogonal nat ure as a result of t he Doppler
shift induced by t he speed of t he t ransmit t er or t he receiver. 3GPP specifically select ed
t he subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz t o avoid any performance degradat ion in high- speed
condit ions. WiMAX syst ems t hat use a lower subcarrier spacing ( ~ 11 kHz) will be more
impact ed in high- speed condit ions t han LTE.
Fi gur e 37: OFDM Sy mbol w i t h Cy cl i c Pr ef i x
The mult iple- access aspect of OFDMA comes from being able t o assign different users
different subcarriers over t ime. A minimum resource block t hat t he syst em can assign t o
a user t ransmission consist s of 12 subcarriers over 14 symbols in 1. 0 msec. Figure 38
shows how t he syst em can assign t hese resource blocks t o different users over bot h
t ime and frequency.
Source: 3GPP Mult i- member analysis.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 89
Fi gur e 38: LTE OFDMA Dow nl i nk Resour ce Assi gnment i n Ti me and Fr equency
Minimum resource block consists of
14 symbols and 12 subcarriers
By having cont rol over which subcarriers are assigned in which sect ors, LTE can easily
cont rol frequency reuse. By using all t he subcarriers in each sect or, t he syst em would
operat e at a frequency reuse of 1; but by using a different one t hird of t he subcarriers in
each sect or, t he syst em achieves a looser frequency reuse of 1/ 3. The looser frequency
reduces overall spect ral efficiency, but delivers high peak rat es t o users.
LTE is specified for a variet y of MI MO configurat ions. On t he downlink, t hese include
2X2, 4X2 ( four ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and 4X4. I nit ial deployment will likely be
2x2. 4X4 will be most likely used init ially in femt o cells. On t he uplink, t here are t wo
possible approaches: single user MI MO ( SU- MI MO) and mult i- user MI MO ( MU- MI MO) .
SU- MI MO is more complex t o implement as it requires t wo parallel radio t ransmit chains
in t he mobile device, whereas MU- MI MO does not require any addit ional implement at ion
at t he device. The first LTE release t hus incorporat es MU- MI MO wit h SU- MI MO deferred
for t he second LTE release.
4G, IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced
LTE will address t he market needs of t he next decade. Aft er t hat , operat ors may deploy
Fourt h Generat ion ( 4G) net works using LTE t echnology as a foundat ion. Current ly, t here
are no official st andards or formal definit ions for 4G. Preliminary research is focused on
t echnologies capable of delivering peak rat es of 1 gigabit per second ( Gbps) in hot spot -
t ype scenarios and 100 Mbps while mobile, being fully I P- based, and support ing full
net work agilit y for handovers bet ween different t ypes of net works ( for example, 4G t o
3G t o WLAN) . The high dat a rat es will require radio channels wider t han 20MHz, most
likely in new spect rum, as discussed above in t he sect ion “ Spect rum. ”
Some companies are at t empt ing t o co- opt t he t erm “ 4G” t o refer t o wireless syst ems
t hat promise performance beyond current 3G syst ems. All of t hese syst ems are on par
wit h HSPA/ HSPA+ and LTE, however, and use of t he t erm “ 4G” for t hem is
inappropriat e. I TU is t he int ernat ionally recognized organizat ion producing t he official
definit ion of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. Through it s Radio Communicat ions
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 90
Sect or ( I TU- R) , I TU is current ly working on a definit ion of 4G using t he name I MT-
Advanced. Current 3G syst ems came about t hrough I TU’s prior proj ect on I nt ernat ional
Mobile Telecommunicat ions 2000 ( I MT- 2000) .
As background for t his proj ect , I TU published a document , Recommendat ion I TU- R
M. 1645, t it led “ Framework and overall obj ect ives of t he fut ure development of I MT- 2000
and syst ems beyond I MT- 2000. ”
The I MT- Advanced proj ect schedule shows t he requirement s and evaluat ion crit eria
being published in 2008 wit h submissions t o occur t hrough 2009. 3GPP will address t he
requirement s in a version of LTE called LTE Advanced for which specificat ions could
become available in 2011. 3GPP will specify LTE Advanced in Release 10. WiMAX will
address t he I MT- Advanced requirement s in a version called Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, t o be
specified in I EEE 802. 16m.
No det ails are available yet on t hese advanced t echnologies, but ideas under
considerat ion include:
Evolut ion of current OFDMA approaches.
High- order MI MO ( e. g. , 4X4) .
Wider radio channels ( e. g. , 50 t o 100 MHz) .
Opt imizat ion in narrower bands ( e.g. , less t han 20 MHz) due t o spect rum
const raint s in some deployment s.
Mult i- channel operat ion in eit her same or different frequency bands.
Abilit y t o share bands wit h ot her services.
Globally, t here are a variet y of wireless research and development proj ect s, init iat ives,
and organizat ions t hat are advancing t he capabilit ies of wireless syst ems. These include
t he Wireless World Research Forum, Wireless World I nit iat ives, I nformat ion and
Communicat ion Technologies ( I CT) , research under t he European Union’s Sevent h
Framework Programme ( FP7) , Japan Mobile I T Forum ( mI TF) , t he Elect ronic and
Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e ( ETRI ) in Korea, and t he Next Generat ion Mobile
Commit t ee ( NGMC) .
Given t his paper’s proj ect ion of mid- next - decade before OFDMA- based syst ems like LTE
have a large percent age of subscribers, it could be well t oward t he end of t he next
decade before any I MT- Advanced syst em has a large subscriber base. Needless t o say,
vendors will be looking at how t o leverage and enhance current OFDMA syst ems like
LTE, UMB, and WiMAX t o meet t he requirement s of I MT- Advanced.
Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployment s are based on FDD, in which t he operat or uses
different radio bands for t ransmit and receive. An alt ernat e approach is TDD, in which
bot h t ransmit and receive funct ions alt ernat e in t ime on t he same radio channel. 3GPP
specificat ions include a TDD version of UMTS, called UMTS TDD.
TDD does not provide any inherent advant age for voice funct ions, which need balanced
links—namely, t he same amount of capacit y in bot h t he uplink and t he downlink. Many
dat a applicat ions, however, are asymmet ric, oft en wit h t he downlink consuming more
bandwidt h t han t he uplink, especially for applicat ions like Web browsing or mult imedia
downloads. A TDD radio int erface can dynamically adj ust t he downlink- t o- uplink rat io
accordingly, hence balancing bot h forward- link and reverse- link capacit y. Not e t hat for
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 91
UMTS FDD, t he higher spect ral efficiency achievable in t he downlink versus t he uplink is
crit ical in addressing t he asymmet rical nat ure of most dat a t raffic.
The UMTS TDD specificat ion also includes t he capabilit y t o use j oint det ect ion in
receiver- signal processing, which offers improved performance. The vendor I P Wireless,
acquired by Next Wave in May 2007, had commercialized UMTS TDD.
One considerat ion, however, relat es t o available spect rum. Various count ries around t he
world including Europe, Asia, and t he Pacific region have licensed spect rum available
specifically for TDD syst ems. For t his spect rum, UMTS TDD, or in t he fut ure LTE in TDD
mode, is a good choice. I t is also a good choice in any spect rum t hat does not provide a
duplex gap bet ween forward and reverse links.
I n t he Unit ed St at es, t here is limit ed spect rum specifically allocat ed for TDD syst ems.
UMTS TDD is not a good choice in FDD bands; it would not be able t o operat e effect ively
in bot h bands, t hereby making t he overall syst em efficiency relat ively poor.
As discussed in more det ail in t he “ WiMAX” sect ion, TDD syst ems require net work
synchronizat ion and careful coordinat ion bet ween operat ors or guard bands, which may
be problemat ic in cert ain bands.
There has been lit t le deployment of UMTS TDD. Fut ure TDD deployment s of 3GPP
t echnologies are likely t o be based on LTE.
TD- SCDMA is one of t he official 3G wireless t echnologies being developed, most ly for
deployment in China. Specified t hrough 3GPP as a variant of t he UMTS TDD Syst em and
operat ing wit h a 1. 28 Megachips per second ( Mcps) chip rat e against 3. 84 Mcps for
UMTS TDD, t he primary at t ribut e of TD- SCDMA is t hat it is designed t o support very high
subscriber densit ies. This makes it a possible alt ernat ive for wireless local loops. TD-
SCDMA uses t he same core net work as UMTS, and it is possible for t he same core
net work t o support bot h UMTS and TD- SCDMA radio- access net works.
TD- SCDMA t echnology is not as mat ure as UMTS and CDMA2000, wit h 2008 being t he
first year of limit ed deployment s in China in t ime for t he Olympic Games. Though t here
are no planned deployment s in any count ry ot her t han China, TD- SCDMA could
t heoret ically be deployed anywhere unpaired spect rum is available—such as t he bands
licensed for UMTS TDD—assuming appropriat e resolut ion of regulat ory issues.
I MS is a service plat form t hat allows operat ors t o support I P mult imedia applicat ions.
Pot ent ial applicat ions include video sharing, PoC, VoI P, st reaming video, int eract ive
gaming, and so fort h. I MS by it self does not provide all t hese applicat ions. Rat her, it
provides a framework of applicat ion servers, subscriber dat abases, and gat eways t o
make t hem possible. The exact services will depend on cellular operat ors and applicat ion
developers t hat make t hese applicat ions available t o operat ors.
The core net working prot ocol used wit hin I MS is Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol ( SI P) , which
includes t he companion Session Descript ion Prot ocol ( SDP) used t o convey configurat ion
informat ion such as support ed voice codecs. Ot her prot ocols include Real Time Transport
Prot ocol ( RTP) and Real Time St reaming Prot ocol ( RTSP) for t ransport ing act ual
The 1910- 1920 MHz band t arget ed unlicensed TDD syst ems, but has never been used.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 92
sessions. The QoS mechanisms in UMTS will be an import ant component of some I MS
Alt hough originally specified by 3GPP, numerous ot her organizat ions around t he world
are support ing I MS. These include t he I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce ( I ETF) , which
specifies key prot ocols such as SI P, and t he Open Mobile Alliance, which specifies end-
t o- end service- layer applicat ions. Ot her organizat ions support ing I MS include t he GSM
Associat ion ( GSMA) , t he ETSI , CableLabs, 3GPP2, The Parlay Group, t he I TU, t he
American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e ( ANSI ) , t he Telecoms and I nt ernet Converged
Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works ( TI SPAN) , and t he Java Communit y
Process ( JCP) .
I MS is relat ively independent of t he radio- access net work and can, and likely will, be
used by ot her radio- access net works or wireline net works. Operat ors are already t rialing
I MS, and one init ial applicat ion under considerat ion—PoC—is being specified by t he Open
Mobile Alliance. Ot her applicat ions include pict ure and video sharing t hat occur in
parallel wit h voice communicat ions. Operat ors looking t o roll out VoI P over net works
could also use I MS. 3GPP init ially int roduced I MS in Release 5 and has enhanced it in
each subsequent specificat ion release.
As shown in Figure 39, I MS operat es j ust out side t he packet core.
Fi gur e 39: I P Mul t i medi a Subsy st em
Call Session Control Function ( CSCF)
( SIP Proxy)
Server ( HSS)
Gateway Cont rol
Multiple Possible Access Networ ks
The benefit s of using I MS include handling all communicat ion in t he packet domain,
t ight er int egrat ion wit h t he I nt ernet , and a lower cost infrast ruct ure t hat is based on I P
building blocks used for bot h voice and dat a services. This allows operat ors t o pot ent ially
deliver dat a and voice services at lower cost , t hus providing t hese services at lower
prices and furt her driving demand and usage.
I MS applicat ions can reside eit her in t he operat or’s net work or in t hird- part y net works
including ent erprises. By managing services and applicat ions cent rally—and
independent ly of t he access net work—I MS can enable net work convergence. This allows
operat ors t o offer common services across 3G, Wi- Fi, and wireline net works.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 93
An import ant capabilit y for 3G and evolved 3G syst ems is broadcast ing and mult icast ing,
wherein mult iple users receive t he same informat ion using t he same radio resource. This
creat es a much more efficient approach for delivering cont ent such as video
programming t o which mult iple users have subscript ions. I n a broadcast , every
subscriber unit in a service area receives t he informat ion, whereas in a mult icast , only
users wit h subscript ions receive t he informat ion. Service areas for bot h broadcast and
mult icast can span eit her t he ent ire net work or a specific geographical area. Because
mult iple users in a cell are t uned t o t he same cont ent , broadcast ing and mult icast ing
result in much great er spect rum efficiency for services such as mobile TV.
3GPP defined highly- efficient broadcast / mult icast capabilit ies for UMTS in Release 6 wit h
MBMS. Release 7 includes opt imizat ions t hrough a solut ion called mult icast / broadcast
single- frequency net work operat ion which involves simult aneous t ransmission of t he
exact waveform across mult iple cells. This enables t he receiver t o const ruct ively
superpose mult iple MBSFN cell t ransmissions. The result is highly efficient WCDMA-
based broadcast t ransmission t echnology t hat mat ches t he benefit s of OFDMA- based
LTE will also have a broadcast / mult icast capabilit y. OFDM is part icularly well- suit ed for
broadcast ing, because t he mobile syst em can combine t he signal from mult iple base
st at ions and because of t he narrowband nat ure of OFDM. Normally, t hese signals would
int erfere wit h each ot her. As such, t he LTE broadcast capabilit y is expect ed t o be quit e
Fi gur e 40: OFDM Enabl es Ef f i ci ent Br oadcast i ng
An alt ernat e approach for mobile TV is t o use an ent irely separat e broadcast net work
wit h t echnologies such as Digit al Video Broadcast ing–Handheld ( DVB- H) or Media
Forward Link Only ( MediaFLO) , which various operat ors around t he world have opt ed t o
do. Though t his requires a separat e radio in t he mobile device, t he net works are highly
opt imized for broadcast .
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 94
3GPP is defining EPC/ SAE in Release 8 as a framework for an evolut ion or migrat ion of
t he 3GPP syst em t o a higher- dat a- rat e, lower- lat ency, packet - opt imized syst em t hat
support s mult iple radio- access t echnologies. The focus of t his work is on t he packet -
swit ched domain wit h t he assumpt ion t hat t he syst em will support all services—including
voice—in t his domain.
Alt hough it will most likely be deployed in conj unct ion wit h LTE, EPC/ SAE could also be
deployed for use wit h HSPA+ where it could provide a st epping- st one t o LTE. EPC/ SAE
will be opt imized for all services t o be delivered via I P in a manner t hat is as efficient as
possible—t hrough minimizat ion of lat ency wit hin t he syst em, for example. I t will support
service cont inuit y across het erogeneous net works, which will be import ant for LTE
operat ors t hat must simult aneously support GSM / EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA cust omers.
One import ant performance aspect of EPC/ SAE is a flat t er archit ect ure. For packet flow,
EPC/ SAE includes t wo net work element s, called Evolved Node B ( eNodeB) and t he
Access Gat eway ( AGW) . The eNodeB ( base st at ion) int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he radio- net work cont roller, which previously was a separat e node
cont rolling mult iple Node Bs. Meanwhile, t he AGW int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he SGSN and GGSN. The AGW has bot h cont rol funct ions, handled
t hrough t he Mobile Management Ent it y ( MME) , and user plane ( dat a communicat ions)
funct ions. The user plane funct ions consist of t wo element s: A serving gat eway t hat
addresses 3GPP mobilit y and t erminat es eNodeB connect ions, and a Packet Dat a
Net work ( PDN) gat eway t hat addresses service requirement s and also t erminat es access
by non- 3GPP net works. The MME, serving gat eway, and PDN gat eways can be collocat ed
in t he same physical node or dist ribut ed, based on vendor implement at ions and
The EPC/ SAE archit ect ure is similar t o t he HSPA One- Tunnel Archit ect ure discussed in
t he “ HSPA+ ” sect ion t hat allows for easy int egrat ion of HSPA net works t o t he EPC/ SAE.
Anot her archit ect ural opt ion is t o reverse t he t opology, so t hat t he EPC/ SAE Access
Gat eway is locat ed close t o t he RAN in a dist ribut ed fashion t o reduce lat ency while t he
MME is cent rally locat ed t o minimize complexit y and cost .
EPC/ SAE also allows int egrat ion of non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX. EPC/ SAE will use
I MS as a component . I t will also manage QoS across t he whole syst em, which will be
essent ial for enabling a rich set of mult imedia- based services.
Figure 41 shows t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 95
Fi gur e 41: EPC/ SAE Ar chi t ect ur e
Rel’7 Legacy GSM/ UMTS
EPC/ SAE Access Gat eway
Cont r ol
Element s of t he SAE archit ect ure include:
Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN net works connect ed via SGSN.
Support for new radio- access net works such as LTE.
The Serving Gat eway t hat t erminat es t he int erface t oward t he 3GPP radio- access
The PDN gat eway t hat cont rols I P dat a services, does rout ing, allocat es I P
addresses, enforces policy, and provides access for non- 3GPP access net works.
The MME t hat support s user equipment cont ext and ident it y as well as
aut hent icat es and aut horizes users.
The Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion ( PCRF) t hat manages QoS
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 96
The following acronyms are used in t his paper. Acronyms are defined on first use.
1xEV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
1xEV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
1XRTT – One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology
2G – Second Generat ion
3G – Third Generat ion
3GPP – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect
3GPP2 – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect 2
4G – Fourt h Generat ion
8- PSK – Oct agonal Phase Shift Keying
AAS – Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems
AGW – Access Gat eway
AMR – Adapt ive Mult i Rat e
ANSI – American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e
ARQ – Aut omat ic Repeat Request
ARPU – Average Revenue Per User
ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AWGN – Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel
BCCH – Broadcast Cont rol Channel
bps – bit s per second
BRS – Broadband Radio Service
BSC – Base St at ion Cont roller
BTS – Base Transceiving St at ion
C/ I – Carrier t o I nt erference Rat io
CAPEX- Capit al Expendit ure
CDF – Cumulat ive Dist ribut ion Funct ion
CDMA – Code Division Mult iple Access
CMOS – Complement ary Met al Oxide Semiconduct or
CP – Cyclic Prefix
CPC – Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y
CRM – Cust omer Relat ionship Management
DAS – Downlink “ A” Level Scheme
dB – Decibel
DBS – Downlink “ B” Level Scheme
DC- HSPA – Dual Carrier HSPA
DSL – Digit al Subscriber Line
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 97
DTM – Dual Transfer Mode
D- TxAA – Double Transmit Adapt ive Array
DVB- H – Digit al Video Broadcast ing Handheld
E–DCH – Enhanced Dedicat ed Channel
EBCMCS – Enhanced Broadcast Mult icast Services
EDGE – Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion
EGPRS – Enhanced General Packet Radio Service
eNodeB – Evolved Node B
EPS – Evolved Packet Syst em
ERP – Ent erprise Resource Planning
ETRI – Elect ronic and Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e
ETSI – European Telecommunicat ions I nst it ut e
E- UTRAN – Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
EV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
EV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
EVRC – Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec
FCC – Federal Communicat ions Commission
FDD – Frequency Division Duplex
Flash OFDM – Fast Low- Lat ency Access wit h Seamless Handoff OFDM
FLO – Forward Link Only
FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence
FP7 – Sevent h Framework Programme
FTP – File Transfer Prot ocol
G- Rake – Generalized Rake Receiver
Gbps – Gigabit s Per Second
GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Net work
GGSN – Gat eway GPRS Support Node
GHz — Gigahert z
GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
GSM – Global Syst em for Mobile communicat ions
GSMA – GSM Associat ion
HARQ – Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request
HD – High Definit ion
HLR – Home Locat ion Regist er
HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HS- PDSCH - High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels
HSPA – High Speed Packet Access ( HSDPA wit h HSUPA)
HSPA+ – HSPA Evolut ion
HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 98
Hz – Hert z
I CT – I nformat ion and Communicat ion Technologies
I EEE – I nst it ut e of Elect rical and Elect ronic Engineers
I ETF – I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce
I FFT – I nverse Fast Fourier Transform
I M – I nst ant Messaging
I MS – I P Mult imedia Subsyst em
I MT – I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions
I PR - I nt ellect ual Propert y Right s
I P – I nt ernet Prot ocol
I PTV – I nt ernet Prot ocol Television
I R – I ncrement al Redundancy
I SI – I nt ersymbol I nt erference
I SP – I nt ernet Service Provider
I TU – I nt ernat ional Telecommunicat ions Union
JCP – Java Communit y Process
kbps – Kilobit s Per Second
kHz — Kilohert z
km – Kilomet er
LSTI – LTE/ SAE Trial I nit iat ive
MAC – Medium Access Cont rol
MBMS - Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Service
Mbps – Megabit s Per Second
Mcps – Megachips Per Second
MCS – Modulat ion and Coding Scheme
MediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only
MHz – Megahert z
MI MO – Mult iple I nput Mult iple Out put
mI TF – Japan Mobile I T Forum
MMDS – Mult ichannel Mult ipoint Dist ribut ion Service
MME – Mobile Management Ent it y
MMSE – Minimum Mean Square Error
MRxD – Mobile Receive Diversit y
MSC – Mobile Swit ching Cent er
MU- MI MO – Mult i- User MI MO
msec – millisecond
NGMC – Next Generat ion Mobile Commit t ee
OFDM – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing
OFDMA – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
PAR – Peak t o Average Rat io
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 99
PBCCH – Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel
PCRF – Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion
PCS – Personal Communicat ions Service
PHY – Physical Layer
PDN – Packet Dat a Net work
PoC – Push- t o- t alk over Cellular
QAM – Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion
QoS – Qualit y of Service
QPSK – Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying
RAB – Radio Access Bearer
RAN – Radio Access Net work
RF – Radio Frequency
RNC – Radio Net work Cont roller
ROHC – Robust Header Compression
RTP – Real Time Transport Prot ocol
RTSP – Real Time St reaming Prot ocol
SC- FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Mult iple Access
SAE – Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion
SDMA – Space Division Mult iple Access
SDP – Session Descript ion Prot ocol
SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node
SI C – Successive I nt erference Cancellat ion
SI P – Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol
SMS – Short Message Service
SNR – Signal t o Noise Rat io
SU- MI MO – Single User MI MO
TCH – Traffic Channel
TDD – Time Division Duplex
TDMA – Time Division Mult iple Access
TD- SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous Code Division Mult iple Access
TD- CDMA – Time Division Code Division Mult iple Access
TI A/ EI A – Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry Associat ion
TI SPAN – Telecoms and I nt ernet converged Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works
TTI – Transmission Time I nt erval
UAS – Uplink “ A” Level Scheme
UBS – Uplink “ B” Level Scheme
UMA – Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMB – Ult ra Mobile Broadband
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em
us – Microseconds
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 100
UTRAN – UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
VDSL – Very High Speed DSL
VoI P – Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
VPN – Virt ual Privat e Net work
WAP – Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol
WCDMA – Wideband CDMA
Wi- Fi – Wireless Fidelit y
WiMAX – Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Net work
WMAN – Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work
WRC- 07 – World Radiocommunicat ion Conference 2007
3G Americas maint ains complet e and current list s of market informat ion, including EDGE,
UMTS, and HSDPA deployment s worldwide, available for free download on it s Web sit e:
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org.
I f t here are any quest ions regarding t he download of t his informat ion, please call + 1 425
372 8922 or e- mail Krissy Gochnour, Public Relat ions Administ rat or, at
info@3gamericas. org. ”
3G Americas: “ Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolut ion of UMTS/ HSPA – 3GPP Release 7
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This whit e paper was writ t en for 3G Americas by Rysavy Research ( ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com) and ut ilized a
composit e of st at ist ical infor mat ion from mult iple resources.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 104
The contents of this paper reflect the research, analysis and conclusions of Rysavy Research and
may not necessarily represent the comprehensive opinions and individual view points of each
particular 3G Americas Board member company.
Rysavy Research provides this document and the information contained herein to you for
informational purposes only. Rysavy Research provides this information solely on the basis that
you will take responsibility for making your own assessments of the information.
Although Rysavy Research has exercised reasonable care in providing this information to you,
Rysavy Research does not warrant that the information is error-free. Rysavy Research disclaims
and in no event shall be liable for any losses or damages of any kind, whether direct, indirect,
incidental, consequential, or punitive arising out of or in any way related to the use of the
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 3 BROADBAND DEVELOPMENTS ................................................................................ 5 WIRELESS DATA MARKET ....................................................................................... 8 Trends ................................................................................................................ 9 EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment ........................................................................... 13 Statistics ........................................................................................................... 13 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION AND MIGRATION ....................................... 15 Technical Approaches (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) ........................................................ 15 3GPP Evolutionary Approach ................................................................................ 17 Spectrum .......................................................................................................... 20 Core-Network Evolution ....................................................................................... 22 Service Evolution ................................................................................................ 23 Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations ..................................................... 24 Feature and Network Roadmap ............................................................................. 25 COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................ 29 CDMA2000 ........................................................................................................ 29 WiMAX .............................................................................................................. 32 IEEE 802.20....................................................................................................... 35 Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems ........................................................................ 35 COMPARISON OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES ....................................................... 36 Data Throughput ................................................................................................ 36 HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios ...................................................... 40 Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance ............................................................ 41 LTE Throughput .................................................................................................. 42 Latency ............................................................................................................. 43 Spectral Efficiency .............................................................................................. 44 Cost, Volume and Market Comparison ................................................................... 52 Competitive Summary ......................................................................................... 54 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................ 56 APPENDIX: TECHNOLOGY DETAILS ...................................................................... 58 EDGE ................................................................................................................ 58 Evolved EDGE .................................................................................................... 62 UMTS/HSPA Technology ...................................................................................... 70 UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities........................................................................ 72 HSDPA .............................................................................................................. 73 HSUPA .............................................................................................................. 76 Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+) .................................................................................. 78 HSPA Voice Support ............................................................................................ 84 3GPP LTE .......................................................................................................... 86 4G, IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced .................................................................... 89 UMTS TDD ......................................................................................................... 90 TD-SCDMA ........................................................................................................ 91 IMS .................................................................................................................. 91 Broadcast/Multicast Services ................................................................................ 93 EPC/SAE............................................................................................................ 94 ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... 96 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .............................................................................. 100 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 100
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
Through constant innovation, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond third generation (3G) has established itself as the global, mobile-broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. Through a process of constant improvement, the GSM family of technologies has not only matched or exceeded the capabilities of all competing approaches, but has significantly extended the life of each of its member technologies. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies. Operators worldwide are now deploying both High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), the combination of the two technologies called simply HSPA. HSPA is one of the most powerful cellular-data technologies ever developed. HSPA, already widely available, follows the successful deployment of UMTS networks around the world and is now a standard feature. Any operator deploying UMTS today is doing so with HSPA. The UMTS-to-HSPA upgrade is similar to Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), which has already proven to be a remarkably effective upgrade to GSM networks, and HSPA (or HSDPA for some networks) is now supported by an overwhelming number of operators and vendors worldwide. HSPA is strongly positioned to be the dominant mobile-data technology for the rest of the decade. To leverage operator investments in HSPA, the 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) standards body has developed a series of enhancements to create “HSPA Evolution,” also referred to as “HSPA+.” HSPA Evolution represents a logical development of the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) approach, and it is the stepping stone to an entirely new Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio platform called 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). LTE, which uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), should be ready for deployment in the 2010 timeframe. Simultaneously, 3GPP — recognizing the significant worldwide investments in GSM networks—has defined enhancements that will significantly increase EDGE data capabilities through an effort called Evolved EDGE. Combined with these improvements in radio-access technology, 3GPP has also spearheaded the development of major core-network architecture enhancements such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and the Evolved Packet Core (or EPC, previously called System Architecture Evolution or SAE), as well as developments in Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC). These developments will facilitate new types of services, the integration of legacy and new networks, the convergence between fixed and wireless systems, and the transition from circuit-switched approaches for voice traffic to a fully packet-switched model. The result is a balanced portfolio of complementary technologies that covers both radioaccess and core networks, provides operators maximum flexibility in how they enhance their networks over time, and supports both voice and data services. This paper discusses the evolution of EDGE, HSPA enhancements, 3GPP LTE, the capabilities of these technologies, and their position relative to other primary competing technologies. The following are some of the important observations and conclusions of this paper:
Persistent innovation created EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS; HSPA and HSPA+, which are bringing UMTS to its full potential; and is now delivering LTE, the most powerful, wide-area wireless technology ever developed.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
and low-traffic density configurations. In current deployments. The LTE Radio Access Network technical specification was approved in January 2008 and is being incorporated into 3GPP Release 8. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in LTE matches or exceeds the capabilities of any other OFDMA system. with 4 Mbps on commercial networks being commonly measured. Peak theoretical rates are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidth. and it is designed to support voice in the packet domain. WCDMA. HSPA users regularly experience throughput rates well in excess of 1 megabit per second (Mbps). 3GPP is now studying how to enhance LTE to meet the requirements of IMTAdvanced in a project called LTE Advanced. Advanced capabilities with Evolved EDGE can double and eventually quadruple current EDGE throughput rates. Innovations such as EPC/SAE and UMTS one-tunnel architecture will “flatten” the network. EDGE technology has proven extremely successful and is widely deployed on GSM networks globally. after extensive evaluation. GSM/UMTS has an overwhelming global position in terms of subscribers. on both downlinks and uplinks. LTE was the first and only technology recognized by the Next Generation Mobile Network alliance to meet its broad requirements. GSM/HSPA will comprise the overwhelming majority of subscribers over the next five to ten years. WiMAX has developed an ecosystem supported by many companies. With a UMTS multiradio network. even as new wireless technologies are adopted. as well as for both high. UMTS/HSPA/LTE have significant economic advantages over other wireless technologies. HSPA Evolution provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM/UMTS operators. simplifying deployment and reducing latency. EDGE. successive interference cancellation. In the future. LTE has become the technology platform of choice as GSM/UMTS and CDMA/EV-DO operators are making strategic long-term decisions on their next-generation platforms. but it will still only represent a very small percentage of wireless subscribers over the next five to ten years. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 4 . Planned enhancements will increase these peak userachievable throughput rates. In June of 2008. and HSPA access networks and offer high efficiency for both high and low data rates. The deployment of LTE and its coexistence with UMTS/HSPA will be analogous to the deployment of UMTS/HSPA and its coexistence with GSM. which is close to completion. under favorable conditions. and services. deployment. LTE assumes a full Internet Protocol (IP) network architecture. Its success will marginalize other wide-area wireless technologies. Initial deployments are likely to occur around 2010. and 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is more spectrally efficient than competing technologies including Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Wave 2 with 2x2 MIMO and Evolved Data Optimized (EV-DO) Revision B. EPC/SAE will provide a new core network that supports both LTE and interoperability with legacy GSM/UMTS radio-access networks. HSPA. a common core network can efficiently support GSM. HSPA+ with 2x2 MIMO.
it is important to understand overall broadband trends and the role between wireless and wireline technologies. political and economic impact. Given that the inherent capacity of one fiber optical link exceeds the entire available radio frequency (RF) spectrum. then moving to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) over HSPA will add to voice capacity and reduce infrastructure costs. given these characteristics. Sometimes wireless and wireline technologies compete with each other. mobile communications volume may be less than wireline. In particular. easily provided across geographic areas and often more easily accomplished than with wireline approaches. This paper begins with an overview of the market. HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). 1 EDGE. Circuit-switched. IMS. and a feature and network roadmap. in this paper we use “WCDMA” when referring to the radio interface technology used within UMTS and “UMTS” to refer to the complete system. The overwhelming global success of mobile telephony. The question of using wireless technology. Finally. what wireline infrastructure may already be available. HSPA is an enhancement to WCDMA. core-network evolution. but its overall contribution to communications in the world and its social. It then examines the evolution of wireless technology. Although many use the terms “UMTS” and “WCDMA” interchangeably. UMTS/HSPA enjoys high circuit-switched voice spectral efficiency. and a consistent 10x advantage of wireline technologies over wireless technologies. Broadband Developments As wireless technology represents an increasing portion of the global communications infrastructure. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 5 . and now the growing adoption of mobile data. based on features such as performance and spectral efficiency. whether optical or copper. Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB). The appendix explains in detail the capabilities and workings of the different technologies including EDGE. for access is more complex. Mobility refers to untethered communication whether stationery or in motion. is just as significant. wireline networks have always had greater capacity. backhaul transport and core infrastructure for wireless networks are based on wireline approaches. the paper discusses other wireless technologies. including spectrum considerations. whether telephony or Internet. LTE. One must consider the performance and capacity of wireless technologies relative to wireline approaches. especially in greenfield situations where there is little existing communications infrastructure. Nevertheless. This applies as readily to Wi-Fi networks as it does to cellular networks. however. particularly 3GPP technologies. because it provides two fundamental capabilities: mobility and access. broadband-wireless deployment considerations. Evolved EDGE. and it can combine voice and data on the same radio channel. it compares the different wireless technologies technically. but in most instances they are complementary. and WiMAX. Access refers to communication services. For the most part. HSPA. Thus. and historically have delivered faster throughput rates. and SAE. In the meantime. voice over HSPA. Next. data flow over wireless links will never represent more than a small percentage of the total global communications traffic. looking at trends. wireless technology is playing a profound role in networking and communications. EDGE and UMTS/HSPA deployments. including Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). conclusively demonstrate the desire for mobile-oriented communications. HSPA. Figure 1 shows advances in typical user throughput rates. WCDMA1. and market statistics. and ongoing developments with wireline technology.
there is no doubt that 3G technology will cater to both enterprises and their high-end mobile workers and consumers. 2008 EDGE. In the early 1990s. the opportunities are limitless when considering the many diverse markets mobile broadband can successfully address. and Google. anywhere will be a primary source of demand. Yahoo. for whom 3G can be a cost-effective option. In the developed world. for home use. June 11. however. increases the demand for mobilebroadband capabilities. salespeople. Portio Research. such as Facebook. MySpace.Figure 1: Wireline and Wireless Advances 100 Mbps FTTH 100 Mbps ADSL2+ 25 Mbps 10 Mbps ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps 1 Mbps ADSL 1 Mbps ISDN 128 kbps LTE 10 Mbps HSPA+ 5 Mbps HSDPA 1 Mbps UMTS 350 kbps EDGE 100 kbps GPRS 40 kbps 100 kbps 10 kbps 2000 2005 2010 Mobile broadband combines compelling high-speed data services with mobility. users’ desire to be connected anytime. the world of voice and data is quickly becoming one that must be untethered. As a result. whether in business or in our personal lives. Although it is true that most 3G systems are now offering throughputs of about 1 Mbps— which is comparable to what many users experience with a basic DSL or cable-modem service—the overall capacity of wireless systems is generally lower than it is with wireline systems. office desk phones. enterprise broadband-connectivity adoption is taking on the same “look and feel” as early mobilephone service adoption. It was the productivity increases associated with being connected to a cellular network. In developing countries. HSPA. and executives already had home phones. Portio Research predicted in June 2008 that worldwide mobile data revenue would increase at an annual rate of 16 percent to reach $252 billion the end of 2012. YouTube. competing with digital subscriber line (DSL). the majority of early adopters of mobile broadband have been enterprises. Better connectivity means a business is more efficient. that accelerated mobile-broadband growth throughout the world. but always connected. Thus.2 Overall. and even receptionists. which some 2 “Mobile Data Services Markets 2008”. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 6 . lawyers. While consumer demand for social and search services. doctors. This is especially true when wireless is compared to optical fiber.
Hence. Deploying at lower capacity—as measured by lower bits per second (bps) per square kilometer—means larger cell sizes. EDGE. The only possible wireless approach to address such high-data consumption is with FMC approaches. but it is “no” from a practical point of view. it simply will not be possible to deliver the hundreds of gigabytes per month that users will soon be consuming over their broadband connections with wide-area wireless networks.. very high-speed DSL (VDSL). and by using relatively small cell sizes. It is only possible to achieve these rates by using large amounts of spectrum. the interest developing countries have in broadband-wireless technologies. such as femto cells (or dual mode Wi-Fi/3G devices. or fiber—especially for services such as highdefinition IP Television (IPTV)—the question becomes.g. as shown in Figure 2. What changes the dynamics of the business model in these areas is that operators can cost-effectively deploy voice (which is inherently low bandwidth) and lower-speed data services. however. where one subscriber could essentially consume the entire capacity of a WiMAX or HSPA cell sector. is it possible to match these rates using wireless approaches? The answer is “yes” from a purely technical perspective.operators are now deploying to people’s homes. an existing wireline Internet connection (e. HSPA. Otherwise. Table 1 summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of wireless versus wireline broadband approaches. With wireline operators looking to provide 20 to 100 Mbps to either people’s homes or businesses via next-generation cable-modem services. Consider today’s high definition (HD) television content that demands 6 to 9 Mbps of continuous connectivity. and thus fewer cell sites and much lower deployment costs. generally more than is available for current 3G systems. mostly because of the lack of wireline offerings. This presupposes. DSL). LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 7 . Figure 2: FMC Used to Expand Capacity Macro-Cell Coverage Aggregate femto-cell capacity far exceeds macro-cell capacity for same amount of spectrum Femto-Cell Coverage What makes much more sense today is using wireless technology for access only when there are no good wireline alternatives.
low-cost commoditized base stations. July 2008. hence. with 742 million of these subscribers using UMTS services. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 8 . higher spectral efficiency. over 3. however. HSPA. Wireless Data Market By August 2008. 3GPP technologies clearly address proven market needs. However. As the applications for mobile broadband continue to expand. especially in developing economies lacking infrastructure Weakness Lower capacity than wireline approaches Inability to serve highbandwidth applications such as IP TV This is not a static situation. World Cellular Information Service.Table 1: Strengths and Weakness of Broadband Approaches Strength Mobile broadband (EDGE. July 2008 Informa Telecoms & Media.5 3G Americas President Chris Pearson states. which anticipates continual performance and capacity improvements. Among these developments are mesh capabilities to reduce deployment costs. any such future success is somewhat speculative and dependent on many developments including technology and broadband application evolution. http://en.org/wiki/World_population. DOCSIS.g. LTE) Constant connectivity Broadband capability across extremely wide areas Good access solution for areas lacking wireline infrastructure Capacity enhancement options via FMC Excellent voice communications Wireline broadband (e. their overwhelming success. and future spectrum allocations for mobile-broadband systems.7 billion population. DSL.2 billion subscribers were using GSM/UMTS3—approaching an astonishing 50 percent of the world’s total 6. HSPA+.wikipedia. The 3GPP roadmap. “This level of wireless technology growth exceeds that of almost all other lifestyle-changing 3 4 5 Informa Telecoms & Media. FTTH) High capacity broadband at very high data rates Evolution to extremely high throughput rates Expensive to deploy new networks. provides the technical means to deliver on proven business models.. HSPA. August 2008.4 Informa’s World Cellular Information Service projects over 4 billion GSM/UMTS customers by 2010. a number of developments could make high-capacity broadband-wireless systems more competitive with wireline approaches. In the longer term. EDGE. LTE and LTE Advanced will continue to provide a competitive platform for tomorrow’s new business opportunities. HSPA.
Although voice still constitutes most cellular traffic. Trends Users are adopting wireless data across a wide range of applications. and HSPA support a wide range of applications. PC Cards and Express cards. wireless data worldwide now comprises 17 percent of average revenue per user (ARPU). game downloads.innovations. In the United States. These include increased user awareness. including e-mail.”6 Clearly. for entertainmentrelated services. and commerce. all mobile phones are becoming “smart. it is essential that operators deploy spectrally efficient data technologies that meet customer requirements for performance—especially because data applications can demand significantly more network resources than traditional voice services. and global coverage. enterprise resource planning (ERP). Wireless access to the Internet in this environment is a powerful catalyst for the creation of new services. ringtones.g. Wireless data in enterprise applications like group collaboration. including standard networking applications and those designed for wireless. Operators have a huge investment in spectrum and in their networks.7 This number could easily double within three years. GSM/UMTS has established global dominance. “netbook” computers and mobile Internet devices (MIDs). Meanwhile. and leading notebook vendors are now offering computers with integrated 3G (e. application and content suppliers are optimizing their offerings or. increases the return-oninvestment potential for wireless operators. such as ultramobile PCs. social networking. HSPA) capabilities. It also provides operators and other third-party providers with many new business opportunities. As data constitutes a rising percentage of total cellular traffic. for pleasure or in retirement. customer relationship management (CRM). enhancements to memberships and subscriptions. Computer manufacturers are also experimenting with new form factors. UMTS. social networking. A number of important factors are accelerating the adoption of wireless data. Computing itself is becoming more mobile. developing entirely new applications and content to target the needs and desires of mobile users. The simultaneous adoption by both consumers. and then provides market data that demonstrates the rapid growth of wireless data. and video. and notebook computers and smartphones are now prevalent. 2007. Technologies such as GSM. Meanwhile. the Internet is becoming progressively more intertwined with people’s lives providing communications. It is only a matter of time before today’s more than 3 billion cellular customers start taking 6 7 3G Americas press release of June 5.com/usmarketupdateq108. innovative “feature phones”..htm EDGE. and operators across North and South America are confirming this growth with their reports of rising data ARPU. information. community involvement. http://www. This section examines trends and deployment. In fact.chetansharma. and businesses. Lifestyles at home and at work are increasingly mobile with more people traveling more often for business. and database access is also gaining acceptance. to enhance productivity. powerful smartphones.” with some form of data capability. Modems are available in multiple formats including USB devices. HSPA. But two factors stand out: network capability and applications. data services must leverage these investments. instant messaging (IM). in many cases. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 9 . wireless data is more than 20 percent of ARPU for the three largest operators.
The EDGE/HSPA/LTE evolutionary paths provide data capabilities that address market needs and deliver ever-higher data throughputs. and increased spectral efficiency.” Smartphones. Virtual Private Networks [VPNs]). MP3 players. Operators are seeing 8 “One in Three Handsets Will Be a Smartphone by 2013”. a wide array of middleware providers are addressing issues such as increased security (for example.wirelessweek. and Sybase and found comprehensive support for mobile platforms from each of these vendors. Peter Rysavy. which emphasize a rich computing environment on a phone. including IBM. Pricing for unlimited10 usage has declined substantially for both laptop and handset plans.9 Acting as catalysts. WLANs to 3G). Meanwhile. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 10 . This adoption will offer tremendous opportunities and the associated risks to operators as they choose the most commercially viable evolutionary path for migrating their customers. graphics viewers. are now available at much lower price points and thus affordable to a much larger market segment. ABI Research predicts that the smartphone market. Salesforce. and downloadable games. e-mail clients. http://www. All these capabilities consume data. Although wireless data has always offered a tantalizing vision of always-connected mobile computing. downloadable and streaming music and video are not far behind. The features found in cellular telephones are expanding at a rapid rate and today include large color displays. smartphones.com/papers. Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC). this rich network and device environment is spawning the availability of a wide range of wireless applications and content. will become 31% of the market in 2013. switching between different networks (for example. delivering higher throughputs at lower cost. Enabled by 3G network capabilities. In the enterprise space. Many users would prefer to carry one device that “does it all. a fully capable mobile computer.com/article. IM clients.com. and ever more powerful browsers. Awareness of data capabilities has increased. SAP. thus encouraging greater numbers of users to adopt data services. http://www.full advantage of data capabilities. movie cameras. Consumer content developers are already successfully providing downloadable ringtones and games. which was 10% of the total market in 2007. adoption has been slower than that for voice services. represent the convergence of the personal digital assistant. and a phone.aspx?id=158452 9 “Reach Me if You Can.” May 2007. 10 EDGE. adoption has accelerated thanks to a number of key developments. all in a device that is only slightly larger than the average cellular telephone.html Typically. all the major developers now offer mobilized “wireless-friendly” components for their applications. As a consequence. lower latency. Because of its growing size—and its unassailable potential—application and content developers simply cannot afford to ignore this market. HSPA. March 2008. originally targeted for the high end of the market. Networks are much more capable. however. session maintenance under adverse radio conditions. Widespread availability of services has also been important. and policy mechanisms that control application access to networks. In the past several years. some restrictions apply.8 This number may be conservative as the iPhone demonstrates the latent market demand for devices that enable rich multimedia and communications capabilities. downloadable executable content capabilities. especially through the pervasive success of Short Message Service (SMS). wireless e-mail. still cameras. And they aren’t. A number of other powerful catalysts are spurring wireless-data innovation. downloadable ringtones. Oracle.rysavy. A recent article in Network Computing surveyed major enterprise application vendors.
users are responding enthusiastically to location-based services. Based on one leading UMTS/HSPA infrastructure vendor’s statistics. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 11 .considerable success with music sales. and users have an increasing number of mobile options for real-time travel information and manipulation of that information.4962 12. However.3308 7. the volume of data traffic (indicated in gigabit per radio network controller [RNC] per hour) exceeded voice traffic. companies that carefully adopt mobile applications in a more strategic fashion across multiple business units are finding they can significantly increase their competitiveness. HSPA. and much more important. in HSPA coverage areas on a global basis.1654 2. banks are letting their account holders manipulate their accounts using handheld devices. stage is where jobs are reengineered to take full advantage of continuous connectivity. which will also facilitate FMC and seamless communications experiences that span cellular and Wi-Fi networks. Meanwhile.6616 18. Figure 3 compares the rapid growth in wireless data traffic compared to voice traffic.0789 15.5827 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 11 Based on leading UMTS/HSPA infrastructure vendor statistics. But the final. New services such as video sharing are being enabled by IMS.7481 Packet Data Voice 5. Selective tactical adoption of mobile applications such as wireless e-mail is a good starting point for many organizations. In the enterprise space. The next was to offer existing applications on new platforms like smartphones.9135 10. EDGE. By the end of 2007. the first stage of wireless technology adoption was essentially to replace modem connectivity. Figure 3: UMTS/HSPA Voice and Data Traffic11 20.
com/Pages/GB/perspectives/Spectrum-Getting-the-most-out-of-thedigita-dividend-2008. Figure 4 shows a leading operator’s assessment of data demands on its network. Value Partners. HSPA.spectrumstrategy. March 2008.Over time. Figure 4: Operator Assessment of Growth in Data Demand on Relative Basis12 700 600 500 Aggressive 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth 400 300 Conservative 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth 1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic 200 100 2G Data Traffic Growth 20 0 15 10 5 0 2007 Voice Traffic Growth Source: AT&T AO . http://www. “Getting the Most Out of the Digital Divide – Allocating UHF Spectrum to Maximise the Benefits for European Society”. and 30 Gbytes/user/month with aggressive assumptions. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 12 . Another driver for broadband data growth beyond mobile applications is the use of HSPA/LTE networks as alternatives to wireline networks where running wire or fiber is 12 13 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.12/17/07 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 This figure is consistent with growth in mobile-broadband data consumption presented in a report from Value Partners13. The report projects for European countries 1 GByte/user/month using conservative assumptions. data demands are expected to grow significantly. EDGE. 8 GBytes/user/month with medium assumptions.pdf.
2008 EDGE. 2008. HSPA. as well as remote areas. SNL Kagan states in a recent press release that Apple’s iPhone 3G combined with other smartphone offerings will result in mobile data dominating the wireless industry. and there is even a Web site (http:// www. routers.17 Devices include handsets.problematic. “World Cellular Information Service. but it does so over huge coverage areas and on a global basis. For example. Already. a number of operators have committed to the technology including AT&T and Telstra. This is where the GSM family of wireless-data technologies is the undisputed leader. Nearly all WCDMA handsets are also GSM handsets. Meanwhile. upgrading to HSPA+ will likely represent a minimal investment for operators in order to significantly boost network performance. media players and cameras. representing more than 350 networks in approximately 150 countries. modems.green4g. along with offering complementary capabilities such as IP-based multimedia. 211 operators in 90 countries offer HSDPA and 46 of these have HSUPA deployed. there are more than 724 commercial HSPA devices available worldwide. mobile broadband may increasingly be viewed as a “green” technology. EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment Three quarters of GSM networks today support EDGE.to high-level GSM devices include EDGE radio technology. and make it easier for workers to either telecommute or stay involved with work projects as they conduct their personal affairs. laptops. so WCDMA users can access the wide base of GSM networks and services. HSPA makes such efficient use of spectrum for data that it results in a much lower overall cost per megabyte of data delivered. data cards. Statistics A variety of statistics show the growth in wireless data. Ibid.14 A final factor accelerating adoption of mobile/wireless technologies is environmental considerations.com) that promotes this cause. As the technology matures. the incremental cost of HSPA is relatively low and second. This includes developing economies. There are more than 251 million UMTS customers globally spanning 236 commercial networks. The report projects 14 15 16 17 Telstra presentation “HSPA as an Open Eco-System Today – Telstra Next G Network”. GSA HSPA Devices Survey.16 All UMTS operators are deploying HSPA for two reasons: first. As for HSPA+. The key for operators is enhancing their networks to support the demands of consumer and business applications as they grow. virtually all new GSM infrastructure deployments are also EDGE-capable and nearly all new mid. June 2008. Telstra is extending its HSPA network to remote mining locations and oil production platforms. July 21. With huge energy costs and pollution from fossil fuels. Not only does it provide a platform for continual improvements in capabilities.” Informa Telecoms & Media. where enhanced communications technologies facilitate business interaction with fewer face-to-face meetings. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 13 .15 Because of the very low incremental cost of including EDGE capability in GSM network deployments. UMTS has established itself globally. For instance.
com/story/31730. 2007 22 23 24 Lehman Global Equity Research.htm. 18 19 http://www1. According to Lehman Global Equity Research. http://www.mobile data revenues in the US to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 16% (from $24 billion in 2007 to over $100 billion in 2017. Informa Telecoms and Media reported first quarter revenue of $49 billion. 2008 20 21 http://www. 2008. Express Cards. Source: Informa Telecoms and Media.2 billion in revenue.asp Chetan Sharma: “US Wireless Data Market Update – Q2 2008”. ABI Research found that cellular modem sales including PC Cards. Meanwhile.19 On a global basis. July 23.snl.” May 23.6% in the second quarter of 2008 compared to the previous quarter and 40% compared to Q1 of 2007.24 From a device perspective. findings included 40% growth of the European Union’s mobile data market in 2007 to 7 billion Euros.18) Similarly.7% year-to-year increase. press release. 3G subscribers that use mobile data applications spend twice as much on data each month as 2G subscribers.com/press/20080731.23 3G is also fueling data adoption.01 billion It is clear that both EDGE and UMTS/HSDPA are dominant wireless technologies. Chetan Sharma Consulting reports that US wireless data grew 8. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 14 . excluding SMS. According to a study by the Online Publishers Association.cellular-news.chetansharma. 76 percent of all mobile phones are Web-enabled.” Informa Telecoms & Media. HSPA.22 The number of devices that support wireless data has partly fueled that data use. EDGE. a 42. 25 “World Cellular Information Service. more data revenue in ’09.com/usmarketupdateq108. And powerful data capabilities and global presence mean these technologies will likely continue to capture most of the available wireless-data market.21 In research conducted by Wireless Intelligence and AT Kearney for the GSM Association.fiercewireless. March 8.php?source=newsletter Online Publishers Association study. embedded modems and 3G/Wi-Fi routers together increased 300% in 2007 compared to the previous year. July 2008.com/press-releases/led-asia-pacific-suppliers-cellular-modem-industrywill-exceed-200-million-units-2013 http://www. reaching $8. USB modems. resulting in more than $200 billion of revenue for the year20. Informa WCIS projected in July 2008 the following sales growth rate for WCDMA handsets: 25 2008: 283 million 2009: 422 million 2010: 558 million 2011: 701 million 2012: 861 million 2013: 1. Paul Wuh. “Global 3G Developments: 3G subs accelerate.
It is also one reason newer WLAN standards. the Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) vocoder for voice. Despite the evolution of TDMA capabilities. OFDM is more readily realizable in mobile devices. Meanwhile. higher order modulation. assuming they employ all the other standard techniques for maximizing spectral efficiency. These techniques include efficient schedulers. the answer is largely “no. OFDMA. Still. CDMA. OFDM also has an advantage in that it can scale easily for different amounts of available bandwidth. Progress has occurred in multiple phases. any of these three approaches. Many times. before long. This in 26 OFDMA is simply OFDM in which the system assigns different subcarriers to different users. Today. Technical Approaches (TDMA. However. which is based on TDMA. when fully optimized. which employ 20 MHz radio channels. followed by today’s enhanced 3G capabilities such as HSPA. and EDGE for data performance optimization. that OFDM enables less computationally complex implementations than those based on CDMA. the cellular industry has generally adopted CDMA for 3G networking technology. may achieve slightly higher spectral efficiency than CDMA systems. people are asking whether Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and OFDMA26 provide any inherent advantage over TDMA or CDMA. the fundamental advantage of OFDM is that it elegantly addresses the problem of intersymbol interference induced by multipath and greatly simplifies channel equalization. OFDM is currently a favored approach under consideration for radio systems that have extremely high peak rates. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 15 . and then UMTS. is a case in point. and adaptive modulation and coding. as well as the evolution of underlying wireless approaches. more recently. LTE. studies have shown that the complexity advantage of OFDM may be quite small (that is. HSPA. and. underlying approaches have evolved from Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to CDMA. and now from CDMA to OFDMA. both technologies use many of the same techniques to achieve roughly the same degree of spectral efficiency and typical performance. However. advanced receiver architectures—including options such as practical equalization approaches and interference cancellation techniques—are already commercially available in UMTS and CDMA chipsets and can nearly match this performance advantage. first with EDGE. are based on OFDM. For systems employing 10 MHz or less of bandwidth. As such. Although there are some significant differences between CDMA2000 and WCDMA/HSPA. In other words. CDMA. the advantage of reducing complexity is one reason 3GPP chose OFDM for its LTE project.Wireless Technology Evolution and Migration This section discusses the evolution and migration of wireless-data technologies from EDGE to LTE. However. less than a factor of two) if frequency domain equalizers are used for CDMA-based technologies. OFDM systems. GSM is able to effectively compete with the capacity and data throughput of CDMA2000 One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT). Hence.” Because it transmits mutually orthogonal subchannels at a lower symbol rate. which is the basis of LTE. It is with larger bandwidths of greater than 10 MHz and in combination with advanced antenna approaches such as MIMO or Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS). HSPA+ and. Through innovations like frequency hopping. Turbo codes. can effectively match the capabilities of any other. GSM. OFDMA) Considerable discussion in the wireless industry has focused on the relative benefits of TDMA. one technology or the other is positioned as having fundamental advantages over another. such as channel bandwidths and chip rates. EDGE.
Forward Link Only (FLO) Comments First digital cellular approach. Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industry Association (TIA/EIA)-136 TDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT. MIMO. In particular. EDGE. and high peak data rates in large blocks of spectrum. Mature. CDMA2000 EV-DO. An OFDMA technology like LTE can also take better advantage of wider radio channels (for example. Basis for nearly all new 3G networks. HSPA. efficient.11a/g/n. it extends the life of operators’ large 3G investments reducing overall infrastructure investments. Effective approach for broadcast systems. New enhancements being designed for GSM/EDGE. and allowing operators to offer competitive services. as used by UMTS/HSPA.11b 802. WCDMA. interference cancellation.20. HSPA. EDGE. Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) UMB. the advancement of HSPA is a logical and effective strategy. Well suited for systems planned for the next decade. HSPA carriers). and will dominate widearea wireless systems for the remainder of this decade and well into next. the ability of OFDM to cope with multipath has also made it the technology of choice for the design of Digital Broadcast Systems. Flarion Fast LowLatency Access with Seamless Handoff OFDM (Flash OFDM). 3GPP LTE. Table 2 summarizes the attributes of the different wireless approaches. 10 MHz) by not requiring guard bands between radio carriers (for example. decreasing capital and operational expenditures. HSPA+ Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802. In recent years. continual advances with CDMA technology—realized in HSPA+ through approaches such as equalization.turn allows OFDM to be progressively deployed in available spectrum by using different numbers of subcarriers. Digital Video Broadcasting-H (DVB-H). Also provides flexibility in the amount of spectrum used. 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast Multicast Services (EBCMCS).16/WiMAX. Table 2: Summary of Different Wireless Approaches Approach TDMA Technologies Employing Approach GSM. IEEE 802. IEEE 802. and higher-order modulation—will allow CDMA-based systems to largely match OFDMA-based systems. higher bandwidth radio systems. GPRS. In 5 MHz of spectrum. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 16 . CDMA OFDM/OFDMA Because OFDMA has only modest advantages over UMTS in 5 MHz channels. Hugely successful with GSM.
Table 3 summarizes the key 3GPP technologies and their characteristics. LTE systems will coexist with both 3G systems and 2G systems. Meanwhile. and the appendix of the white paper presents functional details of the different technologies. Standards bodies have already defined “Evolved EDGE. LTE incorporates best-of-breed radio techniques to achieve performance levels beyond what will be practical with CDMA approaches. depending on market circumstances. Provides voice and data service via GPRS/EDGE. because of sheer market momentum.3GPP Evolutionary Approach Rather than emphasizing any one wireless approach. by the end of the decade. Given some of the advantages of an OFDM approach. Over the remainder of this decade. GSM and UMTS will constitute a growing proportion of subscriptions and. Beyond radio technology. in the same way that 3G coexists with Second Generation (2G) systems in integrated networks.” which will be available for deployment in the 2009 to 2010 timeframe and bring more than a doubling of performance over current EDGE systems. Data service for GSM networks. such as HSPA and HSPA+. Multimode devices will function across LTE/3G or even LTE/3G/2G. 3GPP’s evolutionary plan is to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of every technology and to exploit the unique capabilities of each one accordingly. By the end of the decade. particularly in larger channel bandwidths. Though later sections quantify performance. this section provides a quick summary intended to provide a frame of reference for the subsequent discussion. EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 17 . An enhancement to original GSM data service 70 kbps to 130 kbps 70 kbps to 130 kbps EDGE TDMA 27 3GPP also refers to LTE as Enhanced UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). and integration of LTE with both legacy GSM/UMTS networks. Table 3: Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies Technology Name GSM Type Characteristics Typical Downlink Speed Typical Uplink Speed TDMA Most widely deployed cellular technology in the world. introduce enhancements and simplifications that help CDMA-based systems match the capabilities of competing systems. HSPA. as well as other wireless technologies. The combination of EPC and EPS is referred to as the Evolved Packet System (EPS). especially in 5 MHz spectrum allocations. and Time Division CDMA (TD-CDMA) for the time division duplex (TDD) mode of UMTS. 3GPP has specified OFDMA as the basis of its Long Term Evolution27 effort. including WCDMA for the frequency division duplex (FDD) mode of UMTS. The evolved data systems for UMTS. based on a TDMA approach. GSM. Already extremely efficient. is mature and broadly deployed. EPC/SAE provides a new core architecture that enables both flatter architectures. the majority of worldwide subscribers will still be using GSM/EDGE technologies. there are nevertheless opportunities for additional optimizations and enhancements. However. these technologies will likely account for most new subscriptions. CDMA was chosen as the basis of 3G technologies.
Evolved EDGE TDMA Advanced version of EDGE that can double and eventually quadruple throughput rates.Technology Name Type Characteristics Typical Downlink Speed Typical Uplink Speed called GPRS. EDGE. LTE Advanced OFDMA Advanced version of LTE designed to meet IMTAdvanced requirements. HSPA. 3G technology providing voice and data capabilities. New radio interface that can use wide radio channels and deliver extremely high throughput rates. Current deployments implement HSPA for data service. 150 kbps to 500 kbps expected 200 to 300 kbps 100 kbps to 500 kbps expected 200 to 300 kbps UMTS CDMA HSPA CDMA 1 Mbps to 4 Mbps 500 kbps to 2 Mbps HSPA+ CDMA >5 Mbps expected >3 Mbps expected LTE OFDMA > 10 Mbps expected > 5 Mbps expected User achievable rates and greater details on typical rates are covered in Table 5 in the section “Data Throughput” later in this paper. Typical user rates may exceed 10 Mbps. An enhancement to original UMTS data service. All communications handled in IP domain. Data service for UMTS networks. Figure 5 shows the evolution of the different wireless technologies and their peak network performance capabilities. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 18 . Evolution of HSPA in various stages to increase throughput and capacity and to lower latency.
For example. Majority of deployments today are based on Release 99. First steps toward using IP transport in the core network. EDGE. A summary of the different 3GPP releases is as follows: 28 Release 99: Completed. It is important to realize that the 3GPP releases address multiple technologies. 28 After Release 99. Provides support for GSM/EDGE/GPRS/WCDMA radio-access networks. Release 4: Completed. HSPA. release versions went to a numerical designation instead of designation by year. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 19 . and equipment vendors produce hardware that supports particular versions of each specification. and OFDMA Systems Mobile WiMAX Fixed WiMAX UMB CDMA2000 LTE HSPA EDGE The development of GSM and UMTS/HSPA happens in stages referred to as 3GPP releases. CDMA. Multimedia messaging support.Figure 5: Evolution of TDMA. Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). First deployable version of UMTS. Release 7 optimizes VoIP for HSPA but also significantly enhances GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE.
the Federal Communications Commission auctioned the 700 MHz band in the United States in January 2008. Defines EPC. EDGE. Release 6: Completed. Full ability to use IP-based transport instead of just Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in the core network. standards bodies are adapting UMTS for these bands as well.7/2. increased capacity.1GHz band. As other frequency bands become available for deployment. most users of the technology are more interested in particular features and capabilities. UMTS-TDD equipment is already available for 450 MHz. which includes higher order modulation and MIMO. and the corresponding support from infrastructure and mobile-equipment vendors. such as whether a device supports HSDPA. Release 7: Completed. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient “always-on” service and enhanced uplink UL VoIP capacity as well as reductions in call set-up delay for PoC.6 GHz frequency band in Europe are providing operators with wider deployment options. For this reason. 1710-1770 uplink was matched with 21102170 downlink to allow for additional global harmonization of the 1. Results include performance enhancements. Release 5: Completed. improved spectral efficiency. IMS enhancements. Radio enhancements to HSPA include 64 QAM in the downlink DL and 16 QAM in the uplink. WLAN integration option. Enhanced multimedia support through Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). Also includes optimization of MBMS capabilities through the multicast/broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) function. the Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) band at 1710-1755 MHz with/2110-2155 MHz in the US. as shown in Figure 6. the detailed discussion of the technologies in this paper emphasizes features as opposed to 3GPP releases. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 20 . First phase of IMS. Provides enhanced GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE. Release 8: Under development. Initial VoIP capability. The fundamental system design and networking protocols remain the same for each band. Comprises further HSPA Evolution features such as simultaneous use of MIMO and 64 QAM. Performance specifications for advanced receivers. Includes work item for dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA) where two WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling of throughput performance. HSPA. Whereas operators and vendors actively involved in the development of wireless technology are heavily focused on 3GPP release versions. This includes 450 and 700 MHz. a traditional GSM band. and better resistance to interference. An increasing number of operators are also deploying UMTS at 900 MHz. Release 9: Expected to include HSPA and LTE enhancements. HSUPA. The availability of this band. Spectrum Another important aspect of UMTS/HSPA deployment is the expanding number of available radio bands. Release 10: Expected to specify LTE Advanced that meets the requirements set by ITU’s IMT-Advanced project. Provides fine-tuning and incremental improvements of features from previous releases. Meanwhile. and the forthcoming 2. Specifies HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). Specifies OFDMA-based 3GPP LTE. HSDPA. only the frequency-dependent portions of the radios have to change.
9 2110-2170 1475.9 1710-1770 1427. HSPA.9-1879.6 GHz 900 MHz 1700 MHz Ext 1. total capacity rises rapidly.1 GHz 850 MHz 800 MHz 2. and make many new types of applications feasible. For example. Figure 6: FDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies 29 Operating band Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8 Band 9 Band 10 Band 11 Band 12 Band 13 Band 14 Band name 2. Figure 7 shows TDD bands defined for 3GPP Technologies.9-1784.As the total amount of available spectrum increases and as technologies simultaneously become spectrally more efficient.1500.1 GHz 1900 MHz 1800 MHz 1.9 728-746 746-756 758-768 It should be noted that.1452. the 3GPP standard also specifies ways to implement devices and infrastructure operating on any frequency band according to release anterior to the introduction of that particular frequency band. public safety/private Total spectrum 2x60 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x75 MHz 2x45 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x70 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x18 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz Uplink [MHz] 1920-1980 1850-1910 1710-1785 1710-1755 824-849 830-840 2500-2570 880-915 1749.9 . the first devices operating on this band were compliant with the release 5 of the standard.1MHz 1500 MHz Lower 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz.9 698-716 777-787 788-798 Downlink [MHz] 2110-2170 1930-1990 1805-1880 2110-2155 869-894 875-885 2620-2690 925-960 1844. supporting more subscribers. although the support of a new frequency band may be introduced in a particular release. 29 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 21 .7/2.9 .7/2. although band 5 (US Cellular Band) was introduced n Release 6. The following figure shows the FDD bands defined for 3GPP technologies. EDGE.
in particular. 30 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. HSPA. This search for new spectrum is a long-term undertaking. The more hierarchical a network. and 3G bands. especially for data communications. including the use of 3G technologies in current 2G bands. given the desire to operate radio channels as wide as 100 MHz. EDGE. after 3GPP LTE in projects such as International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) Advanced) could be substantial. With the projected increase in the use of mobile-broadband technologies. because packets must traverse and be processed by multiple nodes in the network. the tradeoff is reduced performance. whereas in Europe there are greater restrictions—though efforts are underway that are resulting in greater flexibility. decisions made on new spectrum—especially with respect to global harmonization—will have profound consequences. the more easily it can be managed centrally. this spectrum would fall below 5 GHz. To improve data performance and. Ideally. One way to improve core-network performance is by using flatter architectures. to reduce latency (delays). operators in the United States can use either 2G or 3G technologies in cellular. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 22 . the amount of spectrum required by the next generation of wireless technology (that is. However.Figure 7: TDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies30 Operating band Band 33 Band 34 Band 35 Band 36 Band 37 Band 38 Band 39 Band 40 Total spectrum 20 MHz 15 MHz 60 MHz 60 MHz 20 MHz 50 MHz 40 MHz 100 MHz Frequencies [MHz] 1900-1920 2010-2025 1850-1910 1930-1990 1910-1930 2570-2620 1880-1920 2300-2400 Different countries have regulated spectrum more loosely than others. Personal Communications Service (PCS). Core-Network Evolution 3GPP is defining a series of enhancements to the core network to improve network performance and the range of services provided and to enable a shift to all-IP architectures. and it may be well into the next decade before any such new spectrum becomes available. however. For example. 3GPP has defined a number of enhancements in Release 7 and Release 8 that reduce the number of processing nodes and result in a flatter architecture. given the expanding size and economic significance of the mobile-computing industry.
or 3G. There is also an option to integrate the functionality of the radio-network controller directly into the base station. The ability to integrate non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX. When mobile. Wi-Fi. An alternative to using Wi-Fi for the “fixed” portion of FMC is femtocells. including T-Mobile in the United States. This section provides an overview of these topics. 3GPP has defined an entirely new core network. UMA is a 3GPP technology. FMC also offloads the macro network from data-intensive applications such as movie downloads. and it has been deployed by a number of operators. mobile-communications device a user has can now operate using the femto cells. an operator could offer complete VoIP-based voice service that supports access via DSL. and IMS. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 23 .In Release 7. it promises to provide significant benefits to both users and operators. a cell phone) at work and at home. For Release 8. For users. The key advantage of the femto cell approach is that any single-mode. because it supports not only FMC but also a much broader range of potential applications. IMS is another key technology for convergence. femtocells leverage a subscriber's existing wireline-broadband connection (for example. users connect via a cellular network. Though FMC is still in its early stages of deployment by operators. called the Evolved Packet Core. FMC refers to the integration of fixed services (such as telephony provided by wireline or Wi-Fi) with mobile cellular-based services. femtocells. FMC allows the consolidation of core services across multiple-access networks. and the appendix provides greater detail on each of these items. For operators. DSL). Key service advances include FMC. Instead of operating on unlicensed bands. including enabling technologies such as Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA). With UMA. This paper provides further details in the sections on HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) and EPC/SAE. Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and single phone numbers as well as the ability to control how and with whom they communicate. Optimization for all services provided via IP. IMS. Service Evolution Not only do 3GPP technologies provide continual improvements in capacity and data performance. femtocells use the operator’s licensed bands at very low power levels. It allows access to core services and applications via multiple-access networks. GSM/UMTS devices can connect via Wi-Fi or cellular connections for both voice and data. they also evolve capabilities that expand the services available to subscribers. an option called one-tunnel architecture allows operators to configure their networks so that user data bypasses a serving node and travels directly via a gateway node. In the EDGE. FMC will simplify how they communicate. where it might connect via a Wi-Fi network or a femto cell. The key features and capabilities of EPC/SAE include: Reduced latency and higher data performance through a flatter architecture. For instance. These are tiny base stations that cost little more than a Wi-Fi access point and. previously called System Architecture Evolution. IMS is more powerful than UMA. HSPA. and broadcasting technologies. like Wi-Fi. FMC has various approaches. Support for both LTE radio-access networks and interworking with GSM/UMTS radio-access networks. making it possible for them to use one device (for example.
Spectrum has always been a major consideration for deploying any wireless network. For example. Backhaul is another factor. It provides application developers the ability to create applications that have never before been possible. Any constraint on the transport system below 100 Mbps EDGE. and documents. As previously discussed. IM. any technology’s ability to reach its peak spectrum efficiency is somewhat contingent on the system’s ability to reach the instantaneous peak data rates allowed by that technology. IMS will be a key platform for all-IP architectures for both HSPA and LTE. An OFDMA system with 1. By this. If delivering very high data rates is the objective. such as having every sector use only one-third of the available radio channels (1/3 reuse). the circuits connecting the cell sites to the core network must be able to handle the increased load. CableLabs and WiMAX have adopted IMS. during an interactive chat session. AT&T has committed to an IMS approach and has already deployed an IMS-based video sharing service. then the system must minimize interference. an OFDMA approach in a 5 MHz radio channel yields only a small performance advantage.United States. HSPA. With many cell sites today serviced by just a small number of T1/E1 circuits. The 10 MHz radio channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of available spectrum.0 Mbps. To achieve higher data rates requires wider radio channels. such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels in combination with emerging OFDMA radio technologies. backhaul. IMS allows the creative blending of different types of communications and information. It was challenging enough for GSM operators to obtain UMTS spectrum.5 bps per hertz (Hz) of spectral efficiency in 10 MHz on three sectors has up to 45 Mbps average cell throughput. each able to carry only 1. video.5 bps/Hz (as described above) might rely on the ability to reach 100 Mbps instantaneously to achieve this level of spectrum efficiency. Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations Much of the debate in the wireless industry is on the merits of different radio technologies. As the throughput of the radio link increases. we mean that every cell sector (typically three per cell) in every cell uses the same radio channel(s). This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse. Or during a voice call. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 24 . Another important new service is support for mobile TV through what is called multicast or broadcast functions. These factors include the amount of spectrum available. Very few operators today. but it is particularly important when looking at high-performance broadband systems. a user could suddenly establish a simultaneous video connection or start transferring files. While browsing the Web. 3GPP has defined multicast/broadcast capabilities for both HSPA and LTE. Though defined by 3GPP.5/2. a user could decide to speak to a customer-service representative. yet other factors are equally important in determining the services and capabilities of a wireless network. including voice. Additionally. presence information. and it allows people to communicate in entirely new ways by dynamically using multiple services. a user could launch a voice call. operators will have to significantly upgrade backhaul capacity to obtain the full benefit of next-generation wireless technologies. and network topology. HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high throughput rates on the downlink and uplink with low latency in 5 MHz channels when deployed in single frequency (1/1) reuse. the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2). a system claiming spectrum efficiency of 1. have access to this much spectrum. however. location. For example.
New features such as HSDPA. Low latency is critical to achieving very high data rates. in turn. Release 5. and Release 6. Release 5. Finally. and there are many available and emerging wireline technologies—such as VDSL and optical Ethernet—as well as competitive point-to-point microwave systems that make this possible. operators can minimize the costs of managing GSM/EDGE and UMTS networks. transceivers. at most.and backwardcompatibility. Although UMTS involves a new radioaccess network. HSPA. One way to increase performance is by using flatter architectures. and interconnection facilities. because of the way it affects TCP/IP traffic. and so forth—need. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 25 . The core EPC/SAE network for 3GPP LTE emphasizes such a flatter architecture. This flexibility assures the maximum degree of forward. Second. billing and subscriber administration systems. HSDPA) can support Release 99. In summary. and MBMS are being designed so that the same upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixture of terminals including those based on 3GPP Release 99. because these networks share many of the same aspects including: Packet-data architecture Cell sites EDGE. a software upgrade to support 3G UMTS/HSPA. it can be misleading to say that one wireless technology outperforms another without a full understanding of how that technology will be deployed in a complete system that also takes spectrum into account. Note also that most UMTS terminals today support GSM. GSM operators have largely upgraded data service to EDGE. HSUPA) operating in a Release 5 mode. Alternatively. Since installing GPRS. HSUPA. impact the spectral efficiency of the system. Once deployed. This means that all core-network elements above the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC)—the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). especially with respect to latency. In other words. the overall network topology also plays an important role. service platforms. And while early 3G deployment used separate 2G/3G SGSNs and MSCs. much of the GSM/GPRS core network can be used. all-new MSC and/or SGSN products are capable of supporting both GSM and UMTS/HSPA radio-access networks.will restrict the range of achievable throughput and. How traffic routes through the core network—how many hops and nodes it must pass through—can influence the overall performance of the network. a network supporting Release 5 features (for example. several factors facilitate deployment. and Release 6 terminals. the Home Location Register (HLR). Operators are actively enhancing their backhaul approaches. most UMTS cell sites can be collocated in GSM cell sites enabled by multi-radio cabinets that can accommodate GSM/EDGE as well as UMTS equipment. Feature and Network Roadmap GSM operators first enhanced their networks to support data capability through the addition of GPRS infrastructure with the ability to use existing cell sites. Release 5. thus facilitating use across large coverage areas and multiple networks. Operators have deployed UMTS/HSPA worldwide. The mismatch between backhaul capabilities and radio performance in some networks is one reason that user rates on some 3G systems are lower than theoretical rates. and Release 6 terminals (for example. and any new GSM network includes EDGE capability. meaning a less hierarchical network with more direct routing from mobile device to end system. a network supporting Release 6 features can support Release 99. First.
1 GHz AWS band and the recently auctioned 700 MHz bands in the US.qualcomm. The upgrade to LTE will be relatively straightforward. 31 http://www. Base station equipment is available for many bands including the 1.. and UMTS.com/press/releases/2008/080207_Qualcomm_to_Ship. UMB and LTE. EV-DO Rev B.8 Mbps peak uplink speed capability. with new infrastructure supporting HSPA. such as HSPA. EV-DO Rev B. On the device side. HSPA+. This will result in both reduced deployment costs and reduced latency. Vendors and operators are planning LTE field trials in 2008-09 and commercial deployments by 2010. UMB and LTE.g. UMTS/HSPA base stations from some vendors will have LTE software upgrades available by the second half of 2009. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 26 . Examples include: VoIP for HSPA. 30 Mbps or higher). Table 4 shows the rollout of EDGE/HSPA/LTE features over time. because their multimode GSM/UMTS devices can seamlessly hand off between networks. Operators announcing commitments to femto cell approaches.html EDGE. but software upgradeable to HSPA+ and LTE. HSPA devices with 7. supporting voice on HSPA via VoIP will be a much simpler task as it can share the same core IP network as LTE. Here. one chipset vendor has announced a series of chips that support the following combination of technologies: UMTS. 50 Mbps or higher) will provide sufficient processing in the device to also support very high HSPA rates (e. Antenna systems Backhaul circuits Subscriber account management Service platforms Users largely don’t even need to know to what type of network they are connected. Table 4: Expected UMTS/LTE Feature and Capability Availability Year 2008 Features HSUPA seeing significant deployment momentum in networks and device availability. First HSUPA networks with 5. Since LTE uses an IP core. Device processing power. Various operators offering FMC based on UMA. HSPA+ and LTE. Supporting the high throughput rates with LTE (e. For example. The changes being planned for the core network are another aspect of evolution. multi-mode chipsets will enable devices to easily operate across UMTS and LTE networks. Beginning at the end of 2008.7/2. HSPA.g. once it is deployed.2 Mbps downlinks widely available. the intent is to reduce the number of nodes that packets must traverse.31 One important and interesting aspect of technology deployment is that an advanced technology such as LTE enables operators to upgrade prior technologies.. The key enabling technology is EPC/SAE. which is described in detail later in this paper.
Figure 8 presents the continuing advances in HSPA and LTE. thus lowering total network cost and improving integrated operation of the separate access networks. HSPA. including MIMO. primarily for LTE but also for HSPA+. UMTS Access Network (UTRAN). integrated voice/multimedia/presence/location) 2010 Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE throughput rates HSPA+ peak speeds further increased to peak rates of 42 Mbps based on Release 8 LTE introduced for next-generation throughput performance using 2X2 MIMO Advanced core architectures available through EPC/SAE. boosting HSPA peak speeds to 28 Mbps Enhanced IMS-based services (for example. Today. EDGE. For actual users with multimode devices. nearly all UMTS phones and modems support GSM /EDGE. showing an approximate doubling of throughput per year. Over time. plotted over time. the separate GSM/EDGE Access Network (GERAN).Year Features Greater availability of FMC 2009 Networks and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 27 . and core-infrastructure elements will undergo consolidation. providing benefits such as integration of multiple network types and flatter architectures for better latency performance Most new services implemented in the packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE 2011 and later 2012 LTE enhancements such as 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO LTE Advanced specifications completed. LTE Advanced potentially deployed in initial stages. the networks they access will be largely transparent.
LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 28 .6M Mbps Uplink Speeds HSDPA 1.2M HSDPA 3. and HSPA+ specifications were completed in 2007. GSM.6M HSUPA 5.Figure 8: Peak Rates for Downlink and Uplink Over Time32 DL LTE(20MHz) 300M Downlink Speeds DL LTE(10MHz) 140M 100 Mbps MIMO/64QAM 41M MIMO 2x2 28M Mbps UL LTE (10MHz) 50M UL LTE (10MHz) 25M HSDPA 14. Figure 9 shows the relative adoption of technologies over a multi-decadal period and the length of time it takes for any new technology to be adopted widely on a global basis. however. By then. Although it’s been more than a decade since work began on the technology. only now is UMTS deployment and adoption starting to surge. as subscribers upgrade their equipment.8M HSUPA 1.4M 10 Mbps HSUPA/16QAM 11M HSDPA 7. was specified in 1990. obtain devices with corresponding capabilities and interoperability tests DL R’99-384k UL R’99 384k 100 kbps 2004 kbps 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Despite rapid UMTS deployment. most networks and devices will be tri-mode—supporting GSM. most new subscribers will be taking advantage of UMTS. Release 99 specifications were completed in 2000. 32 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. will most network usage migrate to UMTS. HSPA. The UMTS Task Force established itself in 1995. which in 2008 is still growing its subscriber base. During these years. Only over many years. with initial networks deployed in 1991.5M 1 Mbps • HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected to double every year on average • Limitations not induced by the technology itself but time frames required to upgrade infrastructure and transport networks. even as operators start to deploy LTE networks at the end of this decade and the beginning of the next. it will probably be the middle of the next decade before a large percentage of subscribers are actually using LTE. EDGE. market momentum means that even by the end of the decade most worldwide subscribers will still be using GSM. and LTE. The history of wireless-network deployment provides a useful perspective. Similarly. UMTS.
operators are deploying other wireless technologies to serve both wide and local areas. July 14.34 33 34 Source: Rysavy Research projection based on historical data.Figure 9: Relative Adoption of Technologies33 LTE Subscriptions UMTS/HSPA GSM/EDGE 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 One option for GSM operators that have not yet committed to UMTS. 1xRTT is currently the most widely deployed CDMA2000 version. Data-Optimized (1xEV-DO) versions. where a radio carrier is dedicated to high-speed data functions. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 29 . consisting principally of 1xRTT and One Carrier-Evolved. Source: www.org. This section of the paper looks at the relationship between GSM/UMTS/LTE and some of these other technologies. 2008. is to migrate directly from GSM/EDGE or Evolved EDGE to LTE with networks and devices supporting dual-mode GSM-EDGE/LTE operation. EDGE. CDMA2000 CDMA2000. HSPA. In July 2008 there were 100 EV-DO Release 0 networks and 42 EV-DO Rev A networks deployed worldwide.cdg. is the other major cellular technology deployed in many parts of the world. Competing Technologies Although GSM/GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSPA networks are dominating global cellular-technology deployments. and do not have an immediate pressing need to do so. A number of operators have deployed or are deploying 1xEV-DO.
25 MHz radio channels. But as data usage expands. but average throughputs for high level of network loading are similar.EV-DO uses many of the same techniques for optimizing spectral efficiency as HSPA.4 Mbps for EV-DO Rev A. The 1x technologies operate in the 1. Operators have quoted 400 to 700 kilobits per second (kbps) typical downlink throughput for EV-DO Rev 035 and between 600 kbps and 1. which has spectral efficiency similar to that of HSUPA. because of the lower peak achievable data rates. efficient scheduling. For these reasons. Figure 10 illustrates this severe limitation. One challenge for EV-DO operators is that they cannot dynamically allocate their entire spectral resources between voice and high-speed data functions. Operators started to make EV-DO Rev A commercially available in 2007. EDGE. including higher order modulation. and the 1xRTT channels offer only mediumspeed data. Under low to medium-load conditions.36 Under low to medium load conditions. HSPA. this limitation will cause suboptimal use of radio resources. where data only constitutes a small percentage of total network traffic. 2007. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 30 . 2005. July 29. EV-DO or EVDO Rev A achieves a lower typical performance level than HSPA. and adaptive modulation and coding. this is not a key issue. In the current stage of the market. The EV-DO channel is not available for circuit-switched voice. This results in lower theoretical peak rates. EV-DO Rev A incorporates a more efficient uplink. it achieves spectral efficiency that is virtually the same as HSPA. 35 36 Source: Verizon BroadbandAccess Web page. compared to the 5 MHz channels UMTS uses. Currently deployed network versions are based on either Rev 0 or Rev A radio-interface specifications. because of the lower peak achievable data rates. EV-DO or EV-DO Rev A achieve a slightly lower typical performance level than HSPA. turbo-coding. Source: Sprint press release January 30.
25 to 20 MHz. No operators have yet publicly committed to EV-DO Rev B. UMB will deliver a peak-data rate of 280 Mbps. Beyond Rev B. In contrast. for example—and being able to initiate and receive phone calls while maintaining their data sessions. UMB and LTE are being developed basically simultaneously. but it does offer users higher peak-data rates.25 MHz Channels EV-DO One 5 MHz Channel High-Speed Data Voice 1xRTT 1xRTT Another limitation of using a separate channel for EV-DO data services is that it currently prevents users from engaging in simultaneous voice and high-speed data services. UMTS allows both circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic to occupy the same radio channel. More likely. This makes it simple to migrate users over time from circuit-switched voice to packet-switched voice. Even then. so it is logical to assume that both technologies will exploit the same advances in wireless technology. using 4X4 MIMO. whereas this is possible with UMTS and HSPA. Both UMB and LTE are more recent than other OFDMA EDGE. where the amount of power each uses can be dynamically adjusted. EV-DO will eventually provide voice service using VoIP protocols through EV-DO Rev A. UMB supports radio channels from 1. QoS mechanisms in the network. Beyond Rev A. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 31 . which includes a higher speed uplink. as well as addressing problems such as jitter.5 Mbps. operators will face difficult choices: How many radio channels at each base station should be made available for 1xRTT to support legacy terminals versus how many radio channels should be allocated to EV-DO. 3GPP2 has defined EV-DO Rev B as allowing the combination of up to 15 1. In a 20 MHz radio channel. Such an approach by itself does not necessarily increase overall capacity. Many users enjoy having a tethered data connection from their laptop—by using Bluetooth. however. an operator would combine three radio channels in 5 MHz.25 MHz radio channels in 20 MHz—significantly boosting peak theoretical rates to 73. HSPA.Figure 10: Radio Resource Management 1xRTT/1xEV-DO versus UMTS/HSPA 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO Speech Blocking Unavailable HighSpeed Data Capacity UMTS/HSPA Efficient Allocation of Resources Between Voice and Data Three 1. UMB will be based on an OFDMA approach like LTE. and protocol optimizations to reduce packet overhead.
HSPA. Based on OFDMA and recently accepted by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) as an IMT-2000 (3G technology) under the name OFDMA TDD WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network). Google. Today. has come closer to reality. No operators have committed to UMB. This original version of IEEE 802.16-2004 also supports pointto-multipoint communications. however.16 occurred in 2004. But as WiMAX. thus. WiMAX is not a single technology. it is a family of interoperable technologies. Though the migration from CDMA2000 to LTE is feasible. Like GSM/HSPA. Comcast. operation is fixed. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 32 .16-2004-certified equipment. and there are legitimate questions about the commercial viability of the technology as more CDMA2000 operators such as Verizon choose LTE as their next technology choice. June 2008. In addition. This standard does not compete directly with cellular-data and private Wi-Fi networks. line-of-sight configurations using spectrum above 10 GHz. so it is also logical to assume that their capabilities will exceed initial OFDMA designs. Vendors are now delivering IEEE 802.6 billion subscribers—more than nine times the total number of subscribers as the CDMA2000 family of technologies.technologies. to its credit. was completed in 2001 and intended primarily for telecom backhaul applications in point-to-point. IEEE 802. the promises of mobile WiMAX is appealing but it remains unproven in the real world. Vendors can design equipment for either licensed or unlicensed bands. local telephony bypass (as an alternative to cable modem or DSL service). At best. like WiMAX. especially in achieving interworking between LTE and legacy networks. WiMAX has gained the greatest traction in developing countries as an alternative to wireline deployment. And the GSM family has in excess of 3. EDGE. Clearwire. CDMA2000 is clearly a viable and effective wireless technology and.37 WiMAX WiMAX has emerged as a potential alternative to cellular technology for wide-area wireless networks.16-2004 standard. and non-line-of-sight communications. it can provide 37 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media.16. The next major step in the evolution of IEEE 802. WiMAX is trying to challenge existing wireless technologies—promising greater capabilities and greater efficiencies than alternative approaches such as HSPA. including one based on OFDM-256 and one based on OFDMA. sub-10 GHz operation. meaning that subscriber stations are typically immobile. at the time of this paper. Sprint Nextel and others (Intel. and perceived WiMAX advantages are no longer apparent. the GSM family of technologies—including UMTS—adds more customers in one year than the entire base of CDMA2000 customers. Potential applications include wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) service. with the release of the IEEE 802. IEEE 802. vendors have continued to enhance HSPA. Time Warner Cable.16 uses a radio interface based on a single-carrier waveform. Like the original version of the standard. Instead. World Cellular Information Service. In the United States. and cellular backhaul for connections from cellular base stations to operator infrastructure networks. The original specification. many of its innovations have been brought to market ahead of competing technologies. it will be more complex than for UMTS/HSPA operators. there are still no wide area deployments of WiMAX in the US. It added multiple radio interfaces. particularly mobile WiMAX. Bright House Networks) have created a joint venture to deploy a nationwide WiMAX network that is awaiting United States Regulatory Approval.
As discussed in the section “Technical Approaches (TDMA. 38 Ali Tabassi. March 5. 2008. TDD and 10 MHz radio channels in a profile defined by the WiMAX Forum known as WiMAX Wave 2.16e-2005—that adds mobility capabilities including support for radio operation while mobile. IEEE 802. and Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ). WiMAX vendors are defining a new IEEE 802. Mobile WiMAX networks are not backward-compatible with IEEE 802. efficient coding. coarser granularity for modulation and coding schemes and vertical coding instead of horizontal coding. Chase combining instead of incremental redundancy. HSPA. IEEE 802. Unlike IEEE 802. 5. According to Sprint Nextel. private entities such as municipal governments.0. Sprint Nextel. particularly in scenarios in which a sector contains a large number of mobile users.16-2004 networks. In 5 to 10 MHz radio channels. there is no evidence indicating that IEEE 802.5 includes various refinements intended to improve efficiency and performance. The principal difference from HSPA is IEEE 802.16e-2005’s use of OFDMA. though there has been little or no development in this area. Relative to LTE. OFDM provides a potential implementation advantage for wide radio channels (for example. 2008.38 IEEE 802. universities. and will be standardized in a new IEEE standard. Thus.16e-2005 (referred to as mobile WiMAX) makes the most sense in licensed bands. the performance will likely be somewhat less than HSPA due to increased overhead and other design issues.16e-2005 contains some aspects that may limit its performance. Different operators in the same band must either coordinate their networks or have guard bands to ensure that they don’t interfere with each other. Beyond Wave 2. including high-order modulation. Operators have begun limited mobile WiMAX network deployments in 2008. 39 IEEE International Symposium on Personal. with product certification expected by the end of 2009. which operates in both licensed and unlicensed bands. IEEE 802. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications: Anders Furuskär et al “The LTE Radio Interface – Key Characteristics and Performance”.16m.16e-2005 employs many of the same mechanisms as HSPA to maximize throughput and spectral efficiency. however.16e-2005 profile called WiMAX Release 1.39 One deployment consideration is that TDD requires network synchronization.16m will be available in 2011. The performance of the MAC layer is inefficient when scheduling large numbers of users. In addition to operator-hosted access solutions. CDMA. while WiMAX uses OFDMA.5. and corporations will be able to use this version of WiMAX in unlicensed bands (for example.complementary services. Mobile WiMAX release 1. will be designed to address the performance requirements being developed in the ITU IMT-Advanced Project. WiMAX has the following technical disadvantages: 5 msec frames instead of 1 msec frames. It should be noted. Fierce Wireless Webcast. handovers across base stations. and some aspects—such as power control of the mobile station—are provided using MAC signaling messages rather than the fast power control used in WCDMA and other technologies. EDGE.16-2004.16e2005 will have any performance advantage compared to HSPA+. and handovers across operators.8 GHz) for local connectivity. “WiMAX: Mobilizing the Internet”. Current WiMAX profiles emphasize TDD operation. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 33 . OFDMA)” above. The IEEE has also completed a mobile-broadband standard—IEEE 802. and will be available for deployment in a similar timeframe as LTE. 10 to 20 MHz). Mobile WiMAX 2. that IEEE 802. It is not possible for one cell site to be transmitting and an adjacent cell site to be receiving at the same time. The subsequent version. Initial mobile WiMAX networks will be deployed using 2X2 MIMO. adaptive modulation and coding.
3G systems have a significant link budget advantage over mobile WiMAX because of softhandoff diversity gain and an FDD duplexing advantage over TDD. Senza Fili Consulting projected 54 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012 with emerging markets driving growth. frequency. Arthur D. Little Limited.43 To put this into perspective. the number of WiMAX subscribers is likely to be quite low. With respect to spectral efficiency.htm http://www. regional and country level (2006-2012)" 43 44 With a 2:1 TDD system. Finally. mobile WiMAX on paper may be slightly more capable than today’s available versions of HSPA. In fact. HSPA+ in Release 8— 40 41 42 “WiMAX '08 The 3G+ Broadband Alternative”. Even over the next five years. LTE will not be that far from deployment.rcrnews. Very few operators today have access to spectrum for WiMAX that would permit them to provide widespread coverage.46 Given that many real world deployments of HSPA will occur at frequencies such as 850 MHz.45 One vendor estimates that for the same power output. 27 March 2007. 27 March 2007. http://www. from a technology standpoint. One specific area where WiMAX has a technical disadvantage is cell size. Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess". Little reports that the radii of typical HSPA cells will be two to four times greater than typical mobile WiMAX cells for high-throughput operation. Although IEEE 802. mobile WiMAX will actually have to compete against evolved HSPA systems that will offer both similar capabilities and enhanced performance. HSPA. GSM/UMTS/HSPA subscribers number in the billions.dll/article?AID=/20080509/SUB/940077592/1008/newsletter32 Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess". 45 46 EDGE. the mobile system must transmit at 4. Arthur D. by then.com/WiMAX8.42 a tiny fraction of global wireless subscribers. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 34 .5 GHz will be at a significant disadvantage. In reference to economies of scale. 2007 describing the report "WiMAX: Ambitions and Reality. mobile WiMAX requires 1. Further.7 times more cell sites than HSPA. But by the time it becomes available. it faces challenges such economies of scale and technology maturity. To obtain the same cell edge data rates.This may introduce problems as more operators introduce networks in the same spectrum band. Source: Press release of June 19. WiMAX deployments at 2.41 This matches forecasts from a year ago when Arthur D. Little Limited. the 2. and capacity. “HSPA. and LTE at 700 MHz. WiMAX is comparable to HSPA+. the undisputed choice for mobile broadband.fwdconcepts.16e exploits significant radio innovations similar to HSPA+ and LTE.com/apps/pbcs. the reverse link only transmits one third of the time. the GSM family of technologies adds more subscribers every four months (about 100 million) than the expected worldwide total subscriber prediction of WiMAX by 2012. as discussed in the section “Spectral Efficiency” that follows. May 2007”.44 Arthur D. Forward Concepts predicted in January 2008 38 million WiMAX subscribers in 201240 and Juniper Research predicted in May 2008 more than 47 million subscribers by 2013. for example. As for data performance. Source: Ericsson public white paper. A detailed market assessment and forecast at the global.77 dB higher transmit power. Little summarized different forecasts for total WiMAX subscribers worldwide as between 20 million and 100 million by 2012.5 GHz band in the United States may be used for both TDD and FDD operation.
HSPA. and hotels. Consumers who download 1 gigabyte of data each month represent a ten times greater load on the network than a 1. Some have cited intellectual property rights as an area where WiMAX has an advantage. UMB. Second.11i enables robust security. IEEE 802. publicly available information. mainly in private deployments.com/commentary2006/jan1806.with a peak rate of 42 Mbps—exceeds mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz in TDD 2:1 DL:UL using 2X2 MIMO of 40 Mbps. complemented by new dual-technology devices. and there is considerable lack of clarity when it comes to how different companies will assert and resolve IPR issues. For the most part. no terrestrial wireless-data-only network has ever succeeded as a business.11n offers users throughputs in excess of 100 Mbps. 802.4 Mbps for mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz assumes no bandwidth applied to the uplink.20 IEEE 802.htm EDGE.20 is very similar to UMB. because the hotspot can 47 Source: Ericsson public white paper.outlook4mobility. the large HSPA vendors have invested heavily in these technologies—hopefully giving them significant leverage with which to negotiate reasonable intellectual property rights (IPR) rates with other vendors.000-minute-a-month voice user. January 18. There is little substantial. And if the future is in multimedia services such as movie downloads. At this time. and WiMAX for next-generation wireless services. the undisputed choice for mobile broadband. “HSPA. Complementary standards increase the attraction of the technology. and 802.11 standard.11 family of technologies has experienced rapid growth. Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems In the local area. It is not clear how easily the available revenue per subscriber will be able to finance large-scale deployment of network capacity.48 Although there is discussion of providing voice services over WiMAX using VoIP. the IEEE 802. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 35 . Leveraging this success.20 is a mobile-broadband specification developed by the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Working Group of the IEEE that was completed in 2008. fast-food restaurants. operators—including cellular operators—are offering hotspot service in public areas such as airports. mobile-voice users demand ubiquitous coverage—including indoor coverage. commentary: “Will Data-Only Networks Ever Make Money?” http://www. wireless-data business models must also be considered. or significant operator investments. 802. Despite numerous attempts. Matching the cellular footprint with WiMAX will require national roaming arrangements.11e provides quality-of-service enabling VoIP and multimedia. With vendors focused heavily on LTE. 48 Source: Andy Seybold. hotspots are complementary with cellular-data networks. the mobile WiMAX industry is in its infancy. Finally. and improved range through use of MIMO. however to support such claims.47 The sometimes-quoted peak rate of 63. May 2007”. no operator has committed to the possible standard. it is important to recognize that downloading a single DVD-quality movie—even with advanced compression— consumes approximately 2 gigabytes. it is not clear whether there is sufficient momentum in this standard to make it a viable technology. neither technology has gained any momentum at this point in time. Building new networks for broadband wireless mandates substantial capacity per subscriber. 2006. However. Note that 802. The latest 802. Today’s cellular networks can finance the deployment of data capabilities through a successful voice business. First.
Many cities are now deploying metro Wi-Fi systems that will provide Wi-Fi access in downtown areas. Coverage in most metro systems is designed to provide an outdoor signal. there are still considerable expenses and networking considerations in backhauling a large number of outdoor access points. Comparison of Wireless Technologies This section of the paper compares the different wireless technologies. metro networks have attracted considerable interest. Though mesh architecture simplifies backhaul. and EPC/SAE. Unfortunately. Wi-Fi can generally provide better application performance over limited coverage areas. These systems are based on a mesh technology. EDGE. and the number of recommended access points per square mile has increased steadily. Nevertheless. Today’s mesh systems are all proprietary. it is not clear that vendors will adopt this standard for outdoor systems. Data Throughput Data throughput is an important metric for quantifying network throughput performance.4 GHz radio channel. As such. which often results in misleading claims. the signal does not penetrate many buildings in the coverage area and repeaters are needed to propagate the signal indoors. spectral efficiency. The IEEE is developing a mesh networking standard—IEEE 802. interference between public and private systems is inevitable.provide broadband services in extremely dense user areas and the cellular network can provide broadband services across much larger areas. Various organizations are looking at integrating WLAN service with GSM/UMTS data services. Operation is in unlicensed bands in the 2. where access points forward packets to nodes that have backhaul connections. and 3GPP has multiple initiatives that address WLAN integration into its networks. The intent of this paper is to realistically represent the capabilities of these technologies. metro Wi-Fi and 3G are more likely to be complementary in nature. including 3GPP System to WLAN Interworking. whereas 3G systems can provide access over much larger coverage areas. Many early network deployments have experienced poorer coverage than initially expected. UMA. Even then. Finally. Given only three relatively non-overlapping radio channels at 2.16s—but this may not be ready until 2008. the paper presents a table that summarizes the competitive position of the different technologies across multiple dimensions. looking at throughput. IMS. The GSM Association has developed recommendations for SIM-based authentication of hotspots. and some number of projects are still proceeding. Technical issues will likely be resolved over time. HSPA.4 GHz. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 36 . latency. and market position. the ways in which various organizations quote throughput statistics vary tremendously. Metro systems today are still quite immature and face the following challenges: Many city projects have been discontinued due to the difficulty of providing a viable business model. users can look forward to multiple access options. and as more devices support both 3G and Wi-Fi. Although some industry observers are predicting that these systems will have an adverse effect on 3G data services.
peak userrates (under favorable conditions) and typical rates. class 12 hardware. Even if the radio network can deliver this speed. Table 4 presents the technologies in terms of peak network throughput rates. MCS-8-B 50 51 EDGE. actual capability of the technology. Peak network speed is also usually quoted at layer 2 of the radio link. other aspects of the network— such as the backhaul from base station to operator-infrastructure network—can often constrain throughput rates to levels below the radio-link rate. Type 1 mobile. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 37 . such as those associated with future technologies. This number is useful because it demonstrates the highend. which assume light network loading (as low as one active data user in the cell sector) and favorable signal propagation. the values provide a good indication of what users can typically expect.6 kbps51 Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 473.6 kbps 236. however. 10 slots downlink (dual carrier).8 kbps Evolved EDGE (type 1 MS)49 1184 kbps50 49 A type 1 evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to eight timeslots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to four timeslots in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulation with turbo coding. and incorporate a higher level of network loading.One method of representing a technology’s throughput is what people call “peak throughput” or “peak network speed. and it is generally based on the highest order modulation available and the least amount of coding (error correction) overhead.” This refers to the fastest possible transmission speed over the radio link.” Average rates.8 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical 473. Except when the network is congested. however. the majority of users should experience throughput rates higher than one-half of the peak-achievable rate. HSPA.4 kbps/slot) 4 slots uplink. MTCS-8-B (118. Some operators. It omits values that are not yet known. Because of protocol overhead. This paper refers to this rate as the “peak user rate. Though the operators do not disclose the precise methodology they use to establish these figures. primarily in the US. Table 5: Throughput Performance of Different Wireless Technologies (Blue Indicates Theoretical Peak Rates. Green Typical) Downlink Peak Network Speed EDGE (type 2 MS) EDGE (type 1 MS) (Practical Terminal) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 473. These rates are based on throughput tests the operators have done across their operating networks. are lower than this peak rate and difficult to predict because they depend on a multitude of operational and network factors. Another method is to disclose throughputs actually measured in deployed networks with applications such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) under favorable conditions. actual application throughput may be 10 to 20 percent lower (or more) than this layer-2 value.6 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical 236. also quote typical throughput rates.
UL 16 QAM) HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO. HSPA.5 Mbps > 3 Mbps typical expected 350 kbps peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 1894.7 Mbps typical56 2 Mbps > 1. 8 slots uplink. 2008 56 EDGE.453 kbps 2. MCS-8-B 53 54 55 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) consists of systems supporting both High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).6 Mbps 28 Mbps 42 Mbps 173 Mbps > 10 Mbps typical expected 11.2 Mbps 14. UL 16 QAM) LTE (2X2 MIMO) 7.76 Mbps 5.76 Mbps 11. Type 2 mobile. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 38 .2 Mbps typical 5.5 Mbps > 5Mbps typical expected 11.4 Mbps 21.5 Mbps 58 Mbps > 5 Mbps typical expected 52 A type 2-evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to 16 times slots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to eight timeslots in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulation with turbo coding. June 4. DL 16 QAM.4 Mbps 7. Typical downlink and uplink throughput rates based on AT&T press release. UL 16 QAM) HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO.2 Mbps > 1 Mbps peak HSPA Current Implementation HSPA HSPA+ (DL 64 QAM.8 Mbps 14. DL 64 QAM.2 kbps54 768 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical 384 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical 384 kbps 384 kbps > 5 Mbps peak 700 kbps to 1.Downlink Peak Network Speed Evolved EDGE (type 2 MS)52 UMTS WCDMA Rel’99 UMTS WCDMA Rel’99 (Practical Terminal) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 947. 16 slots downlink (dual carrier) at MTCS-8-B Type 2 mobile.048 Mbps 384 kbps HSDPA Initial Devices (2006) HSDPA HSPA Initial Implementation 55 1.5 Mbps peak 500 kbps to 1.
4 Mbps typical57 153 kbps 1.8 Mbps 150 kbps peak > 1 Mbps peak 300 to 500 kbps typical 5. 57 Typical downlink and uplink throughput rates based on Sprint press release January 30. 2007.5 Mbps 140 Mbps 280 Mbps 34 Mbps 68 Mbps 23 Mbps 4 Mbps 46 Mbps 4 Mbps TBD TBD Rysavy Research’s 2002 paper for 3G Americas on wireless data anticipated EDGE average performance of 110 to 130 kbps and UMTS average performance of 200 to 300 kbps.5 Mbps peak 600 kbps to 1.Downlink Peak Network Speed LTE (4X4 MIMO) Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 86 Mbps 130 kbps peak 153 kbps 307 kbps > 1 Mbps peak > 1.16e WiMAX expected Wave 1 (10 MHz TDD DL/UL=3.4 Mbps 3. the 550 to 800 kbps throughput performance of initial HSDPA devices has been borne out as fairly accurate. Actual results from operator and vendor field trials matched these predicted results validating the methodology used to predict performance.4 Mbps 27 Mbps 130 kbps peak Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 326 Mbps 153 kbps 307 kbps 2.1 Mbps CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev 0 CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev A CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B (3 radio channels MHz) CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B Theoretical (15 radio channels) Ultra Mobile Broadband (2X2 MIMO) Ultra Mobile Broadband (4X4 MIMO) 802.16m 9. 2x2 MIMO) 802. DL/UL=3. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 39 . In the 2004 and 2005 versions of this paper. 1X2 SIMO) 802. HSPA. EDGE.3 Mbps 73.16e WiMAX expected Wave 2 (10 MHz TDD.
9 Mbps when mobile. 1.0 3. EDGE.0 Throughput [Mbps] 4. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 40 . and 3. meaning that 75% of samples are below 5 Mbps and 25% are above. HSPA.0 0. Significantly.HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios It is instructive to look at actual HSDPA throughput in commercial networks. The data shows the percentage of samples on the X axis that fall below the throughput shown on the Y axis.0 95 % 75 % 70 % 90 % 85 % 45 % 65 % 10 0% 40 % 80 % 60 % 55 % 15 % 10 % 50 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 5% 0% In another network study.2 Mbps device.0 2. It results in a median throughput of 1. half of all the measurements showed 4 Mbps or higher throughput. Figure 11 shows the throughputs measured in one network with voice and data in one Western European country across three larger cities. (peak data rate capability).8 Mbps with good coverage. the 75 percentile is at 5 Mbps.0 5.0 1. Figure 12 shows the downlink throughput performance of a 7. Figure 11: HSDPA Throughput Distribution in Deployed Networks58 6. 58 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. For example.8 Mbps with poor coverage.
The X axis shows throughput rate. Later.1 Mbps in the first network. the Y axis shows the cumulative distribution function and the bars show the number of samples obtained for that throughput rate on a relative basis. The anticipated 1 Mbps achievable uplink throughput with HSUPA can be seen in the measured throughput of a commercial network. However.2 Mbps HSDPA. and 1. with peak user-achievable rates of 350 kbps.Figure 12: HSDPA Performance of a 7. Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. operators increased speeds to 384 kbps peak rates.2 Mbps Device in a Commercial Network59 Good Coverage Bad Coverage Median bitrate 3. as documented in Figure 13. 59 60 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.0 Mbps.9 Mbps These rates are consistent with other vendor information for two deployed HSPA networks that supported 7. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 41 .8 Mbps -106 dBm Mobile Median bitrate 1.9 Mbps in the second network. this increased to 128 kbps.8 Mbps Median bitrate 1. Later. Many networks were initially deployed with a 64 kbps uplink rate. HSPA. even Release 99 networks have seen significant uplink increases. Testers measured average FTP downlink application throughput of 2. EDGE.60 Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance HSUPA dramatically increases uplink throughputs over 3GPP Release 99. The median bit rate is 1.
vendors are testing LTE technology. 61 62 63 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. Testers measured average FTP downlink application throughput of 1. 2 x spreading factor (2xSF2) code configuration. EDGE. HSPA.0 Mbps 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 140 280 350 490 560 630 700 840 910 1050 1120 1190 1260 210 420 770 980 1330 These rates are consistent with other vendor information for a deployed HSPA network that supported 2. but the data suggests that users should be able to obtain throughputs an order of magnitude higher than today’s 3G networks.0 Mbps HSUPA62 uplink speed. typical rates will not be available. a mean of 78 Mbps and a minimum of 16 Mbps.2 Mbps63. Source: 3G Americas member company contribution.Figure 13: Uplink Throughput in a Commercial Network61 Mobile 100 90 Median bitrate 1. Until operators actually deploy complete networks. Figure 14shows LTE throughputs in a 2X2 MIMO trial network reaching a maximum of 154 Mbps. LTE Throughput As part of the LTE/SAE/EPC Trial Initiative (LSTI). LTE: Broadband Innovation 1400 Page 42 .
Figure 14: LTE Measured Throughput in Test Network64 154 Base station located at x. as will 3GPP LTE. EDGE. HSPA. 64 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 43 . L1 Throughput Max: 154 Mbps Mean: 78 Mbps Min: 16 Mbps User Speed Max: 45 km/h Mean: 16 km/h Min: 0 km/h Sub-urban area with lineof-sight: less than 40% of the samples Heights of surrounding buildings: 15-25 m 100 meters 123 97 74 54 37 23 12 Latency Just as important as throughput is network latency. Figure 15 shows the latency of different 3GPP technologies. Each successive data technology from GPRS forward reduces latency. with HSDPA networks having latency as low as 70 milliseconds (msec). defined as the round-trip time it takes data to traverse the network. HSUPA brings latency down even further. Ongoing improvements in each technology mean all these values will go down as vendors and operators fine tune their systems.
HSPA. immediately external to wireless network. an increase in spectral efficiency translates to a proportional increase in the number of users supported at the same load per user—or. and 50 msec for HSPA. an increase in throughput available to each user. for the same number of users. Measured between subscriber unit and Gi interface. such as 150 msec for EDGE. to as low as 10 msec in the radio-access network. especially 65 Source: 3G Americas' member companies. The evolution of data services will be characterized by an increasing number of users with ever-higher bandwidth demands. 25 msec roundtrip is a realistic goal. As the wireless-data market grows. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 44 . EDGE. such as frequency band. deploying wireless technologies with high spectral efficiency will be of paramount importance. Some vendors have reported significantly lower values in networks using their equipment. Keeping all other things equal. Delivering broadband services to large numbers of users can best be achieved with high spectral efficiency systems. amount of spectrum. With further refinements and the use of 2 msec Transmission Time Interval (TTI) in the HSPA uplink. Spectral Efficiency To better understand the reasons for deploying the different data technologies and to better predict the evolution of capability. Note that there is some variation in latency based on network configuration and operating conditions. 70 msec for HSDPA. Does not include Internet latency. and cell site spacing. LTE will reduce latency even further.Figure 15: Latency of Different Technologies65 700 600 500 Milliseconds 400 300 200 100 GPRS Rel’97 EDGE Rel’99 EDGE WCDMA Evolved HSDPA EDGE Rel’4 Rel’99 HSPA LTE The values shown in Figure 15 reflect measurements of commercially deployed technologies. it is useful to examine spectral efficiency.
Complexity can arise from the increased number of calculations performed to process signals or from additional radio components. as shown in Figure 16. because much will depend on the growth of the wireless data market. physical layers. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 45 . however. thus their use in technologies such as LTE. HSPA. The roadmap for the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of technologies provides a wide portfolio of options to increase spectral efficiency. (The Shannon bound is a theoretical limit to the information transfer rate [per unit bandwidth] that can be supported by any communications link. The bound is a function of the Signal to Noise Ratio [SNR] of the communications link. the link layer performance of these technologies is approaching the theoretical limits as defined by the Shannon bound.16e-2005 all have highly optimized links—that is. 1xEV-DO.because the only other alternatives are using more spectrum or deploying more cell sites. It generally implies greater complexity for both user and base station equipment.) Figure 16 also shows that HSDPA. Note that differences do exist in the design of the MAC layer (layer 2) and this may result in lower than expected performance in some cases as described previously. The reason technologies such as OFDMA are attractive is that they allow higher spectral efficiency with lower overall complexity. When determining the best area on which to focus future technology enhancements. Increased spectral efficiency. it is interesting to note that HSDPA. Hence. and WiMAX. In fact. indicating that there is not much room for improvement from a link layer perspective. EDGE.16e-2005 are all within 2 to 3 decibels (dB) of the Shannon bound. comes at a price. The exact timing for deploying these options is difficult to predict. One core aspect of evolving wireless technology is managing the complexity associated with achieving higher spectral efficiency. and what types of applications become popular. and IEEE 802. 1xEV-DO. and IEEE 802. UMB. operators and vendors must balance market needs against network and equipment costs.
Frames are well within the coherence time of the channel. 3 km/hr) rather than at higher speeds. additional margin is needed. and fading at 2 GHz.5 Hz. For instance. If the channel is slowly varying and the effect of frequency selectivity can be overcome through an equalizer in either HSDPA or OFDM. 66 Source: 3G Americas’ member company. As the speed of the mobile station increases and the channel estimation becomes less accurate.16e-200566 6 Shannon bound Shannon bound with 3dB margin HSDPA EV-DO IEEE 802. As such. EV-DO. the focus of future technology enhancements should be on improving system performance aspects that maximize the experienced SNRs in the system rather than on investigating new air interfaces that attempt to improve the link layer performance. HSPA. Thus. and IEEE 802. the channel appears “constant” over a frame and the Shannon bound applies. the Shannon bound is relevant for a realistic deployment environment. The Shannon bound only applies to a single user. However. this additional margin would impact the different standards fairly equally.16e-2005 5 Achievable Efficiency (bps/Hz) 4 3 2 1 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Required SNR (dB) 10 15 20 The curves in Figure 16 apply to an Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN). Much more of the traffic in a cellular system is at slow speeds (for example. the Doppler spread is about 5. it does not attempt to indicate aggregate channel throughput with multiple users. However.5 or 180 msec. As such. EDGE. it does indicate that link layer performance is reaching theoretical limits. The coherence time of the channel is thus 1 sec/5. because they are typically 20 msec or less. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 46 .Figure 16: Performance Relative to Theoretical Limits for HSDPA. at 3 km per hour. then the channel can be known almost perfectly and the effects of fading and non-AWGN interference can be ignored—thus justifying the AWGN assumption.
7 0. MRxD.5 0. and 10 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX. Equalizer WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1 HSDPA EV-DO Rev 0 UMTS R’99 UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX 67 Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 3GPP studies indicate higher HSDPA and LTE spectral efficiencies than those shown below. The values shown are conservative and intended to be reasonably representative of real-world conditions.5 data preliminary.Examples of technologies that improve SNR in the system are those that minimize interference through intelligent antennas or interference coordination between sectors and cells. WiMAX Release 1.9 1.8 0.0 0.2 1.6 1.2 0. Equalizer UMB 4X2 MIMO UMB 2X2 MIMO Rel 1. Figure 17 compares the spectral efficiency of different wireless technologies based on a consensus view of 3G Americas contributors to this paper.5 2. Note that MIMO techniques using spatial multiplexing to potentially increase the overall information transfer rate by a factor proportional to the number of transmit or receive antennas do not violate the Shannon bound. WiMAX Wave 2 AMC not included. Mix of mobile and stationary users. HSPA.7 1.8 1. EDGE.2 2.5 2X2 MIMO Rev B Cross-Carrier Scheduling Rev A. some of the values shown are lower (for all technologies) than the values indicated in other papers and publications. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 47 .1 2. Most simulation results produce values under idealized conditions. 5+5 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000.4 0. It shows the continuing evolution of the capabilities of all the technologies discussed.5 4X2 MIMO Rel 1. For instance.5 1. as such. the per communications link transfer rate) is still limited by the Shannon bound.1 1. because the per antenna transfer rate (that is. Figure 17: Comparison of Downlink Spectral Efficiency67 2.1 Future improvements LTE 4X4 MIMO Future improvements UMB 4X4 MIMO Future improvements Rel 1.9 0.5 4X4 MIMO Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/sector) 5+5 MHz LTE 4X2 MIMO LTE 2X2 MIMO HSPA+ SIC.4 1.6 0.0 1. 64 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO HSDPA MRxD.3 0.3 2.4 2. based on expected features.3 1.
Thus the figure does not necessarily show the actual progression of technologies that operators will deploy to increase spectral efficiency. as well as other future enhancements. which is close to LTE performance in 5+5 MHz channel bandwidth. but EDGE itself is spectrally efficient. Relative to WCDMA Release 99. The figure does not include EDGE. whereas the latter requires additional hardware at the base station. initially with 2X2 MIMO. 3GPP LTE will also result in further spectral efficiency gains. 68 IEEE International Symposium on Personal. Mobile WiMAX also experiences gains in spectral efficiency as various optimizations. some enhancements. With respect to actual deployment. and that WiMAX has larger control overhead in the downlink than HSPA. are applied. Rather. An uplink MAP zone in the downlink channel does this scheduling. 2008. Finer granularity of modulation and coding schemes. OFDMA technology requires scheduling to avoid two mobile devices transmitting on the same tones simultaneously. Type 3 receivers that include Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalization and Mobile Receive Diversity (MRxD) will effectively double HSDPA spectral efficiency.The values shown in Figure 17 are not all the combinations of available features. HSDPA increases capacity by almost a factor of three. Greater control channel efficiency.3 bps/Hz/sector. at 0. WiMAX Wave 2 includes 2X2 MIMO. The former can be done as a software upgrade. because the uplink in WiMAX is fully scheduled. For instance. which enables the use of SIC receivers. like MRxD and MIMO. Incremental redundancy in error correction. there are terminals that employ mobile-receive diversity but not equalization. Similar gains are available for CDMA2000. HSPA. they are representative milestones in ongoing improvements in spectral efficiency. Other reasons are that HSPA supports incremental-redundancy HARQ. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes 2X2 MIMO. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications: Anders Furuskär et al “The LTE Radio Interface – Key Characteristics and Performance”.5. The main reason that HSPA+ with MIMO is shown as more spectrally efficient than WiMAX Wave 2 with MIMO is because HSPA MIMO supports closed-loop operation with precode weighting and multicode-word MIMO. while the initial WiMAX profiles support only Chase combining HARQ. Terminals with SIC can also be used with Release 7 systems.3 bps/Hz/sector. Multi codeword MIMO which enable the use of SIC receivers. 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO. such as 2X2 MIMO. EDGE. such as 64 QAM. Beyond HSPA. such as 10 and 20 MHz. which further increases spectral efficiency by about 20 percent and matches WiMAX Wave 2 spectral efficiency. Methods like successive interference cancellation (SIC) and 64 QAM allow gains in spectral efficiency as high as 1. Enhancements to WiMAX will come from a new profile defined in Release 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 48 . Lower Channel Quality Indicator delay through use of 1 msec frames instead of 5 msec frames. LTE has higher spectral efficiency than WiMAX Wave 2 for a number of reasons: 68 Closed-loop operation with precoded weighting. LTE is even more spectrally efficient with wider channels. and then optionally with SIC. will be simpler for some operators to deploy than other enhancements.
LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 49 . the assessment of actual performance of WiMAX Release 1. At the time of this paper.5 comes at the low end of the range. and will thus have increased spectral efficiency. Vendor estimates for Release 1.5 range from about 77% to 98% of LTE spectral efficiency for downlink data. HSPA. This will result in a gain of 5% in a low mobility environment and a gain of 10 to 15% in environments such as picocells in which there is cell isolation. Figure 18 compares the uplink spectral efficiency of the different systems.69 Thus if the final spectral efficiency analysis for WiMAX Release 1. One available improvement for LTE spectral efficiency not shown in the figure is successive interference cancellation. it would fall well below LTE performance and could also fall below HSPA+ spectral efficiency. 69 Contributions to 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.5 relative to HSPA+ and LTE must await further analysis. An important conclusion of this comparison is that all the major wireless technologies achieve comparable spectral efficiency through the use of comparable radio techniques. Since there is a wide range in projected spectral efficiency. Expected features include reduced MAC overhead. and hence the spectral efficiency values shown are preliminary and subject to change.5 will address some of these items. and other physical-layer enhancements. EDGE. adaptive modulation and coding.WiMAX Release 1. the feature set is neither public nor final.
HSPA.16e uplink spectral efficiency will be on par. and later 1X4 diversity.5 1X2 Receive Diversity WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1 HSUPA Rel 6 UMTS R’99 to Rel 5 EV-DO Rev A EV-DO Rev 0 UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX The implementation of HSUPA in HSPA significantly increases uplink capacity. which should increase spectral efficiency by 50%.1 LTE 1X2 Receive Diversity HSPA+ Interference Cancellation. compared to Rev 0.7 0.0 0.3 0. it is likely that IEEE 802. Interference Cancellation Rel 1.16e. in fact. and 10 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX. Initial systems will employ 1X2 receive diversity (two antennas at the base station).Figure 18: Comparison of Uplink Spectral Efficiency70 Future Improvements LTE 1x4 Receive Diversity Future Improvements UMB 1X4 Receive Diversity Future Improvements Rel 1. however.5 data preliminary. but more efficient pilot structure implemented. 16 QAM UMB 1X2 Receive Diversity EV-DO Rev B.8 0. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 50 . easier to implement than true MIMO because it does not require an additional transmitter in the mobile device. but this improvement depends on factors such as the scheduling efficiency and the exact deployment scenario. Mix of mobile and stationary users. as does Rev A of 1xEV-DO. This is because of the high pilot overhead in IEEE 802. With the optional. EDGE. Figure 18 shows WiMAX Wave 2 uplink spectral efficiency to be lower than 3GPP and 3GPP2 technologies employing interference cancellation.9 0. spectral efficiency gains increase by use of receive diversity.4 0. with MU-MIMO are not as great as with the receive diversity schemes. 5+5 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000.6 0. It is also possible to employ Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO) which allows simultaneous transmission by multiple users on the uplink on the same physical resource to increase spectral efficiency and is. Spectral efficiency gains. which accounts for up to 33 percent of tones. OFDM-based systems can exhibit improved uplink capacity relative to CDMA technologies.5 0.5 1X4 Receive Diversity Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/sector) 5+5 MHz 1. With LTE.2 0. based on expected features. 70 Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. WiMAX Release 1.
95 kbps vocoders. voice capacity could double over existing circuit-switched systems. Mix of mobile and stationary users. 10+10 MHz 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Interference Cancellation AMR 5.5 EVRC-B 6kbps Rel 1. EDGE.2 kbps and 7. Opportunities will arise to improve voice capacity using VoIP over HSPA channels.9 kbps Rel 7.5 data preliminary.9 kbps LTE VoIP AMR 7. indoors) channel conditions. It should be noted. gains relate to advances in radio techniques applied to the data channels. Many of these same advances may also be applied to current circuit-switched modes. Figure 19: Comparison of Voice Spectral Efficiency72 500 450 Future Improvements LTE AMR 5.Vendor estimates for Release 1.. static. however. The AMR 12. UMTS has dynamic adaptation between vocoder rates. as opposed to a proportional-fair scheduler that is normally used for asynchronous data.95 kbps UMTS R’99 AMR 7. and 20 MHz DL/UL=3:1 TDD for WiMAX. 10 + 10 MHz for UMTS/HSPA/LTE and CDMA2000. enabling enhanced voice quality compared to EVRC at the expense of capacity in situations that are not capacity limited.5 range from about 57% to 98% of LTE spectral efficiency for uplink data and the values shown are preliminary and subject to change. VoIP AMR 7. Depending on the specific enhancements implemented. HSPA.95 kbps UMTS R’99 AMR 12.71 Figure 19 compares voice spectral efficiency. based on expected features. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 51 . This is what the CS over HSPA work item will 71 72 Contributions to 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.9 kbps Rel 7 VoIP AMR 5.95 kbps Future Improvements UMB VoIP EVRC-B 6 kbps Erlangs. WiMAX Release 1.5 EVRC 8 kbps WiMAX Wave 2 EVRC 8 kbps UMTS to LTE CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX Figure 19 shows UMTS R’99 with both AMR 12.2 kbps Interference Cancellation EVRC-B 6 kbps EVRC-B 6 kbps EV-DO Rev A EVRC 8 kbps 1xRTT EVRC 8 kbps Future Improvements Rel 1. that the gains are not related specifically to the use of VoIP. It assumes a round-robin type of scheduler. Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members.g.2 kbps vocoder provides superior voice quality in good (e. rather.
a variety of codecs can be used. No. specifically GSM/UMTS.73 Until VoIP over EV-DO becomes available. in which the differences between the technologies diverge tremendously. January. the bit rate shown is an average value. LTE can support multiple HARQ retransmissions within a 20 msec speech frame. The use of 5 msec frames limits the number of HARQ retransmissions in each 20 msec speech frame. See Figure 20 for details. However. UMB and WiMAX. HSPA will have the significant advantage. in VoIP systems such as LTE.5 has high downlink and uplink spectral efficiency for VoIP. Qi Bi. however. There is a point of comparison. Cost.1.achieve. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 52 . this paper has compared wireless technologies on the basis of technical capability and demonstrated that many of the different options have similar technical attributes. See also IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication. EDGE. the difference in volume involved including subscribers and the amount of infrastructure required. whereas WiMAX can only support one. “An Analysis of VoIP Service Using 1 EV-DO Revision A System”. namely. as they operate purely in the packet domain and do not have circuit-switched control overhead. however. 73 Transmit Power Control (TPC) bits on the uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCCH in UMTS R’99. Among these benefits are a consolidated IP core network for operators and sophisticated multimedia applications for users. This difference should translate to dramatically reduced costs for the highest volume solutions. Volume and Market Comparison So far. HSPA. of being able to support simultaneous circuit-switched and packet-switched users on the same radio channel. Though WiMAX Release 1. EV-DO technologies could possibly exhibit a slightly higher spectral efficiency for VoIP than HSPA technologies (though not for packet data in general).16e-2005 will number in the tens of millions. 3G subscribers on UMTS networks will number in the many hundreds of millions by the end of this decade. Vol 24. For codecs such as EVRC (Enhanced Variable Rate Codec). With respect to codecs. Based on projections and numbers already presented in this paper. This is for the simple reason that they employ many of the same approaches. The figures show performance assuming specific codecs at representative bit rates. whereas subscribers to emerging wireless technologies such as IEEE 802. 2006. other benefits of VoIP are driving the migration to packet voice. it has a disadvantage relative to LTE because it only supports 5 msec frames while LTE supports 1 msec frames.
HSPA versus WiMAX) only applies to the software supported by the digital cards at the base station. backhaul.Figure 20: Relative Volume of Subscribers Across Wireless Technologies74 Although proponents for technologies such as mobile WiMAX point to lower costs for their alternatives. And when factoring in the lower volumes. and core-network components. As a general rule in most parts of the world. cables. costs are similar regardless of Radio Access Network (RAN) technology. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 53 . higher deployment—by a factor of five—could translate to significant cost savings. HSPA. the type of technology used (for example. any real-world cost advantage is debatable. Spectrum costs for each technology can differ greatly depending on a country’s regulations and the spectrum band. July 2008 Source: 3G Americas member analysis. RF cards. research and development amortization results in a four-to-one difference in base station costs. power amplifiers. As for the rest of the network including construction. racks. From a deployment point of view..5 GHz will cost much less than spectrum sold at 850 MHz (all other things being equal). there doesn’t seem to be any inherent cost advantage—even on an equal volume basis. WCIS Forecast. This cost. Developments such as single-chip UMTS complementary metal oxide 74 75 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media. As for UMTS/HSPA versus CDMA2000. UMTS wholesale terminal prices could be the market leader in low-cost or mass-market 3G terminals. spectrum sold at 3. For example. just as GSM handsets are considered much less expensive than 1xRTT handsets. is only a small fraction of the base station cost with the balance covering antennas. however.75 Similarly. EDGE.
slower growth expected than GSM/UMTS Extremely mature Cellular operators globally for CDMA 2000. Royal KPN. “the implications could be significant. T-Mobile and Vodafone. a US-based wireless research consultancy. NTT DoComo. eighteen of the world’s largest mobile operators have spoken…”78 Competitive Summary Based on the information presented in this paper. In June of 2008.”77 The NGMN is comprised of 18 mobile network operators. EDGE. AT&T. Telenor.76 Even LTE is on the road to a robust wireless ecosystem and significant economies of scale. Telefonica. July 2008. Dr. 3GPP LTE/SAE is the first technology which broadly meets its recommendations and is approved by its Board.semiconductor (CMOS) transceivers could be particularly effective in making UMTS/HSDPA devices more affordable to the mass market. Table 6 summarizes the competitive position of the different technologies discussed. stated that. Peter Meissner. In reference to the NGMN Alliance announcement. CEO and Founder of Signals Research Group.org/content/view/2479/172/ http://www. 4 billion expected by 2010 Extremely mature Cellular operators globally CDMA2000/UMB 438 million79 today. Telecom Italia.umts-forum. http://www. France Telecom. 76 77 78 79 Source: Qualcomm press release Feb 13.3gamericas. IEEE 802. HSPA. 29 vendor sponsors and 3 University research institutes. and if nothing else. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 54 .5 GHz. Telstra. China Mobile. Reliance Communications. “based on intensive and detailed technology evaluations. Telus. Operating Officer of NGMN announced that. MSV Mobile Satellite Ventures. Michael Thelander. No commitments to UMB. Its operator members include: Alltel.16e WiMAX Less than 54 million by 2012 Maturity Adoption Emerging/immature Limited to date Coverage/Footprint Global Very limited Deployment Fewer cell sites required at 700 and 850 MHz.cfm?id=3359&s=ENG Source: CDG. Global with the general exception of Western Europe Fewer cell sites required at 700 and 850 MHz. Table 6: Competitive Position of Major Wireless Technologies Technology Subscribers EDGE/HSPA/LTE Over 3 billion today. Many more cell sites required at 2. the Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) alliance confirmed its selection of LTE. SK Telecom. TeliaSonera. 2007.org/English/news_room/DisplayPressRelease.
highly optimized CDMA for HSPA. Voice coverage will be much more limited than cellular Potentially available. highly optimized in Release 1. smoothest migration to VoIP of any technology CDMA2000/UMB Broad selection of 1xRTT/EV-DO devices Highly optimized CDMA for Rev 0/A/B. with significantly higher rates in the future As low as 70 msec with EV-DO Rev A. with much lower latency in the future Extremely efficient circuit-voice available today EV-DO radio channels with VoIP cannot support circuit-voice users Not available today Available with VoIP Radio channel today limited to either voice/medium speed data or high- Peak downlink userachievable rates will depend on network design Latency To be determined Voice Capability Relatively inefficient VoIP initially. initial devices likely to emphasize data OFDMA in Wave 1.Technology Devices EDGE/HSPA/LTE Broad selection of GSM/EDGE/UMTS/ HSPA devices Highly optimized TDMA for EDGE. matches OFDMA approaches in 5 MHz with HSPA+ Peak downlink user-achievable rates of over 4 Mbps today. though initial services will emphasize data Efficient for datacentric networks only until later versions Simultaneous Voice and Data Available with GSM80 and UMTS today Entire UMTS radio channel available for any mix of voice and highspeed data Efficient Spectrum Usage 80 With the application of Dual Transfer Mode. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 55 . but not higher than HSPA+ Radio Technology Spectral Efficiency Throughput Capabilities Peak downlink user-achievable rates of over 1.16e WiMAX None yet. more efficient in later stages. more optimized in Wave 2.5 Mbps. HSPA. with significantly higher rates in the future As low as 70 msec with HSPA today. highly optimized OFDMA for LTE Very high with HSPA. highly optimized OFDMA for Rev C Very high with EVDO Rev A/B IEEE 802. but lower than LTE.5 Very high. EDGE. with much lower latency in the future Extremely efficient circuit-voice available today.
Unlike some competing technologies. longterm solution that matches or exceeds the performance of competing approaches. speed applications. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 56 . Not only are there continual improvements in radio technology.16e WiMAX Conclusion Thanks to constant innovation. Because of practical benefits and deployment momentum. It achieves high spectral efficiency and data performance that today support a wide range of applications. and an astonishing variety of competitive handsets and other devices. as well as an effective technology solution for greenfield operators. and it is widely expected that most UMTS operators will eventually upgrade to this EDGE. complementary services such as messaging and multimedia. but improvements to the core network through flatter architectures—particularly EPC/SAE—will reduce latency. the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of technologies has proven itself as the predominant wireless network solution. With continued evolution. enable all services in the IP domain. Evolved EDGE will greatly enhance EDGE capabilities—doubling and. Today. Greater efficiencies will translate to more competitive offers. and allow a common core network to support both LTE and legacy GSM/UMTS systems. HSPA has significantly enhanced UMTS by providing a broadband data service with userachievable rates that often exceed 1 Mbps on the downlink in initial deployments and that now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial networks. widespread acceptance by operators. In all cases. greater network usage. HSPA and its advanced evolution can compete against any other technology in the world. and offers operators and subscribers a true mobile-broadband advantage. spectral efficiency will increase. quadrupling throughputs—making the technology viable for many years to come. the migration path from EDGE to HSPA then to LTE is inevitable.Technology EDGE/HSPA/LTE CDMA2000/UMB speed data only IEEE 802. EDGE has proven to be a remarkably effective and efficient technology for GSM networks. The scope of applications will also increase as new services become available such as location information and video. HSPA offers the highest peak data rates of any widely available. and increased revenues. wide-area wireless technology. With UMTS/HSPA. The continued use of GSM and EDGE technology through ongoing enhancements allows operators to leverage existing investments. the technologies’ advantages provide for broadband services that will deliver increased data revenue and provide a path to all-IP architectures. potentially. the UMTS/HSPA radio link is efficient for wideband services. Currently more than 210 commercial UMTS/HSPA networks and 236 UMTS networks are already in operation. and latency will decrease. Whereas EDGE is efficient for narrowband data services. UMTS today offers users simultaneous voice and data. now the most widely chosen technology platform for the forthcoming decade. Benefits include the ability to roam globally. UMTS/HSPA offers an excellent migration path for GSM operators. peak data rates will continue to increase. The result is support for more users at higher speeds with more applications enabled. the different radio-access technologies can coexist using the same core architecture. HSPA. huge economies of scale. simplify deployment. With LTE. Many networks are now being upgraded to include HSUPA providing users uplink rates in excess of 1 Mbps. It also allows operators to support voice and data across their entire available spectrum. the advantages offer a best-of-breed.
Evolved HSPA+ systems. will largely match the throughput and capacity of OFDMA-based approaches in 5 MHz. become a huge industry. With the continued growth in mobile computing. Other innovations. such as MIMO and higher order modulation. HSPA. mobile commerce. with peak rates of 42 Mbps. powerful new handheld-computing platforms. wireless data has slowly.technology. and it is an optimum framework for realizing the potential of this market. which will provide a growth platform for the next decade. an increasing amount of mobile content. EDGE. but inevitably. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 57 . 3GPP adopted OFDMA with 3GPP LTE. EDGE/HSPA/LTE provides one of the most robust portfolios of mobile-broadband technologies. multimedia messaging. and location services. will be deployed over the next several years.
and VPNs: 32 kbps to more than 1 Mbps Video and audio streaming: 32 kbps to 2 Mbps Note that EDGE already satisfies the demands of many applications. and increased spectral efficiency. as well as access to their organizations from anywhere. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 58 . which is the original packet data service for GSM networks. With UMTS and HSDPA. QoS control. It is also helpful to specifically note the throughput requirements necessary for different applications: Microbrowsing (for example. Under favorable conditions. Less obvious for users. richer multimedia applications. and even some multimedia applications. Web browsing. too. in particular. which examines each technology individually. with HSPA networks today having round-trip times as low as 70 msec. UMTS/HSPA. and efficient access to their enterprise applications. reduced latency. The discussion below. Spectral efficiency. e-mail. In this section. It is an enhancement to GPRS. high-fidelity music. With HSPA. details how the progression from EDGE to HSPA to LTE is one of increased throughput. applications operate faster and the range of supported applications expands even further. GSM networks with EDGE operate as wireless extensions to the Internet and give users Internet access.Appendix: Technology Details The EDGE/HSPA/LTE family of data technologies provides ever-increasing capabilities that support ever more demanding applications. LTE. EDGE delivers peak user-achievable throughput rates close to 200 kbps and initial deployments of HSPA deliver peak user-achievable downlink throughput rates of well over 1 Mbps. EDGE Today. It is important to understand the needs enterprises and consumers have for these services. The combination of low latency and high throughput translates to a broadband experience for users. We then provide details on EDGE. Wireless Application Protocol [WAP]): 8 to 128 kbps Multimedia messaging: 8 to 64 kbps Video telephony: 64 to 384 kbps General-purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps to more than 1 Mbps Enterprise applications including e-mail. database access. because it translates to higher average throughputs (and thus more responsive applications) for more active users in a coverage area. are the needs for low latency. HSPA+. we consider different technical approaches for wireless and the parallel evolution of 3GPP technologies. With peak user- EDGE. is of paramount concern. EDGE. already makes a wealth of applications feasible including enterprise applications. now available globally. in which applications are extremely responsive. GPRS provides a packet-based IP connectivity solution supporting a wide range of enterprise and consumer applications. consumer applications. most GSM networks support EDGE. Latency has continued to improve. messaging. and spectral efficiency. improved QoS. enhanced security. and supporting technologies such as IMS. HSPA. users are enjoying videophones. but as critical for effective application performance. The obvious needs are broad coverage and high data throughput. easily meeting the demands of many applications.
achievable81 throughput rates of up to 200 kbps with EDGE using four time-slot devices. which can be viewed as a mobile IP router to external IP networks. In fact. The network can have multiple radio channels (referred to as 81 “Peak user-achievable” means users. Internet) EDGE is essentially the addition of a packet-data infrastructure to GSM.6 msec. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 59 . dynamically assigning them to mobile stations for their data sessions. the Internet). and it is often collocated with the MSC. under favorable conditions of network loading and signal propagation. users have the same effective access speed as a modem. Figure 21: GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture Mobile Station Mobile Station Mobile Station Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station Circuit-Switched Traffic Base Mobile Station Switching Controller Center IP Traffic Home Location Register Public Switched Telephone Network GPRS/EDGE Data Infrastructure Serving GPRS Support Node Gateway GPRS Support Node External Data Network (e. Another important element is the HLR. now supplanted by EDGE. but with the convenience of connecting from anywhere. To understand the evolution of data capability. which stores users’ account information for both voice and data services. HSPA. 3. as depicted in Figure 21. thereby simplifying operator network upgrades. Each serving area has one SGSN. The GGSN also manages IP addresses. Average rates depend on many factors and will be lower than these rates. The term GPRS may also be used to refer to the initial radio interface. EDGE. The SGSN forwards/receives user data to/from the GGSN. Typically. this same data architecture is preserved in UMTS and HSPA networks.. Of significance is that this same data architecture supports data services in GSM and in UMTS/HSPA networks. there is one GGSN per external network (for example. In the radio link. The SGSN performs the types of functions for data that the MSC performs for voice. Functions of the data elements are as follows: 1.g. beginning with the architecture of GSM and EDGE. divided in time into eight timeslots comprising 577 microseconds (s) that repeat every 4. we briefly examine how these data services operate. an element that authenticates and tracks the location of mobile stations. as shown in Figure 22. can achieve this rate as measured by applications such as file transfer. The base station controller directs/receives packet data to/from the SGSN. GSM uses radio channels of 200 kilohertz (kHz) width. 2. and it is technically referred to as GPRS for the core-data function in all these networks.
transceivers) operating in each cell sector. and packet data channels. likewise. which suspends the data session. the PBCCH. users with DTM-capable devices can engage in simultaneous voice/data operation.2 14. Application rates are typically 20 percent lower. Example: WAP notification message delivered via SMS. Figure 22: Example of GSM/EDGE Timeslot Structure82 EDGE offers close coupling between voice and data services. Users can also receive SMS messages and data notifications83 while on a voice call. circuit-switched functions like voice calls or data calls. EDGE. The network can aggregate up to four of these timeslots on the downlink with current devices. With networks supporting DTM. This enables more data traffic when voice traffic is low or. each data timeslot can deliver peak user-achievable data rates of up to about 50 kbps. With respect to data performance. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 60 . and then resume their data session automatically when the voice session ends. more voice traffic when data traffic is low. may be set up on a timeslot of a TDMA frame when justified by the volume of data traffic. Radio Link Control (RLC) – layer 2 . while in a data session. For example. The network assigns different functions to each timeslot such as the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH).8 11. Table 7: EDGE Modulation and Coding Schemes84 Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK Throughput per Timeslot (kbps) 8. and it can also reserve minimum resources for each service.8 82 83 84 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. Table 7 shows the different modulation and coding schemes for EDGE. the optional Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH).throughputs. In most networks. users can accept an incoming voice call. The network can dynamically adjust capacity between voice and data functions. which expands the capabilities of the normal BCCH. HSPA. thereby maximizing overall use of the network.
do multimedia EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 61 . EDGE is an official 3G cellular technology that can be deployed within an operator's existing 850. In addition. Release 7’s Evolved EDGE will also introduce significant new features. thereby allowing operators to support large numbers of voice and data users in existing spectrum. any application developed for GPRS will work with EDGE. and 1900 MHz spectrum bands. EDGE has proven itself in the field as a cost-effective solution and is now a mature technology.6 44. including network optimizations that boost capacity and reduce latency. For example. thereby enabling many communications-oriented applications. an operator can accommodate customers by assigning an increasing number of channels for data service that is limited only by that operator’s total available spectrum and radio planning. Many operators that originally planned to use only UMTS for next-generation data services have deployed EDGE as a complementary 3G technology. EDGE provides average data capabilities for the “sweet spot” of approximately 100 kbps. already available from vendors. It is important to note that EDGE technology is continuing to improve.2 If multiple data users are active in a sector. 900. allow simultaneous voice and data communications. 1800.8 54.4 29. HSPA. 3. Devices themselves are increasing in capability. EDGE is spectrally efficient. The impact for users is that EDGE networks today are more robust with applications functioning more responsively. 4. meaning that GPRS devices work on EDGE networks and that GPRS and EDGE terminals can operate simultaneously on the same traffic channels. they share the available data channels. As demand for data services increases. Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) devices. EDGE capability is now largely standard in new GSM deployments. It is fully backward-compatible with older GSM networks.6 22. EDGE provides a cost-effective wide-area data service that offers continuity and is complementary with a UMTS/HSPA network deployed in high traffic areas.Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 Modulation GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK Throughput per Timeslot (kbps) 17. For example. Release 4 significantly reduced EDGE latency (network round-trip time)—from the typical 500 to 600 msec to about 300 msec. however. EDGE has been an inherent part of GSM specifications since Release 99.4 59. and a GSM network with EDGE capability is referred to as GERAN. 2. users will be able to retrieve e-mail. There are multiple reasons for this including: 1. Operators also continue to make improvements in how EDGE functions. during a voice call. A GPRS network using the EDGE radio interface is technically called an Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) network.
This work is part of the GERAN Evolution effort. Typically. Evolved EDGE also provides better service continuity between EDGE and HSPA. browse the Web. Combining the efficiency of EDGE for data with the efficiency of GSM for voice. This is particularly useful when connecting phones to laptops via cable or Bluetooth and using them as modems. DTM is a 3GPP-specified technology that enables new applications like video sharing while providing a consistent service experience (service continuity) with UMTS. Evolved EDGE offers higher data rates and system capacity. thereby enabling support for conversational services such as VoIP and PoC. it is less costly than upgrading to UMTS. because it involves fewer long-term capital investments to upgrade an existing system. Some of the objectives of Evolved EDGE include: A 100 percent increase in peak data rates. 3GPP is currently working to improve EDGE capabilities for Release 7. it makes good sense to continue to evolve EDGE capabilities. A 50 percent increase in spectral efficiency and capacity in C/I-limited scenarios. To avoid impacts on infrastructure by enabling improvements through a software upgrade. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 62 . and cable-modem speeds are realistically achievable. many regions to not have licensed spectrum for deployment of a new radio technology such as UMTS/HSPA or LTE. HSPA. With 85 percent of the world market using GSM. Although GSM and EDGE are already highly optimized technologies. and it is highly asset efficient. The A/Gb mode interface is part of the 2G core network. meaning that a user will not have a hugely different experience when moving between environments. which also includes voice enhancements not discussed in this paper. To be applicable to DTM (simultaneous voice and data) and the A/Gb mode interface. operators can use GSM technology to deliver a broad range of services that will satisfy their customers for many years. Although EDGE today already serves many applications like wireless e-mail extremely well.messaging. There are a number of networks and devices now supporting DTM. and do Internet conferencing. because most enhancements are designed to be software based. Also. Although HSPA networks provide an even better user experience for some applications. thus facilitating deployment in existing networks. To achieve compatibility with existing frequency planning. which is already equipped for simple roaming and billing. A sensitivity increase in the downlink of 3 dB for voice and data. From an economic standpoint. advances in radio techniques will enable further efficiencies. A reduction of latency for initial access and round-trip time. so this goal is required for full backward-compatibility with legacy GPRS/EDGE. it is easy to offer global service to subscribers. EDGE. Evolved EDGE Recognizing the value of the huge installed base of GSM networks. the fact is that many applications—such as e-mail on smartphones—are served perfectly well by EDGE. In addition. To coexist with legacy mobile stations by allowing both old and new stations to share the same radio resources. a DTM end-to-end solution requires only a software upgrade to the GSM/EDGE radio network.
A reduction in overall latency. the original number of radio blocks can be divided between the two carriers. EDGE. Figure 23: Evolved EDGE Two-Carrier Operation85 Slot N Rx1 Rx2 Tx (1) Slot N + 1 (Idle Frame) Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3 Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot Alternatively. Currently. Using two radio-frequency carriers requires two receiver chains in the downlink. Dual-Carrier Receiver A key part of the evolution of EDGE is the utilization of more than one radio frequency carrier. and 32 QAM as well as an increased symbol rate (1. Significant increases in system capacity can be achieved. This eliminates the need for the network to have contiguous timeslots on one frequency. as explained below. This is achieved by lowering the TTI to 10 msec and by including the acknowledgement information in the data packet. EDGE uses 8-PSK modulation. As previously stated. 16 QAM. This overcomes the inherent limitation of the narrow channel bandwidth of GSM. Simulations have demonstrated sensitivity gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/I of up to 18 dB for a single cochannel interferer. HSPA. Downlink diversity reception of the same radio channel to increase the robustness in interference and to improve the receiver sensitivity. 85 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. These enhancements will have a dramatic effect on throughput for many applications. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 63 . Simulations indicate a realizable 25 percent increase in user-achievable peak rates.The methods standardized in Release 7 to achieve these objectives include: Downlink dual-carrier reception to increase the number of timeslots that can be received without a need to receive and transmit on the same carrier from four on one carrier to 10 on two carriers for a 150 percent increase in throughput. using two carriers enables the reception of more than twice as many radio blocks simultaneously. as shown in Figure 23.2x) in the uplink and a new set of modulation/coding schemes that will increase maximum throughput per timeslot by 38 percent. The addition of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK).
it is statistically unlikely that contiguous timeslots will be available. not by increasing basic efficiencies of the air interface. but because of statistical improvement in the ability to assign radio resources. The result is that the system can allocate a large set of time slots for data even if they are not contiguous. significantly improves the likelihood of obtaining the desired timeslots. this becomes possible. With today’s EDGE devices. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 64 . however. the probability of being able to obtain 5 timeslots on the same radio carrier decreases dramatically. EDGE. Being able to obtain timeslots across two carriers in Evolved EDGE. channel decoding Decode control Downlink logical User application data Carrier 2 Radio protocol stack Carrier N Channel capacity with dual-carrier reception improves greatly.Figure 24: EDGE Multi-Carrier Receive Logic – Mobile Part86 Multi-carrier radio resource control logic Transceiver carrier frequency control Timeslot and radio frequency assignment unit Demodulator and decoding control Timeslot and frequency allocation messages Radio resource control RF Transceiver front ends Carrier 1 Baseband processing: demodulation. which increases trunking efficiency. however. Figure 25 shows why this is important. HSPA. With an Evolved EDGE dual receiver. As the network becomes busy. 86 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. As this probability decreases (X axis). the probability of being assigned 1 timeslot decreases. it is not possible to change radio frequencies when going from one timeslot to the next. thus enabling contiguous timeslots across different radio channels. which otherwise is not possible. As network loading increases.
HSPA. EDGE. “Rx2” refers to receiver 2. (“Rx1” refers to receiver 1. a dual-carrier receiver architecture can support either dual-carrier reception or mobile-station receive diversity. depending on the operating environment. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 65 .) Figure 26: Optimization of Timeslot Usage Example88 Each Receiver Changes Tuned Frequency Between its Slots Rx1 Rx2 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 5 Timeslot Allocation “Scavenged” from Different Frequency Carriers Idle Frame F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Tx NCM Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot Through intelligent selection. and “M2” refers to receiver 2 doing system monitoring. Mobile Station Receive Diversity 87 88 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. “NCM” refers to neighbour cell monitoring.Figure 25: Probabilities of Time Slot Assignments87 Figure 26 shows a dual-radio receiver approach optimizing the use of available timeslots.
EDGE. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 66 . thereby taking advantage of the geographical locations associated with probabilities of high C/I ratio and enabling very high data transfer rates whenever possible. help enable their use. A fractionally loaded system may repeat f12 through f15 on each of the cells. because factors such as processing power.4 MHz for GSM. it is possible to obtain 100 percent of the capacity of the frequencies in the 4/12 reuse layer or to double the capacity by adding 800 KHz of spectrum. however. (BCCH refers to the Broadcast Control Channel and TCH refers to the Traffic Channel. More bits-per-symbol means more data transmitted per unit time. Use of higher order modulation exploits localized optimal coverage circumstances. it is possible to increase the load on the 1/1 layer from 25 to 50 percent and possibly to as high as 75 percent. with four of these frequencies. such as advanced receivers and receive diversity.Figure 27 illustrates how mobile-station receive diversity increases system capacity. and signal level made higher order modulations impractical for mobile wireless systems just a few years ago. Using Evolved EDGE and receive-diversity-enabled mobile devices that have a high tolerance to co-channel interference. which requires 2. An increase to 50 percent translates to a doubling of capacity on the 1/1 layer without requiring any new spectrum and to a 200 percent gain compared to a 4/12 reuse layer. Figure 27: Example of 4/12 Frequency Reuse with 1/1 Overlay89 In today’s EDGE systems.) The BCCH carrier repeats over 12 cells in a 4/12 frequency reuse pattern. HSPA. These enhancements are only now being considered. but also potentially high co-channel interference in loaded conditions. Thus. however. This yields a fundamental technological improvement in information capacity and faster data rates. Higher Order Modulation and Higher Symbol Rate Schemes The addition of higher order modulation schemes enhances EDGE network capacity with little capital investment by extending the range of the existing wireless technology. variability of interference. 89 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. f12 through f15 in the 1/1 reuse layer can only be loaded to around 25 percent of capacity. Newer techniques for demodulation. This is a 1/1 frequency reuse pattern with higher system utilization.
4 179.4 179.8 EDGE.2 70.8 268.Two different levels of support for higher order modulation are defined for both the uplink and the downlink.8 59.8 307.2 44. This level of support reuses Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs) 1 through 6 from EGPRS and adds five new 16 QAM modulated schemes called uplink “A” level schemes (UAS).4 89.8 236.2 44. HSPA.2 236.2 The second support level in the uplink includes QPSK. and eight new uplink “B” level schemes (UBS) are added. MCSs 1 through 4 from EGPRS are reused. In the uplink.2 204.6 118. 8-PSK.6 118.2 70. the first support level includes GMSK. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 67 . Table 8: Uplink Modulation and Coding Schemes Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 UAS-7 UAS-8 UAS-9 UAS-10 UAS-11 Uplink EGPRS2 Support Level A Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35. Table 9: Uplink Modulation and Coding Schemes with Higher Symbol Rate Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 UBS-5 UBS-6 UBS-7 UBS-8 Uplink EGPRS2 Support Level B Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK QPSK QPSK 16 QAM 16 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35.4 89. 16 QAM. and 16 QAM at the legacy symbol rate. and 32 QAM modulation as well as a higher (1.2x) symbol rate.8 59.
2 44.2 179.2 217.6 The second downlink support level includes QPSK.2 90 These data rates require a wide-pulse shaping filter that is not part of Release 7.8 131.8 59.6 262. MCSs 1 through 4 are reused.2 435. EDGE. Table 11: Downlink Modulation and Coding Schemes with Higher Symbol Rate90 Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 Downlink HOM/HSR Support Level B Modulation Type GMSK Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35.2 70.6 108.0 326. and eight new downlink “B” level schemes (DBS) are defined. and eight new downlink “A” level schemes (DAS) are added.2x) symbol rate. Turbo codes are used for all new modulations. and 32 QAM modulations at a higher (1.4 393.6 The first downlink support level introduces a modified set of 8-PSK coding schemes and adds 16 QAM.UBS-9 UBS-10 UBS-11 UBS-12 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 268. MCSs 1 through 4 are reused.4 89. HSPA.2 473. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 68 .8 355. and 32 QAM all at the legacy symbol rate. Table 10: Downlink Modulation and Coding Schemes Modulation and Coding Scheme Name MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 DAS-5 DAS-6 DAS-7 DAS-8 DAS-9 DAS-10 DAS-11 DAS-12 Downlink HOM/HSR Support Level A Modulation Type GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM Peak Throughput (kbps) – 4 slots 35. 16 QAM.
MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 DBS-5 DBS-6 DBS-7 DBS-8 DBS-9 DBS-10 DBS-11 DBS-12
GMSK GMSK GMSK QPSK QPSK 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM 32 QAM
44.8 59.2 70.4 89.6 118.4 179.2 2368 268.8 355.2 435.2 473.6
The combination of Release 7 EDGE Evolution enhancements shows a dramatic potential increase in throughput. For example, in the downlink, a Type 2 mobile device (one that can support simultaneous transmission and reception) using DBS-12 as the MCS and a dual-carrier receiver can achieve the following performance: Highest data rate per timeslot (layer 2) = 118.4 kbps Timeslots per carrier = 8 Carriers used in the downlink = 2 Total downlink data rate = 118.4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894.4 kbps91 This translates to a peak network rate close to 2 Mbps and a user-achievable data rate of well over 1 Mbps! Other Methods Under Consideration This paper has emphasized those Evolved EDGE features that 3GPP has agreed upon for Release 7. However, there are other features being proposed that would boost EDGE capabilities even further. Advanced modulation enhancements include the addition of turbo coding and 64 QAM to the higher order modulation enhancements already described. These enhancements increase the robustness of the channel and take advantage of local areas of high C/I ratios. A second uplink carrier could also double uplink throughput. Two approaches have been discussed. The first is a fully flexible dual-transmitter approach. This approach has no impact on the network, but may have significant impact on the feasibility of the mobile station, particularly in the handheld form factor; it is currently being researched and discussed. The second approach is a constrained form of uplink dual carrier in which the spacing of the two carriers is less than 1 MHz and a single wideband transmitter generates the signal. This approach is easier to implement in a mobile handset, but it may impact legacy frequency planning. Proposals have been put forward outlining ways
For the near future, two carriers will be a scenario more practically realized on a notebook computer platform than handheld platforms.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
to coexist with legacy frequency planning; these ideas are being researched and discussed. Evolved EDGE Implementation Table 12 shows what is involved in implementing the different features defined for Evolved EDGE. For a number of features, there are no hardware changes required for the base transceiver station (BTS). For all features, Evolved EDGE is compatible with legacy frequency planning. Table 12: Evolved EDGE Implementation92
In conclusion, it is interesting to note the sophistication and capability that is achievable with, and planned for, GSM.
UMTS has garnered the overwhelming majority of new 3G spectrum licenses with 236 commercial networks already in operation.93 Compared to emerging wireless technologies, UMTS technology is mature and benefits from research and development that began in the early 1990s. It has been thoroughly trialed, tested, and commercially deployed. UMTS deployment is now accelerating with stable network infrastructures and attractive, reliable mobile devices that have rich capabilities. With the addition of HSPA for high-speed packet data services, UMTS/HSPA is quickly emerging as the dominant global mobile-broadband network. UMTS employs a wideband CDMA radio-access technology. The primary benefits of UMTS include high spectral efficiency for voice and data, simultaneous voice and data capability for users, high user densities that can be supported with low infrastructure
Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. “World Cellular Information Service,” Informa Telecoms & Media, June 2008.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
costs, support for high-bandwidth data applications, and a clean migration to VoIP in the future. Operators can also use their entire available spectrum for both voice and highspeed data services. Additionally, operators can use a common core network that supports multiple radioaccess networks including GSM, EDGE, WCDMA, HSPA, and evolutions of these technologies. This is called the UMTS multiradio network, and it gives operators maximum flexibility in providing different services across their coverage areas (see Figure 28). Figure 28: UMTS Multiradio Network
GSM/EDGE UMTS Core Network (MSC, HLR, SGSN, GGSN)
Other e.g., WLAN Radio-Access Networks
Other Cellular Operators External Networks
The UMTS radio-access network consists of base stations referred to as Node B (corresponding to GSM base transceiver systems) that connect to RNCs (corresponding to GSM base station controllers [BSCs]). The RNCs connect to the core network as do the BSCs. When both GSM and WCDMA access networks are available, the network can hand over users between these networks. This is important for managing capacity, as well as in areas in which the operator has continuous GSM coverage, but has only deployed WCDMA in some locations. Whereas GSM can effectively operate like a spread-spectrum system94, based on time division in combination with frequency hopping, WCDMA is a direct-sequence, spreadspectrum system. WCDMA is spectrally more efficient than GSM, but it is the wideband nature of WCDMA that provides its greatest advantage—the ability to translate the available spectrum into high data rates. This wideband technology approach results in the flexibility to manage multiple traffic types including voice, narrowband data, and wideband data. WCDMA allocates different codes for different channels, whether for voice or data, and it can adjust the amount of capacity, or code space, of each channel every 10 msec with WCDMA Release 99 and every 2 msec with HSPA. WCDMA creates high-bandwidth traffic channels by reducing the amount of spreading (using a shorter code) with WCDMA
Spread spectrum systems can either be direct sequence or frequency hopping.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
Back-and-forth data without bandwidth control and some delay such as Web browsing. Uplink peak-networkthroughput rates are also 384 kbps in newer deployments. the data stream has greater redundancy. Lower priority data that is non-real-time such as batch transfers. Voice channels use downlink spreading factors of 128 or 256. With HSPA-capable devices. whereas a 384 kbps data channel uses a downlink spreading factor of 8. Streaming. and the number of users active in the network limit the peak throughput rates a user can achieve to about 350 kbps in commercial networks. particularly multimedia applications including packetized video telephony and VoIP. Packet data users can share the same codes as other users. In advance of Release 6. This QoS architecture involves negotiation and prioritization of traffic in the radio-access network. the maximum theoretical downlink rate is just over 2 Mbps. In comparison. Background. the core network. In UMTS Release 99. a high-speed data channel has less spreading and fewer available channels. Real-time interactive data with controlled bandwidth and minimum delay such as VoIP or video conferencing. Consequently. each with a spreading factor of 4. the capabilities of devices. UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities Initial UMTS network deployments were based on 3GPP Release 99 specifications. 3. and the interfaces to external networks such as the Internet. 4. the network uses HSPA (HSDPA/HSUPA) for data. Although exact throughput depends on the channel sizes the operator chooses to make available. To further expand the number of effectively operating applications.95 This satisfies many communications-oriented applications. Conversational. as in voice channels. and the operator can employ more channels. applications can negotiate QoS parameters on an end-to-end basis between a mobile terminal and a fixed-end system across the Internet or private intranets. The commonly quoted rate of more than 2 Mbps downlink throughput for UMTS can be achieved by combining three data channels of 768 kbps. 95 Initial UMTS networks had peak uplink rates of 64 kbps or 128 kbps. With more spreading. or the network can assign dedicated channels to users. Peak downlink network speeds are 384 kbps. 2. This capability is essential for expanding the scope of supported applications. HSPA. Operators with Release 99 networks are upgrading them to Release 5 or Release 6. which included voice and data capabilities. EDGE. Release 5 has defined HSDPA and Release 6 has defined HSUPA. Continuous data with controlled bandwidth and some delay such as music or video. the uplink in HSDPA (Release 5) networks uses the Release 99 approach. Because Release 99 networks and devices are still in the field. but many deployments emphasize 384 kbps. UMTS employs a sophisticated QoS architecture for data that provides four fundamental traffic classes including: 1.Release 99 and higher order modulation schemes for HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 72 . Channel throughputs are determined by the amount of channel spreading. with user-achievable peak rates of 350 kbps. Interactive. this section describes the data service available with Release 99. Since then.
The actual throughput speeds a user can obtain with WCDMA Release 99 depend on the Radio Access Bearer (RAB) assigned by the network. Possible values include 768, 384, 128, 64, 32, and 16 kbps. The different rates correspond to the amount of spreading. A lower degree of spreading results in more code space assigned to that RAB; hence, higher throughput. In today’s Release 99 networks, operators have limited the range of operational data rates using Release 99 channels to 384 kbps as a result of the emergence of HSDPA, which provides a much more elegant way to reach data throughput in the 2 Mbps range and higher. Beyond the maximum throughput supported by the RAB assigned by the network, user throughput is also impacted by the radio conditions and the amount of data to transfer. The RAN takes these elements into account to continuously adjust the instantaneous transfer rate based on operational conditions and within the QoS constraints of the RAB. The network assigns RABs based on available resources. How the network assigns RABs varies by infrastructure vendor. WCDMA has lower network latency than EDGE, with about 100 to 200 msec measured in actual networks. Although UMTS Release 99 offers attractive data services, these services become much more efficient and more powerful with HSPA.
HSPA refers to networks that support both HSDPA and HSUPA. Most new deployments today are HSPA, and many operators are upgrading their HSDPA networks to HSPA. For example, in 2008, AT&T had upgraded most of its network to HSPA. By the end of 2008, HSPA will be deployed throughout the Americas. This section covers technical aspects of HSDPA, while the next section covers HSUPA. HSDPA, specified in 3GPP Release 5, is a high-performance packet-data service that delivers peak theoretical rates of 14 Mbps. Peak user-achievable throughput rates in initial deployments are well over 1 Mbps, and as high as 4 Mbps in some networks. HSDPA is fully backward-compatible with UMTS Release 99, and any application developed for Release 99 will work with HSDPA. The same radio carrier can simultaneously service UMTS voice and data users as well as HSDPA data users. HSDPA also has significantly lower latency, measured today on some networks as low as 70 msec on the data channel. HSDPA achieves its high speeds through techniques similar to those that push EDGE performance past GPRS including higher order modulation, variable coding, and soft combining, as well as through the addition of powerful new techniques such as fast scheduling. HSDPA elevates the performance level of WCDMA technology to provide broadband services, and it has the highest theoretical peak throughput of any cellular technology currently available. The higher spectral efficiency and higher data rates not only enable new classes of applications, but also support a greater number of users accessing the network. HSDPA achieves its performance gains from the following radio features:
High-speed channels shared in both code and time domains Short TTI Fast scheduling and user diversity Higher order modulation Fast link adaptation
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
These features function as follows: High-Speed Shared Channels and Short Transmission Time Interval: First, HSDPA uses high-speed data channels called High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels (HS-PDSCH). Up to 15 of these channels can operate in the 5 MHz WCDMA radio channel. Each uses a fixed spreading factor of 16. User transmissions are assigned to one or more of these channels for a short TTI of 2 msec, significantly less than the interval of 10 to 20 msec used in Release 99 WCDMA. The network can then readjust how users are assigned to different HS-PDSCH every 2 msec. The result is that resources are assigned in both time (the TTI interval) and code domains (the HS-PDSCH channels). Figure 29 illustrates different users obtaining different radio resources. Figure 29: High Speed–Downlink Shared Channels (Example)
2 msec Time
Fast Scheduling and User Diversity: Fast scheduling exploits the short TTI by assigning users channels that have the best instantaneous channel conditions, rather than in a round-robin fashion. Because channel conditions vary somewhat randomly across users, most users can be serviced with optimum radio conditions and thereby obtain optimum data throughput. Figure 30 shows how a scheduler might choose between two users based on their varying radio conditions to emphasize the user with better instantaneous signal quality. With about 30 users active in a sector, the network achieves significant user diversity and significantly higher spectral efficiency. The system also makes sure that each user receives a minimum level of throughput. This approach is sometimes called proportional fair scheduling.
EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation
Figure 30: User Diversity
User 1 Signal Quality High data rate
Low data rate
User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1
Higher Order Modulation: HSDPA uses both the modulation used in WCDMA—namely QPSK—and, under good radio conditions, an advanced modulation scheme—16 QAM. The benefit of 16 QAM is that 4 bits of data are transmitted in each radio symbol as opposed to 2 bits with QPSK. Data throughput is increased with 16 QAM, while QPSK is available under adverse conditions. HSPA Evolution will add 64 QAM modulation to further increase throughput rates. Note that 64QAM was available in Release 7 and the combination of MIMO and 64QAM will be in Release 8. Fast Link Adaptation: Depending on the condition of the radio channel, different levels of forward-error correction (channel coding) can also be employed. For example, a three-quarter coding rate means that three quarters of the bits transmitted are user bits and one quarter are error-correcting bits. The process of selecting and quickly updating the optimum modulation and coding rate is referred to as fast link adaptation. This is done in close coordination with fast scheduling, as described above. Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request: Another HSDPA technique is Fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (Fast Hybrid ARQ). “Fast” refers to the medium-access control mechanisms implemented in Node B (along with scheduling and link adaptation), as opposed to the BSC in GPRS/EDGE, and “hybrid” refers to a process of combining repeated data transmissions with prior transmissions to increase the likelihood of successful decoding. Managing and responding to real-time radio variations at the base station, as opposed to an internal network node, reduces delays and further improves overall data throughput. Using the approaches just described, HSDPA maximizes data throughputs and capacity and minimizes delays. For users, this translates to better network performance under loaded conditions, faster application performance, a greater range of applications that function well, and increased productivity. Field results validate the theoretical throughput results. With initial 1.8 Mbps peak-rate devices, vendors measured consistent throughput rates in actual deployments of over 1 Mbps. These rates rose to over 2 Mbps for 3.6 Mbps devices and are close to 4 Mbps for EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 75
6 3. This improvement enables not only higher peak HSDPA throughput speeds. typical devices supporting peak data rates of 3.2 Mbps devices. Table 13 defines the different categories of HSDPA devices. HSUPA Whereas HSDPA optimizes downlink performance.4 Mbps. Advanced radio technologies are becoming available.2 Mbps peak operation.9 1. (Soft channel bits are the number of bits the system uses for error correction.2 1. which improve the quality of the received radio signal prior to demodulation and decoding.7.2 14.4 0.8 1. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 76 . and some even support the maximum rate of 14. It results in an approximately 85 percent increase in overall cell throughput on the uplink and more than 50 percent gain in user throughput.8 Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both QPSK QPSK Soft Channel Bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800 HSPA technology is not standing still.6 Mbps or 7. and increased spectral efficiency. In 2008. Many operator networks support 7.2 7. Among these technologies are mobile-receive diversity and equalization (for example. MMSE). These improvements include higher throughputs.8 3.2 1. HSPA. HSUPA is standardized in Release 6.6 7. but makes these speeds available over a greater percentage of the coverage area. a significant benefit resulting in significantly improved application performance on HSPA networks EDGE. reduced latency. assuming other portions of the network (for example.2 Mbps became available. HSUPA also reduces packet delays. Networks and devices supporting HSUPA became available in 2007. backhaul) can support the high throughput rates.) Table 13: HSDPA Terminal Categories HS-DSCH Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Maximum Number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 L1 Peak QPSK/ Rate (Mbps) 16QAM 1.2 10. HSUPA—which uses the Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH)—constitutes a set of improvements that optimizes uplink performance.
46 Mbps 1. improvements will balance the capacity of the uplink with the capacity of the downlink. HSPA. which allows the base station to efficiently allocate radio resources Fast Hybrid ARQ.76 Mbps EDGE. by extension and for simplicity. HSUPA can achieve different throughput rates based on various parameters including the number of codes used.46 Mbps 1. some user applications transmit large amounts of data from the mobile station such as sending video clips or large presentation files.46 Mbps 2 Mbps 2. which allows faster responses to changing radio conditions and error conditions Fast Node B-based scheduling. HSUPA achieves its performance gains through the following approaches: An enhanced dedicated physical channel A short TTI. the spreading factor of the codes. and Fast Hybrid ARQ also serves to reduce latency. as illustrated in Table 14. which improves the efficiency of error processing The combination of TTI. Table 14: HSUPA Peak Throughput Rates HSUPA Category 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 Codes x Spreading 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 TTI 10 10 2 10 10 2 10 10 2 Transport Block Size 7296 14592 2919 14592 20000 5837 20000 20000 11520 Data Rate 0. which can benefit many applications as much as improved throughput.Although the primary downlink traffic channel supporting HSDPA serves is a shared channel designed for the support of services delivered through the packet-switched domain. the WCDMA-enhanced uplink capabilities are often identified in the literature as HSUPA. Nevertheless. Such an improved uplink benefits users in a number of ways. though it is likely that most networks will use the two approaches together. larger cell sizes.9 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 5. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 77 .73 Mbps 1. The improved uplink mechanisms also translate to better coverage and. the TTI value. HSUPA can operate with or without HSDPA in the downlink. the primary uplink traffic channel defined for HSUPA is a dedicated channel that could be used for services delivered through either the circuit-switched or the packetswitched domains. for rural deployments. as low as 2 msec. For instance. For future applications like VoIP. and the transport block size in bytes. fast scheduling.
are specified in 3GPP Release 6. The antenna spacing yields signals that have somewhat independent fading characteristics. The first approach is mobile-receive diversity. the combined signal can be more effectively decoded. This problem can be solved by advanced-receiver architectures with channel equalizers that yield additional capacity gains over HSDPA with receive diversity. because it results in a large capacity gain independent of the radio channel. will employ interference cancellation. This not only makes HSPA competitive. some of which are specified in Release 7 and some of which are being finalized in Release 8. But at higher speeds. These include advanced receivers. The combination of mobilereceive diversity and channel equalization (Type 3) is especially attractive. however. Alternate advanced-receiver approaches include interference cancellation and generalized rake receivers (G-Rake). relative to current HSDPA networks at 70 msec. Note that the different types of receivers are release-independent. EDGE. latency will fall below 50 msec. In optimized networks. MIMO. Higher-Order Modulation and One Tunnel Architecture. Type 3i devices. Beyond throughput enhancements. Wireless and networking technologists have defined a series of enhancements for HSPA. And with a later introduction of a 2 msec TTI. Type 2. Different vendors are emphasizing different approaches. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 78 . WiMAX. The goal in evolving HSPA is to exploit available radio technologies—largely enabled by increases in digital signal processing power—to maximize CDMA-based radio performance. latency will be as low as 30 msec. which uses channel equalization. however. Advanced Receivers One important area is advanced receivers for which 3GPP has specified a number of advanced designs. Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+) OFDMA systems have attracted considerable attention through technologies such as 3GPP LTE. Type 3i receivers will work and provide a capacity gain in a Release 5 network. which are not yet available. The performance requirements for advanced-receiver architectures. For example. Continuous Packet Connectivity. Receive diversity is effective even for small devices such as PC Card modems and smartphones. which uses mobile-receive diversity. Hence. although only with the addition of interference cancellation methods that boost SNR. it significantly extends the life of sizeable operator infrastructure investments. CDMA approaches can match OFDMA approaches in reduced channel bandwidths. HSPA. and UMB. which results in an almost doubling of downlink capacity when employed in conjunction with techniques such as channel equalization. This technique relies on the optimal combination of received signals from separate receiving antennas. These designs include Type 1. which includes a combination of receive diversity and channel equalization. HSUPA also significantly reduces latency. Current receiver architectures based on rake receivers are effective for speeds up to a few megabits per second. and Type 3. the combination of reduced symbol period and multipath interference results in inter-symbol interference and diminishes rake receiver performance. Category 6 devices will ultimately allow speeds close to 5 Mbps. As already discussed in this paper.Initial devices are Category 5 enabling peak user rates of close to 2 Mbps as measured in actual network deployments.
3GPP has standardized spatial multiplexing MIMO in Release 7 using Double Transmit Adaptive Array (D-TxAA). 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. through appropriate decoding. Figure 31: MIMO Using Multiple Paths to Boost Throughput and Capacity Encoder Decoder Tests of MIMO have proven very promising in WLANs operating in relative isolation where interference is not a dominant factor. Device vendors can selectively apply these enhancements to their higher performing devices. Whereas multipath is an impediment for other radio systems. campuses.96 96 For further details on these techniques. MIMO—as illustrated in Figure 31—actually exploits multipath. including both earlier devices that do not include these enhancements and later devices that do. Moreover. 2X2 MIMO can deliver cell throughput gains of about 80 percent. Spatial multiplexing MIMO should also benefit HSPA “hotspots” serving local areas such as airports. HSPA. however. often in combination with multiple radios and multiple parallel data streams. overall capacity gains will be more modest—in the range of 20 to 33 percent over mobile-receive diversity. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 79 . refer to the 3G Americas white paper “Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA. MIMO Another standardized capability is MIMO. and malls. where the technology will increase capacity and peak data rates. This results in multiple data paths effectively operating somewhat in parallel and. the network can support a combination of devices. Relative to a 1x1 antenna system.” EDGE. The most common use of the term “MIMO” applies to spatial multiplexing. The transmitter sends different data streams over each antenna. a technique that employs multiple transmit antennas and multiple receive antennas.What makes such enhancements attractive is that the networks do not require any changes other than increased capacity within the infrastructure to support the higher bandwidth. relying on signals to travel across different uncorrelated communications paths. In a fully loaded network with interference from adjacent cells. however. in a multiplicative gain in throughput.
HSPA uses 16 QAM on the downlink and QPSK on the uplink.Although MIMO can significantly improve peak rates. The goals of HSPA+ are to: Exploit the full potential of a CDMA approach before moving to an OFDM platform in 3GPP LTE. CPC allows both discontinuous uplink transmission and discontinuous downlink reception. Release 8 will include further enhancements. See Figure 32. which is enabled through other enhancements such as receive diversity and equalization. Higher order modulation requires a better SNR. CPC enhancements reduce the uplink interference created by the dedicated physical control channels of packet data users when those channels have no user data to transmit. in turn. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 80 . other techniques such as Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)—also a form of MIMO—may be even more effective than MIMO for improving capacity in high spectral efficiency systems employing a reuse factor of 1. Continuous Packet Connectivity In Release 7. these capabilities are referred to as HSPA+. which consumes the most power. 3GPP has standardized a number of features in Release 7 including higher order modulation and MIMO. where the modem can turn off its receiver after a certain period of HSDPA inactivity. Figure 32: Continuous Packet Connectivity Data Pilot Without CPC Data Pilot With CPC Higher Order Modulation Another way of increasing performance is to use higher order modulation. But radio links can achieve higher throughputs—adding 64 QAM on the downlink and 16 QAM on the uplink—precisely what is added in HSPA+. EDGE. CPC is especially beneficial to VoIP on the uplink. increases the number of simultaneously connected HSUPA users. because the radio can turn off between VoIP packets. HSPA+ Taking advantage of these various radio technologies. Collectively. HSPA. Achieve performance close to LTE in 5 MHz of spectrum. This.
Given the large amount of backhaul bandwidth required to support HSPA+. operators are likely to initially deploy HSPA+ in limited “hotspot” coverage areas such as airports. as well as additional MIMO radios at cell sites. however. and HSPA+ with 42 Mbps capability on the downlink and 11. as well as multicode-word MIMO. Sleep-to-data-transfer EDGE. This is mainly because HSPA MIMO supports closed-loop operation with precode weighting.5 HSPA as defined in Release 6 Release 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM. thereby facilitating the operation of both technologies.5 11. operators may choose to leverage the EPC/SAE planned for LTE. and in-building networks. As such.76 11. Allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data. With advances in backhaul transport like metropolitan Ethernet. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 81 .0 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 5. UL 16 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO. Be backward-compatible with previous systems while incurring no performance degradation with either earlier or newer devices. but HSPA+ will also more than double HSPA capacity as well as reduce latency below 25 msec. Facilitate migration from current HSPA infrastructure to HSPA+ infrastructure. UL 16 QAM Release 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO. Dual Carrier (anticipated in Release 9) 42. The prior discussion emphasizes throughput speeds.5 Beyond the peak rate of 42 Mbps defined in Release 8. and improved packet call setup time of below 500 msec. HSPA. Depending on the features implemented. operators will be able to expand coverage. DL 16 QAM. and enables the use of SIC receivers.16e-2005 (mobile WiMAX) in the same amount of spectrum. enterprise campuses.5 11. HSPA+ with 28 Mbps capability will be available for deployment by the end of 2009. It is also partly because HSPA supports Incremental Redundancy (IR) and has lower overhead than WiMAX. UL 16 QAM Release 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO DL 64 QAM. Table 15: HSPA Throughput Evolution Technology Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 14. HSPA+ can exceed the capabilities of IEEE 802. Table 15 summarizes the capabilities of HSPA and HSPA+ based on various methods.5 Mbps on the uplink could be ready for deployment by 2009 or 2010. Release 9 may specify 2X2 MIMO in combination with dual carrier operation which would further boost peak network rates to 84 Mbps.4 21.2 84 11. HSPA+ will also have improved latency performance of below 50 msec. Provide smooth interworking between HSPA+ and LTE.1 28.
Dual-Carrier HSPA 3GPP has defined a work item for Release 8 to investigate dual-carrier HSPA operation. HSPA. Certain upgrades will be simpler than others. From a deployment point of view. operators will be able to introduce HSPA+ capabilities through either a software upgrade or hardware expansions to existing cabinets to increase capacity. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 82 . there are benefits: Significantly higher peak throughputs available to users. however.times of less than 200 msec will improve users’ “always-connected” experience. those multiple antennas will facilitate MIMO deployment. The work item assumes two adjacent carriers. Although there is no increase in overall spectral efficiency. but with a less expensive infrastructure upgrade. For example. upgrading to 64-QAM support will be easier to implement than 2X2 MIMO for many networks. The following figure shows an analysis of dual-carrier performance using a cumulative distribution function. CDF indicates the probability of achieving a particular throughput rate and the figure demonstrates a consistent doubling of throughput. EDGE. especially in lightlyloaded networks. For networks that have implemented uplink diversity in the base station. and reduced power consumption with VoIP will result in talk times that are more than 50 percent higher. downlink operation and no MIMO. it will be possible to achieve a doubling of the 21 Mbps maximum rate available on each channel to 42 Mbps. In this configuration. Same maximum-throughput rate of 42 Mbps as using MIMO. This approach coordinates the operation of HSPA on two adjacent 5 MHz carriers so that data transmissions can achieve higher throughput rates.
especially on the packet-switched core network side where they provide synergies with the introduction of LTE. multi-carrier GRAKE2. 10% load CDF [%] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 RAKE. single-carrier GRAKE2. there is the option of a one-tunnel architecture by which the network establishes a direct transfer path for user data between RNC and GGSN while the SGSN still performs all control functions. The integrated RNC/NodeB for HSPA+ has been agreed-upon as an optional architecture alternative for packetswitched-based services. EDGE. are similar to the EPC/SAE architecture. These new architectures. as shown in Figure 34. multi-carrier 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Achievable bitrate [Mbps] One-Tunnel Architecture Another way HSPA performance can be improved is through a flatter architecture. 97 Source: 3G Americas member company contribution. multi-carrier GRAKE. There is also an integrated RNC/NodeB option in which RNC functions are integrated in the Node B. single-carrier RAKE. single-carrier GRAKE. This is particularly beneficial in femto cell deployments. HSPA. In Release 7. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 83 . This brings several benefits such as eliminating hardware in the SGSN and simplified engineering of the network. as an RNC would otherwise need to support thousands of femtocells.Figure 33: Dual-Carrier Performance97 100 90 80 70 Ped A.
) immediately beyond the radio access network. HSPA. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 84 . The other is VoIP. use the HSPA channels to carry the CS voice. The following figure shows the infrastructure changes required at the Node B and within the RNC. however.Figure 34: HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture98 Traditional HSPA Architecture GGSN User Plane Control Plane RNC Node B SGSN HSPA with One-Tunnel Possible HSPA+ with Architecture One-Tunnel Architecture GGSN SGSN RNC Node B Node B GGSN SGSN HSPA. but also within the infrastructure network. Doing so with VoIP. but then to connect the CS voice traffic back into the existing CS infrastructure (MSCs. HSPA Voice Support Voice support with WCDMA dedicated channels in UMTS networks is spectrally very efficient. however. There are. which is why it makes sense to use them to carry voice communications. CS Voice over HSPA HSPA channels employ many optimizations to obtain a high degree of data throughput. and to do so in a spectrally efficient manner. requires not only supporting packetized voice in the radio channel. reasons to consider alternate approaches including reducing power consumption and being able to support even more users. 2007. 98 Source: 3G Americas white paper. “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. and other advanced functions provide a compelling advantage for UMTS over competing technologies: The ability today to support voice and data services on the same carrier and across the whole available radio spectrum. to deliver data at ever-increasing broadband rates. One approach is called circuitswitched voice over HSPA.” EDGE. etc. HSPA+. to offer these services simultaneously to users. There is an elegant alternative: To packetize the circuit-switched voice traffic which is already in digital form. Moreover. current networks support simultaneous voice and data operation. This requires relatively straightforward changes in just the radio network and in devices.
allow operators to consolidate their infrastructure on an IP platform. Acts as a stepping stone to VoIP over HSPA/LTE in the future. which is using VoIP. This will eventually increase voice capacity.Figure 35: Implementation of HSPA CS Voice99 Scheduler prioritizes voice packets CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer depending on terminal capability Transport queues etc CS R99 AMR adaptation possible AMR adapt. Significantly improves battery life with voice communications. Provides a 50 to 100% capacity gain over current voice implementations. make it highly likely that operators will adopt it: Relatively easy to implement and deploy. but it is enhancements in 99 Source: 3G Americas white paper. HSPA. Supports both narrowband and wideband codecs. 2007. Enables faster call connections. listed below. Transparent to existing CS infrastructure. and enable innovative new applications that combine voice with data functions in the packet domain. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 85 . IuCS Combined to one carrier HSPA scheduler HSPA IuPS PS R99 NodeB RNC With this approach. operators will have another option of moving voice traffic over to these high-speed data channels. legacy mobile phones can continue using WCDMA-dedicated traffic channels for voice communications while new devices use HSPA channels. HSPA CS voice can be deployed with Release 7 or later networks. “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. VoIP is possible in Release 6.” EDGE. The many benefits of this approach. VoIP Once HSDPA and HSUPA are available.
VoIP will be implemented in conjunction with IMS. HSPA.6 0. Figure 36 shows a system’s voice capacity with the joint operation of circuitswitched and IP-based voice services. One attractive aspect of deploying VoIP with HSPA is that operators can smoothly migrate users from circuit-switched operation to packet-switched operation over time. EDGE. They range from 20 percent to as high as 100 percent with the implementation of interference cancellation and the minimization of IP overhead through a scheme called Robust Header Compression (ROHC). those based on IMS). Whereas packet voice is the only way voice will be supported in LTE. 3GPP LTE Although HSPA and HSPA+ offer a highly efficient broadband-wireless service that will enjoy success for the remainder of this decade and well into the next. some voice users can be on legacy circuit-switched voice and others can be on VoIP. LTE will allow operators to achieve even higher peak throughputs in higher spectrum bandwidth. Figure 36: Ability for UMTS to Support Circuit and Packet Voice Users100 1.2 1 VoIP CS CS + VoIP 0.4 0. Because the UMTS radio channel supports both circuit-switched voice and packetswitched data.Release 7 that make it highly efficient and thus attractive to network operators. packet voice will likely be used initially as part of other services (for example. packet voice requires a considerable amount of new infrastructure in the core network. As a result. with HSPA+. 3GPP is working on a project called Long Term Evolution as part of Release 8. discussed later in this paper.2 0 0 Power reserved for PS traffic (W) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Relative Capacity 0. and only over time will it transition to primary voice service. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 86 .8 PS Evolution VoIP capacity gains are quantified in detail in the main part of in this paper.4 1. This is because UMTS already has a highly efficient circuit-switched voice service and already allows simultaneous voice/data operation. Moreover. it may not be used immediately for primary voice services. Work on LTE 100 Source: 3G Americas member contribution.
and to less than 100 msec transition times from inactive to active. Initial possible deployment is targeted for 2010. which compromises power efficiency and. HSPA.8 326. operators will be able to easily migrate their networks and users from HSPA to LTE over time. WCDMA radio technology is basically as efficient as OFDM for delivering peak data rates of about 10 Mbps in 5 MHz of bandwidth. battery life. LTE uses OFDMA on the downlink. Table 16 shows LTE peak data rates based on different downlink and uplink designs. LTE capabilities include: Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth. Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz. 15. Reduced latency. thereby boosting spectral efficiency.4 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth. Uplink peak data rates up to 86.began in 2004 with an official work item started in 2006 and a completed specification expected in early 2009. covering 1. LTE uses an approach called SC-FDMA. which is somewhat similar to OFDMA. Operation in both TDD and FDD modes. Increased spectral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a factor of two to four. and LTE will operate in various radio channel sizes ranging from 1. 10. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 87 . however. Achieving peak rates in the 100 Mbps range with wider radio channels. 5.16e. and 20 MHz in the study phase.4 EDGE. a pure OFDMA approach results in high Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) of the signal. Because of scalable bandwidth. Table 16: LTE Peak Throughput Rates LTE Configuration Using 2X2 MIMO in the Downlink and 16 QAM in the Uplink Using 4X4 MIMO in the Downlink and 64 QAM in the Uplink Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 172.4. radio-access technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily coexist with HSPA and earlier networks. and it is not practical with current technology. Scheduling approaches in the frequency domain can also minimize interference. ultimately. however. The overall objective is to provide an extremely high performance. On the uplink.25 to 20 MHz.4 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 57. to 10 msec round-trip times between user equipment and the base station. Hence. 3. but has a 2 to 6 dB PAR advantage over the OFDMA method used by other technologies such as IEEE 802. would result in highly complex terminals.6 86. The OFDMA approach is also highly flexible in channelization. which is well suited to achieve high peak data rates in high-spectrum bandwidth. This is where OFDM provides a practical implementation advantage.
WiMAX systems that use a lower subcarrier spacing (~11 kHz) will be more impacted in high-speed conditions than LTE.0 msec. LTE maintains this spacing regardless of the overall channel bandwidth. the subcarriers have 15 kHz spacing from each other. It results in an almost complete elimination of multipath induced Intersymbol Interference (ISI). The CP is basically a guard time during which reflected signals will reach the receiver. This extended signal represents an OFDM symbol.7 sec) The multiple-access aspect of OFDMA comes from being able to assign different users different subcarriers over time. OFDM systems may lose their orthogonal nature as a result of the Doppler shift induced by the speed of the transmitter or the receiver. which otherwise makes extremely high data rate transmissions problematic. because of a highly efficient uplink. and the IFFT conserves that characteristic. In LTE.LTE is not only efficient for data but. which simplifies radio design. The number of subcarriers ranges from 72 in a 1. A minimum resource block that the system can assign to a user transmission consists of 12 subcarriers over 14 symbols in 1. The basic principle of OFDM is to split a high-rate data stream into a number of parallel low-rate data streams. In 10 MHz of spectrum. is extremely efficient for VoIP traffic. The composite signal is obtained after the IFFT is extended by repeating the initial part of the signal (called the Cyclic Prefix [CP]). 101 Source: 3GPP Multi-member analysis. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 88 . HSPA. Figure 37: OFDM Symbol with Cyclic Prefix Cyclic Prefix (4.8 sec) Data (66. The system is called orthogonal. especially in supporting radio channels of different widths.4 MHz channel to 1.200 in a 20 MHz channel. and then combined to form the broadband stream using a mathematical algorithm called an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) that is implemented in digital-signal processors. LTE VoIP capacity will reach almost 500 users. The different narrowband streams are generated in the frequency domain. each a narrowband signal carried by a subcarrier. EDGE.101 LTE implements OFDM in the downlink. because the subcarriers are generated in the frequency domain (making them inherently orthogonal). 3GPP specifically selected the subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz to avoid any performance degradation in high-speed conditions. Figure 38 shows how the system can assign these resource blocks to different users over both time and frequency.
and 4X4. but by using a different one third of the subcarriers in each sector. being fully IP-based. 4G. The looser frequency reduces overall spectral efficiency. On the uplink. All of these systems are on par with HSPA/HSPA+ and LTE. but delivers high peak rates to users. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 89 . operators may deploy Fourth Generation (4G) networks using LTE technology as a foundation. SU-MIMO is more complex to implement as it requires two parallel radio transmit chains in the mobile device. 4X4 will be most likely used initially in femto cells. and supporting full network agility for handovers between different types of networks (for example. ITU is the internationally recognized organization producing the official definition of next-generation wireless technologies. 4G to 3G to WLAN). Currently. The first LTE release thus incorporates MU-MIMO with SU-MIMO deferred for the second LTE release. By using all the subcarriers in each sector. there are no official standards or formal definitions for 4G. Preliminary research is focused on technologies capable of delivering peak rates of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) in hotspottype scenarios and 100 Mbps while mobile. most likely in new spectrum. HSPA. After that. as discussed above in the section “Spectrum. Initial deployment will likely be 2x2. and use of the term “4G” for them is inappropriate. Through its Radio Communications EDGE. whereas MU-MIMO does not require any additional implementation at the device. IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced LTE will address the market needs of the next decade. the system would operate at a frequency reuse of 1.Figure 38: LTE OFDMA Downlink Resource Assignment in Time and Frequency User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency User 4 Time Minimum resource block consists of 14 symbols and 12 subcarriers By having control over which subcarriers are assigned in which sectors. these include 2X2. LTE is specified for a variety of MIMO configurations. the system achieves a looser frequency reuse of 1/3. 4X2 (four antennas at the base station). On the downlink. The high data rates will require radio channels wider than 20MHz. there are two possible approaches: single user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). however. LTE can easily control frequency reuse.” Some companies are attempting to co-opt the term “4G” to refer to wireless systems that promise performance beyond current 3G systems.
. there are a variety of wireless research and development projects. vendors will be looking at how to leverage and enhance current OFDMA systems like LTE. A TDD radio interface can dynamically adjust the downlink-to-uplink ratio accordingly. and WiMAX to meet the requirements of IMT-Advanced. Optimization in narrower bands (e. 3GPP will address the requirements in a version of LTE called LTE Advanced for which specifications could become available in 2011.0.. Many data applications.g. HSPA. especially for applications like Web browsing or multimedia downloads.g. but ideas under consideration include: Evolution of current OFDMA approaches. research under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Note that for EDGE. Globally. WiMAX will address the IMT-Advanced requirements in a version called Mobile WiMAX 2. and the Next Generation Mobile Committee (NGMC). in which both transmit and receive functions alternate in time on the same radio channel. which need balanced links—namely.” The IMT-Advanced project schedule shows the requirements and evaluation criteria being published in 2008 with submissions to occur through 2009. Wider radio channels (e. ITU published a document. ITU is currently working on a definition of 4G using the name IMTAdvanced.Sector (ITU-R). 4X4). 3GPP will specify LTE Advanced in Release 10. TDD does not provide any inherent advantage for voice functions. UMB.16m. to be specified in IEEE 802. titled “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000. in which the operator uses different radio bands for transmit and receive. however. hence balancing both forward-link and reverse-link capacity. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 90 . Ability to share bands with other services. As background for this project. An alternate approach is TDD. less than 20 MHz) due to spectrum constraints in some deployments. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). it could be well toward the end of the next decade before any IMT-Advanced system has a large subscriber base. UMTS TDD Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployments are based on FDD. These include the Wireless World Research Forum. High-order MIMO (e. Needless to say. 50 to 100 MHz). often with the downlink consuming more bandwidth than the uplink. 3GPP specifications include a TDD version of UMTS. Wireless World Initiatives. No details are available yet on these advanced technologies. Multi-channel operation in either same or different frequency bands. Current 3G systems came about through ITU’s prior project on International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). and organizations that are advancing the capabilities of wireless systems. the Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea. Recommendation ITU-R M.g. called UMTS TDD.. are asymmetric. Japan Mobile IT Forum (mITF).1645. initiatives. Given this paper’s projection of mid-next-decade before OFDMA-based systems like LTE have a large percentage of subscribers. the same amount of capacity in both the uplink and the downlink.
and gateways to make them possible. Specified through 3GPP as a variant of the UMTS TDD System and operating with a 1. there is limited spectrum specifically allocated for TDD systems. EDGE. TD-SCDMA technology is not as mature as UMTS and CDMA2000. There has been little deployment of UMTS TDD. Future TDD deployments of 3GPP technologies are likely to be based on LTE.28 Megachips per second (Mcps) chip rate against 3. with 2008 being the first year of limited deployments in China in time for the Olympic Games. thereby making the overall system efficiency relatively poor. The core networking protocol used within IMS is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). however. and it is possible for the same core network to support both UMTS and TD-SCDMA radio-access networks. or in the future LTE in TDD mode. it provides a framework of application servers. which includes the companion Session Description Protocol (SDP) used to convey configuration information such as supported voice codecs. The UMTS TDD specification also includes the capability to use joint detection in receiver-signal processing. TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA is one of the official 3G wireless technologies being developed.UMTS FDD. Potential applications include video sharing. which offers improved performance. For this spectrum. IMS IMS is a service platform that allows operators to support IP multimedia applications. acquired by NextWave in May 2007. Asia. is a good choice. PoC. interactive gaming. and the Pacific region have licensed spectrum available specifically for TDD systems. The vendor IP Wireless. UMTS TDD. TDSCDMA uses the same core network as UMTS. In the United States.102 UMTS TDD is not a good choice in FDD bands. As discussed in more detail in the “WiMAX” section. VoIP. One consideration.84 Mcps for UMTS TDD. subscriber databases. relates to available spectrum. IMS by itself does not provide all these applications. It is also a good choice in any spectrum that does not provide a duplex gap between forward and reverse links. which may be problematic in certain bands. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 91 . mostly for deployment in China. Rather. Various countries around the world including Europe. but has never been used. had commercialized UMTS TDD. the primary attribute of TD-SCDMA is that it is designed to support very high subscriber densities. HSPA. the higher spectral efficiency achievable in the downlink versus the uplink is critical in addressing the asymmetrical nature of most data traffic. This makes it a possible alternative for wireless local loops. Though there are no planned deployments in any country other than China. The exact services will depend on cellular operators and application developers that make these applications available to operators. TD-SCDMA could theoretically be deployed anywhere unpaired spectrum is available—such as the bands licensed for UMTS TDD—assuming appropriate resolution of regulatory issues. TDD systems require network synchronization and careful coordination between operators or guard bands. and so forth. it would not be able to operate effectively in both bands. streaming video. Other protocols include Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) for transporting actual 102 The 1910-1920 MHz band targeted unlicensed TDD systems.
Other organizations supporting IMS include the GSM Association (GSMA). These include the Internet Engineering Taskforce (IETF). EDGE. CableLabs. IMS operates just outside the packet core. numerous other organizations around the world are supporting IMS. and likely will. tighter integration with the Internet. the Telecoms and Internet Converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN). IMS is relatively independent of the radio-access network and can. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Although originally specified by 3GPP. Wi-Fi. Operators looking to roll out VoIP over networks could also use IMS. The QoS mechanisms in UMTS will be an important component of some IMS applications. and one initial application under consideration—PoC—is being specified by the Open Mobile Alliance. and a lower cost infrastructure that is based on IP building blocks used for both voice and data services. As shown in Figure 39. which specifies key protocols such as SIP. the ITU. and wireline networks. This allows operators to potentially deliver data and voice services at lower cost.sessions. 3GPP initially introduced IMS in Release 5 and has enhanced it in each subsequent specification release. thus providing these services at lower prices and further driving demand and usage. The Parlay Group. 3GPP2. Figure 39: IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS Home Subscriber Server (HSS) DIAMETER SIP Application Server SIP Media Resource Function Control Media Resource Gateway Control Call Session Control Function (CSCF) (SIP Proxy) UMTS/HSPA Packet Core Network DSL Wi-Fi Multiple Possible Access Networks The benefits of using IMS include handling all communication in the packet domain. the ETSI. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 92 . which specifies endto-end service-layer applications. IMS applications can reside either in the operator’s network or in third-party networks including enterprises. be used by other radio-access networks or wireline networks. This allows operators to offer common services across 3G. By managing services and applications centrally—and independently of the access network—IMS can enable network convergence. and the Java Community Process (JCP). Operators are already trialing IMS. HSPA. Other applications include picture and video sharing that occur in parallel with voice communications. and the Open Mobile Alliance.
because the mobile system can combine the signal from multiple base stations and because of the narrowband nature of OFDM. which various operators around the world have opted to do. Normally. these signals would interfere with each other. every subscriber unit in a service area receives the information. EDGE.Broadcast/Multicast Services An important capability for 3G and evolved 3G systems is broadcasting and multicasting. The result is highly efficient WCDMAbased broadcast transmission technology that matches the benefits of OFDMA-based broadcast approaches. This enables the receiver to constructively superpose multiple MBSFN cell transmissions. the LTE broadcast capability is expected to be quite efficient. Because multiple users in a cell are tuned to the same content. Release 7 includes optimizations through a solution called multicast/broadcast single-frequency network operation which involves simultaneous transmission of the exact waveform across multiple cells. Service areas for both broadcast and multicast can span either the entire network or a specific geographical area. broadcasting and multicasting result in much greater spectrum efficiency for services such as mobile TV. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 93 . This creates a much more efficient approach for delivering content such as video programming to which multiple users have subscriptions. wherein multiple users receive the same information using the same radio resource. whereas in a multicast. HSPA. 3GPP defined highly-efficient broadcast/multicast capabilities for UMTS in Release 6 with MBMS. In a broadcast. LTE will also have a broadcast/multicast capability. As such. Figure 40: OFDM Enables Efficient Broadcasting An alternate approach for mobile TV is to use an entirely separate broadcast network with technologies such as Digital Video Broadcasting–Handheld (DVB-H) or Media Forward Link Only (MediaFLO). Though this requires a separate radio in the mobile device. the networks are highly optimized for broadcast. only users with subscriptions receive the information. OFDM is particularly well-suited for broadcasting.
which will be essential for enabling a rich set of multimedia-based services. for example. HSPA. Figure 41 shows the EPC/SAE architecture. EPC/SAE could also be deployed for use with HSPA+ where it could provide a stepping-stone to LTE. EPC/SAE will use IMS as a component. For packet flow. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 94 . serving gateway. EDGE. EPC/SAE also allows integration of non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX. called Evolved Node B (eNodeB) and the Access Gateway (AGW). Another architectural option is to reverse the topology. The AGW has both control functions. handled through the Mobile Management Entity (MME). so that the EPC/SAE Access Gateway is located close to the RAN in a distributed fashion to reduce latency while the MME is centrally located to minimize complexity and cost. EPC/SAE will be optimized for all services to be delivered via IP in a manner that is as efficient as possible—through minimization of latency within the system. Meanwhile. and a Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway that addresses service requirements and also terminates access by non-3GPP networks. One important performance aspect of EPC/SAE is a flatter architecture. It will also manage QoS across the whole system. EPC/SAE includes two network elements. based on vendor implementations and deployment scenarios.EPC/SAE 3GPP is defining EPC/SAE in Release 8 as a framework for an evolution or migration of the 3GPP system to a higher-data-rate. lower-latency. the AGW integrates the functions traditionally performed by the SGSN and GGSN. which will be important for LTE operators that must simultaneously support GSM /EDGE/UMTS/HSPA customers. which previously was a separate node controlling multiple Node Bs. It will support service continuity across heterogeneous networks. and PDN gateways can be collocated in the same physical node or distributed. The MME. The user plane functions consist of two elements: A serving gateway that addresses 3GPP mobility and terminates eNodeB connections. The focus of this work is on the packetswitched domain with the assumption that the system will support all services—including voice—in this domain. The EPC/SAE architecture is similar to the HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture discussed in the “HSPA+” section that allows for easy integration of HSPA networks to the EPC/SAE. Although it will most likely be deployed in conjunction with LTE. The eNodeB (base station) integrates the functions traditionally performed by the radio-network controller. and user plane (data communications) functions. packet-optimized system that supports multiple radio-access technologies.
allocates IP addresses. enforces policy. LTE User Plane Serving Gateway PDN Gateway IP Services. The MME that supports user equipment context and identity as well as authenticates and authorizes users. does routing. e. The PDN gateway that controls IP data services. The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) that manages QoS aspects..Figure 41: EPC/SAE Architecture GERAN Rel’7 Legacy GSM/UMTS SGSN UTRAN One-Tunnel Option Control MME PCRF Evolved RAN. IMS EPC/SAE Access Gateway Non 3GPP IP Access Elements of the SAE architecture include: Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN networks connected via SGSN. and provides access for non-3GPP access networks. Support for new radio-access networks such as LTE.g. EDGE. HSPA. The Serving Gateway that terminates the interface toward the 3GPP radio-access networks. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 95 .
LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 96 .Acronyms The following acronyms are used in this paper.Capital Expenditure CDF – Cumulative Distribution Function CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CP – Cyclic Prefix CPC – Continuous Packet Connectivity CRM – Customer Relationship Management DAS – Downlink “A” Level Scheme dB – Decibel DBS – Downlink “B” Level Scheme DC-HSPA – Dual Carrier HSPA DSL – Digital Subscriber Line EDGE. 1xEV-DO – One Carrier Evolved. Data Optimized 1xEV-DV – One Carrier Evolved. Data Voice 1XRTT – One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology 2G – Second Generation 3G – Third Generation 3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2 – Third Generation Partnership Project 2 4G – Fourth Generation 8-PSK – Octagonal Phase Shift Keying AAS – Adaptive Antenna Systems AGW – Access Gateway AMR – Adaptive Multi Rate ANSI – American National Standards Institute ARQ – Automatic Repeat Request ARPU – Average Revenue Per User ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode AWGN – Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel BCCH – Broadcast Control Channel bps – bits per second BRS – Broadband Radio Service BSC – Base Station Controller BTS – Base Transceiving Station C/I – Carrier to Interference Ratio CAPEX. Acronyms are defined on first use. HSPA.
DTM – Dual Transfer Mode D-TxAA – Double Transmit Adaptive Array DVB-H – Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld E–DCH – Enhanced Dedicated Channel EBCMCS – Enhanced Broadcast Multicast Services EDGE – Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution EGPRS – Enhanced General Packet Radio Service eNodeB – Evolved Node B EPS – Evolved Packet System ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning ETRI – Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute ETSI – European Telecommunications Institute E-UTRAN – Enhanced UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network EV-DO – One Carrier Evolved. Data Optimized EV-DV – One Carrier Evolved. Data Voice EVRC – Enhanced Variable Rate Codec FCC – Federal Communications Commission FDD – Frequency Division Duplex Flash OFDM – Fast Low-Latency Access with Seamless Handoff OFDM FLO – Forward Link Only FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence FP7 – Seventh Framework Programme FTP – File Transfer Protocol G-Rake – Generalized Rake Receiver Gbps – Gigabits Per Second GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Network GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node GHz — Gigahertz GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GPRS – General Packet Radio Service GSM – Global System for Mobile communications GSMA – GSM Association HARQ – Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request HD – High Definition HLR – Home Location Register HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access HS-PDSCH . LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 97 .High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels HSPA – High Speed Packet Access (HSDPA with HSUPA) HSPA+ – HSPA Evolution HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access EDGE. HSPA.
LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 98 .Intellectual Property Rights IP – Internet Protocol IPTV – Internet Protocol Television IR – Incremental Redundancy ISI – Intersymbol Interference ISP – Internet Service Provider ITU – International Telecommunications Union JCP – Java Community Process kbps – Kilobits Per Second kHz — Kilohertz km – Kilometer LSTI – LTE/SAE Trial Initiative MAC – Medium Access Control MBMS .Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service Mbps – Megabits Per Second Mcps – Megachips Per Second MCS – Modulation and Coding Scheme MediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only MHz – Megahertz MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output mITF – Japan Mobile IT Forum MMDS – Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service MME – Mobile Management Entity MMSE – Minimum Mean Square Error MRxD – Mobile Receive Diversity MSC – Mobile Switching Center MU-MIMO – Multi-User MIMO msec – millisecond NGMC – Next Generation Mobile Committee OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access PAR – Peak to Average Ratio EDGE.Hz – Hertz ICT – Information and Communication Technologies IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IETF – Internet Engineering Taskforce IFFT – Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IM – Instant Messaging IMS – IP Multimedia Subsystem IMT – International Mobile Telecommunications IPR . HSPA.
LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 99 . HSPA.PBCCH – Packet Broadcast Control Channel PCRF – Policy Control and Charging Rules Function PCS – Personal Communications Service PHY – Physical Layer PDN – Packet Data Network PoC – Push-to-talk over Cellular QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QoS – Quality of Service QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RAB – Radio Access Bearer RAN – Radio Access Network RF – Radio Frequency RNC – Radio Network Controller ROHC – Robust Header Compression RTP – Real Time Transport Protocol RTSP – Real Time Streaming Protocol SC-FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SAE – System Architecture Evolution SDMA – Space Division Multiple Access SDP – Session Description Protocol SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node SIC – Successive Interference Cancellation SIP – Session Initiation Protocol SMS – Short Message Service SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio SU-MIMO – Single User MIMO TCH – Traffic Channel TDD – Time Division Duplex TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access TD-SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access TD-CDMA – Time Division Code Division Multiple Access TIA/EIA – Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industry Association TISPAN – Telecoms and Internet converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks TTI – Transmission Time Interval UAS – Uplink “A” Level Scheme UBS – Uplink “B” Level Scheme UMA – Unlicensed Mobile Access UMB – Ultra Mobile Broadband UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System s – Microseconds EDGE.
org.pdf. HSPA.” July 2006. 3G Americas: “Global UMTS and HSPA Operator Status”.” August 1.3gamericas. 3G Americas: “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. submission to 3G Americas Arthur D Little: “HSPA and Mobile WiMAX for Mobile Broadband Wireless Access – An Independent Report Prepared for the GSM Association. available for free download on its Web site: http://www. June 2008 Update.com/ReportPDF/ProductSheet/BI-SOS-PS.UTRAN – UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VDSL – Very High Speed DSL VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol VPN – Virtual Private Network WAP – Wireless Application Protocol WCDMA – Wideband CDMA Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity WiMAX – Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network WMAN – Wireless Metropolitan Area Network WRC-07 – World Radiocommunication Conference 2007 Additional Information 3G Americas maintains complete and current lists of market information. VoIP. 2008. Multi-vendor assessment. July 2007. at info@3gamericas. HSPA and SAE/LTE”. 3GPP LTE-Advanced Workshop. April 2008. please call +1 425 372 8922 or e-mail Krissy Gochnour. Downlink. March 27. 2007. AT&T: “Ideas on LTE-Advanced”. 3G Americas: “UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. If there are any questions regarding the download of this information. including EDGE. 3GPP: LTE Performance Summary. 2007. July 2007. “HSPA: Keys to a Successful Broadband Access Strategy”. ABI Research: press release on study “Mobile Business Applications and Services.org. June 2008. 2007. http://www. HSPA and SAE/LTE”. Alcatel Lucent:”Technology Comparison”. Public Relations Administrator. July 11. AT&T: Tom Keathley. Uplink. 2008. EDGE. and HSDPA deployments worldwide. Berg Insight: Smartphone Operating Systems. UMTS.berginsight.” References 3G Americas: “Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA – 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 100 .
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whether direct. HSPA. Rysavy Research disclaims and in no event shall be liable for any losses or damages of any kind. or punitive arising out of or in any way related to the use of the information. Rysavy Research provides this information solely on the basis that you will take responsibility for making your own assessments of the information. EDGE.The contents of this paper reflect the research. indirect. Rysavy Research does not warrant that the information is error-free. analysis and conclusions of Rysavy Research and may not necessarily represent the comprehensive opinions and individual view points of each particular 3G Americas Board member company. Although Rysavy Research has exercised reasonable care in providing this information to you. LTE: Broadband Innovation Page 104 . consequential. incidental. Rysavy Research provides this document and the information contained herein to you for informational purposes only.
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