Knowing why touriata traveI ia the moat

fundamentaI queation among the atudy of
touriata' behavior. AIthough it ia the moat baaic
queation, knowing the wanta and needa of
touriata in traveIing ia a compIicated taak. The
wanta and needa of touriata are often regarded
aa traveI motivationa. Aa per dictionary'a
definition, motivation ia aomething that
atimuIatea intereat or cauaea a peraon to act in a
certain way.
ook (1999) aimpIy expIained traveI
motivation aa the drive to traveI. Weaver
and Lawton (2000) atated that traveI
motivation ia different from traveI
purpoae in that indicatea the intrinaic
reaaona why the individuaI ia embarking
on a particuIar trip.
PaaIow'a Hierarchy of Needa
· Over the yeara, many theoriea were deveIoped
to expIain touriat motivationa for traveIing. One
very common theory uaed in the atudy of traveI
motivationa of touriat ia aaIow'a hierarchy of
needa. Thia theory by Abraham aaIow in hia
1943 work, 'A Theory of Human otivation,'
expIaina that aa humana meet baaic needa, they
aeek to aatiafy aucceaaiveIy higher needa that
occupy a aet of hierarchy.
Thia pyramid of five IeveIa repreaenta
human needa which aaIow further
grouped into two aa deficiency needa
and growth needa. Deficiency needa are
reIated to phyaioIogicaI needa whiIe
growth needa are reIated to
paychoIogicaI needa. TabIe 4 aummarizea
the different human needa identified by
P!hyaioIogicaI needa : Need to breathe, need
for water, need to eat, need to diapoae of
bodiIy waatea, need for aIeep, need to
reguIate body temperature, and need for
aexuaI activity, body comfort and exerciae,
P8afety : Need for aecurity of empIoyment,
revenuea and reaourcea; need for phyaicaI
aecurity (aafety from vioIence, deIinquency,
aggreaaion); need for moraI and
phyaioIogicaI aecurity; need for famiIiaI
aecurity; need for aecurity of heaIth
PLove/beIonging : Need for friendahip,
aexuaI intimacy, having a famiIy and
need to beIong in a group
PEateem : Need to be reapected, need for
aeIf-reapect and need to reapect othera;
need for recognition, need for activity
that givea the peraon a aenae of
contribution and aeIf-vaIue
PActuaIization : Need to make the moat of
one'a unique abiIitiea and need to atrive
to be the beat
· Tour packagea that offer frequent reat atopa
· EaaiIy acceaaibIe food outIeta in theme parka
· 8Ieeping aheItera atrategicaIIy Iocated
· Reaervation aervice provided at government-
approved agenciea or Iocation
· ruiae ahip Iinea providing medicaI faciIitiea
and doctora
· Tour guide aervicea provided in exotic or
unfamiIiar Iocationa
· Group toura with peopIe having aimiIar intereata
and/ or backgrounda
· Group recognition gained by memberahip in
frequent uaer programa provided by airIine
· Tripa to expIore one'a anceatraI roota
· EIite atatua in frequent-uaer programa auch aa
goId, aiIver or bronze
· Incentive traveI awarda for auperior company
· FIowera champagne and other tokena provided
to gueata in recognition of occaaiona
· EducationaI toura and cruiaea
· Theme parka providing educationaI
opportunitiea and gIimpaea of other cuIturea
· Learning the Ianguage and cuIture before
traveIing to another country.
PLeiaure Ladder odeI
· !hiIip !earce (Roy,1999). It attempta to expIain
individuaI behaviora on the baaia of atagea in a
touriat Iife cycIe which ia aaid to be aimiIar to an
individuaI'a experience of work.
PReIaxation & bodiIy needa
· Need for baaic aervicea (food, apace, toiIeta) for
reatoration and peraonaI maintenance and repair
· Need for excitement and aafety (fun & thriII of
ridea, experience of the unuauaI, out of the
ordinary aettinga and different fooda and
· Need to buiId and extend peraonaI reIationahipa
(tenderneaa, affection, joint fun, joint activitiea,
aItruiam and being directIy invoIved)
P8eIf-eateem & deveIopment
· Need to deveIop akiIIa, knowIedge and abiIitiea
(how othera aee a peraon and one'a deaire to be
competent, in controI, reapected and productive)
· Need to feeI peacefuI, profoundIy happy
(magicaI aa if tranaported to another worId,
apirituaI and totaIIy invoIved in the aetting)
Prompton'a !uah-and-!uII odeI
· Thia modeI emphaaizea that the choice of deatination
of a touriat driven by two forcea: puah and puII. The
firat force, puah, puahea a touriat away (from home)
and the aecond one, puII, ia a region-apecific Iure
that puIIa a touriat towarda a deatination. The puah
refera to a generaI deaire to go and be aomewhere
eIae, without apecifying where that may be. KozaI
pointed out that theae are intangibIe, intrinaic
deairea of a touriat to go on vacation (HanaaI and
EiaeIt, 2004). !uII, on the other hand, refera to the
tangibIe characteriatica or attributea of a deatination
that are primariIy reIated to ita perceived
PTouriata' Deciaion-aking !roceaa
· Another way of underatanding touriata ia
knowing how they decide on touriam
product/aervicea and deatinationa. Their
deciaion-making proceaa wouId provide touriam
buaineaa inaighta to effective marketing and
advertiaing techniquea to effectiveIy reach their
target marketa. There are a number of
frameworka that expIained thia proceaa. The
foIIowing diacuaaiona ahow the worka of 8chmoII,
atheiaon and WaII, and HanaaI and EiaeIt.
· The 8chmoII modeI emphaaizea four aucceaaive
fieIda which he beIieve exert infIuencea on the
deciaion of touriata (ooper and FIetcher, 1993)
FieId 1. TraveI atimuIi : Theae compriae externaI atimuIi that
can awaken an individuaIa deaire or need to traveI in the
form of promotionaI atimuIation, peraonaI and trade
ExampIea : advertiaing and promotion, traveI Iiterature,
auggeationa, reporta from other traveIera, traveI trade
auggeationa and recommendationa.
FieId 2. !eraonaI & 8ociaI determinanta : Theae determine
cuatomer goaIa in the form of traveI deairea and
expectationa and the objective and aubjective riaka thought
to be connected with traveI.
ExampIea : 8ocio-economic atatua, peraonaIity featurea, aociaI
infIuencea and aapirationa, attitudea and vaIuea, motivationa,
deairea, needa and expectationa.
P FieId 3. ExternaI VariabIea : Theae invoIve the proapective
traveIera confidence in the aervice provider, deatination
image, paat experience and coat and time conatrainta.
P ExampIea : confidence and traveI trade intermediary,
deatination aervice, previoua traveI experience, aaaeaament
of objectivea, aubjective riaka, conatrainta in time, coat, etc.
P FieId 4. haracteriatica and featurea of the aervice : Theae
aIao have a bearing on the deciaion and ita outcome.
P ExampIea : coat/vaIue reIationa, attractiona/amenitiea
offered, range of traveI opportunitiea, quaIity/quantity of
traveI information, type of arrangement offered.
Patheiaon & WaII
· A five-atage modeI of traveI-buying behavior
waa deveIoped by ateiaon & WaII. 8imiIar to the
8chmoII modeI, their modeI aIao identifiea four
interreIated factora.
PTouriat profiIe
· age, education, income, attitudea, previoua
experience and motivationa.
TraveI awareneaa : image of deatinationa, faciIitiea
and aervicea which ia baaed upon the credibiIity
of the aource
Deatination reaourcea & characteriatica :
attractiona and featurea of the deatination
Trip featurea : diatance, trip duration, and
perceived riaka of the area viaited
P FeIt need or traveI deaire : A deaire to traveI ia
feIt and reaaona for and againat that deaire are
P Information & evaIuation : !otentiaI touriata
utiIized traveI intermediariea, brochurea and
advertiaementa aa weII aa frienda, reIativea and
experienced traveIera. Thia information ia
evaIuated againat both economic and time
conatrainta and factora auch aa acceaaibiIity and
P TraveI deciaion : 8tage advancement occura with
deatinationa, mode of traveI, accommodationa
and activitiea being aeIected.
PTraveI preparationa & traveI equipment :
TraveI takea pIace once bookinga are
made and confirmed, budgeta organized,
and cIothing and equipment are
PTraveI aatiafaction evaIuation : During
and after traveI the overaII experience ia
evaIuated and the reauIta infIuence
aubaequent traveI deciaiona.
PHanaaI & EiaeIt (2004) provided a aimpIe
expIanation of the deciaion-making proceaa
of touriata. Thia proceaa ia divided into two
phaaea which are deacribed aa:
· !Ianning phaae ÷ where traveIera decide on the
baaic parametera concerning their trip. Deciaiona in
thia phaae are made at home, uauaIIy over a
aignificant amount of time prior to the trip.
· odification phaae ÷ during which detaiIa are
decided. Thia phaae covera modification made
during the trip.
Parket aegmentation ia aimiIar to touriat
typoIogy. It ia another way of cIaaaifying
touriata and underatanding them.
P8egmentation ia aort of grouping peopIe
with the aame characteriatica auch aa
geographic, demographic,
paychographic and product-reIated
PGeographic aegmentation : Grouping of
potentiaI touriata ia baaed on their
PDemographic aegmentation : Grouping ia
baaed on the touriata gender, age,
ethnicity, occupation, education, income,
houaehoId aize, and famiIy aituation.
P!roduct-reIated : Grouping of touriata ia
baaed directIy on what they want and
need in a particuIar good or aervice.
P apaneae
· arket ia focuaed on women in their 30a, 50a and
· 8enior market ia increaaing.
· an traveI to Aaian deatinationa
· Top five activitiea of [apaneae touriata: obaerving
naturaI and acenic beauty; cuIturaI and hiatoricaI
aitea, viaita muaeuma and art gaIIeriea.
· oat [apaneae go to deatinationa for reat and
reIaxation and are particuIarIy attracted to apa
· Their favorite traveI deatinationa are hina,
[apan, ThaiIand, the !hiIippinea and Hong Kong
· NaturaI aceneriea and IocaI cuIture attract
touriata. ReIaxation and ahopping are graduaIIy
becoming two other important deatination
factora in traveI.
· !refer package toura
· Outbound paaaengera from the citiea of eijing,
8hanghai and Guangzhou are experienced
touriata and are often repeat outbound traveIera.
· They are matured and many of them take an
outbound trip every year aa part of their
· !refer aightaeeing and city traveI
· hineae touriata go to AD8 ( approved
deatination aitea)
· There are 28 miIIion paaaport hoIdera in India
who are potentiaI traveIera.
· Leiaure groupa are IargeIy famiIy oriented that
Iooka for famiIy fun.
· TraveI in groupa.
· 8ource market ia wide and compIex becauae of
ita aize and variety.
· Indiana are aIao very price-aenaitive.

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