You are on page 1of 223
IAN TALBOT Pakistan A Modern History HURST & COMPANY, LONDON Fim plished in the United Kingdom by CHist & Co. (Publisher) Lid, 8 King Sweet, London WC2E 812 1 1998 by lan Tahoe AIL aus Yeserved Prin in aa ISBNs T-8S068-381-8 (csebound) 1785065-385-2 (paperback) PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ‘The task of writing Pakistan’s history since independence isan onerous ‘one. The tumulivous and contested nature of the county's political ‘evelopment compounds the problems relating to souree material for ‘contemporary history. Documents relating to soch controversial events ‘the break-up of the country in 1971, the Rawalpindi and Argatala ‘Conspiracy cases andthe circumstances of General Zia-ul Hag/'s death ‘may never be made available tothe historian. Indeed few countries’ Nistories ean be 80 marked by conspiracy thevies, allegations and un- resolved mysteries concerning a gamut of subjects fom election Figgings and attempted coups, trots, massacres and. assassinations "This book seeks to make sense of Pakistan's history by examining the interplay between colonial inheritnoes and contemporary strategic and socio-economic environments. Equally imporant is the interplay between the reional and national levels of polities. The state's response {to pressures fr inereased political participation and devolution of power has been of crucial imporance, as has the perception by minorities, ‘of the "Punjabsation” of Pakistan. Finally the work draws attention to the long-term problems of weak political insitutionalisation and Viceregaism which are rooted inthe colonial past ‘This study has emerged out ofa longstanding interest inthe history ‘of the creation of Pakistan. Many frends and colleagues have helped in my journey of intelectual understanding. I would like to thank the following for thee assistance and encouragement inthe writing ofthis particular study: Profesor Leslie Wolf Philips for his comments on ‘an eatie daft of Chapter 8, Dr Ifikhar Malik, Dr Yunas Samad, De ‘Muhammad Waseem and Dr Gutharpal Singh for their encouragement ‘and ave, and Professor James Manor for enabling me to be a Research Fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies during the completion ‘ofthe text. The work could not have been underaken so expeitiously without British Academy Senior ResearchFellowship. Tam als grateful to The Scouloudi Foundation Historical Awards for financially supporting ‘my period of research at the India Office Library and to The Nulfild ‘Foundation for supporting wha proved tobe a highly productive research visit 10 Washington, DC Tam also grateful to the library staf at Coventry University for courteously dealing with what must have seemed an unending Ist of requests for interlibrary loan materials. Thanks are due to all those vi Preface and Acknowledgements who generously gave of ther time during the interviews for this work Tam once again indebted to Lois for her forbearance and to. Matin for his patience inthe restrictions on his computer time atthe end ‘ofthe production ofthis manuscript, Finally, I am grateful to Michael Dwyer of C. Hurst & Co. for his encouragement during all sages of the production of this work. Any errs of fact or omission are my responsibility alone, Coventry and London, aN Tato March 1998 CONTENTS Preface and Acknowledgements page v Abbreviations vit Glossary wi Introdvetion 1 Part I: THE HISTORICAL INHERITANCE 1. ) Pakistan: Land, Society and Economy 2 ast england the problem of national negation 2 Language and police ident n Pakistan 25 lam n Piradert politics and fudation x0 Pokistn since 1971 Fn Pose 1971 soca and economic change 8 |Popsdaton growth x» | Migration a 2% ae growth ofthe mide lasses 46 2. Colonial Rue, Auboraranism and Retional History in Non Wos Tada 2 Colonial adninsration in the Maslimmajority areas. $3 The Brith recur sae tn North Wea Ind se 3. The Pakian Movement: is Dynamics and Legis 66 Pari a The Unions legacy n Tr legacy ofthe compas for Patison 3 Sindh 14 The North-West Fromier Province a The Frontier Muslim League 9 Bengal 87