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Nursery Book

Nursery Book

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Published by Gobind Brar

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Published by: Gobind Brar on Sep 10, 2010
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Sections

  • Introduction
  • Tool and equipments:
  • Location and Layout of Nursery
  • Suitable crops:
  • Necessity of Nursery:
  • Soil Preparation
  • Nursery bed preparation
  • Water Management:
  • Nutrient Management:
  • Nutrient deficiency symptoms and their corrections in plants
  • Weed management:
  • Disease Management:
  • Pest management:
  • Temperature and humidity regulation:
  • Modern Nursery Management
  • Components of Modern nursery:
  • Model Nursery Layout:
  • Miscellaneous propagating structures
  • Developments in Nursery production:
  • Nursery under shade net:
  • Soil and Climate
  • Production of planting material
  • Raising nursery
  • Poly bag nursery
  • Germination percentage
  • Establishment of a plantation
  • Varieties
  • Method of Propagation
  • Method of seed production
  • Mother palm selection
  • Seed propagation
  • Method of seedling production
  • Standards of the planting material
  • Planting time
  • Diseases and pest incidences
  • Collar rot
  • SPICES
  • Climate and Soil
  • Varieties Suitable For the Islands Condition
  • Propagation
  • Section of mother vines
  • Conventional Method (through cuttings)
  • Serpentine Method
  • Rapid Multiplication Method
  • Air Layering
  • Test for vigour of seedlings
  • Nursery Practices
  • NUTMEG
  • Propagation and Nursery Techniques
  • Epicotyl Grafting Technique
  • Nursery Techniques
  • Types of nursery beds:
  • Protected structure for seedling raising
  • Solarization of nursery beds:
  • Method of soil solarization:
  • Types of Containers
  • Growing media for seedling trays
  • Advantages
  • Method of seedling raising in seedling trays
  • Raising off-season nurseries:
  • Basic requirements:
  • Preliminary considerations:
  • Seedling Production using Seedling Trays:
  • Method of soil solarization in nursery bed
  • Methods of Vegetative Propagation:
  • Stooling:
  • Air layering:
  • Management of plants after propagation:
  • Points to be remembered while labeling:
  • BANANA AND PLANTAIN
  • Tissue culture plants
  • Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
  • Raising of rootstocks
  • Veneer grafting
  • Stone or epicotyl grafting
  • Care of nursery plants
  • Plant Protection Measures
  • Method of Sib Mating:
  • Patch Budding
  • Airlayering
  • Soft-wood /Wedge grafting
  • Important considerations in quality plant material production
  • Intrinsic aspects
  • Sources of quality planting material
  • Field grown nursery:
  • Container plant production:
  • Solarization for nursery bed sterilization
  • Propagation Techniques
  • Budding Technique:
  • The Important methods of propagation
  • Plug production of flower seedlings
  • Protective structure for seedling production
  • Rooting and Growing Media
  • Qualities of a ideal rooting media:
  • Media for propagation and growing nursery plants
  • Lay out and Planning Good Nursery
  • A.Selection of site Location:
  • B.Planning and layout of a nursery
  • C. Structures for nursery:
  • General Nursery Management Practices
  • Shade Nets
  • Nursery Plant Protection
  • Disease management:
  • Pest Scales
  • Leaf Eating Caterpillars
  • Leaf Beetles and Weevils
  • Diseases
  • Symptoms and Management of Nutrients
  • Nutrient deficiency symptoms in plants
  • A. Older or lower leaves affected
  • B. New or bud leaves affected (symptoms localised)
  • Control measures

Nursery Management of Horticultural Crops

Introduction
The humid tropical climatic conditions of Andaman & Nicobar Islands facilitate cultivation of wide range of tropical horticultural crops. Since many years these crops dominated the agricultural sector are presently considered as key components for crop diversification. But their importance has increased in recent years due to increased demand of quality foods and their economic potential and suitability to the region. The erratic rainfall pattern and excessive humidity created problems for efficient utilization of immense potential of horticultural crops in Islands. In era of commercial and high value agriculture, horticultural crops are front runners for betterment of small and marginal farmers in the Islands. Therefore, utilization of new scientific innovation and intervention in horticultural sector is become imperative for sustainable agricultural development of these fragile Islands. Nursery is a place where plants are cultivated and grown to usable size. The nursery management gained a status of commercial venture where retailer nurseries sell planting materials to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to other nurseries and to commercial landscape gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Since most of the horticultural crops are propagated by the nurseries, the document covers all the related aspects to nursery for production of quality planting materials.
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Tool and equipments:
Conventional nursery : Spade, khurpi, watering cane, fork, hoe, garden line, roller, basket, sirki, polythyne sheet, sprayer, alkathene sheet, nose-cane, duster, sticks, tags etc. Hi-tech nursery: Plug trays, perforated plastic trays, strip peat pots, nursery stand, sprinklers, protected structures, water pumping motor, media mixture, rakers, temperature control devices, humidity control devices, exhausters, media pressure, seed dibbler, etc.

Location and Layout of Nursery
For selecting an area for establishing nursery it is worthwhile to consider the following points: Nursery should be raised in such place where no water stagnation is experienced, and have good drainage system. Land for nursery should be well drained and located at on a high level. The soil for nursery should be sandy loam and normal in PH (around 6.5-7.0). The plot for nursery should be selected near to a water source. Nursery plots should be chosen near the farm building, so that frequent supervision can be made easily.
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Nursery plots should be away from the shady places. Nursery plots should be selected at one side of the field to isolate the other fields for doing cultural practices easily. Site should be safe from stray animals and excessive diseases and pest attacks.

Suitable crops:
Raising nursery from seeds and other planting materials is easy and convenient way for ensuring better germination and root development. The planting material of horticultural crops is multiplied under nursery conditions with proper care and management for raising healthy, vigorous and disease free seedlings. In general, vegetable crops are divided into three groups based on their relative ease for transplanting. Crops like Beet root, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, tomato and lettuce are efficient in water absorption and rapidly from new roots after transplanting. Vegetable crops that are moderately easy for transplanting are brinjal, onion, sweet pepper, chilli and celery which do not absorb water as efficiently as crops that are easy to transplant but they form new roots relatively quickly. The vegetable crops which are difficult to transplant are cucurbits, sweet corn which requires special care during nursery raising and transplanting. Most of fruits and tree spices are slow growing and multiplied in nursery for better seed germination and plant survival. It becomes convenient to utilize various budding and grafting tools under nursery conditions. Therefore, most of fruit
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crops are multiplied and propagated under nursery conditions. Necessity of Nursery: Seedlings not only reduces the crop span but also increases the uniformity of the crop and thus. the shrubs and herbs of ornamental nature are multiplied under nursery conditions for their faster growth and development. 4 . Besides. if grown under protected conditions. Nursery provide favourable climate to emerging plants for their better growth and development. Transplanting of seedlings also eliminates the need for thinning and provides good opportunities for virus free vigorous and off-season nursery. The effective utilization of unfavourable period by preparing nursery under protected conditions. Effective and timely plant protection measures are possible with minimal efforts. It is easy and convenient to manage seedlings under small area. ornamental plants. spices and some fruits can be economized through nursery. Effective input utilization for crop production by reducing initial stage crop infestations and interferences. harvesting as compared to direct sown crops. Nursery production help in maintaining effective plant stand in shortest possible time through gap fillings. Seed cost of some crops like hybrid vegetables.

soil should be worked to a fine tilth by repeated ploughing and spading. In humid and rain prone areas nursery place should be well protected from heavy rains through protected structures.Requisitions of Nursery Management Site for nursery should be selected at such places where abundant sunshine and proper ventilation is available. After sowing the seed in nursery. The site should be nearer to irrigation facilities and easily accessible. It should be protected from stray animals. Soil Preparation Nursery bed preparation is an important step in crop management because it largely affects crop stand and its performance at field level. Nursery site should be on higher location so that water stagnation is avoidable. rats etc. cover the seeds with mixture of well rotten compost + friable soil + sand (2:1:1) and mulch with paddy straw /dried leaves. Therefore. Soil should be sandy loam or loamy with PH range of 6 to 7 and rich in organic matter and free from pathogenic inoculums. snails. Dead plant parts which are seem to be dwellers of pathogens and pests should 5 . Mulch is removed as and when seeds just emerge above ground.

Besides. Chemical treatment of nursery beds can be done by Formalin solution (1:100:: Farmaline: water) @ 5 lt/sqm. Soil solarization can be done with transparent polythene of 25-100 mm thickness during the hot and dry periods.be collected. Phytophthora etc. cutworms and termite and mites are also damages young seedlings. The treated area should be covered with polythene sheets for 7-8 days and after that it should be remained open for next 7-10 days for facilitation of formalin emission. source of nutrition and pathogens. In humid Islands damping-off caused by soil borne fungi like Pythium. There are various measures for soil treatment like soil solarization. For this soil should be moist before mulching because it increases latent heat and thermal sensitivity for resting of soil borne pathogens. Rhizoctonia. The insect-pests can be controlled by treating soil with Chlorpyriphos or Sewin dust powder (20-25g/sqm) before sowing and or at the time of nursery preparation. removed and burnt. Presently a large number of bioagents like Trichoderma. chemical treatment. Soil treatment Soil treatment is an essential step in a successful nursery management because it the base for seedlings stand. Well decomposed organic manure @ 40-50 kg/10sqm. Besides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus formulations are 6 . should be mixed thoroughly in the soil. pests like snails. is a common disease in the nursery beds. the nursery beds and seeds can be treated with some fungicides like Ceresan or Bavistin @ 2g/litre before sowing. harmful pests and weeds which can be reduced to a sustainable level. biocontrol treatment etc.

7 . However. In between beds. its length should be made according to the requirements or size of plots but should not exceed 5-6 m. Neem cake. perforated poly trays etc. Input management in nursery production The rooting media and seed or planting materials are important inputs for nursery production. also can be used for nursery bed treatment. plug tray technique. leaf mold. sphagnum moss. drains of about 30-45 cm width are prepared and connected to the main drain for removal of excess water during heavy pour. Karanj cake etc. This space facilitates easy movement during intercultural operations and acts as physical barrier for inoculums spread. vermiculite. pumic. perlite.available for soil as well as seed treatment which performs as antagonist to harmful microorganisms. Nearly 15-20 cm raised beds of 45-50 cm width are always preferred for raising nursery. The rooting media should be having appropriate physical and chemical properties for better germination and root development. Abundantly available rooting media are sand. Nursery bed preparation Before sowing seeds the beds should be leveled and pressed gently to make it firm. In recent years various advancements have been made in nursery management for bed preparation to avoid possibilities of pathogen spread like use of soil less media. coco peat. sawdust and wood shavings etc. The drains are flooded during dry period to modify microclimate of nursery beds in favour of seedlings. Some of botanicals like NSK. The media should be with constant volume and free from living organisms and firm enough to hold planting material properly.

which can slow plant growth. Overhead and pulse irrigation method are very means of watering larger nursery area. Micro. Microirrigation applies small amounts of water to the root zone area only. which uses 60%-70% less water than overhead systems. this method produces uneven water distribution. It also promotes compact root development which is important for subsequent tree survival in the landscape. Crop seeds contain all the genetic information to determine yield potential. Yet seed stocks can affect the yield potential of a crop more than any other input factor. and contribute to runoff. drip irrigation is often not used because of difficulties of working around and moving containers when drip lines are present. In container production. Pulse irrigation saves water in container production. encourage disease. Water Management: Water is an important resource not only to nursery growers but to off-farm neighbours. Drip or trickle system. Traditional irrigation comes from a long.Seeds are one of the least expensive but most important factors influencing yield potential. The cost of seed stocks usually is less than 5 to 10 percent of total production costs. adaptation to environmental conditions. One of a farmer's most critical management decisions is the selection of seed source and variety. the possibility of leaching and loss of nutrients through surface runoff decreases. and resistance to insect pests and disease. However. single application of water from an overhead sprinkler. Overhead irrigation is designed to cover a large area. and these systems are the least expensive to install. In pulse irrigation water is 8 . By reducing water use.

applied for about 15 minutes. Muraite of Potash and DAP are applied. Timing of fertilization should be given in two spilt i. cakes etc. Immediate before transplanting. Besides. fertilization should be avoided as it encourages diversion of plant energy toward root development in nursery which has negative impact on seedlings during exposure for transplanting. During the pause. drying to light brown colour.60 minutes occurs between applications.e. It reduces water use by about 30% and also minimizes runoff from containers. The medium is saturated before excess drains from the pots. Applying recommended doses of N fertilizers. Common source of nutrients in nursery is FYM. 9 . 1% of urea can be used. Usually in nursery beds normal fertilizers like urea. water fills the pores and wets hard-towet components of the medium. Nutrient Management: Nursery growers should test soils/media each year (midsummer to fall) to determine fertilizer/organic manure needs for nursery beds for the following year. stalks short and slender if element is deficient in later stages of growth. If the deficiency is observed during the growth phase. primary nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus are essentially applied through straight fertilizers as these play an important role in root and shoot development.5-2%. basal and top dressing (after 10 days) by broadcasting or foliar spray @ 0. vermicompost. leaf mold. Older or lower leaves affected: Nitrogen: Plants light green light yellow. compost. four or more times and a pause of 30. Nutrient deficiency symptoms and their corrections in plants A.

turning to greenish brown black colour. 10 . Stunted shade plants but have stronger stems. stalks slender. leaves thick. Stocky appearance of stem with short internodes is also indicate potassium deficiency. Its deficiency is usually not observed in Indian soils but if occurs than foliar spray of K @1 % KCl or 1% K2SO4 Zinc: Spots generalised.5% correct its deficiency. Recommended doses of P and foliar spray of 2% DAP or 1 % super phosphate extract. Magnesium: Lower leaves mottled or chlorotic. lower leaves sometime yellow. Potassium: Spots of dead tissue small usually at tips and between veins. stalks with shortened inter nodes. often developing red and purple colour. Soil application of Domolite or Gypsum Salt MgSO4 or 7H2O depending upon the deficiency and 0. leaves may redden as with cotton. more marked at margins of leaves.Phosphorus: Plant dark green. Soil application of Zinc Sulphate at 12. without dead spots. sometimes with dead spot tips and margin turned or curved upwards.5% of Gypsum salt as foliar spray.5 . rapidly enlarging and generally involving areas between veins eventually involving secondary and even primary veins.25 kg/ ha and foliar spray @ 0. stalks slender.

4% MnS04 Sulphur: Young leaves with veins and tissue between veins light green in colour. stalk finally dies back at terminal bud.5% CuSO4 Slender and weak stems with poor lignification spilling or cracking on the barks Manganese: Sports of dead tissue scattered over the leaves smallest veins tend to remain green producing a checkered or reticulated effect. twig or stalk just below tip and seed head often unable to stand erect in later stage when shortages are acute. New or bud leaves affected (symptoms localised) Calcium: Young leaves of terminal bud at first typically hooked.2-0. Soil application of Manganese sulphate at 25 kg/ ha and foliar spray of 0. leaves become twisted. Lime application depending upon the pH and foliar spray of 1 % calcium nitrate (Fruit crops) Boron: Young leaves of terminal bud becoming light green at bases. stalks finally die at terminal bud. with final break down here. in later growth. finally dying back at tips and margins so that latter growth is characterised by a cut out appearance at these points. It is applied with other fertilizers. Soil application of Copper Sulphate at 10kg/ha and foliar spray of 0.B. Copper: Young leaves permanently wilted or marked chlorosis. 11 .

stalks short and slender. Soil application of Ferrous sulphate at 50kg/ha and foliar spray of 0. only foliar spray is recommended). fence rows and windbreaks). Use stallbed technique to avoid initial weed infestation. There presence in nursery increases competition with seedlings for nutrient. Besides. The following methods control weeds in either a nursery field or container crop: Select a weed-free field or media for nursery preparation. principal veins green. properly store and compost manure before applying to the soil. cultural and as necessary. Mow buffer strips to reduce seeds blown into irrigation ponds. weed control is very essential requirement for successful nursery production. light and CO2 results in lanky seedlings. combining the use of mechanical. Weed management: Weeds are plants unwanted at a place and time. thin and erect stems.e. To reduce weed seeds. water.5% Ferrous sulphate (for calcerous soil.Iron: Young leaves chlorosis. some weeds harbour pathogens and insects and also produce allelopathic effect on crop plants. Minimize run-off from weedy fields to ponds. 12 . Therefore. It should be integrated. Control weeds in perimeter areas (i. chemical controls.

A mowed grass strip between nursery rows with a weedfree strip at the base of the plants 0.Pump irrigation water from deep in the pond to avoid seeds on the water surface.5-5.0 cm) if herbicide has been applied. Use shallow tillage (2. Install a weed barrier of old polyethelene or geotextile fabric under pots. Ensure weed-free material is planted.5 to 1. This prevents weed germination under the pots. Cultivate fields when seedlings are small. mulching with various organic materials. mechanical cultivation. Weed control with container stock is more difficult than in the field because there are few effective registered herbicides. Keep media components weed-free by covering outdoors stored components. 13 . these reusable barriers are made of materials that allow water and air movement while reducing seed germination. or herbicide application. the following measures will help: By hand or manual weeding. Do not move weeds between fields on equipment. If planning to use field soil.0 metre wide can be maintained by: hand hoeing. In container stock. Rodents often overwinter in mulch so. Use weed discs in pots. remove it from the base of plants in the fall and consider appropriate traps. ensure that it comes from a source known to have few weeds and no herbicide residues.

insects. blight. mechanical. and weeds. Steam sterilisation is relatively expensive but ecofriendly compared to chemical sterilisation Soil Solarization: In solar sterilisation. Though all measures are difficult to apply but some of them should be followed like: Steam Sterilization: Rooting media sterilisation is essential if it has been exposed or previously used as it may contain undesirable microorganisms. biological and chemical measures right from management of seed source to final uprooting seedlings. Biological Control (Bacillus. and Streptomyces and fungi such as Trichoderma reduces fungal plant pathogens) 14 . leaf spot and mildews are serious problems.Disease Management: In nursery beds usually fungal diseases like damping off and foliar diseases like anthracnose. Their control is possible only through adopting an integrated approach of cultural. It will kill most of pathogens and insect and pests. the soil is ploughed thoroughly and covered with polythene sheet for few days depending on temperature conditions. Hot Water Treatment: Nursery beds should be treated with hot/boiling water before sowing seeds. Pseudomonas.

2% or Bavistin 0. Making a decision on appropriate control from collected information. The following procedures make up an effective IPM programme: Mapping the nursery by identifying plants which are most susceptible to insects and disease problems.15% should be sprayed for fungal diseases and Antibiotics like Streptocycline should be sprayed for their management. Monitoring nursery at least once a week. spot spray permitted chemicals or botanicals only those plants or species which are infested. insect and disease control poses many challenges. When a control is necessary. Few biological controls 15 . Pay particular attention to sensitive species. Integrated pest management (IPM) combines chemical. Note which species and cultivars are affected first. Good sanitation and plant health reduce pest and disease problems. Some selective insect traps are available but yellow sticky traps can be used to identify pests. noting life cycle stages and population levels. Pest management: Because of the variety of plants in the nursery.Chemical Control: If above measures are unable to manage the diseases than chemicals like copper fungicides 0. cultural and biological control techniques to address pest problems. Identifying pests and beneficial insects. Insects should be controlled at vulnerable stages of their life cycle.

Conserve and promote beneficial insects by promoting their captive rearing and releasing in protected area.e. kurstaki has been effective against moths. The temperature can be controlled with three different methods i. Therefore. oils and botanicals whenever possible are appearing effective tools for nursery production. But conventional protected structures are not suitable for nursery production in humid tropical climatic conditions because inside temperature is much higher than desired level. So. Heavily insect infested or injured plants should be destroyed as earliest possible. special structures are required for protection of young and tender plants from heavy rainfall. In nurseries IPM should be plasticized to realize that all culture and management factors can affect pest population. shading and intermittent misting or sprinkling.are available for use in the nursery but Bacillus thuringiensis var. It is necessary to maintain vigorous. New concepts like planting scout plants for pests in border area and use soaps. the structures with proper ventilation from all side should be constructed for natural regulation of excess temperature and hu16 . ventilation. Controlling rainfall in not in man's job but it can be managed with protected structures. Temperature and humidity regulation: In humid tropical climatic regions erratic rains create excess moisture and relative humidity in nursery beds which is congenial for various diseases and pests. healthy plants by using proper culture and management practices to provide natural resistance to plants.

Hi-tech interventions in nursery sector are technological advancements which are capital intensive. The timer and misting volume should be adjusted according to prerecorded inside temperature. But. minimally environment dependent and having capacity to increase seed performance. usually proper ventilation and partial shading are commonly suggested approaches for temperature regulating under humid Island conditions. low availability of quality seed material and high cost of seed material. humidity.midity. and air movement. Its management is a technical and skill oriented jobs which require proper attention at different stages of growth and development. 17 . The inside temperature can be maintained with intermittent misting or sprinkling.1: Components of nursery management Modern Nursery Management Nursery development has great scope for the enhancing production and profitability of horticultural crops in Bay Islands because of erratic rainfall pattern. It can be constructed with covering top with polythene (200mm) and sides with shadenet material (30-50 percent) or insect proof nets (45-55 mesh) materials. Fig. The modern era of horticultural sector is known for effective utilization of hi-twech interventions for different aspects.

conducting trainings in form of technology package is better than split trainings. Programme Management: Nursery production is a programme which requires proper planning and monitoring for obtaining healthy seedling and better crop stand. It can also be done by establishing technodemo projects for horticultural crops. b. This can be performed by interagency coordination and linkages with concerned stakeholders. It can be provided from Government sponsored 18 . Credit facility: Nursery production for horticultural crops is capital intensive intervention. nursery growers should be provided with sufficient amount of credit at right time for its success. Besides. technologies and knowledge related to nursery management can be disseminated through education/communication modules.Components of Modern nursery: a. d. This can be done with adopting on-farm and/or off-farm extension activities related to nursery production. Technological information: Right information about nursery management at right time to right person is basic requirement for its success. Therefore. Therefore. print/ broadcast media. c. Training: Nursery management is highly skilled and technical job which requires proper attention and expertise of nurseryman.

microirrigation. Transplanted should be in shady part of day probably in evening hours for their better establishment and root development. use of growth regulators. conducting / assisting market linkage activities etc. fertigation. National Horticulture Mission or institutions like Nationalized Banks or Cooperatives. Seeds and planting material: Seed/planting material should be of true-to-type with crop/variety specific standards. The seed/planting material 19 . High Value Agriculture. g. Hi-tech interventions: Hi-tech interventions like protected cultivation. organic farming.schemes like National Horticultural Board. canopy management. These interventions are used for efficient utilization of inputs and increasing production efficiency. and automatic climatic controls measures etc. h. Transplanting operations: Seedlings are uprooted just before transplanting by irrigating beds to loose soil for better uprooting. i. e. Marketing facility: The commercialization of nursery production is possible with efficient and organized marketing structure. Pre-transplanting treatments of seedling with urea or insecticide/fungicide by dipping roots in solution is suggested for establishment. This can be promoted by encouraging participation in Agri-trade fairs. micropropagation.

2). are grown and kept for transporting or for using them as stock plants for budding. The area for nursery d Models for nursery production are prepared for effective utilization of inputs and to do things in proper manner. This also adds beauty in bearing and also provides additional income through sale of fruits and seedlings obtained from the seed. Roads and paths: A proper planning for roads and paths inside the nursery will not only add beauty. grafting and other method of propagation or for sale. a good fence with barbed wire must be erected all around the nursery to prevent tress pass of animals and theft. If planting material is imported in Islands than it should be with confirmation of quarantine regulations.should be collected from well recognized nurseries or institutions like NSC. The modern nurseries also serve as an area where garden tools. fertilizers are also offered for sale along with plant material. SSC and institute nurseries. The fence could be further strengthened by planting a live hedge with thorny fruit plants (like Koranda). shrubs. but also make the nursery operations easy and economical. Fence: Prior to the establishment of a nursery. But their some important components which should be taken into care and provision should be made for these during planning and layout preparation for nurseries: 1. climbers etc. Model Nursery Layout: Nursery is the place where all kinds of plants like trees. 2. This could be achieved by divid20 . Various location specific models are designed by institutions for nursery establishment as per their requirements (Fig.

4. Hence sufficient number of wells to yield sufficient quantity of irrigation water is a must in nurseries. the success of any nursery largely depends upon the initial selection of progeny plants or mother plants for further multiplication. Progeny block/Mother plant block: The nursery should have a well-maintained progeny block or mother plant block/scion bank planted with those varieties in good demand. 3. But at the same time. The grafts/layers/ rooted cuttings/ seedlings should be obtained preferably from the original breeder /research institute from where it is released or from a reputed nursery. One should remember that. since they are grown In polybags or pots with limited quantity of potting mixture. In areas with low water yields and frequent power failures. Any mistake made in this aspect will result in loss of the reputation of the nursery. the land should not be wasted by unnecessarily laying out of paths and roads. Irrigation system: Horticultural nursery plants require abundant supply of water for irrigation. a sump to hold sufficient quantity of 21 . A well managed progeny block or mother plants block will not only create confidence among the customers but also reduces the cost of production and increases the success rate of grafting/ budding/layering because of availability of fresh scion material throughout the season within the nursery itself and there will not be any lag period between separations of scion and graftage. Each road/ path should lead the customer to a point of interest in the nursery area.ing the nursery into different blocks and various sections.

These are to be laid out near the water source. Since water scarcity is a limiting factor in most of the areas in the country a well laid out PYC pipeline system will solve the problem to a greater extent. This facilitates efficient and economic distribution of irrigation water to various components in the nursery. In areas where electricity failure is a problem which is more common. spraying and lifting of seedlings. this component is essential to raise the seedlings and rootstocks. 6. packaging material. A store room of suitable size is needed for storing polybags. Irrigation channels are to be laid out conveniently. The office building may be constructed in a place which offers better supervision and also to receive customers. an alternate power supply (generator) is very essential for smooth running of pumpset. tools and implements. 5. 22 . fertilizers etc. Seed beds: In a nursery. Beds of 1-meter width of any convenient length are to be made. This facilitates ease in sowing of seeds. weeding. The office building may be decorated with attractive photographs of fruit ornamental varieties propagated in the nursery with details of it. Office cum stores: An office-cum-stores is needed for effective management of the nursery. An experienced agricultural engineer may be consulted in this regard for layout of pipeline. A working area of 60cm between the beds is necessary. labels. watering. pesticides. since they require frequent watering and irrigation.water to irrigate the nursery plants is also very much essential along with appropriate pump for lifting the irrigation water.

Alternatively, sprinkler irrigation system may be provided for watering the beds, which offers uniform germination and seedling growth. 7. Nursery beds:

Rising of seedlings / rootstocks in polybags requires more space compared to nursery beds but mortality is greatly reduced along with uniformity. Nursery beds area should also have a provision to keep the grafted plants either in trenches of 30cm deep and 1 m wide so as to accommodate 500 grafts / layers in each bed. Alternatively, the grafts/ layers can be arranged on the ground in beds of 1 m wide with 60cm working place in between the beds. Such beds can be irrigated either with a rose fitted to a flexible hosepipe or by overhead micro sprinklers. 8. Potting mixture and potting yard: For better success of nursery plants, a good potting mixture is necessary. The potting mixtures for different purposes can be prepared by mixing fertile red soil, well rotten FYM, leaf mold, oil cakes etc. in different proportions. The potting mixture may be prepared well in advance by adding sufficient quantity of superphosphate for better decomposition and solubilization. The potting mixture may be kept near the potting yard, where potting/pocketing is done. Construction of a potting yard of suitable size facilitates potting of seedlings or grafting/ budding operations even on a rainy day. 9. i Structures for nursery Shade houses:

Shade houses in nurseries in tropical and sub-tropical regions offer many advantages like raising of seedlings in bags directly, protecting the grafts from hot summer months, effective irrigation through upside down overhead microsprinklers. The shade houses made with shade nets (50% or 75%) for regula23

tion of shade are particularly very useful in arid regions where the humidity is very low during summer months. The details of shadenets use is given in the chapter of polyhouses. ii. Green houses/Polyhouses : Grafting or budding of several fruit species under polyhouses or low cost green houses with natural ventilation will enhance the percentage of graft/bud take besides faster growth of grafts due to favourable micro climatic conditions of polyhouse. In green house construction, a wood or metal frame work is built to which wood or metal sash bars are fixed to support panes of glass embedded in putty. In all polyhouses/ green houses means of providing air movement and air exchange is necessary to aid in controlling temperature and humidity. It is best, if possible to have in the green house heating and self opening ventilators and evaporative cooling systems. Plastic covered green houses tend to be much lighter than glass covered ones with a build up of excessive high humidity. a) Polythene film: This is the most inexpensive covering material but it is the short lasting one. However, UV ray resisting polyethylene film of various thickness is usually recommended which lasts longer. b) PVC film: This material is pliable and comes in various thickness and widths upto 6 ft. It is longer lasting than polythene and is more expensive PVC surface of film tends to collect dust and lower the light intensity in due course of time. c) Polyester film: This is a strong material with excellent weathering properties lasting for 3-5 years and is unaffected by extremes of heat or cold though it is costly than polythene film/PVC film.
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d) Fiberglass: Rigid panels, corrugated or flat fiber glass sheets embedded in plastic are widely used for green house construction. Fibre glass is strong, long lasting, light weight and easily applied which is coming in a variety of widths, lengths and thickness. It is costlier than poly thin film/pvc film. iii. Hotbeds: The hot bed is often used for the same purpose as a green house but in a smaller scale. Amateur operations and seedlings can be started and leafy cuttings root early in the season in such structures. Heat is provided artificially below the propagating medium by electric heating cables, pot water, steam pipes or hot air blows. As in the green house, in the hot beds attention must be paid for shading and ventilation as well as temperature and humidity control. iv. Lathhouses: These structures are very useful in providing protection from the sun for container grown nursery stock in areas of high summer temperatures and high light intensity. Well established plants also can require lath house protection including shade loving plants Lathhouses construction varies widely depending on the material used. Aluminium pre-fabricated lathhouses are available but may be more costly than wood structures. Shade is provided by appropriate structures and use of shade nets of different densities allows various intensities of light in the lathhouses.

Miscellaneous propagating structures
i. Mist beds: These are valuable propagating units both in the green house and out doors and are useful mainly in rooting of leafy cuttings. ii. Mist chamber: This is a structure used to propagate soft wood cuttings, diffi25

cult to root plants and shrubs. 26 . iii. v. palm leaf mats are placed over these structures to protect the seedlin"g from hot sun and heavy rains. In using such structures. humidity conditions are often not sufficiently high for rooting.Nursery bed: These are raised beds or boxes made of brick and mortar. Propagating cases: Even in green house. The intermittent spraying can be done easily by means of a high pressure pump and a time switch. Even shade roofing can be used for this purpose for raising see dings. iv. Moveable bamboo mats. The dimensions of the boxes are 60 cm high. The mist nozzles are fitted to these pipelines and suitably spaced over the propagating material. The pump leads to a pipeline system inside the propagating structure. Here the principle is to spray the cuttings with a minimum quantity of water. This is achieved by providing the cuttings a series of intermittent sprayings rather than a continuous spray. The use of enclosed frames or cases covered with glass or plastic materials may be necessary for successful rooting. provided with drainage holes at the bottom. Roof structures for planting on both sides and forming ridges at the centre are constructed on the top of the nursery beds. These structures may be made permanent with angle iron or may be made of wood. Fluorescent light boxes: Young plants of many species grow satisfactorily under artificial light from fluorescent lamp units. care is necessary to avoid the build up of disease organisms due to high humidity. Although adequate growth of many plant species may be obtained under fluorescent lamps but not up to the mark compared to good green house conditions. 120 cm broad and length as required preferably not exceeding 10 m.

Bangalore) Protected structures C= Perennial Legume.2: Layout of a model ornamental Nursery (By IIHR. N=Neem Fig.3: Proposed layout of commercial nursery for horticulture crops (CARI.Fig. Port Blair) 27 . X= Passion fruit.

Viral diseases in chili and capsi28 . when chances of frost are over. The sun rays raise the temperature inside the poly-house by 6100C through transparent polythene sheet which makes the environment inside poly-house congenial in December and January for growing nursery of solanaceous and cucurbitaceous vegetables for early planting in the open field during first week of February.Developments in Nursery production: Some of the important developments made by Indian institutions in nursery sector are mentioned here under. the size of which depends on the requirement and availability of space. the harvesting can be advanced by one to one and a half months and farmers can get the bonus price by catching the early market in spring-summer season.whitefly. a 40-mesh nylon net is used to cover the nursery area. Thus viral infection is avoided till transplanting of seedlings in the main field. These approaches can be tested under Island conditions for development of nursery sector of horticultural crops. Use of insect proof nylon nets for quality vegetable seedling production (IIHR. Bangalore) Leaf curl is a serious viral disease in tomato especially during hot/summer months. By this technology. To control whitefly feeding on growing seedlings in nursery area. The virus spreads through a vector. Low cost poly-house technology to raise off-season nurseries of cucurbits and solanaceous vegetables for higher profit (IARI. New Delhi) Poly-house is a zero-energy chamber of polythene sheet (200 gauge) supported on bamboo with sutli and nails.

Nursery under shade net: The Nursery is fully covered with nets. provision for entry in to the net have to be made. Later the seeds started to germinate in the beds. 29 .2m x 7. raised nursery beds. the incidence of virus can be minimized. so that entire structure becomes insect proof.5m in height resulting in a box shape. 50 mesh nylon nets have to be covered over the beds. The Germination trays are filled with coconut fiber mulched fertile organic manure.5m dimensions are to be prepared for getting the seedlings for one hectare area of main field (for tomato).cums like chilly mosaic and leaf curl can also be controlled during nursery stage by providing nylon net coverage. The technology involves: Twelve raised beds of 1. plastic paper.0m in length and 1. to control Spotted Wilt Virus of watermelon transmitted by thrips. which can cause major damage to the vegetable crops. Casuarinas or bamboo pads have to be used. This technology can also be used. A movable support system can also be prepared with ¾" GI pipe or a-iron.2m width. 8. with 40 mesh nylon nets. The Hybrid seed is shown in the trays and will be regularly watered and sprayed with pesticides as and when required. The bottom edge of the net have to be buried the soil. For support of the net. This entry point should be closable either with straps or clips. covered with mulching paper. While stitching a net. A non-walk in type net coverings can also be prepared with 1-2 feet height net covering. Nylon nets have to be stitched in the dimension of 1. Due to the covering of nursery with shade nets and paper.

automatic control devices. mircoirrigation. nursery sector have many solutions for horticultural problems of these Islands but need proper care and attention. soilless media. However. For this. plant growth regulators. It need in present era of high value agriculture has increased to a great extent because it only approach for effective and efficient utilization of inputs at initial phase of crop plants. Self Help Groups. robotics etc have made nursery industry a viable venture.Conclusion The nursery is the place for rearing and multiplying plants with minimal damage and maximum success. pesticide use and water conservation and protection. 30 . and Farmers needs to work in proper coordination. proper planning and monitoring have solution for such problems. Best management practices for nursery production address concerns about soil conservation. various engaged agencies like Department of Agriculture. Central Agricultural Research Institute. But still it is facing a number of challenges in an effort to produce high-quality nursery stocks particularly in geographically isolated Islands where timely input supply is great challenge. Thus. Hi-tech interventions like protected structures.

55 3668.44 2925.85 34.50 697.05 53.90 1308.46(in million nut) 3058.36 279.000 ha.40 78.45 31 PRODUCTION (M/T) 17255. About 86% of the total geographical area is under forest cover. around 50. 49. horticulture and spices crops..0 1593.98 8845. Out of the total geographical area of 82.20 1500.0 568.02 4046.e.000 ha prior to tsunami was under agriculture whereas at present only about 46000 ha is under Agriculture.05 . only 6% i.Hi tech nursery for plantation and spice crops The Andaman and Nicobar islands come under the humid tropics with average rainfall of about 3000 mm annually.20 19917. The distribution of agricultural land under different crops are given in table-1 Table 1 Distribution of agriculture land various crops and production (2005-06) CROP Paddy Pulses Oilseeds Vegetables Roots crops Coconut Arecanut Fruits Rubber Red oil palm Cashew nut Pepper AREA(HA) 7658.47 430.44 20927.46 18564.96 86.02 36. In fact the agro climatic conditions of these islands are very much congenial for cultivation of plantation.

12 877. Asia and Pacific countries share is about 80% of the area and production.30 387. India ranks third in the world.832. Coconut is grown in more than 93 countries in the world. Since every part of the tree is being utilized in one or other way and hence it is called the "tree of heaven"-the tree that provide all the necessities of life. It provides a variety of useful products like food. is one of the important and useful palm in the world.7 91. Topography of these islands are characterized by hilly and mountain terrain coupled with heavy rainfall and undulating nature of soil. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands coconut is grown in an area of about 25. which are ideally suitable for growing coconut and arecanut. Cocos nucifera L. COCONUT The coconut palm. The productivity is 6.28 Coconut and arecanut is the major plantation crop of Andaman & Nicobar Islands and has been associated with socio cultural facts of people of these islands.03 1019.632 nuts per ha (2004-05) Though the agro.59 517.600 ha with a 32 .61 82.9 million nuts.84 870000 nos 18..bio diversity of coconut is unique in these islands. with an area of about 1. fuel and timber.935 thousand hectares with a production of 12.62 152.7 7. the production and productivity is very poor and stagnating since last two decades.Clove Nutmeg Cinnamon Ginger Chilli Turmeric 199.6 102.

however deltaic alluvial soil and red sandy loam soil is ideal for its growth. Inadequate knowledge and poor adoption of technologies Planting of high yielding varieties and adopting modern production technologies can increase the productivity. Heavy and wide spread rainfall ranging from 1000 to 3000 mm is required by the palm. Overcrowding / dense planting (400 . rich in organic matter is highly suitable. The major reasons for the low yield of coconut is due to a) b) c) d) e) f) Poor genetic makeup and unselected seedling populations of existing plantation.46 million nuts. Inadequate plant protection measures.production of 87. Well-drained soil.10 million nuts annually with the productivity of 3402 nuts per hectare. Soil and Climate The coconut palm is found to grow under varying climatic and soil conditions. Inadequate soil and nutrient management.02 ha with a production of 78. The average yield of the palm in the islands are very low (20 nuts/ palm/ year) as compared to the national average of 44 nuts/ palm/ year prior tsunami while at present the area under coconut has declined to 20927. Coastal sandy and reclaimed soils with a pH ranging from 5.500 palms / ha) Planting on hill slopes having shallow / eroded soil.0 are also 33 .2 to 8. It can be grown on wide range of soil. The average temperature in the range of 27o-32oC is optimum for a good crop.

Tall palms Tall palms grow to a height of more than 20 m and flowering starts after 6-7 year of planting. Katchal tall Recommended dwarf cultivars are 1) 2) 3) 4) Andaman orange dwarf Andaman yellow dwarf Andaman green dwarf Niu lekha dwarf (exotic variety) 34 . The talls are long-lived and may attain an age of 80-100 years. Recommended tall varieties are: 1) 2) 3) Andaman Ordinary tall Andaman Giant.suitable. The fruits are medium to large in size and copra content is usually above 150g per nut and oil content varies from 66 to 70 percent. The palms on the sea coast benefit from the humid climate which is less subject to wide fluctuation of temperature. They are also benefited by the better supplies of sub soil moisture due to continuous seepage of fresh water from the higher inland areas to the sea. Varieties of Coconut Coconut can be broadly classified into two varieties based on stature as the talls and the dwarfs.

Avoid very old palms of above 60 years age. Palm must be regular bearer with annual yield of more than 80 nuts and copra content not less than 150 g/nut. 35 .Production of planting material Selection of seed nuts and seedlings plays an important role in coconut as the performance can be evaluated only several years after planting. Criteria for selection of mother palms Select palms having straight stout trunk with even growth and closely spaced leaf scars. Select palms having circular or semi-circular crown shape with short fronds. Short and stout bunch stalks without the tendency to drooping Select palms. If seedlings happen to be of poor quality. which produces more than 12 bunches in a year with more number of female flowers (25 or more) and highest setting percentage. causing considerable loss of time and money to the grower. The age of the mother palm should be of 25-60 years for tall variety and 15-25 years for dwarf variety. Palms must have reach full bearing stage and have been providing consistently high yield for at least five years. the new plantation will prove to be uneconomic. Palms must have a minimum of 30 leaves in the crown. A higher rate of leaf production is reliable indication of early flowering and high yield.

cattle shed.e. Harvested seed nuts are stored in shade to prevent drying of nut water. Rope harvest of seed nuts from the trees that are very tall and in places where the ground is hard. The seed nuts are generally stored till their husks become completely dry. 36 . Collect seed nuts from January to May from the selected mother palms. which are free from pest and disease incidence. Select nuts from heavy bunch (> 12 nuts) which germinate much quicker than those from light bunch (< 6 nuts). Criteria for selection of seed nuts Select fully matured nuts i. Select the nuts from the center of the bunch. Avoid palms producing excessive barren nuts or shedding large number of immature nuts. Do not select palms growing near the houses.Select the palms. about 12-month-old nuts should be harvested. Seed nuts of the tall variety can be stored for two months whereas the seed nuts of dwarfs should be sown with 15 days of harvest. compost pits etc as it is not possible to differentiate inherently superior palms from those whose performance is due to favorable environment. Select medium size nuts of round or spherical shape having a husked nut weight of at least 680 grams Do not select nuts having irregular shape and size.

June either vertically or horizontally in 20-25 cm deep trenches. As a result of the intensive care and better maintenance of the polybag nursery. weeding and culling operations for the elimination of unwanted seedlings are easier in poly bag nursery. coarse-textured soil near water source for irrigation. watering.Raising nursery Select well-drained. which attain rapid reproductive development. In the case of insecticide treatment. the seeds can also be treated with insecticides/pesticides prior to sowing. the nursery can be drenched with Mancozeb @ 3%. Soil may be treated with chlordane 5% dust @ 120 kg/ha in place where nursery is raised for the first time to prevent white grubs and termites infestation. the seed nuts are soaked in water for one hour and then kept in an insecticide solution (Chlorpyriphos @ 0. The seed nuts should be planted in long and narrow beds at a spacing of 40 x 30 cm during May. Poly bag nursery Poly bag nursery can be adopted for producing seedlings with greater vigour. Nursery can be raised in the open place with artificial shade or in gardens where the palms are tall and the ground is not completely shaded. vigourous seedlings with better root system are obtained.05%) for two hours. In areas having high incidence of insect pests and diseases. To prevent bud rot/dry rot in the seedlings. Compared to the nursery in the field. Irrigate the nursery once in 3 or 4 days during summer. The seed nuts are soaked in water for one hour and then kept in a fungicidal solution (Mancozeb @ 3%) for two hours. 37 .

Usually the poly bag seedlings are maintained for about 8 to 10 months. 45 x 45 cm size for bigger nuts and 30 x 30 cm for smaller nuts.Germination generally starts from the second month of sowing and continues till the sixth month of sowing. The size of the poly bag nursery bed can be 6 x 3 m with about 115 cm spacing between beds for hose irrigation and other cultural operations. Germination percentage The seeds can be sown in sand/potting mixture. The bottom of the bags is to be provided with 810 holes for draining the excess water. whichever is earlier. To fill bigger bags around 10-12 kg and for smaller bags around 7-8 kg of potting mixture will be required. The germinated nuts are then placed in the half filled bags with the sprout positioned upwards in the centre of the bag and sufficient potting mixture is added to fill the bags up to two-third portion and the sides slightly pressed to keep the nut firm. In order to produce poly bag seedlings. Generally. The germinated nuts are picked out from nursery once a week till 80 % of nut germination or 5 months from sowing. The commonly recommended potting media are top soil mixed with sand in 3:1 ratio or fertile top soil. red earth. initially the seed nuts are sown very closely and allowed to germinate in a pre nursery bed. well rotten and powdered cattle manure and sand in 1: 1 : 1 can also be used. depending on the variety. germination is recorded till the fifth month of sowing and good seed lot will give more 38 . sand or coir dust and well rotten and powdered cattle manure in the ratio of 3: 1: 1.gauge thickness.The seeds can be sown in black polythene bags of 500. The seed nuts start germinating about three months after sowing.

mounds are made 39 . select vigorous seedlings having minimum of six leaves and girth of 10 cm at the collar.than 80% germination. in the case of Dwarf varieties such as the Chowghat Orange Dwarf a lower percentage of germination of around 65% is acceptable. are suitable for planting and it is advisable to reject all the sprouts which germinated after 5 months of sowing.0 x 1. powdered cow dung up to 60 cm depth during summer season and seedlings are planted in the pits with the onset of monsoon. Select only healthy seedlings free from pest and disease. This will accommodate 177 palms per ha. However. which have germinated early. germination within 3 months after sowing.e. From one-year-old nursery.0m size are dug out and filled with topsoil. Seed nuts of tall palms will begin germination within 90-130 days after sowing and 80-85% of seed nuts must have germinated within five months after sowing.0 x 1. Seed nuts of dwarf palms germinate 60-95 days after sowing Criteria for selection of seedling in the nursery Select seedlings. i. Pits of 1.5 m x 7.5m. Select seedlings which have early splitted the unexpanded leaf into leaf lets. In water-logged soils. Establishment of a plantation Planting systems Mostly coconuts are planted in square system of planting with a spacing of 7.

Care of young palms Sufficient attention and care must be taken to the young palms in the initial growth period. Goa. Climate and Soil Arecanut requires abundant and well distributed rainfall.e.and seedlings are planted in the center of the mound. In A&N Islands in an area of 4046.) is another important plantation crops of India.46 tonnes. The crop occupies a prominent place among the cultivated crops in India especially in the states of Karnataka. It can be grown upto 1000m altitude in deep and well drained soils without high water table. redlloam and alluvial soils are most suited. Kerala.. Meghalaya and Andaman & Nicobar group of Islands. Irrigation with 45 litres of water once in 4 days must be provided during summer months. 40 . i. India is the largest producer and consumer of arecanut and it continues to dominate world in area under cultivation and production and productivity. ARECANUT Arecanut palm (Areca catechu L. Time of planting Planting is generally done during the beginning of monsoon season. from June to September. Tamil Nadu. Laterite. The seedlings must be properly shaded during summer. In areas subject to water logged condition planting can be done after the cessation of the monsoon. The pits should be cleared of weeds periodically. Maharashtra. Assam.44 hecatares with a production of 3058.

Kerela Karnataka and Kerala West Bengal.67 Karnataka.Varieties Variety Growth Shape habit & Size of nut semi Talll early Tall Round. Karnataka. Medium Oval to Round Bold Yield-Chali Recommended (kg/palm) for 3. it is essential that adequate care is taken in the selection of proper planting material.34 Method of Propagation Arecanut is an exclusively seed propagated crop.18 3.28 3. Medium Round Bold Oval to Round. Crossing is suggested to produce hybrids between desired parents. Small Oval. Being a perennial and cross pollinated. Inter se mating is recommended in order to produce genetically superior pure planting materials and also to achieve greater homogeneity and allow completely random mating. Selection of typical hybrid seedlings in the nursery is must. 41 .0 Costal Karnataka islands and Kerala Mangala Sumangala 3. Method of seed production Open pollinated nuts can be collected from the compact blocks established by inter se material of respective varieties. Kerala Andaman & Nicobar islands Sreemangala Tall Mohitnagar Tall Samrudhi Tall 4.

Secondary nursery For raising the seedlings in secondary nursery. The germination should be more than 80 %. The secondary nursery should 42 .Mother palm selection The selected mother palm should be more than 12 years old with early bearing nature and with high fruit set. Thick mulching is to be done with straw. A spacing of 30-45 cm is considered optimum for planting three month old sprouts in secondary nursery. The seedlings are retained in primary nursery for about six months. beds of about 150cm width and 15 cm height is suitable. Beds are to be watered daily. The nuts usually commence germination by 43 days and complete by 94 days. These nuts produce the seedlings of greater vigour. The nuts selected should float vertically with calyx-end pointing upwards when allowed to float on water. Palm should be regular bearer and consistent yielder. Method of seedling production Primary nursery Selected seed nuts are sown 5cm apart in sand beds of 1. Seed propagation Fully ripened nuts having weight of above 35 g should be selected depending upon the varieties/cultivars.5m width and convenient length with their stalk ends pointing upwards. Presence of more number of leaves on crown is also a desirable trait and palms should be free from diseases and pest incidences.

The nursery should be partially shaded for obtaining the quality seedlings. 43 . May-June planting should be preferred in North-East. Diseases and pest incidences The major diseases noticed in the nursery or the transplanted seedlings are collar rot. Planting time Planting should be done in May-June in well drained soild. Standards of the planting material The seedlings selected should have maximum number of leaves (five or more) and minimum of 90 cm height with maximum girth at collar region. 12 to 18 month old seedlings are preferred for transplanting to obtain more vigorous palms with early flowering. The sprouts from primary nursery can also be raised in polythene bags (25 x 15 cm. The seedling should have well established root system with 5-8 main fibrous roots intact and active while transplanting. Providing good drainage and soil drenching with I % Bordeaux mixture will reduce the incidence.be given a basal dose of decomposed farmyard manure @ about 5 tonnes per ha. 150 gauge) filled with potting mixture (Top soil:FYM:sand=7:3:2). Infection through collar region cause rotting of the growing bud while root infection leads to seedling wilt. Infection by the pathogen is through collar region or root. and August-September in clay soils prone to water logging. leaf blight and leaf spot. Collar rot This is common in secondary nurseries and field planted seedlings.

By the time plants attain maturity. The average yield of spices is low in comparison to mainland due to lack of proven technology under these islands situation. So farmers do not get remunerative price due to over flooding in the market. Previously planting materials of spices crop were imported from mainland (Kerala) which costs more. The season for harvest of ginger in these islands is January/ February and planting season is May/ is June which results in heavy losses due to decay. cinnamon. as a result farmers suffer a lot. ginger and turmeric are also cultivated. Lack of quality planting material in appropriate time.SPICES The major spices grown in these islands are black pepper. nutmeg and clove. Besides the chilly. More constraints in spices production In Nicobar District major area under coconut plantation. In nutmeg. Though there is great scope for spices cultivation but tribals are reluctant to take up spices cultivation. Spices are mainly grown under multistoried cropping system. 44 . there is possibility of more male plants. identification of female plants is difficult in early stages by farmers. There is no processing unit and marketing facility for ginger and turmeric.

the incidence of pest and disease is very common e. black pepper suffers heavily due to slow wilt and leaf spot disease.45 ha land with an annual production of 36.g. It is mainly grown in home garden and as mixed crop in coconut and arecanut plantations. Presently pepper is grown in about 697. a region in the Western Coast of South India (Kerala). Considerable damage is caused to young pepper vines due to damage by giant african snails also. the king of spices. The productivity of pepper (51. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka introduced the spices from South India.68 kg/ ha) in these islands is very low when compared with the other pepper growing areas of the country. It is native to Malabar.). To protect seedling damage from direct sunlight and high rainfall it is desirable to raise the spices seedlings either in poly houses/ shade net houses made of polysheets/ shade nets. the settlers of Kerala. is obtained from the perennial climbing vine. BLACK PEPPER Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. Pepper is cultivated since millennia. These structures also protect the seedlings from pest and disease occurrence and also minimize the mortality of the seedlings compared to the open field conditions. In Andaman & Nicobar Islands. 45 .05 tonnes.In the humid climate of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Initially it was adopted for own consumption and then slowly expanded for commercial purpose. Similarly clove suffers from stem borer and leaf spot.

However it thrives best on virgin soil rich in organic matter.5 to 6. red loam.0. sandy loam and lateritic soils with a pH of 4. Varieties Suitable For the Islands Condition Among seven varieties screened. A well distributed annual rainfall of 1250. performs well even in adverse condition. Panniyur. The crop performs well in temperature ranging between 10-40 0C.5 Suitable for intercropping in arecanut & coconut gardens.2 and Panniyur 5 are found suitable for Andaman conditions. which requires adequate rainfall and humidity. sensitive to excess shade Shade tolerant.4 Stable in yield. Tolerant to root knot nematode. Varieties Panniyur -1 Panniyur -2 Special features More adaptable to open conditions.Climate and Soil Pepper is a plant of humid tropics. Selection from karimunda Propagation Black pepper can be propagated through seeds and vegetative means.2000 mm is ideal. It can be grown in a wide range of soils such as clay loam. seedlings will not breed to true to types. Runner shoots are ideal for making cuttings. Panniyur . Sreekara Pournami Subbakara Tolerant to drought condition. the varieties like Panniyur-1. Owing to its heterozygous nature. Panniyur . Hence black pepper is propagated vegetatively mainly from cuttings. 46 .

Runner shoots from high yielding ad healthy vines are separated from the main vine during February. sand and now dung at 1:1:1 ratio. Cutting from middle 1/3rd of the shoots are desirable as they are high yielding.March and after trimming the leaves. i) ii) Conventional method (through cutting) Serpentine method iii) Bamboo split/ Rapid multiplication method iv) Air layering Conventional Method (through cuttings) Pepper is propagated mainly by cuttings raised form runner shoots.Section of mother vines The runner shoots for making cuttings should be selected from uniformly established gardens free from pest and diseases. a) b) Age of the elite mother vines should 7 years and above. in which purity may be maintained. Black pepper can be multiplied by following methods. following points should be kept in mind. cuttings of 2-3 nodes each are planted in polythene bags filled with potting mixture containing soil. 47 . c) Runner vines may be collected from a particular variety. The vine should have given a stable yield of at least 2 kg dry pepper /vine/year for 4 consecutive years and above. While selecting elite mother vines.

Adequate shade must for planting and irrigated frequently. In this method polythene bags are filled with rooting medium (oil. Seradix which is readily available. Rooted cutting of black pepper is placed in the initial/ first poly bag in a row and the vine is allowed to grow in a serpentine manner. which provides physical support to strike roots on each of polythene bag. the basal end of the cutting can be dipped in rooting power viz. For early initiation of the root. Serpentine Method It is a rapid method of producing rooted cuttings. The cuttings will strike roots and become ready for planting in May.. 48 . When the growing vine passes from the poly bag tow filled with rooting medium the vine is pressed into the rooting medium with the help of coconut leaflet stick. For rapid growth each vine is fed at 15 days interval with.June. sand and cow dung at 1:1:1 ratio) and 20 polythene bags are arranged in a row. 500g muriate of potash and 250g magnesium sulphate in 250 litres of water.

25 to 1.3 m wide having convenient length is made and then filled with rooting medium (soil. Here a trench of 0. each vine is separated from the crushed point and the polythene bag with single node cutting are kept in cool humid place for about 10 days thereafter the rooted cuttings can be used for main field planting. The lower portion of the bamboo split are filled with a rooting medium (coir dust and FYM 1:2) and the growing vine is tied to the bamboo with dried banana sheath fiber in such a way as to keep the nodes pressed in to the rooting medium. Calicut. One rooted cutting can be planted in each of the bamboo split. in order to activate the axillary buds. Later. Split halves of bamboo with 8-10 cm diameter and 1. the vine is crushed at each polythene bag.After 2-3 months the vine reaches the other end of the polythene bag kept in a row. Fig 2.75 m deep and 0. Arrangement of Bamboos in rapid multiplication technique 49 . After 10 days. sand and cow dung at 1:1:1 ratio). the terminal bud is nipped off and a light pinch of pressure should be given in the first vine. The vines are irrigated regularly. Rapid Multiplication Method The method has been developed by the Indian Institute of Spice Research. Then. As the growth of vines progress the bamboo splits are filled with rooting medium and each nodes are tied regularly.50 m length are fixed at 450 angle on a strong support touching one another.

in order to activate the axillary buds. Port Blair. A trench of 30 cm wide and 30 cm deep is dug at convenient length with sufficient drainage.head shade is provided in the area by erecting pandals covered with coconut leaves or agroshade net. rapid multiplication and simple method of nursery raising of black pepper is accepted but adoption is not becoming popular by the growers and commercial nurserymen because of the prohibitive cost in the system. 50 . Hence. 3. Then. garden topsoil and dry cow dung in 1:1:1 proportion. After 10 days each vine is cut at the crushed point. The separated single node cutting with bunch of roots are planted in the poly bag filled with pot mixture and kept in cool humid condition. Multiplication rapid (1. removed from the rooting medium and separated. 750g supper phosphate. cheaper and will produce better quality seedlings. Adequate over . 500g muriate of potash and 250 g magnesium sulphate in 250 liters of water. The main advantages of this method are 1. which is a very simple.40) Root system is well developed Better establishment Air Layering In the conventional system of raising rooted cuttings. When the vine reaches the top of the bamboo in 3 to 4 months. When the buds starts developing in about 3 weeks the poly bags are shifted to semi shade condition. the terminal bud is nipped off and the vine is crushed at about three nodes above the base. the rooted cuttings ate planted in the trench.For rapid growth each vine is fed at 15 days interval with 250ml of nutrient solution prepared by dissolving 1 kg urea. a new system has been developed by the CARI. 2. The trenches are filled with sand.

The leaves with petiole are removed by using a sharp knife. so that 9-10 rooted cutting are produced from a single vine. 10 cuttings can be produced from a single vine within a period of three months. A piece of polythene (4 sq.layered portion. exposing the adventitious root in each nodes. a nutrient solution consisting of 1 kg urea. When the vines starts trailing. To facilitate rapid growth of vines. ii) The rooted cutting should be of minimum height of 25 cm with 5 with vigorous growth without exhibiting any nutrient deficiency symptoms. The same procedure is repeated by leaving alternate nodes and continued till 70-80 days.keeping adequate distance between the plants so as to facilitate the coiling of the trailing vine. The suitable time for removal of the layer from the parent plant is determined by observing root formation through the transparent film of the polythene. After a week the vines are separated at every lower base of the air. 1 kg muriate of potash and 250 g of magnesium sulphate dissolved in 300 litre of water is applied to the vine at the rate of 2510 ml per vine. When the vines are ready for separation. pest and disease infection. the tip of the vine is nipped off and a crushed at the base of the third node. 1 kg rock phosphate. Test for vigour of seedlings i) The age of the rooted cutting should be 3 months from the date of planting in the polythene bags. 51 . Thus in a year we can produce 40 cuttings.cm) is wrapped carefully around the node so that the soil mixture is completely covered and tied firmly at both the ends. In this method. About 10-15g weight of sphagnum moss and dry cow dung slightly moistened are placed around the stem to enclose the node. air layering should be carried out after leaving 2-3 nodes from the base.

and annual rainfall of 1500 to 2500 mm. The two important nursery disease viz. Disease Management in Nursery.iii) Varietal purity should be maintained. pharmaceuticals and flavouring industries. with a temperature of 20 to 300 C. Soil and Climate Clove is a tropical tree. CLOVE Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L). clay loams and black soil having good drainage. leaf rot caused by Rhizoctionia solani and basal wilt caused by Sclerotium rolfsi can be minimum if solarised soil is inoculated with VAM and Trichoderma. 52 . In areas where nematode problems occur. the dried unopened flower buds of the evergreen tree is an important spice. popular for its flavor and medicinal values.. if isolated incidence of these disease is noticed. requires warm humid climate. In India. However sandy soil is not suitable. deep black loam soil with high humus content is ideal for its growth. it is cultivated in 3430 ha with a production of 3270 tonnes. timely adoption of phytosanitary measures and spot application Bordeaux mixture (1%) may be done. Clove oil is used in perfumeries. whereas in Andaman of it is cultivated in an area of 199. addition of crushed neem kernal or neem cake is recommended. It grows satisfactory on laterite soils. However.84 tonnes and the productivity of 39.61 ha with a production of 7.28 kg/ha.

In A&N Islands nutmug is grown in an area of 82. sand and FYM in 1:1: 1 ration. The seed bed should be protected from direct sunlight. Germination starts from 10 to 15 days last for about 40 days. NUTMEG Nutmegs (Myristica fragrans) play an important role in confectionary pharmaceutical industries. Both dry climate and waterlogged condition are not suitable for nutmeg cultivation. Such fruits are collected from the ground and sown directly in nursery or soaked in water overnight before sowing. Climate and Soil Nutmeg prefers warm humid climate with an annual rainfall of 1500mm.000 no's nuts. Nutmeg and mace also yields 7 to 16 and 4 to 15 percent of oil respectively. In the later case the pericarp is removed before sowing. Seedling of 18 to 24 months old transplanted the main field. areas with soils of clay loam. The oil is used for flavouring food products. 70. The germinated seedlings are transplanted in polythene bags (30 x 15cm) containing soil. Seeds are sown in a depth of 2 cm 2 to 3 spacing. 53 . which is called mother clove. one meter width and convenient length are prepared. liquors and in perfumery industries. Fruits are allowed to ripe on the tree and drop down naturally. The beds are made with loose soil over which a layer of 5-8 cm thick sand is spread. Since the viability is lost within a week after harvest sowing must be done immediately after collection. The pericarp is used for making jams. jellies and pickles.62 ha with annual production of 8. Nursery Practices Seedbed of 15-20 cm height.Propagation Clove is propagated through seed. sandy loam and red laterite are ideal for its growth.

About 18 to 24 months old seedlings are used for transplanting in the main field. Epicotyl Grafting Technique Nutmeg seedlings (20-25 days old) having 10-12 cm in height with 3-4 coppery colour leaves are used as rootstocks. The grafted plants are kept under the shade for 10 to 15 days. Regular watering is essential for better germination. Large sized fully ripe fruits are collected as and when they fall. A transverse cut is given at 4-5 cm above the cotyledon and the succulent slender stem is cut off thereafter a vertical cut (cleft) of 4-5 cm length is made in the middle with a sharp knife. The fleshy rind of the fruit and mace covering the seeds are removed and sown immediately in nursery beds or poly bags. The procured scion stick is prepared into a wedge shape by giving a slating cut of 4-5 cm length on either side at the basal portion. 54 . Propagation and Nursery Techniques Nutmegs are usually propagated through seed. The joint portion is wrapped with a plastic film tightly for further healing.Varieties There is no named variety of nutmeg in India. It is then inserted into the cleft of the rootstock carefully in such a way that the cambial layers of both the rootstock and the scion are matching. Then the cap/cover is removed and the grafts are shifted to open condition. The scion is protected from desiccation by capping/ covering it with a narrow polythene bag. The germination starts from the 30th days and lasts up to 90 days after sowing.

Cinnamon generally flowers in January and fruits ripen during June. FYM and soil (2:1:1). Leaf oil and bark oil of cinnamon can be distilled from the dried leaves and bark respectively. In A&N Islands cinnamon is grown in an area of 152. Nursery Techniques It is commonly propagated through seeds. The fully ripened fruits are either picked up from the tree or the fallen ones are collected from the ground. 55 . Germination starts within 15 to 20 days.03tonnes. which tolerates a wide range of soil and climatic condition. It comes up well form sea level up to an elevation of about 1000m. Mostly grown as a rainfed crop with an annual rainfall requirement of about 2000 to 2500 mm. Climate and Soil Cinnamon is hardly plant. The leaf oil and bark oil are used commercially in many pharmacement of about 2000 to 2500 mm.CINNAMON Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) also called as Ceylon cinnamon or 'sweet wood' is one of the oldest known spices is the dried bark of cinnamon verum. Seeds are removed from the fruits. The oil has a pungent odour and hot taste and contains 70 to 80% of eugenol.August.59 ha with annual production of 18. washed and sown immediately in nursery beds or polythene bags containing a mixture of sand. However cutting as well as layers can be used for propagation.

cost of labor. onion. garlic and other non-perishables can be imported from mainland for local consumption. vegetables are grown as rice fallow and very cheap for a period of 1-2months. attack of pests/lack of planting materials and poor transport facilities. In A & N Islands vegetables are cultivated over an area of 3803.58ha with a total production of 25682. After December. constraints of sunlight during rainy season and pollination problems due to less movement of the bees and other insects. In solanaceous 56 .30MT with a productivity of 7t/ha. Because of above constraints. The vegetables like potato. The mean relative humidity is about 82% with an average annual rainfall varying between 3000-3500 mm. make vegetable production a challenging job. cowpea. Even though it has been proved that suitable crops and their varieties can perform very well under these islands. over saturation of soil due to heavy rains. all these low lying areas are filled with rain water and suddenly there will be scarcity of vegetables and the cost goes very high. gourds are also sold very costly. although these islands have potential land resources to meet the local demand. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have long been facing a chronic shortage of vegetables. common vegetables like brinjal. lack of suitable land. The production of other vegetables in the islands is inhibited by the pest and diseases. when the first crop of rice is harvested.Vegetables and Tubers crops Seedling raising and their management Introduction The climatic conditions of A & N islands are warm humid with the temperature ranging between 22-32oC. With the onset of rains.

capsicum etc. Large number of seedlings can be produced from an unit area Sowing seeds in nursery allows additional time for preparatory tillage in the main field and if needed. some of the bacterial wilt resistant varieties of brinjal. In most of the advanced countries vegetable seedling production is taken up by specialized companies or as a capital venture. chilli and tomato are performing with 80-90 per cent survival but in the next season becomes susceptible.April). cucurbitaceous crops like cucumber. the harvesting of previous crop can be prolonged Off season sowing of seeds becomes possible which ultimately fetches more return. vegetable seedling production is gradually changing from open field nurseries to protected raised bed or seedling tray productions in some of the intensive vegetables growing areas. Over crowding of plants in the main plot can be checked or thinning operation can be avoided 57 . also come up well during dry season (December . knol khol. cauliflower. Benefits nursery raising: The soil is well prepared and all operations required to raise seedlings are carried out in most efficient manner. In India. Hence. Similarly. Seedling production as a specialized practice is also fast catching up in several states of India. Some of the nontraditional vegetables like French bean. the production and supply of healthy seedlings is very important for getting higher yield and quality. ridge gourd and bitter gourd performs well in these islands.vegetable crops.

In raised bed. The stone pillars 58 . Hot bed: This is not very common. The width of the bed is adjusted to approach its centre conveniently. the remain loose over watering is avoided and root growth gets intensified. flat bed. ii) Raised bed: This is the most common type of nursery bed which has been widely accepted by the vegetable growers. It is not recommended specially during rainy season. intercultural operations. This types of bed is prone to over watering and thus decaying of seedlings. The height of the bed is kept to 20 cm and width from 80-100 cm with the convenient length as the requirement of the main field.. These stone pillars are spaced at Sm x Sm and grouted to a depth of 2 feet. Net house is cost effective and feasible to grow vegetable seedlings.Discarding of week seedlings become possible It reduces the seed rate and cost of cultivation Types of nursery beds: There are 3 types of beds. It also facilitates the air and light penetration. It is commonly built using granite stone pillars of size 10' x 6" x 4". viz. Protected structure for seedling raising The seedling trays are commonly kept under nylon net house or poly house. pests and diseases managements. i) Flat bed: This is an old but popular type of bed commonly used by the farmers in villages. raised bed and hot bed.

Solarization is a non-chemical alternative for disease. The height of the structure should be 8 feet. During summer and hot sunny days 25 % or 35% UV stabilized HDPE shade net is spread over the nylon mesh on the top of the net house to maintain ambient temperatures suitable for crop growth. For preparing low tunnel structure. It can be successfully used for disinfection of any seedbed to produce healthy seedlings of vegetable. insect pests and release of plant nutrients resulting in increased crop growth. Normally farmers cover the sides with 40 mesh UV stabilized nylon insect proof net and in the top 50% UV stabilized HDPE shade net is used to cover the net house. 80 to Rs. Provision should be made to pull polythene sheet over the pro-trays in the event of rainfall by way of making low tunnel structure. 59 . It is recommended to cover the sides and top of the net house with 40 mesh UV stabilized nylon insect proof net. The approximate cost for building stone pillar net house will be Rs. insect pest and weed control. On top of each stone pillar used rubber tube is tied so that sharp edges of the pillars do not damage the nylon mesh and shade net. Other additional beneficial effects include control of weeds. Solarization of nursery beds: It is a method of heating soil through sunlight by covering it with clear /transparent polythene sheet to control soil borne diseases including nematodes. 100 per square meter depending on the locality. Wire grid is provided at the top of the structure as support for the nylon mesh. 3/4" HDPE pipes or bamboo stick and 400-gauge polyethylene sheet can be used.all along the periphery of the net house should be tied to a peg stone using guy wire.

Types of Containers i) Seedling Trays or Punnets : Seedling trays and punnets are shallow so the seed raising mix stays warm. into individual tree tubes. Small tree seeds should first be sown in a seedling tray and later transplanted at the 4-6leaf stage. 48 cell growing trays are made of a soft plastic that allows you to squeeze the entire seedling out without damage to the root ball. Seedling trays are designed to fit bottom heat propagators and Mini Propagators. before planting out into their final position. Seed can be sown directly into seedling trays or the seedling tray used as a tray to hold punnets. Tree seeds can take 360 . add organic manure and make the bed ready for sowing.Method of soil solarization: Prepare the raised bed. The soil temperature of the nursery bed thus covered can go up to 52°C in summer. Care should be taken to see that sheets do not tear off. jiffy starters or 48 cell growing trays. Leave the beds covered for 30-40 days. jiffy pots. Sowing seed directly into a seedling tray gives you a good surface to work from in order to 'prick out' or just thin your seedlings. Shallow seed trays also a have a better surface/depth ratio to improve aeration. Bring the bed to field capacity by irrigating. Cover the nursery beds with 200 gauge transparent polyethylene film as tightly and closely to the ground as possible. This is because pots are too deep and stay too cold and wet for good germination.

Seedling trays are also called as pro-trays (propagation tray) or flats. brinjal and bitter gourd. depending on factors like soil temperature so they should be labelled with the name and date of sowing and left alone in a seed tray. without the need for pricking out. The Jiffy Pots are great for starting larger seeds such as zucchini. 61 . A big advantage is they reduce transplanting shock as the whole container is planted. The most commonly used are 98 celled trays for tomato. The Jiffy Plant Starters are particularly useful for starting tomatoes. These trays are readily available with nursery input suppliers in Bangalore ii) Plantable Pots: These include Jiffy Pots. capsicums and eggplants.6 months to germinate. melon and cucumber. corn. The dimension is 54 cm in length and 27 cm in breadth with a cavity depth of 4 cm. chilli. cabbage. Trays have pre punched holes to each cavity for proper drainage of excess water and also have right spacing. capsicum. while the Jiffy Plant Starters are a container and mix combined. plug trays or jiffy trays. These allow you to sow individual seeds in controlled conditions. Jiffy Pots and handmade Potmaker pots need to be filled with a seed raising mix. Trays are made of polypropylene and reusable. Life of the tray depends on the handling. yellow wax. Seedling trays have been designed in such a way that each seedling gets appropriate quantity of growing media and the right amount of moisture. cauliflower. A Potmaker is used to make your own small pots out of newspaper. Jiffy Plant Starters and Pot maker Pots.

as most of varieties were open pollinated types. capsicum. Nowadays. Other growing media which have given good result are cocopeat:vermicompost and vermicompost:sand in equal proportions Seedling production using seedling trays In the past. It should be well decomposed. Seedling production of tomato. a by-product of coir industry and it has high water holding capacity. 62 . The most common growing media used is coco peat.Growing media for seedling trays Sterilized commercial growing media is better as the incidence of seedling diseases is less or nil and it contains right amount of moisture in it. many progressive farmers and entrepreneurs are taking up quality seedling production using seedling trays as a commercial activity mostly for F1 hybrids as the cost of seeds is quite high. sterilized and supplemented with major and minor nutrients before using as it is low in nutrients and high in lignin content. the farmers themselves used to produce the seedlings required for transplanting at lower cost. brinjal and cabbage F1 hybrids using seedling trays and protective structure such as insect proof net houses. Advantages Provides independent area for each seed to germinate and grow Improve germination and minimises wastage of expensive seeds Reduces seedling mortality or damping off because of sterilized growing media. cauliflower. shade houses and low cost naturally ventilated greenhouses are already a commercial venture.

Good main-field establishment and crop stand Method of seedling raising in seedling trays Fill the seedling tray with the appropriate growing medium. Ease in handling and cheaper transportation. depression can be created by stacking 10 trays one over other and pressing the trays together. No irrigation is required till seedling emergence.Uniform. in the center of the cell sowing. No irrigation is required before or after sowing if coco peat having 300-400 percent moisture is used. Make a small depression (0. Sow one seed per cell and cover with medium. This ensures conservation of moisture until germination. Seeds start emerging after about 3-6 days of sowing depending upon the crops. healthy growth and early maturity. .5 cm) with fingertip. 63 . Better root development and less damage while transplanting . depending on the crops. Care must be taken for spreading the trays when the seedling is just emerging. Alternatively. Cover the entire stack with polyethylene sheet. Shift the trays to poly or net house and spread over a bed covered with polyethylene sheet. otherwise seedlings will get etiolated. Keep 10 trays one over other for 3 to 6 days.

The seedlings will be ready in about 21-42 days for transplanting to the main field depending upon the crop.10 days after germination and before transplanting. Mechanization of vegetable seedling production As more and more vegetable farmers are resorting to buy their seedlings from the commercial vegetable nurseries.The trays should be irrigated lightly every day depending upon the prevailing weather conditions by using a fine sprinkling rose can or with hose pipe fitted with rose. Never over irrigate trays. The media may need supplementation of nutrients if the seedlings show deficiency symptoms. Spray 0. as it results in leaching of nutrients and building up of diseases. there is a need to go for the mechanization for mass-production of 64 . Spray systemic insecticides like lmidacloprid (0. Drench the trays fungicides as a precautionary measure against seedling mortality.2 ml/litre) 7 . Protect the trays from rain by covering with polyethylene sheets in the form of low tunnel. Harden the seedlings by withholding irrigation and reducing the shade before transplanting.3 per cent (3g/ litre) of 100 percent water soluble fertilizer (19 all with trace elements) twice ( 12 and 20 days after sowing). for managing the insect vectors.

h) Automatic Protray Seeding Machine. Cover the bed with dry grass or straw until germination.vegetable seedlings. 65 . c) Protray Filling Machine. To address this. Sow the seeds on lines with a spacing of 8 cm X 2 cm and cover with a thin layer of a manure. e) Handle Operated Protray Dibbler. Mix 3 g Trichoderma culture in 100 g neem cake/ sq mt of nursey area and prepare nursery beds. Sprinkle 50 to 100 g of insecticide dust formulations around the nursery beds to prevent ants from eating the seeds. b) Batch Type Media Mixer. Plate Type Vacuum Seeder. Seedling raising by raised bed method Prepare 10 m x 15 m area of land by finely tilling or digging to raise seedling for one hectare area. Apply 15 kg well decomposed FYM to each of this bed. Add chemical fertilizers @ 100 g each of nitrogen. Prepare beds of 9 m long 1 m wide and 15-20 cm high and number of beds require depends on the crop. Break the clods and bring the bed to a fine tilth. phosphorus and potash to each bed. g) Handle Operated Vacuum Seeder for Portrays. Using this machine about 200 seedling trays per hour can be filled and seeds sown. Bangalore has developed the following machinery to facilitate mechanization of vegetable seedling production by the interested nurseries: a) Media Siever. d) Plate Type Dibbler. IIHR.

2 ml/litre) 7 -10 days after germination and before transplanting. Spray systemic insecticides like Imidacloprid (0. But in polyhouse their seedlings can be raised during December and January in 66 . a net covered area of about 150 square meter is required. the more severe the effect on the field crop growth and yield. They are sown in last week of February or in first week of March when night temperature is around 18-200C. drench the nursery with copper oxy chloride (at 3gilitre). Use of Nylon net It is important to have vegetable seedlings that are free of insect pests and disease problems. 5000 for procuring inputs and stitching the net.As soon as seeds germinate. Hence. To raise seedlings sufficient for one hectare. for managing the insect vectors. The seedlings will be ready in 25-42 days after sowing for transplanting depending on the crops. Raising off-season nurseries: Plug-tray nursery raising technology The cucurbits are warm season crops. growing vegetable seedling under cover using insect proof nylon net (40-50 mesh) is a good practice. The earlier the plants are infected with pests or diseases. Cover the beds with 40 or 50 mesh nylon net to protect against vectors like whitefly and thrips and aphids. Seedlings have to be hardened before transplanting by withholding the irrigation and removing the nylon net. which will require one time expenditure of Rs. Use Casurina or bamboo poles or GI pipes to support the net.

Seedlings of these vegetables can not be raised through the traditional system of nursery growing in soil media because these vegetables can not tolerate slight damage to their root and shoot system. This technology fetches the bonus price due to marketing of produce in the off-season. but this technology is expensive. New Delhi. their yield could be taken in one and one-and a half months in advance than the normal method of direct sowing. The plugtray nursery raising technology by using soilless media can be extended to the growers in various parts of northern India for growing off-season cucurbitaceous vegetables. needs lot of protected space and labour. 67 . This technique is capable of vigorous root development. By planting these seedlings during January-end or first week of February. because with the introduction of this technique. At the Indo-Israel Project of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. vermiculite and perlite as soilless media has been standardized for raising off-season seedlings of almost all the cucurbitaceous vegetables. plug-tray nursery raising technology by using cocopeat.polythene bags protected from cold winds and frost. farmers can grow a large number of seedlings as per requirement for off-season cultivation of these cucurbits for fetching high price of the off-season produce. the markets are flooded with these vegetables and the growers sometimes are even not getting back their cost of production. But the same vegetables are fetching very high price during their off-season availability. This technology is quite economical for the vegetable growers of the northern plains of India. But few years back a technology was developed for off-season cultivation of these crops under which seedlings of these cucurbits were raised in poly bags by using soil and compost as media. and the plastic of the polyethylene bags is a problem for the environment. suitable for nursery raising without any damage to the seedlings. Mostly the farmers are growing cucurbits during their normal growing season by sowing of seeds and when such vegetables are harvested for marketing.

the seedlings of tomato. Chilli. free from weeds. Tomato cultivars and hybrids should be indeterminate type. Basic requirements: Selection of seeds: It is imperative to have better quality seed possessing genetic characters suited to the environment in which it is grown. dirt and other foreign materials. pointed-gourd and ivy gourd are sensitive to low temperature. viable. Asparagus. in plains as well as in temperate regions of the country. with dark green parthenocarpic (seedless) fruits free of bitterness. disease. The cucumber cultivars should be unique.Similarly. They should have only female flowering habit. The propagating materials of these vegetables can be well-maintained under polyhouse in winter season before planting their cuttings in early springsummer season for higher profit. 68 .and pest-free. Selection of cultivars: Cultivars suitable for open field condition are usually suitable for polyhouse cultivation. Good vegetable seed must be true-to name. may have hastened the germination and early growth of warm season vegetable seedlings for raising early crops in springsummer. The plants are grown upright as a single stem rather than bush. The environmental condition particularly increase in temperature inside polyhouse. capsicum and brinjal can be grown under plastic cover protecting them against frost and severe cold. sweet potato. But relatively rapidmaturing cultivars and high-yielding hybrids are ideal. The selection of cultivars and hybrids depend on plant type and their growth behaviour.

Some of the important vegetables and tuber crops seed rate and time of transplanting are being given in Table 1 and 2.00 kg 500g 325 325 1.Tuber crops propagation materials and requirement Crops Cassava Sweet potato Propagation material Setts/ stem cutting Terminal vine cuttings Corms Runners/ Stolons Cut tubers Cut tubers Size of the propagation material 20-25 cm with 8-10 nodes 20-25 cm with 8-10 nodes Taro Swam taro Greater yam Lesser yam Elephant foot yam 50g size 20-25 cm 500g 500g Setts/ whole 500g seed corm/ cut pieces 69 .1 Seed rate and transplanting time of vegetables crops Crops Tomato Brinjal Chillies Capsicum Cabbage Cauliflower Knol-Khol Broccoli Seed rate/ha 350g 350g 1. Table.00g 325 Days to transplanting 25-30 35-40 35-40 30-35 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 Table2.

the farmers have to choose the right variety and time method of multiplication of seedlings and production of vegetables and tuber crops. It is possible to minimize the seed cost and cost of seedling production if the farmers are well educated on the use of poly tubes/ plastic trays for raising the vegetables seedlings.Conclusion The solanaceous and crucifer vegetables are commonly grown in nursery and then transplanted to the main field. In case of tuber crops the role of nursery is very less known because the all those crops are being propagated through the asexually/ vegetative propagation. 70 . Hence.

ginger and nutmeg. About 18564 metric tones of fruits are produced with a productivity of 6. the greatest bottleneck in the expansion of area under fruits is the non-availability of genuine and quality planting material in 71 . The important horticultural crops grown widely in these islands are coconut. However. mango.e. In view of growing importance of fruit crops.160 ha. Inspite of the conducive and favourable agro-climatic conditions. papaya. only 6 % i. the production of fruits in these islands is very low.000 ha at present is under agriculture. cowpea. Due to the scarcity of the land the only option is to increase the productivity of these fruits. The climatic conditions are highly suited for cultivation of horticultural crops. guava. banana.34 tones /ha respectively. bhendi. 50.0 t /ha if proper management and advanced scientific techniques are integrated in cultivation. chillies. The long history of cultivation of fruit crops in the Bay islands. brinjal. Out of the total geographical area of 8249 km2. and all cucurbitaceous vegetables. Presently they are grown in an area of about 37. cinnamon. black pepper clove. papaya cultivars existing. The productivity of the fruits can be increased to the extant of 10. mango. the demand for quality planting material has increased manifold throughout the country in the recent past.Establishment of nursery and production of quality planting material of Fruit crops Introduction The Andaman and Nicobar Islands comes under the humid tropics with an average rainfall of about 3000 mm. large number of cultivars of banana. arecanut.

it should be located at a site with access to modern communication and transport facilities. Places with a mild climate. Availability of sufficient resources. buildings/other. electricity. The plan should show allocation of plots/area to different components of the nursery such as mother plants of different fruits/cultivars. long growing season and even distribution of rainfall is most suitable for planting material production while areas with extremes 72 . Preliminary considerations: 1.adequate quantity from reliable government nurseries. from a quality control point of view. More often than not. 2. Identify the potential for planting material production and to set realistic production targets based on the resource availability. good water source. particularly the genuine and certified scion / budwood and rootstock according to the scientific recommendations in vogue as well as that of skilled manpower for the propagation methods to be followed should be the major considerations for setting realistic targets. rootstocks. Location of targeted planting material production as selection of an ideal location can also serve to improve production quality considerably. In general. skilled and unskilled labour availability throughout the season as well as professionally qualified and competent manpower to oversee the production and quality control. drainage system. roads/paths. Starting planting material production from own needs lot of planning and expertise. the farmers have to get the fruit plants from unreliable sources and this practice is causing great harm to the fruit industry. water channels.

Topography should preferably be plain with gentle slope (1 to 2 %). etc). irrigation water. The specifications for size and durability of containers should be based on the duration the planting 73 . hail. if granular. etc. herbicides.less than 0. 3. The specifications for each input should be two or three features critical to the production of quality planting material and should be quantitative (that can be measured and verified. growing medium. rootstock to be used. and specifications for the scion / bud wood including its genuineness and seasonality of availability. less than 100 ppm CaCO3 content. 24 cm x 18cm size with 4 to 6 holes 5 cm above the bottom. Soil should preferably be light to medium in texture with good fertility.5 dsm-1 EC. and in very sloppy areas terracing need to be done. plant growth regulators.of temperature or commonly subjected to dry winds.black polybags 300 gauge thickness. fertilizer (liquid feed or granular. The major considerations would be propagation method and its seasonal variations for success and quality of the final produce. pesticides. storms or are known to be frost pockets are better avoided as they adversely affect the quality of planting material. regular release or control release). Identify the inputs necessary for each stage of production and develop specifications and requirements for each input. ideally with a pH range of 6. frequent flooding.0. 4. water holding capacity and drainage. These generally include containers.0 to 7. Example: container . irrigation water .

The points to be considered for growing medium of nursery plants are proper drainage and water holding capacity. Colonization of the beneficial microbes in the root zone can be verified forty-five days after the inoculation. The widely used growing medium in fruit crop nurseries at present is a mixture of sand. but is low in mineral nutrients. the sterilized medium has to be inoculated with beneficial soil microorganisms such as Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB). freedom from pests and disease inoculums and proper texture to facilitate root growth. Containers should have provision for drainage of excess water. filled into the containers and planted with the seed / seedling / cutting. a byproduct of coir industry. FYM and red earth in equal proportions.material has to retained in them without becoming potbound and without any bending or twisting of the taproot. Coco-peat. Phytophthora etc and pests such as nematodes. supplemented with rock phosphate / super phosphate. Organic materials such as leaf mold can also be used for preparing growing media. Use of commercial sterile potting mixes can avoid sterilization of growing medium. ability to supply requisite plant nutrients. has high water holding capacity and good texture. Handling and storing the media 74 . but its composition can vary widely making quality control difficult. Afterwards. This medium needs sterilization by treatment with heat (steam or solarization) or chemicals (such as formaldehyde) to get rid of inherent soil borne pathogens such as Fusarium.

Proper nursery records may be maintained incorporating all the above information either in the registers and / or in the computer for monitoring. EC. 5. 6. continuous and effective coordination with research organizations on the latest technology development regarding the nursery management aspects would be helpful to upgrade and perfect the quality control measures. This would be also useful in identifying probable flaws and to rectify them subsequently. Now a days many progressive farmers are coming forward to take up quality seedling production using seedling trays and supply to the individual farmers. soluble salts and pH of the water and media prior to use in production while container label of fertilizers and pesticides may be checked for content and active ingredient concentration while procuring and the composition of the fertilizer / pesticide solution should be verified prior to use. At every step. The quality of irrigation water with respect to its pH. especially during summer. Fruit crops like papaya bigger sized trays 75 . the farmers themselves use to produce all seedlings used for transplanting. and dissolved salts has to be defined based on the sensitivity of the plant species under consideration to these and has to be checked at frequent intervals. Seedling Production using Seedling Trays: In the past.inside potting sheds helps to prevent their quality deterioration. An appropriate procedure might call for periodic measurement of microbial load.

Bring the bed to field capacity by irrigating. 'Forkert' or 'patch' methods can be used and the size of the bud wood may be nearly 2x1 cm and budded at a height of nearly 15cm above the ground level. add organic manure and make the bed ready for sowing in every respect.can be used for raising the seedlings. 4. 2. After 30-40 days. Polythene tape can be used for keeping the buds close to the stock. The soil temperature of the nursery bed thus covered can go up to 52oC in summer months. It is better to take well swollen and unsprouted buds from leaf axils of mature one-year-old twigs of the scion variety. seal with transparent tapes. remove the polyethylene cover. Prepare the raised bed. the thickness of the rootstock should be near to that of a pencil. Check the sheets for the tear and if found torn out. Leave the beds covered for 30-40 days. Method of soil solarization in nursery bed 1. This method is mostly adopted for raising seedlings of F1 hybrids since the cost of the seed is quite high. Methods of Vegetative Propagation: Budding: For budding. 3. 5. Cover the nursery beds with 200 gauge transparent polyethylene film as tightly and closely to the ground as possible. Sow the seed with least disturbance to the top soil in the bed. about 2 weeks after budding the tape can be opened up 76 .

After the bud starts sprouting the top portion can be cut.to examine the success of the budding. Depending on the type of crop 'T' or 'Inverted T' budding can also be adopted for some of the ornamental crops. 'Veneer' grafting has also been found to simple and successful method. In places where humidity is more than 70% or where mist chamber facility is there soft wood grafting and stone grafting can be practiced. 77 . The scions and rootstock should be preferably of the same diameter (for veneer) 2. The scions should be pre-cured Grafting should be taken up when there is high humidity 4. Grafted plants are to be kept in mist if possible Grafts should be labeled after grafting so that varieties are not mixed 6. 5. For 'Veneer' grafting the scion must be taken from one-month-old shoot duly defoliated for forcing the buds. 3. About 3-5 cm long shoot with one or two buds is used for grafting. Rootstock portion should be cut off after the leaves of the scion turns green. Grafting: The common method of grafting is 'inarching' or 'approach grafting'. The percentage success during July has been recorded as 80%. Points to be remembered while grafting: 1.

Usually roots begin to form in 3-5 weeks. When the roots grow through the ball of moss. This method is easy and plot of 4-5 m square can yield 300 rooted shoots each year. the stem may be severed below the girdled area gradually. IBA (5000ppm) is applied in lanolin in ring during July. When the new shoots emerge. By September. The girdled area is bound with a ball of moistened sphagnum moss several inches in diameter and 4. so that there is no mortality 78 . After about 10 days soil is earthed up to cover the ringed part. If these are not available then they need to be kept in semi-shade conditions. Management of plants after propagation: The propagated plants need to be hardened.5 inches long which is then wrapped with a sheet of polythene paper and tied securely at each end with rubber bands or string. limbs of 1/2 inch or more in diameter are girdled by removing a strip of bark about one and half times the thickness of the limb. Air layering: In this method. It is always better to harden them in the shade net houses or climate controlled houses. When the new growth is 6-8 inches long the plant can be hardened in full sunlight. The polythene film is then removed from the rooted stem. In this method 3-4 years old plants are cut down near to the ground.Stooling: This method can be used for quick multiplication of desired varieties. potted and kept in the shade until new leaves appear. which is then severed. preparatory to transplanting in the field. the rooted shoots can be separated.

However. BBMV and CMV). 2.of plants when they are taken to the main field. The material taken for labeling should be long lasting Generic or species name should not mentioned Common name of the variety needs to be written without spelling mistake 4. healthy. Information regarding mother plants: The mother plants should be true to type. To maintain the plants in healthy condition. 3. high yielding. Method of Propagation: Vegetative propagation by Suckers 79 . 5. fungal (Fusarium wilt) and bacterial (Erwinia/Tip over) diseases and nematodes and corm weevil infestation. Label should be written with permanent markers For the identification of the plants. BSV. BANANA AND PLANTAIN Botanical Name: Musa spp. labels in local languages can be written in addition to English. Timely sprays for insects and diseases need to be given after ascertaining the cause. free from viral (BBTV. it is also of paramount importance that the plants need to be labeled properly so that the variety is not mixed up. it is better to given micro-nutrient sprays. Points to be remembered while labeling: 1.

uniform in size. Erwinia and F oC infestation. For varieties like Karpuravalli.5 kg for Rasthali. weighing 1-1.5-2. Sindhu 80 . Tissue culture plants Standards of the planting material for propagation by tissue culture: The secondary hardened plant should be of true to type. Raspuri. Banganpalli. Gulabkhas. The randomly tested plants should have healthy root system and free from nematode. Arka AnmolArka Aruna. Suvaranarekha. green leaves. 5 cm in girth with at least five fully opened. Malda. Arka Neelkiran. Mulgoa. Fazli.0 kg should be used. Arka Puneet. Ney Poovan. The suckers should be 3 months old. Ambika. > 30 cm in height. Plants exhibiting symptoms of somaclonal variations of unusual foliage characteristics should be discarded. healthy. Poovan Nendran. Red Banana and Monthan. uniform suckers weighing 1. Ratna. Kishenbhog. Banglora. Jardalu Improved varieties Amrapali.) Commercial cultivars Neelum. AU Rumani. 4 months old. Rumani. Himsagar. Mango (Mangifera indica L. Alfazli. Mallika.Planting material standards for propagation by suckers:' Sword Suckers' having broad corm with narrow leaves are recommended. and Cavendish banana varieties. Badami.

which may affect the growth of the seedlings adversely. Stones should be collected from vigorous. After transplanting. When the seedlings attain the age of 2-3 months. in beds mixed with well decomposed farm yard manure at the rate of 8-10 tonnes per hectare. depending upon the ripening season of the mango. they should be transplanted in well prepared beds or polybags.Raising of rootstocks Mango seedlings grown from stones of seedling trees are used as rootstocks. etc. Plant is allowed to grow as a single stem for six to eight months. When the plantt attains pencil thickness or a little more. Care should be taken well in advance for their control before damage. Before sowing stones should be immersed in water and floating stones should be discarded as they are not considered viable Stones are sown during in June to August. During past few decades. experimental results have shown that veneer 81 . Attack of leaf cutting insects is common during rainy season. If the mango stones are not sown within a few days of their removal from the fruit. proper care should be exercised in irrigating the young transplanted seedlings. sand or sawdust. traditional method of propagation. disease free and high yielding trees of seedling mangoes during July-August. covering with moist soil. In frost prone areas. Mango seeds are recalcitrant and lose viability very soon on desiccation. the rootstocks should also be protected from frost by thatching. they can be stored under moist condition in shade. Methods of propagation : Nurserymen in many of the mango growing areas still use inarching . it is ready for grafting.

Eight month to one year old seedling rootstocks are suitable for this method. Veneer grafting and soft wood grafting techniques can be used for large scale multiplication of mango in north India. 200-gauge polyethylene strip. Now-a-days softwood grafting is being used commercially for mango propagation in several parts of south India. The graft should be secured firmly using 1. In south India. With the use of polyhouse and nethouse structures. this technique has been in use in situ orchard establishment under adverse soil and climatic conditions as the grafting operation is performed using cleft/wedge method on the newly grown top portion of the plant one year after the rootstock establishment in the field . The scion shoots of the thickness equal to that of rootstocks are defoliated 7-10 days prior to grafting. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Andhra Pradesh.grafting technique can be used with high success rate in Madhya Pradesh.5 cm wide. Veneer grafting This method of propagation holds promise for mass scale commercial propagation. In this case. In the past . period of propagation can be extended easily under north Indian conditions. the rootstocks attain graftable thickness within 3-6 months due mild winter. The method is simple and can be adopted with success. grafting is done on 3 month to 8 month old rootstocks. Softwood grafting The technique of softwood grafting is similar to that of cleft or wedge grafting. Stone (epicotyl) grafting is suitable for Konkan region of Maharashtra and Coastal regions. July and August months with high humidity and moderate temperature are the best for the success of softwood grafting. For conducting this 82 .

A wedge shaped cut starting on both sides is made on the lower part of scion stick.5 cm longitudinal cut is made into the middle portion of the cut stem. These methods are time consuming. economic and fast. Stone or epicotyl grafting Mango is generally propagated by inarching and veneer grafting in north India. 10-15 day old seedlings with tender stems and coppery leaves are lifted with along with stones. At the base of cut.1 per cent Carbendazim solution for 5 minutes after washing the soil. the rootstock should be clipped in stages. The scion stick should be 4-5 months old and 10-15 cm long containing plumpy terminal buds. After germination.grafting operation. The roots and stones are dipped into 0. Stone/ epicotyl grafting is a technique of faster multiplication of mango. The scion is inserted in the stock so that the cambium layers come on the longer side. This method is simple. The desired shoots should be defoliated at least one week prior to grafting so that the dormant buds in the leaf axils become swollen. The scion wood to be used for veneer grafting requires similar preparation. a small shorter cut is given to intersect the first so as to remove the piece of wood and bark. The scion stick is given a long slanting cut on one side and a small short cut on the other so as to match the cuts of the stock. The seedling stems are headed back leaving 6-8 cm long stem. Fresh mango stones are sown in the nursery beds. a downward and inward 3-4 cm long cut is made in the smooth area of the stock at a height of about 20 cm. The graft union is then tied with polythene strip as recommended for inarching. The scion stick is then 83 . A 3-4. After the scion takes and remains green for more than 10 days.

04 % monocrotophos is recommended. The beds should be irrigated shenever there is danger of frost. A light application of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate or Ammonium sulphate is also recommended to encourage the growth of plants. July is the most suitable month for stone grafting. and Amritodus atkinsoni) : It is active in February -March. During summer. So. 2-3 sprays of 0. The beds/polybags should be kept free from weeds by regular weeding/hoeing. The bags are then kept in the shade protecting from heavy rain. The grafts are then planted in polyethylene bags containing potting mixture. Diseases Mango malformation (Bunchy top): On seedlings. For control. the irrigation should be given at 4-5 day intervals depending upon the soil condition.inserted in the cleft of the seedlings and tied with polythene strip. Plant Protection Measures Insect pests Mango hopper (Idioscopus spp. the nursery beds should be covered with thatches made of sarkanda. Such seedlings should not be used for rootstocks. 84 . When the scion sprouts and the leaves become green. over three months old. swellings appears in the axils of leaves. The affected plants should immediately be uprooted and destroyed. Care of nursery plants Mango plants at nursery stage are likely to be damaged by frost under north Indian conditions. The nymphs and adults such the juice from tender leaves. the grafted plants should be planted in nursery beds. etc.

70 cm Stem girth: 2. In the absence of polyethylene bag. and union of graft 15 . Coiling of root should not be there Uniformity of grafting: Smooth.0.5 .7 cm Age of scion shoots: 3 . the earth ball should not develop cracks.0.Standards for veneer grafting in mango. Ball of earth should be properly covered with grasses Standards of soft wood grafting in mango Characters Standards 85 .5 .7 cm Length of scion stick: 15 . above ground level/upper surface of polyethylene bag Foliage: Healthy and green green Precautions: Regular watering for long transportation. Root should not be overgrown.20 cm.3.5 . Characters Standards Method of propagation: Veneer grafting Type of rootstock: Straight & vigorous growth Raising rootstock: In polyethylene bag Size of polyethylene bag: 20 x 10 cm / 10 x 25 cm Age of rootstock: One year old Diameter of rootstock: 0.4 months old Diameter of scion: 0.5 cm Root type / Architecture: Tap root.18 cm Plant height: 60 .

Co.0.9 cm Length of scion sticks: 15 . Surya 86 . Co. Co. Papaya (Carica papaya L. always handle them by holding the rootstock.3. Co.0 cm Union height (grafting height): Union of graft 18 . Pusa Dwarf. Co. Do not bump the scion. Co.9 cm Age of scion shoots: 3 . 4.5.4 months old Diameter of scion: 0. Sunrise Solo. Coorg Honey Dew. Information regarding mother plants: True to type plants producing high yields and quality fruits Commercial cultivars: Pusa Delicious. Washington. 3. 2. 1. Pusa Nanha. Pusa Majesty.65 cm Stem girth: 2.20 cm above ground level Foliage: Healthy and Green Precautions: When grafts are set out in the nursery. 6.5 .18 cm Plant height: 60 . Co.0.) Botanical Name: Carica papaya L. 5.Method of propagation: Wedge grafting Type of rootstock: Straight & vigorous growth Raising rootstock: In polyethylene bag Size of polyethylene bag: 20 x 10 cm / 10 x 25 cm Age of rootstock: 7 to 9 months Diameter of rootstock: 0. causing the graft to die. Pusa Giant. 7.5 . because this may disturb the callus tissue.

Method of Propagation: Papaya is propagated by seed. Seed should be fresh as its viability is lost in about 45 days. Method of seed production: Sib Mating

Method of Sib Mating:
To maintain the purity of papaya seeds, sib-mating is necessary ie., mating of sister and brother plants from the same parent. In this method, seeds from the fruits of a tree which show the typical parental qualities of the tree, i.e. leaves and fruits are first selected. The seeds of these fruits are sown and the seedlings transplanted in the main field and when these plants put forth flowers, progenies conforming to the characters which formed the basis for the original selection are marked among the female as well as male plants. Pollens from the male plant is taken and put on the stigma of female flowers one day ahead of opening of the flowers. The female flowers are then covered with butter paper bags to prevent their contamination with other flowers. It is marked with a tag. The fruit sets in about five to seven days when the bag is removed. When these sib-mated fruits mature, they are harvested and the seeds are extracted from raising second generation of plants. This process is continued from generation to generation while the entire 28 population raised from the in-breds show uniformity of characters for which selections were originally made. Seed rate: 250-300 g per hectare Soil treatment: Formaldehyde treatment followed by covering with polythene sheet for 4-5 days and leaving it further exposed for 3-4 days
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Seed treatment: Seed treated with captan @ 3g/kg seed Seed bed size 3 m (length)X 1m (Width) X 10-15 cm (Height) Polythene size 20 X 15 cm or 25 X 10 cm Polythene mixture Soil: sand : FYM in 1 : 1 : 1 ratio , Depth of sowing - 1-2 cm, Spacing between row to row 10-15cm Time of sowing: August-September Irrigation: Frequent light irrigations as per requirement Standards of the planting material Height of the plant: 15-30 cm Age of the plant: One month Growth of the plant: Vigorous Root system of the plant: Well developed without coiling of roots Disease incidence Damping off Serious disease in nursery, causes both pre and post emergence death of seedlings in nursery Control: Seed treatment with thiram or captan, Drenching of nursery with formaldehyde, 0.4 % thiram or captan Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Commercial cultivars : Allahabad Safeda, Sardar (L-49) Improved cultivars : Lalit, Shweta, Arka Mridula, Arka Amulya, Dharidar, Kohir Safeda, Pant Prabhat, Safed Jam
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Raising of rootstocks
Raising rootstocks in polyethylene bags is recommended as this give better establishment of plants in the field on account of undisturbed tap root system. Moreover, nursery raising in polyethylene bags saves labour in weeding, watering, shifting and lifting of plants. The chief advantage of using polyethylene bags is that, the seedlings can be raised almost round the year under controlled conditions. Guava seeds have a hard coating over the endocarp as a result of which usually long time is required for germination. Fresh seeds should be extracted from dpe fruits and washed thoroughly to remove the pulpy materialclinging to the seeds. It should be treated with fungicide (copper oxychloride) to prevent damping-off of seedling before sowing in the polyethylene bag. If the damping-off occurs as the seedlings emerge, both the seedlings and the media should be treated with a fungicide. A group of fungi is responsible for dampingoff of the seedlings. For controlling damping off, treatment with 0.3% copper oxychloride has been found very effective. Seeds of guava are sown in polyethylene bags (20x10 cm or 18x27cm) at any time (JanuaryDecember). Polyethylene bags are filled with soil, sand and farmyard manures in 3:1:1 ratio. All the polyethylene bags are covered with 100 micron (400 gauge) white polyethylene sheet soon after sowing of seed. During winter months, the polyethylene mulch conserves heat and create conducive environment (microclimate) for rapid germination and early establishment of seedlings. Seed covered with polyethylene sheet gives as high as 97 per cent success within three weeks.
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75 inch) with a bud seems to be taken for better success.age.5 m apart in the stooling bed. uniform and active in growth are selected. In successful cases. about one-third shoot of the rootstock can be removed for forcing the growth of buds. are used as stock. The trees from which buds are taken should be highly vegetative with lush succulent growth to permit easy separation of buds from the stem. The remaining twothirds can be removed after three weeks of the first cutting.5 cm in stem diameter. pencil thick. It is better to take swollen and unsprouted dormant buds from leaf axil of mature twigs of the scion variety. Similarly.25-2. leaving about 2-3 em above the bud. Polyethylene strip is used for keeping the buds close to the stock. After about 2-3 weeks of budding the polyethylene strip can be opened to examine the success.5 cm (0. selfrooted plants (cuttings and layers) are planted 0.5 cm long patch is removed from the rootstock and bud is fitted into the remaining portion on the stock seedling. Stooling Stooling is the easiest and cheapest method of guava propagation. This method is most satisfactory when vigorously growing plants with 1. When the bark adheres tightly to the wood. In this method. 1-1. approximately 1 cm (0.5 inch) to 1. This method can be used for quick multiplication of desired varieties and also rootstocks. Bud should be fitted at a height of nearly 15 cm above the ground level. These are allowed to grow for about three 90 . The best time for budding is from May to August in different parts of the country.Patch Budding Seedlings of about one-year. budding is usually successful. A patch.

the number of stool layers also increases every year. Rainy season (preferably July-August) is the most suitable period for air layering. New shoots emerge on the beheaded stumps. Thus. the shoots are detached from the mother plant at ringed portion and planted in the nursery. In this method. The stooling of a mother stool can be done for many years. With the advancement of its age. The soil is covered with mulch to conserve the moisture. The growth and development of a stool layers are better than seedlings. The girdled area is bound with a ball of moistened sphagnum moss of about 7 em in diameter and 1013cm long. The shoots are headed back to maintain the root and shoot balance before planting in the nursery by following the technique of ringing and mounding of the shoots. second time stooling is done on the same mother shoot in the first week of September. limbs of about 1. Then these are cut down at the ground level in March. The rooted shoot layers are detached in the first week of November. After a period of two months of the onset of monsoon. which is then wrapped with polyethylene film and tied loosely over the wrap to prevent bird damage and also to 91 . All the shoots are mounted with the soil to a height of 30 cm. stooling is done twice on the same mother stool in a year.years. Airlayering Air layering is one of the most important commercial method in practice for guava propagation. The application of rooting hormone is not required.2cm or more in diameter are girdled by removing a strip of bark with a width of about 2cm. A 30-cm wide ring of bark is removed from the base of each shoot rubbing the cambium of the exposed portion in May.

When they grow through the ball of moss. Roots usually start developing in three to five weeks. At the same time. the institute is producing quality materials of guava through wedge grafting technique round the year in greenhouse as well as in open conditions. When the new growth is about 15-20cm long. the apical 92 . with 3 to 4 healthy buds of 15-18 cm long is used for grafting. the plant is hardened in full sunlight before transplanting in the field. In this technique. When the stem diameter of seedling is of pencil thickness (0.prevent the moistened moss from overheating. The scion shoot of pencil thickness.0 cm) they are chosen for wedge grafting. Seedlings are raised for rootstocks in the nursery for approximately 6 to 8 months. This technique has a tremendous potential for multiplying guava plants rapidly throughout the year both in greenhouse and under open conditions. capping and hardening of grafts. The technique involves growing of seedlings in polyethylene bags. Presently.51. a technique for rapid multiplication has been perfected at Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH). Selected scion shoots are defoliated on the mother plant. the stem may be detached from the mother plant below the girdled area. Lucknow. Soft-wood /Wedge grafting Soft-wood /Wedge grafting. proper selection and preparation of scion sticks is very important for obtaining higher success. grafting. about 5-7 days prior to detaching. Shoot with growing apical portion (terminal growth) which is 3 to 4 months old is ideal for this technique. The polyethylene film is removed and the new plant is potted in manured soil in pot/ polyethylene bags and kept in the shade until new leaves appear.

0 . rootstock (seedling) is headed back by retaining 15-18 cm long stem above the soil level in the polyethylene bag.5 x 18. The scion stick is then inserted into the split of the stock and pressed properly so that cambium tissues of rootstock and scion stick should come in contact with each other. slanting from both the sides (4. After selection of the scion. Immediately after grafting. The cap is removed after 25 days in the evening hours. the graft is covered by 2. The beheaded rootstock is split to about 4. This helps in forcing the dormant buds to swell.4.4.5 cm long) is made on the lower side of the scion shoot. In this way. This treatment is essential for high success of grafts. The grafts are transferred to net house for hardening. 2 cm in width and 25 . A wedge shaped cut.growing portion of selected shoot is also beheaded.0 cm long white polyethylene cap which is tied with rubber band at the lower end.30 cm in length. Standards of soft wood/wedge grafting in guava Characters Standards Method of propagation: Soft wood/Wedge grafting Type of rootstock: Straight & active growth stage Size of polyethylene bag: 20 x 10 cm / 10 x 25 cm 93 . Care must be exercised to match the cambium layer of the stock and scion along with full length of each component. the buds on the scion are ready to start sprouting at the time of grafting.5 cm deep through the centre of the stem with grafting knife. The scion starts sprouting after 9 to 12 days which is visible from out side. The union is then tied with the help of 150 gauge polyethylene strip.0 .

0 cm Length of scion sticks: 12 . because this may disturb the callus tissue. causing the graft to die Standards of patch budding in Guava Characters Standards Method of propagation: Patch budding Type of rootstock: Straight & active growth stage Raising rootstock: In polyethylene bag 94 . Do not bump the scion.1.5-2.15 cm No of buds on the scion stick: 3-4 buds Union height (grafting height): 15-20 cm above the soil Root type/ Architecture: Well developed root system without coiling Plant height: 45-60 cm Stem girth: 1.5 .Age of rootstock: 6 to 8 months Diameter of rootstock: 0. always handle them by holding the rootstock.5cm Foliage: Healthy and green foliage having 3 to 4 branches Precautions: When grafts are set out in the nursery.1.4 months old Diameter of scion: 0.5 .0 cm Age of scion shoots: 3 .

causing the graft to die.5-4.2.2.25 . Do not bump the scion. 95 .5 cm Bud union: Smooth Plant height: 40-60 cm Root type/ Architecture: Well developed root system without coiling Foliage: Healthy and green foliage having 3 to 4branches Precautions: When grafts are set out in the nursery.Size of polyethylene bag: 20 x 10 cm / 10 x 25 cm Age of rootstock: 10 to 12 month old Diameter of rootstock: 1.50 cm Age of scion shoots: 4 .50 cm Size of patch: 1 X 1. because this may disturb the callus tissue. always handle them by holding the rootstock.25 .5 cm Budding height: 15-20 cm above the soil/ground Stem girth: 3.5 months old Diameter of scion: 1.

crossandra. Karnataka. gerbera. The success of floriculture industry mainly depends on the quality of seed and planting materials. Croosandra.000 ha concentrated mostly in Andhra Pradesh. Maharashtra. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Therefore.Establishment of nursery and production of quality planting material of Flower crops Introduction Floriculture in India is growing at the rate of 7-10% per annum. The requirement of traditional and cut flowers is largely met by airlifting it from the mainland. 16. Because of the diversity in floriculture products. The total cost of import of flowers is approximately four crore sixty lakhs sixty five thousands rupees and the local supply is only of four lakh rupees only. only a handful of people cultivate traditional flowers like Marigold. and gladiolus have been proved beyond doubt that they can be grown very well here. the demand of flowers is going to increase substantially. This result in exorbitant cost of flowers because of the damages caused 96 . and West Bengal. production and distribution of both vegetatively propagated plant material and also seed propagated plant materials have emerged as the most important and powerful business world over. The demand of flowers in Andaman and Nicobar Islands at present is met from the import from mainland. It has been found that some of cut flowers like tuberose. Tuberose and Jasmine in their backyard or Kitchen gardens in the Bay Island. With the extension of air port and international flights. marigold. The area under flowers is around 1. Tamilnadu. these Islands are going to become one of the important tourist destinations.

The farmers are less sensitive to price when they are sure of quality planting material its exclusiveness and the monetary compensations that will accrue from higher production. skill and specialization. Good quality planting material will boost productivity. Important considerations in quality plant material production. Aspects of quality. bulbs. are either intrinsic or visible Visible aspects (In case of plants propagated through budding or grafting. It is perhaps lack of infrastructure facilities and trained manpower. Hence. The growers have adopted mostly open-pollinated cultivars. Aster. etc) production in the Islands itself is a basic need of a grower. e. use of virus free planting material becomes mandatory.during the transport of this highly perishable commodity and high freight charges. There is a need to improve the quality of seeds and bulbs produced in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. etc). Seeds or bulbs etc are the carriers of genetic potential for higher crop production. bulbs production etc) requires constant attention. in-depth knowledge. Cultivation of flower crops for planting material production (seed. which have an effect on plant performance.g. The quality refers to genuine and diseased free material.: rose) 97 . Viability and good germination are of paramount importance in case of seed propagated ornamental crops (Marigold. Zinnia. good quality planting material (seeds. In case of problems caused by virus and virus like diseases. In ornamental crops very little have been achieved in the production of genuine planting material free from the diseases.

Well-developed fibrous root system. the basis for flower production.e. 98 . The initial development. true to variety. Intrinsic aspects Strong physiological potential. Healthy reproduction material and genetic homogeneity.Lack of homogeneity may indicate different grades of inputs or growth differences in the production field. no visible pests and diseases.Homogeneity of plants . green branches. because plants have stored reserve food. is often variety related. bud wood and root stock. Source of rootstock and bud wood is important. Stress-free growth during the plant production period will enable the plant to re-grow easily after planting in the field or green house. A strong branch has the potential to quickly develop a branching structure. Strong outgrowth of bud or graft. one or more branches. No mechanical damage. fast or slow. This characteristic demonstrates growth on a wellprepared soil and regular growth during the period of production. Healthy appearance. No growth abnormalities. Diameter of rootstock indicates the grade of rootstock and quality of the growth process. Selection of source for reproduction material is based on healthy growth and material i.

high Organic-matter content (3-5%). Agrobacterium. these diseases. Container growing medium can be brought from remote locations.Free of non-visible diseases. good soil on site as a resource in media construction may be useful. it is necessary to collect the basic material from a genuine and reliable source. The planting materials of those elite varieties are supplied from these institutions in small quantities to users for future multiplication. In recent years several multinational and industrial houses have entered into floriculture business and are producing quality plant material. if in the early stage. Container plant production: Container production does not necessarily require good soil on site. which will hold together in a ball. are not visible.g. A firm surface. Verticillium. is a must. sandy-clay to clay-loam soil. e. During the plant production process this has to be controlled. The advantages of containerized 99 . Sources of quality planting material Since quality of planting material effects the production. which allows for the placing of containers and insures surface drainage. Once the plants are uprooted. However. Field grown nursery: Field production requires soils with good fertility. Efforts should be made to identify nodal centers for supply of elite planting material of important ornamental plants in our country. are ideal. and fine tilth.

how the container suits the particular needs of the nursery. There are several factors to keep in mind when deciding which containers to use: cost. Planting times independent of the weather. availability. Solarization for nursery bed sterilization It is a method of heating soil through sunlight by covering it with transparent polythene sheet to control soil borne diseases including nematodes. Lower transportation costs because of lightweight media and less root loss and a greater chance of survival than with field-grown plants. and light-colored containers produce more root growth. labour costs to pot up plants are high and the roots are stressed by temperature extremes. The disadvantages are also numerous like small containers need frequent watering. Seedling Production using Seedling Trays: In the past. white. Now a days many progressive farmers are coming forward to take up quality seedling production using seedling trays and supply to the individual farmers. and square and stair-step pots help keep plants from becoming root-bound. Round blackplastic pots are the norm. This method used for the disinfection of raised nursery bed made in soil to produce healthy seedlings of vegetable.production include. For instance. design features that control root growth. how the container affects growing medium moisture content and temperature. use of land unsuited for field production. Plants easily become root-bound. durability. leading to plants with poorly developed root systems. and shipping capacity. Other additional beneficial 100 . but they can cause root constriction. the farmers themselves use to produce all seedlings used for transplanting. nutrients are rapidly depleted. Containers are costly. There are other kinds of containers that promote better root systems. High plant densities. copper-lined.

Propagation Techniques Rose: Roses can be propagated by cuttings. a 'T' shape cut is made and the bark is slightly loosened to accommodate the selected bud. Rosa indica (North India) and Rosa bourbaniana (North India). budding on a rootstock is widely practiced. The selected rootstock is pruned to about 710 cm height and on a pencil thick stem. Solarization is a nonchemical alternative for disease. Roses are mainly propagated through budding.effects include control of weeds. insect pest and weed control. West Bengal and Bihar). close planting of rootstocks can be taken up for budding operation. budding and grafting. 'T' budding is commonly practiced. The rootstocks used are Rosa multiflora (Karnataka. In the budding technique. insect pests and release of plant nutrients resulting in increased crop growth. 101 . Budding Technique: The rootstocks are normally propagated through cuttings. After inserting the bud the bark portion of the rootstock is covered and tied with a film of polythene. The dormant buds from a selected variety are carefully removed with a sharp. Among all these methods. A thornless rootstock namely NISHKANT has been developed at IIHR Since it is devoid of thorns. Knife along with a small portion of stem. layering. The dormant buds get incorporated into the rootstock and sprout to produce new flush.

As a general rule large sized seeds should be sown a bit deeper. For larger requirements. Nursery preparation and sowing of seeds: The seeds can be sown in seed pans. Cutting Propagation by cutting is a simple and less expensive method. seed frames. Seed Propagation Propagation by seeds is the major methods by which many ornamental plants are perpetuated.The Important methods of propagation 1. pots or in baskets. Adequate drainage facilities should be provided in the sowing media in order to drain out the excess moisture. Plant parts 102 . After sowing the seeds they should be covered with fine sand or leaf mould twice the thickness of the seeds. permanent seed frames could be constructed for sowing the seeds. A mixture made up of one part in each of loam and sand and two parts of leaf mould is ideal for sowing. It is one of the most efficient and widely used propagation method. The seedings in the thickly sown seed bed will be lanky due to competition for nutrition and also subject to damping of disease easily. The soil for sowing seed should be light and porous. The seeds should be sown in the nursery beds evenly and thinly. Various types of seasonal shrubs and ornamental flowering and avenue trees are being multiplied by the seeds. Cutting is a process by which a plant is produced by severing a vegetative portion from the plant and rooting it in a favourable medium under optimum conditions. 2.

Softwood cuttings: These types of cutting can still be sub-divided into two groups. runners and bulbs are used for this purpose. 103 . the second group consists of cuttings taken from the unripened tips of woody plants. But normally. roots. as in some shrubs and tree. Hard -wood cuttings: The cuttings which are taken from the mature current years growth. Jasmines and hydrangeas are example of plants from which such cuttings are taken for propagation.such as stems.5 to 10 cm and 15 to 25 cm. The stem cuttings are further categorized into 3 groups. Semi-hard. leaves and modified stems such as corms. for many hare-wood cuttings the length varies between 15 and 30 cm. chrysanthemum etc. While in the first tow categories of cuttings the length of cutting remains between 2. The stem cutting can be categorized into 3 types.wood cuttings: Semi-hard-wood cuttings are those which have passed the soft-wood stage but yet to ripen fully. dahlia. but in case of hardwood cuttings the length depends upon the nature of plants and prevailing climatic conditions. The cutting should be detached from the mother plant from below a node. carnation.. tubers. rhizomes. such as most of the ornamental shrubs and some tree. In the first group comes those cuttings which are taken from herbaceous plants such as coleus.

the basal end could be smoothened off with a sharp knife.) Root cuttings: Root cuttings should be taken from young roots of average thickness and the length may vary from 2. The cuttings are placed horizontally or vertically in light soil or sand. If needed. The leaves from the lower portion of the cutting are removed by nipping (and not by tearing off).5 to 15 cm with one or a few buds. iv. these are called heel cuttings. Sometimes carnation cutting are prepared in this way.) Node cuttings: Plants like Dracaena and Dieffenbachia are propagated from single or multiple node cuttings. Such cuttings are normally placed horizontally on the rooting media. If the size of the leaves is very larger. ii. while 2-4 leaves are retained in the apex. Most of the cuttings are to be inserted in the rooting media as early as possible. The adventitious buds give rise to new shoots and roots to grow from the base of these buds or from the cut sections of the old roots. The horizontally placed cuttings are covered sufficiently.) Terminal cuttings: Such cutting are obtained from terminal portion of a shoot. iii. after being detached from the mother plant. these may be cut into halves.i. 104 . Heel cuttings root more easily. But in case of cacti and some other succulent plants these are air -dried for 2-4 days before inserting in the rooting media.) Heel cutting: when lateral shoots are pulled off from the stem with a portion of the stem attached to it.

Generally the plants. Ixora. Presence of sufficient oxygen. defoliation treatment with growth regulators is used especially in ornamental like Bougainvillea (2000 ppm of IBA+NAA mixture by quick dip method) and Ixora (IBA 200 ppm). humidity and rooting medium are the external factors affecting the rooting wounding. In this method since the twigs are attached to the mother plant. moisture and temperature and application of root promoting substance at the time of layering help to get profuse root in a short time. Hemelia and Climbers and creepers as well as trees like Pangara and peltoforum are being propagated by cuttings. which are difficult to multiply by cutting. Factors affecting rooting in cuttings: Age and nutritional environmental factors affect the rooting of cuttings. Hibiscus. the supply of food and water supply is not discontinued. Crotons. 3. position of the shoot on the parent plant. maturity of the tissue at the base of the cuttings and presence of leaves and buds on the shoot are the internal factors affecting the rooting of cuttings.v. temperature. this helps in rooting in layer than cuttings. Layering Layering is done when a clone can not be rooted through stem cutting. Rooting of layering is encouraged by etiolating. Vase on shrubs like Tagar. Age and nutritional condition of the stock plant. they produce individual plants. Light. Mussanda. can be raised by one or other method of layering. 105 . Root promoting substance are applied as powder or in lanolin.) Leaf cuttings: In this method the leaf stalk when notched and placed in rooting medium. It is an important method of commercial propagation in ornamental like Jasmine.

foliage plants and even ornamental trees are raised by this method. It is used for obtaining special forms of plan growth etc. The two ends are tied firmly on the two sides of the stem layered. 106 . Sometimes approach grafting is done for propagation of delicate Hawaiian cultivars of Hibiscus. The mature branch is slit or nitched below a node at the desired height.Simple or ground layering: It is the common and simplest from of layering. This method of propagation is limited for plants. Grafting Grafting is the method of propagation used for perpetuating clones that cannot be readily maintained by several methods of propagation. Air layering: Air layering or gootie is one of the most widely used method of layerage in ornamental plants. Majority of the variegated plants which are difficult to root from cuttings could be rooted through this method of layering. Some clumbers are also rooted through this. Generally branches of plants which are not prone to bending upto the ground level for layering are propagated by this method. 4. as well as 5 cm on either side of the wound. The part of the wounded stem. Generally terminal portions are used for air layers. A large number of shrubs. is covered with damp sphagnum moss and this is covered over by polythene paper and secondly tied at both ends the polythene paper around the moss to form a bag and fold the ends several times inwards to prevent the moisture in the moss from coming out.

gerbera. Each portion shows contain about 3 or 4 buds or stems and the 107 . the portion of the rootstock about 3-5 cm above the union.5. chrysanthemum) Division: This type of propagation is the simplest method of propagation for increasing the number of stock plants. a single bud. The clumps are lifted with a fork and are divided by separating them into suitable sized portions. The patch budding is generally not popular. (e. 6. Mostly 'T' budding is employed for propagation of most of the ornamental plants.g. as against a scion wood containing a number of buds in the case of grafting is inserted on the rootstock in a manner that both will unite and continue to grow as a single plant. Three to five weeks after the budding operation. These suckers can be perpetuated as individual plants. Budding In budding. Others Suckers: In some plants new stems are produced from the adventitious buds on their roots. The optimum time of budding is when the stock plant is actively growing and the bark separates easily from the wood. It involves simply dividing the plants into small pieces each of which must contain a portion of the rootstock with leaves or buds or as a few roots. Division must be carried out during the dormant season. This method is sometimes used for multiplication of hibiscus hybrids. Such new growths are called suckers. is cut off.

terrnean stems that arise from a lateral bud from the main stem at ground level and extend underground near the surface horizontally. Some of the clumps are easy to divide by pulling them apart after shaking of the loose soil. Tuberose) Corm: These are underground stem with a short. as these are the most vigorous. Tubers: They are short. this forming a new plant e. Generally rhizomes are cut into small pieces having one or more buds and planted for multiplication (e. fleshy.) Rhizomes: Rhizomes are sub.g. The divided portions must be planted firmly and well watered within an hour or two. Chlorophytum.g.g. Alstroemaria. which normally produces roots and bears a bud at this extreme. Majority of herbaceous ornamentals can be increased through this method. (e. Campanula. Delphinium. which store large quantities of plant food. Tubers contain buds in the axils of reduced leaves. mainly starch. Daisy etc.g. 108 . others are more difficult. Armeria. (eg.outside portions of the clumps should be selected. The aerial shoots develop from the laterial buds. Canna) Stolons A slender branch. (e. and the rhizomes or rootstocks have to be separated with or without knife or through with a spade. thickned part of subterranean branches. gladiolus). vertical axis covered with dried leaf bases.

Healthy growth of the plant from the beginning also ensures better use efficiency of scarce and costly inputs like water. it provides good control of young plants in the nursery due to better water drainage.Plug production of flower seedlings There has been a shift from growing seedlings on flat and raised nursery beds in open field towards growing value added transplants in specially designed containers such as plug trays. There is no loss of expensive seeds of hybrids. Advantages of growing seedlings in plastic trays under protected structures: Seeds germinate properly. quick take-off and uniform growth in nursery and in the field after transplanting. There is adequate space for each seedling to grow properly. nutrients and better tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. sanitation. A major advantage of block or modular raised seedlings as compared with that of bare-root transplants is the significant reduction of the transplanting shock resulting in improved crop establishment and yield of several annuals. 109 . Further. Container raised seedlings are easy to handle. grade. aeration. Mortality of seedlings is very rare. shift and transport manually as well as mechanically. Production of healthy seedlings is a prerequisite for good initial crop growth that results in optimum vegetative growth that gets finally transformed into the potential economic yield.

However. wooden poles or even granite stone pillars. Protective structure for seedling production Seedlings of ornamental crops are being grown in low cost poly houses and net houses. A retractable (50%) shade net is provided below the roof to be used during the days of bright sunlight and high temperature. Damage to roots is very rare during shifting and planting. Foggers may also be provided to bring down the temperature during summer days. The roof is generally covered with a shade net and the sides are covered with the insect proof net. The mainframe can also be erected with wooden poles or granite stone pillars bringing down the expenditure further. Seedlings do not wither during transport. In recent years net houses are becoming popular to raise the seedlings. The mainframe can be of steel pipes. Facilitates uniform maturity of the crop. Hassle free planting. Promotes better root growth. Granite stone pillars of 6 to 8 feet long are erected as the mainframe of the net house. it is advisable to cover the roof also with the insect proof net above the retractable shade net to have better control over the entry of insect vectors like white flies which may be carried 110 . Poly houses are clad with 200 micron UV stabilized polythene sheet on the roof and the sides are covered with 40 mesh insectproof nylon net. Damage due to pests and diseases are very rare.Equal and healthy growth of each seedling.

A retractable shade net will be useful to regulate the shade in the greenhouse depending on the light levels prevailing in the greenhouse. The holes at the bottom of the cells control the moisture properly. These trays are made of polypropylene and are re-usable up to five to six times depending on the care with which they are handled. This structure provides adequate light. Coir dust (Coco peat) Well decomposed and sterilized commercial growing medium is better as the incidence of seedling diseases is less or nil and it contains in it right amount of moisture to support seed germination. Coco peat is a by-product of coir industry and it has high water holding capacity. shade and humidity and also protects the seedlings from thrips and white flies that spread the virus diseases. Plastic pipes of ¾ inch are bent in arch shape over the nursery beds and are covered with a plastic sheet to protect the seedlings from rain as and when required. Plug Trays: Plug trays are also called as pro-trays (propagation trays). sterilized and supplemented with major and 111 . Equal spaced cells facilitate equal growth of the seedlings. which is steam sterilized to prevent nursery diseases. It should be well decomposed. The most commonly used growing medium is coir dust (coco peat).by the air currents and gain entry into the greenhouse. Before using every time it is necessary that these trays are thoroughly washed and disinfected with a fungicide. Further it is essential to harden the seedlings before transplanting. The most commonly used are 98-celled trays. The dimensions of the trays are generally 54 cm in length and 27 cm in width with a cavity depth of 4 cm.

About 1-1. Make a small depression for sowing (0. Cover the entire stack of trays with a polyethylene sheet to ensure conservation of moisture and warmth that hastens germination. Keep about 10 trays one over the other for 3 to 6 days. Care must be taken for spreading the trays when the seeds start sprouting. Protect the seedlings from rainfall by covering the arch erected on the beds with polyethylene sheet whenever it rains. Seedling trays are watered daily. Neem cake enriched with Trichoderma (100:1) is applied @ 100 kg per tonne of the medium to prevent seedling diseases.micro nutrient sources before using it as the growing medium.5 cm) by fingertip or a dibbler in the center of the cell. depending on the crop. The trays with sprouted seeds are placed in pairs over a bed covered with polyethylene sheet. Technique of raising seedlings Fill the seedling tray with appropriate growing medium such as coco peat or vermin compost + sand mixed in equal proportion. Harden the seedlings by withholding irrigation and reducing the shade before transplanting. Spray (3g / L) 100 percent watersoluble fertilizer (19 per cent NPK plus trace elements) twice (12 and 20 days after sowing). Sow one seed per cell and cover the cells with the coco peat. Irrigation is not required before or after sowing till seeds germinate if coco peat having adequate moisture is used as the medium. The trays are also drenched with a fungicide as a precautionary measure against seedling mortality. Pest Management Drenching plug trays 112 . Hardening of seedlings Tray grown seedlings in a green house especially need hardening as they are raised with lower light levels. or as needed (not too wet or too dry) using a rose can or a hosepipe with a rose.25 kg of coco peat is required to fill one 98-celled tray.

5 litres and root trainers less than 0. the capacity of one big bucket. sand. Calculating substrate quantity The volume of the container has to be determined by filling the container with water. Rooting and Growing Media Potting Media Field soil is sometimes used in container mixes (10%30% by volume).4 %) before filling them with growing medium prevents seedling diseases.with copper oxy chloride (0. Propagating medium is the substance.5 litres of water.5 litres. The total amount of water added is the volume of the container. The standard replacement for soil is peat moss. cocopeat. to get approximately the number of buckets of substrate needed to fill all containers. The seedlings will be ready in about 21-42 days for transplanting into the main field depending upon the crop. but there has been concern over the past few years that peat is a nonrenewable resource. Media for plant growth and seed germination has great significance in nursery business. large bags more than 1. Propagating medium plays an important role in raising of successful plant material in nursery production. vermiculite 113 . Consequently. Spray systemic insecticides like Imidacloprid (0. research is being conducted to determine what materials can be used to replace peat. small polybags usually hold 0. The volume of the container has to be multiplied with the number of seedlings/plants to be produced. be it peat. but soil is heavy and requires the additional step of pasteurization to eliminate diseases and weed seeds. In general.3ml/liter) 7-10 days after germination and before transplanting. The resulting volume can be divided by 20.

Check the quality of the product before buying. with a range of 4. The materials used for rooting media may be naturally occurring or max. The material for rooting and growing media may be used either alone or incorporated with one or more products in combination. bacteria and insect pests.5 .. Obtain local guidance of agricultural officers for selecting appropriate media. saw dust is used for this purpose. The acidity or alkalinity should be in optimum for different species. The pH of the media should be checked. They must allow sufficient drainage.5. the waste or surplus products from the industries viz. Its volume must be fairly constant when either wet or dry. It must be capable of being sterilized.5. This is particularly important whenever larger level cuttings are used under mist chamber conditions Selection criteria for media. into which the unrooted cuttings are inserted or seeds are sown for germination. be manufactured artificially. They must retain sufficient water and air.0. In many cases. Qualities of a ideal rooting media: The substance must have appropriate physical and chemical properties. An optimum pH for the rooting medium should be 5. Always consider utilizing local products to save transportation costs.or other material. Check for the grade or particle size and freedom from impurities such as silt and harmful salts. The rooting media should support the cuttings to avoid lodging.0 . fungi. nematodes. Select a rooting media which has optimum air filled porosity range of around 114 .6. The medium must be sufficiently firm and dense to hold the cuttings or seeds in place during rooting or germination. The substance must be free from weed seeds.

silt and clay. rooting of cuttings and for growing container stock. bog or swamp vegetation 115 . Ensure that the product is well graded. iii) Peat: There are different types of peats available because of mode and circumstances of its formation. Maintenance of a favourable granular and crumb soil structure is very important. Commonly used media with a brief description of properties are given below: i) Soil: A soil is composed of materials in the solid. Quartz sand is generally used for propagation and plastering grade is used for rooting of cuttings. Its mineral composition depends on type of rock. ii) Sand: Sand consists of small rock grains (0.0 mm) formed as result of the weathering of various rocks. Peat consists of the remains of aquatic. liquid and gaseous states. These materials must exist in the proper proportions for satisfactory plant growth. Sand should be preferably sterilised before use.34%. Select a media which can retain structures during rooting particularly where mist and fogging units are used for mist propagation. marsh. The media must provide sufficient oxygen to the base of cuttings. the plant species from which it is formed.05 to 2. Select a medium which does not require any mixing Media for propagation and growing nursery plants There are several media and mixtures of different kind are available for use in propagation such as in seed germination. The texture of a soil depends upon relative proportions of sand.

Useful for growing rooted cuttings or seedlings. sawdust. Peat is formed by the partial decomposition of plants in areas of high rainfall and the types of peat can vary considerably in color and structure. Peat is the material most commonly used and forms the basis of many different propagation media when mixed with other components. It is free from pests. light in weight and has a very high water holding capacity and contains specific fungistatic substances. with either fine or coarse sand. A medium grade sphagnum peat is generally recommended iv) Sphagmum moss: The sphagmum moss is the dehydrated remains of acidbog plants of the genus Sphagmum. diseases and weed seeds. The main advantage of moss peat is that it is a uniform product. decomposition and degree of acidity.which has been preserved under water in a partially decomposed state. Composition of peat varies widely depending upon the vegetation. Peat is easily compressed and can be purchased in polythene covered bags. It is chemically a hydrated magnesium aluminium . It is very popular media per propagation of pomegranate in Maharashtra by air layering. It is relatively sterile. v) Vermuculite: It is a micaceous mineral which expands markedly when heated. Peat can be mixed.iron silicate. perlite or vermiculate. It is very light in weight. neutral in reaction with good buffering properties and 116 .

6. It can absorb large quantities of water. Since it is light in weight. Vermiculate will not re-expand if excessively firmed or compressed. Chemically perlite is made up of alumino silicates. It has pH of 6. because vermuculite alone will not support the cuttings.5. which is originally frothed by gases to give it sponge like and porous character. It may be used alone but is best used with peat moss for woody ornamentals. Normally has pH range between 6.. It is made up of aluminium silicate and also contain small quantities of potassium and sodium. It provides good aeration and drainage to the media 117 . contain no nutrients. It is suitable for rooting cuttings intended for export to overcome specific plant quarantine regulation vi) Perlite: It is a gray white material of volcanic origin mined from lava flows and has neutral reaction with no buffering and no cation exchange capacity and no mineral contents.0 . It is a useful material for rooting and shipping cuttings when there are specific plant quarantine regulations. vii) Pumice: It is a gray or white volcanic rock. .7.insoluble in water. sterile. it is useful for mist propagation benches because there is little chance of damages to the structure from weight stress.0 . It is normally mixed with peat moss. has a buffering action.5 range. It is light.

1 . freedom from salts. Controlled release fertilizers can be used along with sawdust x) Cocopeat: It is also called cocodust. Do not add potassium to media as it is already available in coir.0. In cocopeat media add more nitrogen as micro organism in coco peat need to break down the few easily degradable substances present in peat Soil mixtures for container growing In propagation procedures. A by product of cutting and sifting coconuts for fibre production. Leaf mold in easily available in India.25 gms/cm3. 0. It has a very low bulk density i. nitrogen deficiency. This material is little used in modern large scale propagation procedures. It is the most popular growing media available these days. It is free from harmful substances. Sycamore and elm are among the leaf types suitable for leaf mold. there is a problem of drainage. young seedlings or rooted cuttings are sometimes planted directly in the field but frequently they are started in a soil mix in some type of container such as peat or plastic pots or clay flower pots or metal cans. Oak. If sawdust is excessively composted. Cocopeat has excellent aeration of 15 to 25% because of its fine structure. Coco substrates are expected to degrade slower than substrates such as peat moss.viii) Leaf mold: Maple. A biproduct formed during the processing of wood material. Potting mixture for rooted cuttings and young seedlings The general 118 . ix) Sawdust and woodshavings: These are used mostly for propagating media.e.

potting mixture for rooted cuttings and seedling is 1 or 2 parts of sand, 1 part of loam soil and 1 part peatmoss or shredded bark or leaf mold. For container grown general nursery stock, it is 1 part sand, 2 parts loam soil and 1 part peat moss or shredded bark of leaf mold is generally recommended potting mixture. General standards of media / substrate water content (% by weight) maximum 80% organic content (% of dry matter) minimum 90% pH of water - maximum 4.5 Ec (mS/cm at 25° C in the 1:1.5 volume extract) maximum 0.5.

Lay out and Planning Good Nursery
Nursery is an area for rearing plants. It is the place where all kinds of plants like trees, shrubs, climbers etc. are grown and kept for transporting or for using them as stock plants for budding, grafting and other method of propagation or for sale. The modern nurseries also serve as an area where garden tools, fertilizers are also offered for sale along with plant material. The number of genuine and quality fruit and ornamental plants varieties produced by Agricultural Universities, State Departments of Horticulture and Research Institutions are very meagre to meet the demand of large number of growers through out the country. Such high quality planting material could be produced by careful planning, establishment and management of nurseries. The success of any nursery depends largely upon several factors viz., proper selection of site, careful planning, selection of crops and varieties which are in good demand and procuring the progeny from the reputed institutions/nurseries, elite gardens, establishment of mother plants blocks/scion banks, acquiring scientific information of
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each variety and skilful management in production of necessary scions as well as marketing the same. For the establishment of ornamental plant nursery on scientific base the following points have to be considered.

A.

Selection of site Location:
The selected site for establishing a nursery should be

located in an established nursery area. By doing so, one can share the experiences of fellow nurserymen and thereby many mistakes can be avoided in planning, management and marketing of the nursery stock. The selected site should preferably on a highway or atleast connected with a good motorable road, which facilitates easy and economic transport of inputs and nursery plants to the users, orchardists and fruit growers. The selected site should also have electricity and other communication facilities. These facilities will improve the production as well as marketing. Soil: The success of any nursery depends mainly upon the quality of soil and abundant supply of good quality potable water. Before selecting the site for nursery, the soil and water analysis must be done, since most of the fruit and ornamental plants cannot tolerate salinity and alkalinity. The soil should be light to medium in texture with good fertility and sufficient water holding capacity along with good drainage. A soil pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is most suitable for any nursery. Salinity in soil or irrigation water leads to salt injury resulting in nutritional deficiencies, marginal browning of leaves and in acute cases death of grafts, layers and nursery seedlings especially in
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summer months. Therefore, a careful selection of soil with good quality irrigation water supply is of paramount importanance for the nursery. Topography: The topography of the selected land should be plain with one per cent slope. The slope facilitates smooth flow of irrigation water.

B.

Planning and layout of a nursery
After selection of site for the establishment of a nursery,

planning may be done in consultation with an experienced horticulturist or nurserymen. By doing so the cost on establishment, production and marketing can be reduced substantially, besides performing various nursery operations most efficiently and economically. While planning and layout is being done, the following components are to be taken care and provision should be made for these. 1. Fence: Prior to the establishment of a nursery, a good fence with barbed wire must be erected all around the nursery to prevent tress pass of animals and theft. The fence could be further strengthened by planting a live hedge with thorny fruit plants (like Koranda). 2. Roads and paths: A proper planning for roads and paths inside the nursery will not only add beauty, but also make the nursery operations easy and economical. This could be achieved by dividing the
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since they are grown in polybags or pots with limited quantity of potting mixture.nursery into different blocks and various sections. A well managed progeny block or mother plants block will not only create confidence among the customers but also reduces the cost of production and increases the success rate of grafting/ budding/layering because of availability of fresh scion material throughout the season within the nursery itself and there will not be any lag period between separations of scion and graftage. Any mistake made in this aspect will result in loss of the reputation of the nursery. the success of any nursery largely depends upon the initial selection of progeny plants or mother plants for further multiplication. 4. pipelines. a sump to hold sufficient quantity of water to irrigate the nursery plants is also very 122 . The grafts/layers/ rooted cuttings/ seedlings should be obtained preferably from the original breeder /research institute from where it is released or from a reputed nursery. 3. In areas with low water yields and frequent power failures. sump. generators etc: Fruit and ornamental nursery plants require abundant supply of water for irrigation. Wells. But at the same time. One should remember that. Hence sufficient number of wells to yield sufficient quantity of irrigation water is a must in nurseries. the land should not be wasted by unnecessarily laying out of paths and roads. Progeny block/Mother plant block: The nursery should have a well-maintained progeny block or mother plant block/scion bank planted with those varieties in good demand.

tools and implements.much essential along with appropriate pump for lifting the irrigation water. 6. weeding. Seed beds: In a nursery. an alternate power supply (generator) is very essential for smooth running of pumpset. fertilizers etc. This facilitates ease in sowing of seeds. since they require frequent watering and irrigation. packaging material. In areas where electricity failure is a problem which is more common. pesticides. watering. this component is essential to raise the seedlings and rootstocks. These are to be laid out near the water source. 123 . 5. Alternatively. A working area of 60cm between the beds is necessary. sprinkler irrigation system may be provided for watering the beds. Office cum stores: An office-cum-stores is needed for effective management of the nursery. Since water scarcity is a limiting factor in most of the areas in the country a well laid out PVC pipeline system will solve the problem to a greater extent. labels. An experienced agricultural engineer may be consulted in this regard for layout of pipeline. Irrigation channels are to be laid out conveniently. This facilitates efficient and economic distribution of irrigation water to various components in the nursery. which offers uniform germination and seedling growth. A store room of suitable size is needed for storing polybags. Beds of 1-meter width of any convenient length are to be made. spraying and lifting of seedlings.

Structures for nursery: 1. Nursery beds: Rising of seedlings / rootstocks in polybags requires more space compared to nursery beds but mortality is greatly reduced along with uniformity.7. C. The potting mixture may be prepared well in advance by adding sufficient quantity of superphosphate for better decomposition and solubilization. The potting mixtures for different purposes can be prepared by mixing fertile red soil. well rotten FYM. Alternatively. The potting mixture may be kept near the potting yard. leaf mold. oil cakes etc. in different proportions. the grafts/ layers can be arranged on the ground in beds of 1 m wide with 60cm working place in between the beds. Such beds can be irrigated either with a rose fitted to a flexible hosepipe or by overhead micro sprinklers. a good potting mixture is necessary. 124 . Nursery beds area should also have a provision to keep the grafted plants either in trenches of 30cm deep and 1 m wide so as to accommodate 500 grafts / layers in each bed. Potting mixture and potting yard: For better success of nursery plants. protecting the grafts from hot summer months. 8. Construction of a potting yard of suitable size facilitates potting of seedlings or grafting/ budding operations even on a rainy day. where potting/pocketing is done. Shade houses: Shade houses in nurseries in tropical and sub-tropical regions offer many advantages like raising of seedlings in bags directly.

Green houses: There are number of types of green houses namely low cost green house and commercial green houses. is a structure into which the young tender plants can be moved for hardening preparatory to transplanting and cold frames or lath houses are useful for this purpose. In all polyhouses/ green houses means of providing air movement and air exchange is necessary to 125 . 2. In green house construction. a wood or metal frame work is built to which wood or metal sash bars are fixed to support panes of glass embedded in putty. The shade houses made with shade nets (50% or 75%) for regulation of shade are particularly very useful in arid regions where the humidity is very low during summer months. cuttings or grafting and budding include two basic units namely a structure with temperature control and ample light such as a green house or hot bed where seeds can be germinated or cuttings rooted. Propagating structures i. Green houses/Polyhouses : Grafting or budding of several fruit species under polyhouses or low cost green houses with natural ventilation will enhance the percentage of graft/bud take besides faster growth of grafts due to favourable micro climatic conditions of polyhouse. General Nursery Management Practices Facilities required for propagating many plant species by seed.effective irrigation through upside down overhead microsprinklers. The second unit.

UV ray resisting polyethylene film of various thickness is usually recommended which lasts longer. c) Polyester film: This is a strong material with excellent weathering properties lasting for 3-5 years and is unaffected by extremes of heat or cold. ii. if possible to have in the green house heating and self opening ventilators and evaporative cooling systems. It is best. Plastic houses are usually of temporary construction except when permanent high cost coverings are used. But is usually costlier than polythene film/pvc film.aid in controlling temperature and humidity. Several kinds of plastic materials are available and are cheaper than glass. 126 . Plastic green houses: Green houses covered with various types of plastic film have become very popular for small home garden as well as for large commercial installation. However. It is longer lasting than polythene and is more expensive PVC surface of film tends to collect dust and lower the light intensity in due course of time. Plastic covered green houses tend to be much lighter than glass covered ones with a build up of excessive high humidity. b) PVC film: This material is pliable and comes in various thickness and widths upto 6 ft. a) Polythene film: This is the most inexpensive covering material but it is the short lasting one.

light weight and easily applied which is coming in a variety of widths. steam pipes or hot air blows. Aluminium prefabricated lathhouses are available but may be more costly than wood structures. Shade is provided by appropriate structures and use of shade nets of different densities allow various intensities of light in the lathhouses. iii. in the hot beds attention must be paid for shading and ventilation as well as temperature and humidity control. Hotbeds: The hot bed is often used for the same purpose as a green house but in a smaller scale. long lasting. iv. pot water. Heat is provided artificially below the propagating medium by electric heating cables. Well established plants also can require lath house protection including shade loving plants Lathhouses construction varies widely depending on the material used. corrugated or flat fiber glass sheets embedded in plastic are widely used for green house construction.d) Fiberglass: Rigid panels. Lathhouses: These structures are very useful in providing protection from the sun for container grown nursery stock in areas of high summer temperatures and high light intensity. 127 . As in the green house. It is costlier than poly thin film/pvc film. Fibre glass is strong. Amateur operations and seedlings can be started and leafy cuttings root early in the season in such structures. lengths and thickness.

120 cm broad and length as required preferably not exceeding 10 m. Mist beds: These are valuable propagating units both in the green house and out doors and are useful mainly in rooting of leafy cuttings. These structures may be made permanent with angle iron or may be made of wood. Here the principle is to spray the cuttings with a minimum quantity of water. This is achieved by providing the cuttings a series of intermittent sprayings rather than a continuous spray. provided with drainage holes at the bottom. 128 . Roof structures for planting on both sides and forming ridges at the centre are constructed on the top of the nursery beds. Mist chamber: This is a structure used to propagate soft wood cuttings. difficult to root plants and shrubs. Even shade roofing can be used for this purpose for raising see dings. The pump leads to a pipeline system inside the propagating structure. Nursery bed: These are raised beds or boxes made of brick and mortar. ii. iii.Miscellaneous propagating structures i. The dimensions of the boxes are 60 cm high. Moveable bamboo mats. palm leaf mats are placed over these structures to protect the seedling from hot sun and heavy rains. The intermittent spraying can be done easily by means of a high pressure pump and a time switch. The mist nozzles are fitted to these pipelines and suitably spaced over the propagating material.

the green house technology for production 129 . There are many tender and half hardy plants worth raising each year. because of its low cost and ease of fabrication. humidity conditions are often not sufficiently high for rooting. Fluorescent light boxes: Young plants of many species grow satisfactorily under artificial light from fluorescent lamp units. ultraviolet resistant low density polyethylene single film cladding of 200 micron thickness is sufficient for naturally ventilated and fan and pad green houses. multi span green house is most suitable. Although adequate growth of many plant species may be obtained under fluorescent lamps but not up to the mark compared to good green house conditions. In using such structures. v. care is necessary to avoid the build up of disease organisms due to high humidity. The containerized transplant production and the hybrid seed production of high value annual ornamentals have become a service oriented industry in advanced countries. Types/species/varieties of plants for production under polyhouse conditions.iv. Fan and Pad green houses are most suitable for nursery raising and rooting of cuttings due to high relative humidity inside. High humidity can be maintained in green house used for nursery raising or for rooting cuttings by misting or fogging which is also known as mist chamber. quoset type. The use of enclosed frames or cases covered with glass or plastic materials may be necessary for successful rooting. Under Indian conditions. all of which can be propagated from cuttings throughout the year. Thus. Propagating cases: Even in green house.

green and black are popular colours. however closed weaving patterns will be useful. Nurserymen are enterpreneurs can avail themselves of the subsidy facilities being provided by the Government of India and technical guidance provided by the State Department of Horticulture and the Agricultural Universities for adopting the technology and making covered cultivation or profitable venture. there being a demand for planting material. Shade Nets The shadenets are primarily used to protect the nursery plants from direct sunlight. which help in maintaining the freshness and appeal of the plants. red and blue nets are recent introductions. For general purpose shading nets with open weave pattern are preferred in fan and pad system. which is found to be excellent for plant growth. Transluscent blue shade net gives blue light. The main effect of shade net is to reduce sunlight to the required intensity. With many incentives in the form of subsidies from the Government. Shade nets help increase in quantity (growth) and quality besides having partial protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Movable screen have the advantage that whenever sunlight decreases the shade net can be moved to one side to let more sunlight. The planting material requires certain amount of protected cultivation systems. Shade nets are also used as sunscreen in low cost polyhouses or glass houses used for production of plant material.of planting material would be highly paying. Though white. use of shade net is becoming more popular. Fertilization 130 . These are ultraviolet ray stabilised and can be used for longer time. The shade nets are available in desired shading percentages.

However. and they produce less runoff. but they have no runoff or leaching. Usually. the sand bed is covered with at least one inch of fine sand. Another advantage is that workers can continue working while the plants are being irrigated. this method produces uneven water distribution. which can slow plant growth. Water is released at the high end and slowly percolates to the low end. Overhead irrigation is designed to cover a large area. and these systems are the least expensive to install. but have superior application uniformity and efficiency. They are also less affected by wind and crop canopies. but they can also hinder sales of nursery stock. which uses 60%-70% less water than overhead systems. A third. Weed control efforts should focus on two areas: in the pot and under the pot. Drip irrigation systems cost more to install than overhead systems. is keeping the pipes and emitters clean. These systems cost the most to install. besides the initial cost. and slopes very slightly from one end to the other. water rises into containerized plants through capillary action. The biggest disadvantage to trickle irrigation. To prevent weed seeds from blowing into pots.Commercial synthetic fertilizers (including slow-release and liquid fertilizers) have played a key role in modern nurseries. 131 . Sanitation is the least costly and most effective method for controlling weeds. Drip or trickle system. attention to a vegetation-free zone both on and surrounding the production bed-is critical. In this system. less-used type of irrigation system is sub irrigation using capillary sand beds. The two most widely used irrigation systems are overhead and drip (or trickle). Weeds not only compete for water and nutrients. Weed Control Weed control is extremely important. and contribute to runoff. encourage disease.

Even though weed-free media is used to establish nursery plants. wind and birds and surface irrigation water are sources of weed seeds that get deposited onto the pot surface. Nursery Plant Protection Insect pests. oils and botanicals whenever possible Spot spray only infested plants that exceed the threshold Destroy heavily infested or injured plants 132 .and postemergent herbicides are commonly used in commercial nursery production to control these freeloaders. Herbicides. Pest management: Prevention or avoidance of pests and their damage is possible by the following methods: Maintain vigorous. Thus. pre.Hand weeding is costly. diseases are critical factors in the process of multiplication of plant material under open as well as controlled conditions. Control of insects and diseases are integral part of the nursery plant production. healthy plants by using proper culture and management practices Practice IPM and realize that all culture and management factors can affect pests Scout plants for pests o Use soaps. since large quantities of media are lost when big weeds are pulled out of containers. on the other hand. Weeds must be removed when they are still small. but it may be appropriate in a small nursery setting. are widely used in container nursery production.

and Streptomyces and fungi such as Trichoderma reduces fungal plant pathogens) Chemical Control Pest Scales Scales are serious pests on many plants.in severe cases. veins of branches. it is necessary to eradicate them immediately. insects. the soil is ploughed thoroughly and covered with polythene sheet for few days depending on temperature conditions Hot Water Treatment (bulbs. These insects suck plant sap and as a result plants become weak. 133 . Plants with green shade or semi shade are more prone to attack. deformed while the branches and the plant may die . Steam sterilisation is relatively expensive but ecofriendly compared to chemical sterilisation Soil Solarization: In solar sterilisation. The affected leaves turn yellow. Pseudomonas.Conserve and promote beneficial insects by selective pesticide use Disease management: Steam Sterilization: Rooting media sterilisation is essential if it has been exposed or previously used as it may contain undesirable microorganisms. These remain covered inside a hard coating which looks like a waxy scale and infest lower surface of leaves. If tender annual flowerings crops are attacked. and weeds.corms) Biological Control (Bacillus.

Cutting and burning of infested parts reduces further spread.1% also helps in reducing population.05% provides effective control of scales on orchids. As a result of sucking nature of the pest.5 kg/30 litres of water or methyl parathion 0.05% or dimethoate 0. etheon and chlorpyriphos at 0. foliage. Drenching soil with chlorpyriphos 0. 134 . cruentatus. flower buds get distorted and dry. Spraying of fish oil resin soap at 0. Aphytis spp.05% provides effective control of scales. Sprays of dimethoate. with burnt appearance. Soil application of phorate @ 1 kg a. Application of 10% pongamia oil to pruned shoots completely controls rose red scale within 3 weeks.Management: Selection of scale free planting material prevents early build up of pest. plants become weak and the affected parts develop brown streaks./ha also reduces thrips damage.i. The tender twigs. Both nymphls and adults can affect plant parts. A predatory wasp.. These are sucking insects which affect a large number of plants. Natural enemies viz. Management: Sprays of oxydemeton methyl or dimethoate or oxydemet on methyl or acephate given at 0.05% at 10 days interval provides significant control of thrips. Polistes hebraeus preys on R. Thrips Thrips are minute insects and mainly attack tender leaves and growing buds. Chilocorus nigritus and Pharasymnus horni are common enemies of red scale in nature.

Water extract of pongamia kernel 4% or pongamia oil 2% sprays cause significant mortality of aphids. leaves and flower buds.05% or malathion 0. Grubs and adults of coccinellid beetles and maggots prey upon the aphids and effectively wipe out their population in nature.1 % at 10-15 days interval controls aphid population effectively. Affected plants become weak.0 kg a. Shoots or foliage get deformed. retard in growth. The aphids excrete honey-dews on the foliage causing sooty mould to grow over the foliage.05% or oxydemeton-methyl 0. leaves turn yellow & get deformed.. wooly and waxy secretions. Application of neem oil 1 % also reduces aphid population effectively. Application of 4% alcohol extracts of Solanum indicum and Erythrina indica provides good control of rose aphid. on chrysanthemum. Mealy bugs secrete honey dews which stick to the foliage and as a result of which sooty mould cover the leaf surface impairing the normal activity of the leaves 135 . ornamental look may be affected. In severe cases affected plants may even die ..Aphids Aphids are sucking insects which are blackish or brownish or green in colour and suck sap from tender shoots. The insects suck the sap as a result of which plants weaken. To prevent recurrence of the pest granular insecticides like phorate @ 1.i/ ha should be applied to soil. Generally older plants are affected. Management: Spraying of dimathoate 0. In case of ornamental plants. Mealybug Mealy bugs are small fleshy insects which remain covered in a white. .

white in colour and are very active. using of insect screening nets and Proper closing of doors help in preventing incidence of whiteflies.05% alternated with triazophos 0.05% or dimethoate 0. Leptomastridia abnormis reduces mealy bug population in glass house grown ornamentals. Crawling of ants on plants is the sign of beginning of mealybug infestation.i.05% at an early stage of infestation effectively contains pest build up.05% significantly reduce nymph and pupal population. Clean cultivation. triazophos or Spark at 0. Spraying should be taken up at this stage. Whiteflies Whiteflise are tinny insects. Spraying of phosphamidin 0. if plant is not sensitive to oil sprays. Release of coccinellid predator. Management: Excessive dampness and dark conditions should be avoided for crops grown under protected conditions.Management: Prompt collection and desctruction of infested parts reduces spread of the pest. Sprays of methyl parathion 0.1 % at 15 days interval effectively controls mealybug infestation. A management package of spraying dichlorvos 0./ 136 .05% for adults. Cryptolamus montrouzieri and a parasitoid. Removal and burning of heavily infested leaves checks multiplication of the pest.05% or acephate 0. Sprays of methomyl and acephate at 0. Application of pongamia oil 2% also provides good control of mealy bugs.05% alternating with pongamia oil 1% for nymphs and soil application of carbofuran @ 1 kg a.

urticae Causes mortality.05%. Mitac. Amblyseivs sp @ 20/plant successfully contains T.05% brings down mites population considerably on ornamental crops. Mites The mite is a minute dot sized pest red in colour almost invisible to the naked eyes. irrigation and clean cultivation are essential to keep the pest population under control. Release of predatory mite.urticae on carnation.05% and wettable sulphur 0. Use of dicofol. Cascade are also used to combat mite problem in nurseries. This is a sucking type of pest if established once. Encarsia formosa (6 adults/m2).05% or dimethoate 0.uritcae population on Rose.012% and ethion 0. The tender shoots affected by mites develop spots and turn yellow. protenofos 0. New acariades like vertimec.ha provides effective control of whitefly on gerbera. dry and drop. and use of yellow sticky traps gives significant control of whiteflies on green house ornamentals.05% and wetlable sulfur 0. Commercial neem formulation (3500 ppm azadirachtin) application against T.05% followed by a spray of pongamia oil 1 % provides significant control of T.05% also offer significant control of mites that infest various ornamentals.05%. Methyl parathion 0. resembling the spider but not a true spider. fluvalinate 0. Spraying of triazophos 0. they may become a serious problem. pentac Apollo. 137 . Management: Cutting and burning of severely infested plant parts reduces further multiplication of mites. 0. Proper ventilation. growth retardation. Release of a parasitoid. reduction in egg hatchability and egg laying.3% sprays (2-3) at 15 days interval gives considerable control of mites. Acaricides like dicofol 0.

Setting up of light traps attracts adult moths and helps in monitoring pest population. hairy caterpillars and S. wheat bran andmollasses scattered in the fielkd.i.05% or chlorpyriphos 0.Leaf Eating Caterpillars Caterpillars feed on foliage. Spraying of plant derivatives like neem oil 1 % or neem kernel extract 4% checks damage by early instar larvae.05% gives protection to foliage from semiloopers.litura reduces pest build up. Ethanol extract of neem kernel at 2.05% or chlorpyriphos 0. Fortnightly sprays of quinalphos 0. They damage leaves by feeding Management: Collection and destruction of egg masses and leaves infested with early larval instars of hairy caterpillar and S./ ha controls grubs. The insect remains in the soil and attacks the seedlings at ground level. Setting up of light traps helps in collecting adults and monitoring pest incidence. Spraying of quinalphos 0. Sprays 138 . Poison bait consisting of carbaryl or malathion at 0. Cut Worms These are essentially found in a nursery.litura.1% .05% taken up in the evening protects foliage from betles and weevils on rose.0 kg a. controls larvae.05% or methyl parathion 0. Management: Use of light traps collects adult moths. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis dust and spray (3 x 106 spores) gives effective control of these caterpillars on rose. Leaf Beetles and Weevils Management: Soil application of phorate or carbofuran @ 1.5% or neem oil 1 % inhibits feeding by chafer beetles on rose.

The affected leaves become brittle turn brown & dry.05% provides protection to foliage from cut worms. Sprays of deltanethns 0. Spraying of neem oil 1 % and water extract of soapnut 5% protects foliage from snail damage.94 and 1. Diglyphus intermedius @ 1000 at weekly intervals gives considerable reduction of leaf miner population on chrysanthemum. Drenching of soil with Margosan (0.05% or quinalphos 0. Management: Removal and destruction of severely mined leaves reduces further damage. Application of granulosis virus causes 90-94% mortality of cutworm on ornamentals. 139 .of methyl parathion 0. Use of yellow sticky traps coated with chlorpyriphos or permethrin reduces adult population.06% and pongamia oil 0.25% effectively reduces number of pupae and adults.33%) and spraying with same chemical at 0. Snails And Slugs Snails are one of the important pests found in nursery. Management: Hand picking and killing by putting them in 5% salt solution is the most effective method to bring down the population.5% causes significant mortality of larvae.05% triazophos 0. They cut the young plants at general level and damage seedlings during rainy season. Spreading of 'Snail kill' (3% metaldehyde pellets) in the field kills snails and slugs. Leafminers The larvae of the insects mines into leaves between epidermal layers leaving excreta on leaf surfaces. Release of eulophid parasitoid.

2% 140 . Control measures involves direct control by use of Captan 0. The infection spreads rapidly under high humid conditions.2% or Bavistin 0. slightly raised concentric and are studded with large number of raised black or red bodies. succullent seedlings during or shortly after germination. water also plays an important role in spread and control of disease. A common symptom is the girdling of young seedling stems at the soil surface. The blights are kept under control by constant and timely spray of copper fungicides 0. ii) Anthracnose: This is a kind of leaf spot formed in young plants and spots are circular.Diseases i) Damping off: This is a major disease of germinating seeds which is caused by three separate fungi mainly species of Pythium Rhizoctonia and.2% or Dithane Z-78 0. Damping off usually occurs only in youmg. The disease is expressed either by the failure of the seedling to emerge or by the death of the seedling soon after emergence. Phytophthora.2% or Bavistin 0. spraying with copper fungicides 0.15%.15% or Kavach 0. drenching or use of organomecuerials such as Cersan or Thiram or Agrosan as seed treatment chemicals at rate of 2g/ ka of seed.2%. iii) Blights: These also sometimes causes damage to the nursery stock in high humid areas. but older plants may be affected in severe cases. will control the disease. Regulation of environmental conditions such as excess humidity.

The powdery mildews are easily recognised by the presence of scattered areas showing powdery growth mostly on the young leaves.15% or Bavistin 0.2°/" solution and prophylactic sprays with Topsin M 0. v) Leaf spots: The disease is very common in grown up plans and number of fungi as well as bacteria is involved. Inhaling of pesticide sprays or dusts and smoking. The leaf spots vary in size shape colour and extent of damage. While preparing the spray solutions bare hands should not be used for mixing the chemical with water.15%. Bags and containers of pesticides should be cut open with a separate knife intended for such purposes. The empty containers. 141 . should be destroyed and should not be put into some other use. Spraying with wetable sulphur sulfex 0.15% or Dithane Z-78 0. Spraying with Copper fungicide 0.15% will control the disease.2% or Bavistin 0. Precautions for handling plant protection equipment. after the use of the chemical. The disease may be due to fungi.iv) Dieback: This is serious in some of the grafts/buddlings at the young stage.2% will control the disease. Control measures involves dipping of scion sticks in Bavistin or Benlate 0.2% or Calixin 0. They should be kept away from food or feed stuffs and medicines. vi) Powdery mildews: This is a common malady in most of ornamental crops during dry cool weather and when plants produce new flesh. The symptoms vary according to the pathogen involved. The instructions found on the labels should be carefully read and strictly followed. The symptoms are drying up of the margin of the leaf and drying slowly spreads to young shoots in severe cases.

Mo.chewing. Fe. Symptoms and Management of Nutrients Plant performance in nursery depends on nutrient status in plant media. Washers and other contaminated parts should be buried. micronutrients such as Zn. face and body should be washed and clothing changed.Mg and S. In case of any suspected poisoning due to insecticides the nearest physician should be called immediately. Cu. B. eating or drinking while mixing or applying the chemicals should be avoided Spilling of pesticides on skin or clothing should as far as possible be avoided. but nothing has been worked out owing to its short duration of plant with nursery. or streams should be avoided.K. Washing of equipment after use and containers in or near wells. Dusting or spraying should never be done against the wind and it is preferable to have them done in cool and calm weather. Nutrients are necessary for growth and productivity of crops. It is preferable that protective clothings and devices are used while handling poisonous chemicals to avoid exposure to sprays or drifts. The clothes should be washed after each operation . Apart from the N. nutrient deficiency can lead to poor and stunted growth of plants resulting in poor 142 . However. el. etc are also necessary for maintaining the normal health and metabolism of plants. After handling pesticides hands. Sprayer nozzles should not be blown by mouth if gets blocked while spraying. Persons engaged in handling pesticides should undergo regular medical check up.Ca. Mn. Particles or drops of pesticides which may accidentally get into eyes should be flushed out immediately with large volumes of clean water..P.

scorching of lower leaves.Plant dark green.Effects mostly generalised over whole plant. stem. The deficiencies are manifested in various plant parts. 143 .. stalks short and slender if element is deficient in later stages of growth. a) Nitrogen Deficiency . depending upon the role of the element and nutrient content.. whole plant. Often nurserymen are encountered with some deficiency symptoms appearing in nursery plants and they should have sufficient knowledge to identify the nutrient deficiencies in nursery plants to take up appropriate steps to correct the nutrient deficiencies. leaves. The deficiency symptoms of different micro and macro nutrients and their corrections are given hereunder. The appearance of plant parts can be used by nurserymen to help indicate plant health in general and nutrient deficiencies in particular. Nutrient deficiency symptoms in plants Deficiency Symptoms A. often developing red and purple colour. lower leaves sometime yellow. drying to light brown colour. Nitrogen (or posphorus) Deficiency . turning to greenish brown black colour.Plants light green light yellow. b) Phosphorus Deficiency .performance. plant light or dark green. The expression of deficiency symptoms are varied among the plant parts viz. more or less drying. Older or lower leaves affected 1. roots etc.

B. leaves may redden as with cotton.Terminal buds. a) Calcium Deficiency .Lower leaves mottled or chlorotic. 144 . Magnesium. stalks finally die at terminal bud.2. stalks slender. New or bud leaves affected (symptoms localised) 1. finally dying back at tips and margins so that latter growth is characterised by a cut out appearance at these points.Spots of dead tissue small usually at tips and between veins.Young leaves of terminal bud at first typically hooked. Potassium or Zinc Deficiency . b) Potassium or Zinc Deficiency . sometimes with dead spot tips and margin turned or curved upwards. rapidly enlarging and generally involving areas between veins eventually involving secondary and even primary veins. without dead spots. following appearance of distortions at tips or bases of young leaves. i) Potassium Deficiency . stalks slender. leaves thick. stalks with shortened inter nodes. Calcium or Boron Deficiency . little or no drying up of lower leaves a) Magnesium Deficiency .Effects mostly localised.Spots generalised. more marked at margins of leaves. ii) Zinc Deficiency . mottling or chlorosis with or without spots of dead tissue on lower leaves. with dead spots.Lower leaves mottled or chlorotic.

Young leaves of terminal bud becoming light green at bases. 145 ii) b) . with final break down here. i) Sulphur Deficiency . Manganese. veins light or dark green.Young leaves permanently wilted or marked chlorosis. twig or stalk just below tip and seed head often unable to stand erect in later stage when shortages are acute. a) Manganese Deficiency . chlorosis present or without spots of dead issue scattered over the leaves. Sulphur or Iron Deficiency . stalks short and slender. ii) Iron Deficiency . i) Copper Deficiency . 2.Sports of dead tissue scattered over the leaves smallest veins tend to remain green producing a checkered or reticulated effect.Young leaves not wilted. chlorosis may not involve veins making them light dark green in colour. Manganese or iron Deficiency .Young leaves chlorosis. wilting or chlorosis of younger or bud leaves with or without spots of dead tissues. Sulphur or Iron Deficiency Terminal bud commonly remains alive. stalk finally dies back at terminal bud. Copper.b) Boron Deficiency . principal veins green.Young leaves with veins and tissue between veins light green in colour. in later growth. leaves become twisted.Dead spots not commonly present.

Slender and weak stems with poor lignification spilling or cracking on the barks. Phosphorus: Recommended doses of P and foliar spray of 2% DAP or 1 % super phosphate extract. If the deficiency is observed during the growth phase.5% of Gypsum salt as foliar spray. Nitrogen: Applying recommended doses of N fertilizers. Potassium: Recommended doses of K and foliar spray of 1 % KCl or 1% K2SO4 Calcium: Lime application depending upon the pH and foliar spray of 1 % calcium nitrate (Fruit crops) Magnesium: Soil application of Domolite or Gypsum Salt MgSO4. Control measures Nutrient deficiency can be easily rectified by applying the deficient element either by soil application or by foliar application or by the combined application of soil + foliar spray. iii) Pottassium Deficiency .Stunted shade plants but have stronger stems.Stocky appearance with short internodes. ii) Sulphur Deficiency . 1% of urea can be used.Thin and erect stems.7H2O depending upon the deficiency and 0. iv) Copper Deficiency .c) Stems i) Phosphorus Deficiency . 146 .

1 % foliar spray of ammonium molybdate.2-0. Spraying on young foliage yields better results than spraying on the old mature leaves.5 .2% Borix acid Molybdenum: Soil application of 500g to 2 kg of Ammonium molybdate and 0. Care should be taken to ensure that the entire foliage should be thoroughly wet. Spray fluid should be prepared only with clean water.Zinc: Soil application of Zinc Sulphate at 12. only foliar spray is recommended) Manganese: Soil application of Manganese sulphate at 25 kg/ha and foliar spray of 0. 147 .4% MnSO4 Copper : Soil application of Copper Sulphate at 10kg/ha and foliar spray of 0.5% CuSO4 Boron: Soil application of Borax at 15-20 kg/ha and foliar spray of 0. Iron: Soil application of Ferrous sulphate at 50kg/ha and foliar spray of 0. Spraying can be done with hand operated sprayer. Spray fluid can be mixed with any wetting agent at 1 ml per litre of spray fluids.5% Zinc Sulphate. Spray can be repeated 2 to 3 times with an interval of 15-20 days with 400 litres of spray fluid per ha.25 kg/ha and foliar spray of 0. Nutrients can be sprayed on the foliage of the crops either in the morning or late evening.5% Ferrous sulphate (for calcerous soil.

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