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Haile Selassie I

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Haile Selassie I

Emperor of Ethiopia
2 November 1930–12 September 1974 (43
Reign
years, 314 days)
Coronation 2 November 1930
Predecessor Zewditu I
Successor De jure Amha Selassie I (crowned in exile)
Head of State of Ethiopia
Predecessor Zewditu I
Successor Aman Andom (as Chairman of the Derg)
Spouse Empress Menen
Issue
Princess Romanework
Princess Tenagnework
Asfaw Wossen
Princess Zenebework
Princess Tsehai
Prince Makonnen
Prince Sahle Selassie
Full name
Ras Tafari Makonnen
House House of Solomon
Father Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa
Mother Weyziro Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar
23 July 1892
Born
Ejersa Goro, Ethiopia
27 August 1975 (aged 83)
Died
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Religion Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo
Haile Selassie

1st Chairman of the Organization of African Unity


In office
25 May 1963 – 17 July 1964
Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

Rastafari
movement

Main doctrines
Jah · Afrocentrism · Ital ·
Zion · Cannabis use
Central figures

Queen of Sheba · King


Solomon · Haile Selassie
· Marcus Garvey ·
Leonard Howell · God
Key scriptures
Bible · Kebra Nagast ·
The Promise Key · Holy
Piby · My Life and
Ethiopia's Progress ·
Royal Parchment Scroll
of Black Supremacy
Branches and
festivals
Mansions · United States
· Shashamane ·
Grounation Day
Notable individuals
Bob Marley · Peter Tosh ·
Walter Rodney ·
Mutabaruka · Benjamin
Zephaniah
See also:
Vocabulary · Persecution
· Dreadlocks · Reggae ·
Ethiopian Christianity ·
Index of Rastafari
articles
This box: view • talk • edit

Haile Selassie I (Ge'ez: ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ, "Power of the Trinity"[1]) (23 July 1892 – 27 August
1975), born Tafari Makonnen,[2] was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor
of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. The heir to a dynasty that traced its origins to the 13th
century, and from there by tradition back to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Haile
Selassie is a defining figure in both Ethiopian and African history.[3][4]

At the League of Nations in 1936, the Emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons
by Italy against his people.[5] His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter
member of the United Nations, and his political thought and experience in promoting
multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring.[6] His
suppression of rebellions among the nobles (mekwannint), as well as what some
perceived to be Ethiopia's failure to modernize adequately,[7] earned him criticism among
some contemporaries and historians.[8]

Haile Selassie, who was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian, is revered as Jesus incarnate
among the Rastafari movement, the number of followers of which is estimated between
200,000 and 800,000.[9][10] Begun in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafarian movement
perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead the peoples of Africa and the
African diaspora to a golden age of peace, righteousness, and prosperity.[11]

Contents
[hide]
 1 Name
 2 Biography
o 2.1 Early life
o 2.2 Governorship
o 2.3 Regency
 2.3.1 Travel abroad
o 2.4 King and Emperor
o 2.5 Conflict with Italy
 2.5.1 Mobilization
 2.5.2 Progress of the war
 2.5.3 Exile debate
 2.5.4 Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936
 2.5.5 Exile
o 2.6 1940s and 1950s
o 2.7 1960s
o 2.8 1970s
 2.8.1 Wollo Famine
 2.8.2 Revolution
 3 Imprisonment
o 3.1 Death and interment
 4 Children
 5 Rastafari Messiah
o 5.1 Haile Selassie's attitude to the Rastafari
 6 Famous quotations
 7 Honours
 8 Military ranks
 9 Ancestry
 10 See also
 11 Notes
 12 References

 13 External links

[edit] Name
Haile Selassie was born Tafari Makonnen (Ge'ez ልጅ፡ ተፈሪ፡ መኮንን; Amharic
pronunciation lij teferī mekōnnin). "Lij" translates literally to "child", and serves to
indicate that a youth is of noble blood. He would later become Ras Tafari Makonnen;
"Ras" translates literally to "head"[12] and is the equivalent of "duke",[13] though it is often
rendered in translation as "prince". In 1928, he was elevated to Negus, "King".

Upon his ascension to Emperor in 1930, he took the name Haile Selassie, meaning
"Power of the Trinity".[14] Haile Selassie's full title in office was "His Imperial Majesty
Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah,
and Elect of God" (Ge'ez ግርማዊ፡ ቀዳማዊ፡ አፄ፡ ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ፡ ሞዓ፡ አንበሳ፡ ዘእምነገደ፡ ይሁዳ፡
ንጉሠ፡ ነገሥት፡ ዘኢትዮጵያ፡ ሰዩመ፡ እግዚአብሔር; girmāwī ḳadāmāwī 'aṣē ḫaile śelassie,
mō'ā 'ambassā ze'imneggede yehūda negus negast ze'ītyōṗṗyā, tsehume 'igzī'a'bihēr).
This title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace
their lineage back to Menelik I, who in the Ethiopian tradition was the offspring of King
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.[15]

To Ethiopians Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu
Meri, and Abba Tekel. The Rastafari employ many of these appellations, also referring
to him as HIM, Jah, and Jah Rastafari.

[edit] Biography
[edit] Early life

Ras Makonnen, father of Haile Selassie I, in 1902

Haile Selassie I was born Tafari Makonnen from a mixed Oromo, Amhara, and Gurage[16]
family on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia.
His mother was Woizero ("Lady") Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar, daughter of the renowned
Oromo ruler of Wollo province Dejazmach Ali Abajifar. Haile Selassie's father was Ras
Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa, the governor of Harar; Ras Makonnen served as a
general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa.[17] He
inherited his imperial blood through his paternal grandmother, Princess Tenagnework
Sahle Selassie, who was an aunt of Emperor Menelik II, and as such asserted direct
descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of ancient Israel.[18]

Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Ras Imru Haile Selassie to
receive instruction in Harar from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin
monk, and from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach
(literally "commander of the gate", roughly equivalent to "count")[19] at the age of 13, on
1 November 1905.[20] Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906.
[21]

[edit] Governorship

Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal


importance[22] but one that enabled him to continue his studies.[20] In 1907, he was
appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo. It is alleged that during his late
teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, and that from this union, his
daughter Romanework Haile Selassie was born.[23][24]

Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar was left
vacant,[22] and its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha
Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar was ineffective, and so during the last illness
of Menelik II, and the brief reign of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari was made governor of
Harar in 1910[21] or 1911.[16]
On 3 August he married Menen Asfaw of Ambassel, niece of heir to the throne Lij Iyasu.

[edit] Regency

The extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to
depose Iyasu V is unclear. Iyasu V, or Lij Iyasu, was the designated but uncrowned
Emperor of Ethiopia from 1913 to 1916. Iyasu's reputation for scandalous behavior and a
disrespectful attitude towards the nobles at the court of his grandfather, Menelik II,[25]
damaged his reputation. His flirtation with Islam was considered treasonous among the
Ethiopian Orthodox Christian leadership of the empire. On 27 September 1916, Iyasu
was deposed.[26]

Contributing to the movement that deposed Iyasu were conservatives such as Fitawrari
Habte Giyorgis, Menelik II's longtime Minister of War. The movement to depose Iyasu
preferred Tafari, as he attracted support from both progressive and conservative factions.
Ultimately, Iyasu was deposed on the grounds of conversion to Islam.[12][26] In his place,
the daughter of Menelik II ( the aunt of Iyasu) was named Empress Zewditu and made
Regent for Tafari during his minority. Tafari was elevated to the rank of Ras and was
made heir apparent and Crown Prince. In the power arrangement that followed, Tafari
accepted the role of Regent Plenipotentiary (Balemulu 'Inderase) and became the de
facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire (Mangista Ityop'p'ya). Zewditu would govern while
Tafari would administer.[27]

While Iyasu had been deposed on 27 September 1916, on 8 October the coup d'etat went
awry. Iyasu managed to escape into the Ogaden Desert and his father, Negus Mikael of
Wollo, had time to come to his aid.[28] On 27 October, Negus Mikael and his army met an
army under Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis loyal to Zewditu and Tafari. During the Battle of
Segale, Negus Mikael was defeated and captured. Any chance that Iyasu would regain the
throne was ended and he went into hiding. On 11 January 1921, after avoiding capture for
about five years, Iyasu was taken into custody by Gugsa Araya Selassie.

On 11 February 1917, the coronation for Zewditu took place. She pledged to rule justly
through her Regent, Tafari. While Tafari was the more visible of the two, Zewditu was far
from an honorary ruler. Her position required that she arbitrate the claims of competing
factions. In other words, she had the last word. Tafari carried the burden of daily
administration but, because his position was relatively weak, this was often an exercise in
futility for him. Initially his personal army was poorly equipped, his finances were
limited, and he had little leverage to withstand the combined influence of the Empress,
the Minister of War, or the provincial governors.[29]
Empress Zewditu, preceded Haile Selassie as Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 until her
death in April 1930. He served as regent of Ethiopia during her reign.

During his Regency, the new Crown Prince developed the policy of cautious
modernization initiated by Menelik II. He secured Ethiopia's admission to the League of
Nations in 1923 by promising to eradicate slavery; each emperor since Tewodros II had
issued proclamations to halt slavery,[30] but without effect: the internationally scorned
practice persisted well into Haile Selassie's reign.[31]

[edit] Travel abroad

In 1924, Ras Tafari toured Europe and the Middle East visiting Jerusalem, Cairo,
Alexandria, Brussels, Amsterdam, Stockholm, London, Geneva, and Athens. With him
on his tour was a group that included Ras Seyum Mangasha of western Tigre Province,
Ras Hailu Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam Province, Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu of Illubabor
Province, Ras Makonnen Endelkachew, and Blattengeta Heruy Welde Sellase. The
primary goal of the trip to Europe was for Ethiopia to gain access to the sea. In Paris,
Tafari was to find out from the French Foreign Ministry (Quai d'Orsay) that this goal
would not be realized.[32] However, failing this, he and his retinue inspected schools,
hospitals, factories, and churches. Although patterning many reforms after European
models, Tafari remained wary of European pressure. To guard against economic
imperialism, Tafari required that all enterprises have at least partial local ownership.[33] Of
his modernization campaign, he remarked, "We need European progress only because we
are surrounded by it. That is at once a benefit and a misfortune."[34]

Throughout Ras Tafari's travels in Europe, the Levant, and Egypt, he and his entourage
were greeted with enthusiasm and fascination. He was accompanied by Seyum Mangasha
and Hailu Tekle Haymanot who, like Tafari, were sons of generals who contributed to the
victorious war against Italy a quarter century earlier at the Battle of Adwa.[35] Another
member of his entourage, Mulugeta Yeggazu, actually fought at Adwa as a young man.
The "Oriental Dignity" of the Ethiopians[36] and their "rich, picturesque court dress"[37]
were sensationalized in the media; among his entourage he even included a pride of lions,
which he distributed as gifts to President Alexandre Millerand and Prime Minister
Raymond Poincaré of France, to King George V of the United Kingdom, and to the
Zoological Garden (Jardin Zoologique) of Paris.[35] As one historian noted, "Rarely can a
tour have inspired so many anecdotes".[35] In return for two lions, the United Kingdom
presented Ras Tafari with the imperial crown of Emperor Tewodros II for its safe return
to Empress Zewditu. The crown had been taken by Robert Napier during the 1868
Expedition to Abyssinia.[38]

In this period, the Crown Prince visited the Armenian monastery of Jerusalem. There, he
adopted 40 Armenian orphans (አርባ ልጆች Arba Lijoch, "forty children") who had
escaped the Armenian genocide of the Ottoman Empire.[39] Ras Tafari arranged for the
musical education of the youths, and they came to form the imperial brass band.[40]

[edit] King and Emperor

In 1928, the authority of Ras Tafari Makonnen was challenged when Dejazmatch Balcha
Safo went to Addis Ababa with a sizeable armed force. When Tafari consolidated his hold
over the provinces, many of Menilek's appointees refused to abide by the new
regulations. Balcha Safo, Governor (Shum) of coffee-rich Sidamo Province was
particularly troublesome. The revenues he remitted to the central government did not
reflect the accrued profits and Tafari recalled him to Addis Ababa. The old man came in
high dudgeon and, insultingly, with a large army.[nb 1] The Dejazmatch paid homage to
Empress Zewditu, but snubbed Ras Tafari.[42][43] On 18 February, while Balcha Safo and
his personal bodyguard[nb 2] were in Addis Ababa, Ras Tafari had Ras Kassa Haile Darge
buy off his army and arrange to have him displaced as the Shum of Sidamo Province[45] by
Birru Wolde Gabriel who himself was replaced by Desta Damtew.[46]

Cover of Time magazine, 3 November 1930

Even so, the gesture of Balcha Safo empowered Empress Zewditu politically and she
attempted to have Tafari tried for treason. He was tried for his benevolent dealings with
Italy including a 20-year peace accord which was signed on 2 August.[20] In September, a
group of palace reactionaries including some of the courtiers of the Empress, made a final
bid to get rid of Tafari. The attempted coup d'état was tragic in its origins and comic in its
end. When confronted by Tafari and a company of his troops, the ringleaders of the coup
took refuge on the palace grounds in Menilek's mausoleum. Tafari and his men
surrounded them only to be surrounded themselves by the personal guard of Zewditu.
More of Tafari's khaki clad soldiers arrived and, with superiority of arms, decided the
outcome in his favor.[47] Popular support, as well as the support of the police,[42] remained
with Tafari. Ultimately, the Empress relented and, on 7 October 1928, she crowned Tafari
as Negus (Amharic: "King").

The crowning of Tafari as King was controversial. He occupied the same territory as the
Empress rather than going off to a regional kingdom of the empire. Two monarchs, even
with one being the vassal and the other the Emperor (in this case Empress), had never
occupied the same location as their seat in Ethiopian history. Conservatives agitated to
redress this perceived insult to the dignity of the crown, leading to the rebellion of Ras
Gugsa Welle. Gugsa Welle was the husband of the Empress and the Shum of Begemder
Province. In early 1930, he raised an army and marched it from his governorate at
Gondar towards Addis Ababa. On 31 March 1930, Gugsa Welle was met by forces loyal
to Negus Tafari and was defeated at the Battle of Anchem. Gugsa Welle was killed in
action.[48] News of Gugsa Welle's defeat and death had hardly spread through Addis
Ababa when the Empress died suddenly on 2 April 1930. Although it was long rumored
that the Empress was poisoned upon the defeat of her husband,[49] or alternately that she
died from shock upon hearing of the death of her estranged yet beloved husband,[50] it has
since been documented that the Empress succumbed to a flu-like fever and complications
from diabetes.[51]

With the passing of Zewditu, Tafari himself rose to Emperor and was proclaimed Neguse
Negest ze-'Ityopp'ya, "King of Kings of Ethiopia". He was crowned on 2 November 1930,
at Addis Ababa's Cathedral of St. George. The coronation was by all accounts "a most
splendid affair",[52] and it was attended by royals and dignitaries from all over the world.
Among those in attendance were George V's son Prince Henry, Marshal Franchet
d'Esperey of France, and the Prince of Udine representing Italy. Emissaries from the
United States,[53] Egypt, Turkey, Sweden, Belgium, and Japan were also present.[52]
British author Evelyn Waugh was also present, penning a contemporary report on the
event, and American travel lecturer Burton Holmes shot the only known film footage of
the event.[54] One newspaper report suggested that the celebration may have incurred a
cost in excess of $3,000,000.[55] Many of those in attendance received lavish gifts;[56] in
one instance, the Christian Emperor even sent a gold-encased Bible to an American
bishop who had not attended the coronation, but who had dedicated a prayer to the
Emperor on the day of the coronation.[57]

Haile Selassie introduced Ethiopia's first written constitution on 16 July 1931,[58]


providing for a bicameral legislature.[59] The constitution kept power in the hands of the
nobility, but it did establish democratic standards among the nobility, envisaging a
transition to democratic rule: it would prevail "until the people are in a position to elect
themselves."[59] The constitution limited the succession to the throne to the descendants of
Haile Selassie, a point that met with the disapprobation of other dynastic princes,
including the princes of Tigrai and even the Emperor's loyal cousin, Ras Kassa Haile
Darge.

In 1932, the Kingdom of Jimma was formally absorbed into Ethiopia following the death
of King Abba Jifar II of Jimma.
[edit] Conflict with Italy

The Emperor, Photography by Walter Mittelholzer, February 1934.


See also: Abyssinia Crisis and Second Italo-Abyssinian War

Ethiopia became the target of renewed Italian imperialist designs in the 1930s. Benito
Mussolini's fascist regime was keen to avenge the military defeats Italy had suffered to
Ethiopia in the First Italo-Abyssinian War, and to efface the failed attempt by "liberal"
Italy to conquer the country, as epitomised by the defeat at Adowa.[60][61][62] A conquest of
Ethiopia could also empower the cause of fascism and embolden its rhetoric of empire.[62]
Ethiopia would also provide a bridge between Italy's Eritrean and Italian Somaliland
possessions. Ethiopia's position in the League of Nations did not dissuade the Italians
from invading in 1935; the "collective security" envisaged by the League proved useless,
and a scandal erupted when the Hoare-Laval Pact revealed that Ethiopia's League allies
were scheming to appease Italy.[63]

[edit] Mobilization

Following the 1935 Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie joined his northern armies
and set up headquarters at Desse in Wollo province. He issued his famous mobilization
order on 3 October 1935:

If you withhold from your country Ethiopia the death from cough or head-
“ cold of which you would otherwise die, refusing to resist (in your district, in ”
your patrimony, and in your home) our enemy who is coming from a distant
country to attack us, and if you persist in not shedding your blood, you will
be rebuked for it by your Creator and will be cursed by your offspring.
Hence, without cooling your heart of accustomed valour, there emerges your
decision to fight fiercely, mindful of your history that will last far into the
future... If on your march you touch any property inside houses or cattle and
crops outside, not even grass, straw, and dung excluded, it is like killing your
brother who is dying with you... You, countryman, living at the various access
routes, set up a market for the army at the places where it is camping and on
the day your district-governor will indicate to you, lest the soldiers
campaigning for Ethiopia's liberty should experience difficulty. You will not
be charged excise duty, until the end of the campaign, for anything you are
marketing at the military camps: I have granted you remission... After you
have been ordered to go to war, but are then idly missing from the campaign,
and when you are seized by the local chief or by an accuser, you will have
punishment inflicted upon your inherited land, your property, and your body;
to the accuser I shall grant a third of your property...

On 19 October 1935, Haile Selassie gave more precise orders for his army to his
Commander-in-Chief, Ras Kassa:
1.
When you set up tents, it is to be in caves and by trees and in a wood, if the place
happens to be adjoining to these―and separated in the various platoons. Tents are
to be set up at a distance of 30 cubits from each other.
2.
When an aeroplane is sighted, one should leave large open roads and wide
meadows and march in valleys and trenches and by zigzag routes, along places
which have trees and woods.
3.
When an aeroplane comes to drop bombs, it will not suit it to do so unless it
comes down to about 100 metres; hence when it flies low for such action, one
should fire a volley with a good and very long gun and then quickly disperse.
When three or four bullets have hit it, the aeroplane is bound to fall down. But let
only those fire who have been ordered to shoot with a weapon that has been
selected for such firing, for if everyone shoots who possesses a gun, there is no
advantage in this except to waste bullets and to disclose the men's whereabouts.
4.
Lest the aeroplane, when rising again, should detect the whereabouts of those who
are dispersed, it is well to remain cautiously scattered as long as it is still fairly
close. In time of war it suits the enemy to aim his guns at adorned shields,
ornaments, silver and gold cloaks, silk shirts and all similar things. Whether one
possesses a jacket or not, it is best to wear a narrow-sleeved shirt with faded
colours. When we return, with God's help, you can wear your gold and silver
decorations then. Now it is time to go and fight. We offer you all these words of
advice in the hope that no great harm should befall you through lack of caution.
At the same time, We are glad to assure you that in time of war We are ready to
shed Our blood in your midst for the sake of Ethiopia's freedom..."[64]

Compared to the Ethiopians, the Italians had an advanced, modern military which
included a large air force. The Italians would also come to employ chemical weapons
extensively throughout the conflict, even targeting Red Cross field hospitals in violation
of the Geneva Convention.[65]

[edit] Progress of the war

Starting in early October 1935, the Italians invaded Ethiopia. On 6 October, Italian honor
was avenged when Adwa fell. But, by November, the pace of invasion had slowed
appreciably and Haile Selassie's northern armies were able to launch what was known as
the "Christmas Offensive". During this offensive, the Italians were forced back in places
and put on the defensive. However, by early in 1936, the First Battle of Tembien stopped
the progress of the Ethiopian offensive and the Italians were ready to continue their
offensive. Following the defeat and destruction of the northern Ethiopian armies at the
Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, and the Battle of Shire, Haile
Selassie took the field with the last Ethiopian army on the northern front. On 31 March
1936, he launched a counterattack against the Italians himself at the Battle of Maychew
in southern Tigray. The Emperor's army was defeated and retreated in disarray. As Haile
Selassie's army withdrew, the Italians attacked from the air along with rebellious Raya
and Azebo tribesmen on the ground, who were armed and paid by the Italians.[66]

When the struggle to resist Italy appeared doomed, Haile Selassie traveled to the rock-
hewn churches of Lalibela for fasting and prayer.[67]

Haile Selassie made a solitary pilgrimage to the churches at Lalibela, at considerable risk
of capture, before returning to his capital.[68] After a stormy session of the council of state,
it was agreed that because Addis Ababa could not be defended, the government would
relocate to the southern town of Gore, and that in the interest of preserving the Imperial
house, the Emperor's wife Menen Asfaw and the rest of the Imperial family should
immediately depart for Djibouti, and from there continue on to Jerusalem.

[edit] Exile debate


The Emperor arrives in Jerusalem

After further debate as to whether Haile Selassie should go to Gore or accompany his
family into exile, it was agreed that Haile Selassie should leave Ethiopia with his family
and present the case of Ethiopia to the League of Nations at Geneva. The decision was
not unanimous and several participants, including the nobleman Page (Blatta) Tekle
Wolde Hawariat, objected to the idea of an Ethiopian monarch fleeing before an invading
force.[69] Haile Selassie appointed his cousin Ras Imru Haile Selassie as Prince Regent in
his absence, departing with his family for Djibouti on 2 May 1936.

On 5 May, Marshal Pietro Badoglio led Italian troops into Addis Ababa, and Mussolini
declared Ethiopia an Italian province. Victor Emanuel III was proclaimed as the new
Emperor of Ethiopia. However, on the previous day, the Ethiopian exiles had left Djibouti
aboard the British cruiser HMS Enterprise. They were bound for Jerusalem in the British
Mandate of Palestine, where the Ethiopian royal family maintained a residence. The
Imperial family disembarked at Haifa and then went on to Jerusalem. Once there, Haile
Selassie and his retinue prepared to make their case at Geneva. The choice of Jerusalem
was highly symbolic, since the Solomonic Dynasty claimed descent from the House of
David. Leaving the Holy Land, Haile Selassie and his entourage sailed for Gibraltar
aboard the British cruiser HMS Capetown. From Gibraltar, the exiles were transferred to
an ordinary liner. By doing this, the government of the United Kingdom was spared the
expense of a state reception.[70]

[edit] Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936

Mussolini, upon invading Ethiopia, had promptly declared his own "Italian Empire";
because the League of Nations afforded Haile Selassie the opportunity to address the
assembly, Italy even withdrew its League delegation, on 12 May 1936.[71] It was in this
context that Haile Selassie walked into the hall of the League of Nations, introduced by
the President of the Assembly as "His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Ethiopia" (Sa
Majesté Imperiale, l'Empereur d'Ethiopie). The introduction caused a great many Italian
journalists in the galleries to erupt into jeering, heckling, and whistling. As it turned out,
they had earlier been issued whistles by Mussolini's son-in-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano.[72]
Haile Selassie waited calmly for the hall to be cleared, and responded "majestically" [73]
with a speech sometimes considered among the most stirring of the 20th century.[5]
Although fluent in French, the working language of the League, Haile Selassie chose to
deliver his historic speech in his native Amharic. He asserted that, because his
"confidence in the League was absolute", his people were now being slaughtered. He
pointed out that the same European states that found in Ethiopia's favor at the League of
Nations were refusing Ethiopia credit and war matériel while aiding Italy, which was
employing chemical weapons on military and civilian targets alike.

It was at the time when the operations for the encircling of Makale were taking place that
the Italian command, fearing a rout, followed the procedure which it is now my duty to
denounce to the world. Special sprayers were installed on board aircraft so that they
could vaporize, over vast areas of territory, a fine, death-dealing rain. Groups of nine,
fifteen, eighteen aircraft followed one another so that the fog issuing from them formed a
continuous sheet. It was thus that, as from the end of January 1936, soldiers, women,
children, cattle, rivers, lakes, and pastures were drenched continually with this deadly
rain. In order to kill off systematically all living creatures, in order to more surely poison
waters and pastures, the Italian command made its aircraft pass over and over again. That
was its chief method of warfare.[74]

Noting that his own "small people of 12 million inhabitants, without arms, without
resources" could never withstand an attack by a large power such as Italy, with its 42
million people and "unlimited quantities of the most death-dealing weapons", he
contended that all small states were threatened by the aggression, and that all small states
were in effect reduced to vassal states in the absence of collective action. He admonished
the League that "God and history will remember your judgment."[75]

It is collective security: it is the very existence of the League of Nations. It is the


confidence that each State is to place in international treaties... In a word, it is
international morality that is at stake. Have the signatures appended to a Treaty value
only in so far as the signatory Powers have a personal, direct and immediate interest
involved?

The speech made the Emperor an icon for anti-Fascists around the world, and Time
Magazine named him "Man of the Year".[76] He failed, however, to get what he most
needed: the League agreed to only partial and ineffective sanctions on Italy, and several
members even recognized the Italian conquest.[61]

[edit] Exile
Haile Selassie in 1942

Haile Selassie spent his exile years (1936–1941) in Bath, United Kingdom, in Fairfield
House, which he bought. The Emperor and Ras Kassa took morning walks together
behind the high walls of the 14-room Georgian house. Haile Selassie's favorite reading
was "diplomatic history." But most of his serious hours were occupied with the 90,000-
word story of his life which he was laboriously writing in Amharic.[77]

Prior to Fairfield House, he briefly stayed at Warne's Hotel in Worthing[78] and in


Parkside, Wimbledon[79] A bust of Haile Selassie is in nearby Cannizaro Park to
commemorate this time and is a popular place of pilgrimage for London's Rastafarian
community.

Haile Selassie's activity in this period was focused on countering Italian propaganda as to
the state of Ethiopian resistance and the legality of the occupation.[80] He spoke out
against the desecration of houses of worship and historical artifacts (including the theft of
a 1,600-year old imperial obelisk), and condemned the atrocities suffered by the
Ethiopian civilian population.[81] He continued to plead for League intervention and to
voice his certainty that "God's judgment will eventually visit the weak and the mighty
alike",[82] though his attempts to gain support for the struggle against Italy were largely
unsuccessful until Italy entered World War II on the German side in June 1940.[83]

The Emperor's pleas for international support did take root in the United States,
particularly among African American organizations sympathetic to the Ethiopian cause.[84]
In 1937, Haile Selassie was to give a Christmas Day radio address to the American
people to thank his supporters when his taxi was involved in a traffic accident, leaving
him with a fractured knee.[85] Rather than canceling the radio appearance, he proceeded in
much pain to complete the address, in which he linked Christianity and goodwill with the
Covenant of the League of Nations, and asserted that "War is not the only means to stop
war":[85]

With the birth of the Son of God, an unprecedented, an unrepeatable, and a long-
anticipated phenomenon occurred. He was born in a stable instead of a palace, in a
manger instead of a crib. The hearts of the Wise men were struck by fear and wonder due
to His Majestic Humbleness. The kings prostrated themselves before Him and
worshipped Him. 'Peace be to those who have good will'. This became the first message.

[...] Although the toils of wise people may earn them respect, it is a fact of life that the
spirit of the wicked continues to cast its shadow on this world. The arrogant are seen
visibly leading their people into crime and destruction. The laws of the League of Nations
are constantly violated and wars and acts of aggression repeatedly take place... So that the
spirit of the cursed will not gain predominance over the human race whom Christ
redeemed with his blood, all peace-loving people should cooperate to stand firm in order
to preserve and promote lawfulness and peace.[85]
During this period, Haile Selassie suffered several personal tragedies. His two sons-in-
law, Ras Desta Damtew and Dejazmach Beyene Merid, were both executed by the
Italians.[82] The Emperor's daughter, Princess Romanework, wife of Dejazmach Beyene
Merid, was herself taken into captivity with her children, and she died in Italy in 1941.[86]
His daughter Tsehai died during childbirth shortly after the restoration in 1942.[87]

After his return to Ethiopia, he donated Fairfield House to the city of Bath as a residence
for the aged, until modified in the 1990s where it is now used as a residential meeting
centre. [88]

[edit] 1940s and 1950s

British forces, which consisted primarily of Ethiopian-backed African and South African
colonial troops under the "Gideon Force" of Colonel Orde Wingate, coordinated the
military effort to liberate Ethiopia. The Emperor himself issued several imperial
proclamations in this period, demonstrating that, while authority was not divided up in
any formal way, British military might and the Emperor's populist appeal could be joined
in the concerted effort to liberate Ethiopia.[83]

On 18 January 1941, during the East African Campaign, Haile Selassie crossed the border
between Sudan and Ethiopia near the village of Um Iddla. The standard of the Lion of
Judah was raised again. Two days later, he and a force of Ethiopian patriots joined
Gideon Force which was already in Ethiopia and preparing the way.[89] Italy was defeated
by a force of the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Nations, Free France, Free
Belgium, and Ethiopian patriots. On 5 May 1941, Haile Selassie entered Addis Ababa
and personally addressed the Ethiopian people, five years to the day since his 1936 exile:

Today is the day on which we defeated our enemy. Therefore, when We say let us rejoice
with our hearts, let not our rejoicing be in any other way but in the spirit of Christ. Do not
return evil for evil. Do not indulge in the atrocities which the enemy has been practicing
in his usual way, even to the last.

Take care not to spoil the good name of Ethiopia by acts which are worthy of the enemy.
We shall see that our enemies are disarmed and sent out the same way they came. As St.
George who killed the dragon is the Patron Saint of our army as well as of our allies, let
us unite with our allies in everlasting friendship and amity in order to be able to stand
against the godless and cruel dragon which has newly risen and which is oppressing
mankind.[90]

After World War II, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations. In 1948,
the Ogaden, a region disputed with Somalia, was granted to Ethiopia.[91] On 2 December
1950, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 390 (V), establishing the federation
of Eritrea (the former Italian colony) into Ethiopia.[92] Eritrea was to have its own
constitution, which would provide for ethnic, linguistic, and cultural balance, while
Ethiopia was to manage its finances, defense, and foreign policy.[92]
Despite his centralization policies that had been made before World War II, Haile Selassie
still found himself unable to push for all the programs he wanted. In 1942, he attempted
to institute a progressive tax scheme, but this failed due to opposition from the nobility,
and only a flat tax was passed; in 1951, he agreed to reduce this as well.[93] Ethiopia was
still "semi-feudal",[94] and the Emperor's attempts to alter its social and economic form by
reforming its modes of taxation met with resistance from the nobility and clergy, which
were eager to resume their privileges in the postwar era.[93] Where Haile Selassie actually
did succeed in effecting new land taxes, the burdens were often passed by the landowners
to the peasants.[93] Despite his wishes, the tax burden remained primarily on the peasants.

Between 1941 and 1959, Haile Selassie worked to establish the autocephaly of the
Ethiopian Orthodox Church.[95] The Ethiopian Orthodox Church had been headed by the
abuna, a bishop who answered to the Partriarchate in Egypt. Haile Selassie applied to
Egypt's Holy Synod in 1942 and 1945 to establish the independence of Ethiopian
bishops, and when his appeals were denied he threatened to sever relations with the See
of St. Mark.[95] Finally, in 1959, Pope Kyrillos VI elevated the Abuna to Patriarch-
Catholicos.[95] The Ethiopian Church remained affiliated with the Alexandrian Church.[93]
In addition to these efforts, Haile Selassie changed the Ethiopian church-state relationship
by introducing taxation of church lands, and by restricting the legal privileges of the
clergy, who had formerly been tried in their own courts for civil offenses.[93]

In keeping with the principle of collective security, for which he was an outspoken
proponent, he sent a contingent under General Mulugueta Bulli, known as the Kagnew
Battalion, to take part in the UN Conflict in Korea. It was attached to the American 7th
Infantry Division, and fought in a number of engagements including the Battle of Pork
Chop Hill.[96] In a 1954 speech, the Emperor spoke of Ethiopian participation in the
Korean conflict as a redemption of the principles of collective security:

Nearly two decades ago, I personally assumed before history the responsibility of placing
the fate of my beloved people on the issue of collective security, for surely, at that time
and for the first time in world history, that issue was posed in all its clarity. My searching
of conscience convinced me of the rightness of my course and if, after untold sufferings
and, indeed, unaided resistance at the time of aggression, we now see the final
vindication of that principle in our joint action in Korea, I can only be thankful that God
gave me strength to persist in our faith until the moment of its recent glorious vindication.
[97]
Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, photographed during a radio broadcast

During the celebrations of his Silver Jubilee in November 1955, Haile Selassie
introduced a revised constitution,[98] whereby he retained effective power, while
extending political participation to the people by allowing the lower house of parliament
to become an elected body. Party politics were not provided for. Modern educational
methods were more widely spread throughout the Empire, and the country embarked on a
development scheme and plans for modernization, tempered by Ethiopian traditions, and
within the framework of the ancient monarchical structure of the state.

Haile Selassie compromised when practical with the traditionalists in the nobility and
church. He also tried to improve relations between the state and ethnic groups, and
granted autonomy to Afar lands that were difficult to control. Still, his reforms to end
feudalism were slow and weakened by the compromises he made with the entrenched
aristocracy. The Revised Constitution of 1955 has been criticized for reasserting "the
indisputable power of the monarch" and maintaining the relative powerlessness of the
peasants.[99]

His international fame and acceptance also grew. In 1954 he visited West Germany,
becoming the first head of state to do so after the end of World War II.[citation needed] Many
elderly Germans still vividly recall the Emperor's visit, as it signaled their acceptance
back into the world, as a peaceful nation. He donated blankets produced by the Debre
Birhan Blanket Factory, in Ethiopia, to the war-ravaged German people.
Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen attending Liturgy on their Silver Jubilee day,
November 2, 1955 at the Orthodox Cathedral of St. George

[edit] 1960s

Haile Selassie contributed Ethiopian troops to the United Nations Operation in the Congo
peacekeeping force during the 1960 Congo Crisis, to consolidate Congolese integrity and
independence from Belgian troops, per United Nations Security Council Resolution 143.
On 13 December 1960, while Haile Selassie was on a state visit to Brazil, his Imperial
Guard forces staged an unsuccessful coup, briefly proclaiming Haile Selassie's eldest son
Asfa Wossen as Emperor. The coup d'état was crushed by the regular Army and police
forces. The coup attempt lacked broad popular support, was denounced by the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church, and was unpopular among the Army, Air and Police forces.
Nonetheless, the effort to depose the Emperor had support among students and the
educated classes.[100] The coup attempt has been characterized as a pivotal moment in
Ethiopian history, the point at which Ethiopians "for the first time questioned the power
of the king to rule without the people's consent".[101] Student populations began to
empathize with the peasantry and poor, and to advocate on their behalf.[101] The coup
spurred Haile Selassie to accelerate reform, which manifested in the form of land grants
to military and police officials.

The Emperor continued to be a staunch ally of the West, while pursuing a firm policy of
decolonization in Africa, which was still largely under European colonial rule. The
United Nations conducted a lengthy inquiry regarding the status of Eritrea, with the
superpowers each vying for a stake in the state's future. Britain, the administrator at the
time, suggested the partition of Eritrea between Sudan and Ethiopia, separating Christians
and Muslims. The idea was instantly rejected by Eritrean political parties, as well as the
UN.

A UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea be federated with Ethiopia, which was


later stipulated on 2 December 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea would have its own
parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian
parliament and would become the federal parliament.[102] However, Haile Selassie would
have none of European attempts to draft a separate Constitution under which Eritrea
would be governed, and wanted his own 1955 Constitution protecting families to apply in
both Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence began,
followed by Haile Selassie's dissolution of the federation and shutting down of Eritrea's
parliament.

In 1961, tensions between independence-minded Eritreans and Ethiopian forces


culminated in the Eritrean War of Independence. The Emperor declared Eritrea the
fourteenth province of Ethiopia in 1962.[103] The war would continue for 30 years, as first
Haile Selassie, then the Soviet-backed junta that succeeded him, attempted to retain
Eritrea by force.
In 1963, Haile Selassie presided over the establishment of the Organisation of African
Unity, with the new organization establishing its headquarters in Addis Ababa. As more
African states won their independence, he played an important role as Pan-Africanist, and
along with Modibo Keïta of Mali was successful in negotiating the Bamako Accords,
which brought an end to the border conflict between Morocco and Algeria. Also in 1963,
on October 4, Selassie addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations, referring
in his address to his earlier speech to the League of Nations:

Twenty-seven years ago, as Emperor of Ethiopia, I mounted the rostrum in Geneva,


Switzerland, to address the League of Nations and to appeal for relief from the
destruction which had been unleashed against my defenceless nation, by the Fascist
invader. I spoke then both to and for the conscience of the world. My words went
unheeded, but history testifies to the accuracy of the warning that I gave in 1936. Today, I
stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded by its
discredited predecessor. In this body is enshrined the principle of collective security
which I unsuccessfully invoked at Geneva. Here, in this Assembly, reposes the best —
perhaps the last — hope for the peaceful survival of mankind.[104]

On 25 November 1963, the Emperor was among other heads-of-state, including French
President Charles de Gaulle, who traveled to Washington D.C. and attended the burial of
assassinated American President John F. Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery.

In 1966, Haile Selassie attempted to create a modern, progressive tax[citation needed] that
included registration of land, which would significantly weaken the nobility. Even with
alterations, this law led to a revolt in Gojjam, which was repressed although enforcement
of the tax was abandoned. The revolt, having achieved its design in undermining the tax,
encouraged other landowners to defy Haile Selassie.

Haile Selassie on a state visit to Washington, 1963

Student unrest became a regular feature of Ethiopian life in the 1960s and 1970s.
Marxism took root in large segments of the Ethiopian intelligentsia, particularly among
those who had studied abroad and had thus been exposed to radical and left-wing
sentiments that were becoming popular in other parts of the globe.[100] Resistance by
conservative elements at the Imperial Court and Parliament, and by the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church, made Haile Selassie's land reform proposals difficult to implement,
and also damaged the standing of the government, costing Haile Selassie much of the
goodwill he had once enjoyed. This bred resentment among the peasant population.
Efforts to weaken unions also hurt his image. As these issues began to pile up, Haile
Selassie left much of domestic governance to his Prime Minister, Aklilu Habte Wold, and
concentrated more on foreign affairs.

[edit] 1970s

Outside of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie continued to enjoy enormous prestige and respect. As
the longest serving Head of State in power, Haile Selassie was often given precedence
over other leaders at state events, such as the state funerals of John F. Kennedy and
Charles de Gaulle, the summits of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the 1971 celebration
of the 2,500 years of the Persian Empire. His high profile and frequent travels around the
world raised Ethiopia's international image.[citation needed]

[edit] Wollo Famine

Famine mostly in Wollo, northeastern Ethiopia, as well as in some parts of Tigray is


estimated to have killed 40,000 to 80,000 Ethiopians[8][105] between 1972-74.[106] Although
the region is infamous for recurrent crop failures and continuous food shortage and
starvation risk, this episode was remarkably severe. It led to the 1973 production of the
ITV programme The Unknown Famine by Jonathan Dimbleby.[107][108] Dimbleby's report
suggested a far higher death toll than was borne out by the facts,[109] stimulating a massive
influx of aid while at the same time destabilizing Haile Selassie's regime. [105]

The 1973 Oil Crisis, the severity of which is demonstrated by this graph, hit Ethiopia
amidst a devastating famine, compounding its effect and undermining support for the
Emperor.[99]

Some reports suggest that the Emperor was unaware of the extent of the famine, [110] while
others assert that he was well aware of it.[111][112] In addition to the exposure of attempts by
corrupt local officials to cover up the famine from the Imperial government, the
Kremlin's depiction of Haile Selassie's Ethiopia as backwards and inept (relative to the
purported utopia of Marxism-Leninism) contributed to the popular uprising that led to its
downfall and the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam.[113] The famine and its image in the
media undermined popular support of the government, and Haile Selassie's once
unassailable personal popularity fell.
The crisis was exacerbated by military mutinies and high oil prices, the latter a result of
the 1973 oil crisis. The international economic crisis triggered by the oil crisis caused the
costs of imported goods, gasoline, and food to skyrocket, while unemployment spiked.[99]

[edit] Revolution

In February 1974, four days of serious riots in Addis against a sudden economic inflation
left five dead. The Emperor responded by announcing on national television a rollback of
gasoline prices and a freeze on the cost of basic commodities. This calmed the public, but
the promised 33% military wage hike was not substantial enough to pacify the army,
which then mutinied, beginning in Asmara and spreading throughout the empire. This
mutiny led to the resignation of Prime Minister Aklilu Habte Wold on 27 February 1974.
[114]
Haile Selassie again went on television to agree to the army's demands for still greater
pay, and named Endalkatchew Makonnen as his new Prime Minister. However, despite
Endalkatchew's many concessions, discontent continued in March with a four-day
general strike that paralyzed the nation.

[edit] Imprisonment
The Derg, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men, set up in June
to investigate the military's demands, took advantage of the government's disarray to
depose Haile Selassie on 12 September 1974. General Aman Mikael Andom, a Protestant
of Eritrean origin,[114] served briefly as provisional head of state pending the return of
Crown Prince Asfa Wossen, who was then receiving medical treatment abroad. Haile
Selassie was placed under house arrest briefly at the 4th Army Division in Addis Ababa,
[114]
while most of his family was detained at the late Duke of Harrar's residence in the
north of the capital. The last months of the Emperor's life were spent in imprisonment, in
the Grand Palace.[115]

Later, most of the Imperial family was imprisoned in the Addis Ababa prison Kerchele,
also known as "Alem Bekagne", or "Goodbye, cruel world". On 23 November 1974, 60
former high officials of the Imperial government, known as "the Sixty", were executed
without trial.[116] The executed included Haile Selassie's grandson and two former Prime
Ministers.[115] These killings, known to Ethiopians as "Bloody Saturday", were
condemned by Crown Prince Asfa Wossen; the Derg responded to his rebuke by revoking
its acknowledgment of his imperial legitimacy, and announcing the end of the Solomonic
dynasty.[116]

[edit] Death and interment

On 28 August 1975, the state media officially reported publicly that the "ex-monarch"
Haile Selassie had died on 27 August of "respiratory failure" following complications
from a prostate operation.[117] His doctor, Asrat Woldeyes, denied that complications had
occurred and rejected the government version of his death. Some imperial loyalists
believed that the Emperor had in fact been assassinated, and this belief remains widely
held.[118] One western correspondent in Ethiopia at the time commented, "While it is not
known what actually happened, there are strong indications that no efforts were made to
save him. It is unlikely that he was actually killed. Such rumors were bound to arise no
matter what happened, given the atmosphere of suspicion and distrust prevailing in Addis
Ababa at the time."[119]

The Soviet-backed Derg fell in 1991. In 1992, the Emperor's bones were found under a
concrete slab on the palace grounds;[118] some reports suggest that his remains were
discovered beneath a latrine.[120] For almost a decade thereafter, as Ethiopian courts
attempted to sort out the circumstances of his death, his coffin rested in Bhata Church,
near his great uncle Menelik II's imperial resting place.[121] On 5 November 2000, Haile
Selassie was given an Imperial funeral by the Ethiopian Orthodox church. The post-
communist government refused calls to declare the ceremony an official imperial funeral.
[121]

Although such prominent Rastafarian figures as Rita Marley and others participated in
the grand funeral, most Rastafari rejected the event and refused to accept that the bones
were the remains of Haile Selassie. There remains some debate within the Rastafari
movement as to whether Haile Selassie actually died in 1975.[122]

[edit] Children

Asfaw Wossen, eldest son of Haile Selassie I, on a voyage to Jerusalem in 1923

By Menen Asfaw, Haile Selassie had six children: Princess Tenagnework, Crown Prince
Asfaw Wossen, Princess Tsehai, Princess Zenebework, Prince Makonnen, and Prince
Sahle Selassie.

There is some controversy as to Haile Selassie's eldest daughter, Princess Romanework


Haile Selassie. While the living members of the royal family state that Romanework is
the eldest daughter of Empress Menen,[123] it has been asserted that Princess Romanework
is actually the daughter of a previous union of the emperor with Woizero Altayech.[124]
The emperor's own autobiography makes no mention of a previous marriage or having
fathered children with anyone other than Empress Menen.

Prince Asfaw Wossen was first married to Princess Wolete Israel Seyoum and then
following their divorce to Princess Medferiashwork Abebe. Prince Makonnen was
married to Princess Sara Gizaw. Prince Sahle Selassie was married to Princess Mahisente
Habte Mariam. Princess Romanework married Dejazmatch Beyene Merid. Princess
Tenagnework first married Ras Desta Damtew, and after she was widowed later married
Ras Andargachew Messai. Princess Zenebework married Dejazmatch Haile Selassie
Gugsa. Princess Tsehai married Lt. General Abiye Abebe.

[edit] Rastafari Messiah


Today, Haile Selassie is worshipped as Jesus[125] incarnate among followers of the
Rastafari movement (taken from Haile Selassie's pre-imperial name Ras — meaning
Head - a title equivalent to Duke — Tafari Makonnen), which emerged in Jamaica during
the 1930s under the influence of Marcus Garvey's "Pan Africanism" movement, and as
the Messiah who will lead the peoples of Africa and the African diaspora to freedom.[126]
His official titles, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings and Elect of
God, and his traditional lineage from Solomon and Sheba,[127] are perceived by
Rastafarians as confirmation of the return of the Messiah in the prophetic Book of
Revelation in the New Testament: King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the
Tribe of Judah and Root of David. Rastafari faith in the incarnate divinity of Haile
Selassie[128] began after news reports of his coronation reached Jamaica,[129] particularly
via the two Time magazine articles on the coronation the week before and the week after
the event. Haile Selassie's own perspectives permeate the philosophy of the movement.
[129][130]

In 1961, the Jamaican government sent a delegation composed of both Rastafari and non-
Rastafari leaders to Ethiopia to discuss the matter of repatriation, among other issues,
with the Emperor. He reportedly told the Rastafarian delegation, which included
Mortimer Planno, "Tell the Brethren to be not dismayed, I personally will give my
assistance in the matter of repatriation."[131]

When Haile Selassie visited Jamaica on the 21st April 1966, somewhere around one
hundred thousand Rastafari from all over Jamaica descended on Palisadoes Airport in
Kingston,[129] having heard that the man whom they considered to be their Messiah was
coming to visit them. Spliffs[132] and chalices[133] were openly[134] smoked, causing "a haze
of ganja smoke" to drift through the air.[135][136][137] When Haile Selassie arrived at the
airport, he was unable to come down the mobile steps of the airplane, as the crowd rushed
the tarmac. He then returned into the plane, disappearing for several more minutes.
Finally Jamaican authorities were obliged to request Ras Mortimer Planno, a well-known
Rasta leader, to climb the steps, enter the plane, and negotiate the Emperor's descent.[138]
When Planno reemerged, he announced to the crowd: "The Emperor has instructed me to
tell you to be calm. Step back and let the Emperor land".[139] This day, widely held by
scholars to be a major turning point for the movement,[140][141][142] is still commemorated by
Rastafarians as Grounation Day, the anniversary of which is celebrated as the second
holiest holiday after 2 November, the Emperor's Coronation Day.

From then on, as a result of Planno's actions, the Jamaican authorities were asked to
ensure that Rastafarian representatives were present at all state functions attended by His
Majesty,[143][144] and Rastafarian elders also ensured that they obtained a private audience
with the Emperor,[145] where he reportedly told them that they should not emigrate to
Ethiopia until they had first liberated the people of Jamaica. This dictum came to be
known as "liberation before repatriation".

Defying expectations of the Jamaican authorities,[146] Haile Selassie never rebuked the
Rastafari for their belief in him as the returned Jesus. Instead, he presented the
movement's faithful elders with gold medallions – the only recipients of such an honor on
this visit.[147][148] During PNP leader (later Jamaican Prime Minister) Michael Manley's
visit to Ethiopia in October 1969, the Emperor allegedly still recalled his 1966 reception
with amazement, and stated that he felt he had to be respectful of their beliefs.[149] This
was the visit when Manley received as a present from the Emperor, the Rod of Correction
or Rod of Joshua that is thought to have helped him to win the 1972 election in Jamaica.

Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife, converted to the Rastafari faith after seeing Haile
Selassie on his Jamaican trip. She claimed, in interviews and in her book No Woman, No
Cry that she saw a stigmata print on the palm of Haile Selassie's hand (as he waved to the
crowd) that resembled the envisioned markings on Christ's hands from being nailed to the
cross—a claim that was not supported by other sources, but was used as evidence for her
and other Rastafarians to suggest that Haile Selassie I was indeed their messiah.[150] She
was also influential in the conversion of Bob Marley, who then became internationally
recognized, and as a result Rastafari became much better known throughout much of the
world.[151] Bob Marley's posthumously released song Iron Lion Zion refers to Haile
Selassie.[citation needed]

[edit] Haile Selassie's attitude to the Rastafari

Haile Selassie I was the titular head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and, until his visit
to Jamaica in 1966, he had never confirmed nor denied that he was divine,[152] during his
visit he specifically declined to contradict the Rastafari belief that he was Jesus.[153][154]
After his return to Ethiopia, he dispatched Archbishop Abuna Yesehaq Mandefro to the
Caribbean to help draw Rastafarians and other West Indians to the Ethiopian church and,
according to some sources, denied his divinity.[155][156][157][158]

In 1948, Haile Selassie donated a piece of land at Shashamane, 250 km south of Addis
Ababa, for the use of people of Arfrican descent from the West Indies. Numerous
Rastafari families settled there and still live as a community to this day.[159][160]

[edit] Famous quotations


A house built on granite and strong foundations, not even the onslaught of pouring rain,
gushing torrents and strong winds will be able to pull down. Some people have written
the story of my life representing as truth what in fact derives from ignorance, error or
envy; but they cannot shake the truth from its place, even if they attempt to make others
believe it.
—Preface to My Life and Ethiopia's Progress, Autobiography of H.M. Haile Selassie I
(English translation)
That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and
permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and
second-class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more
significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally
guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace
and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting
illusion, to be pursued but never attained and until the ignoble but unhappy regimes that
hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique, and in South Africa in subhuman bondage
have been toppled and destroyed; until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman
self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and goodwill; until all
Africans stand and speak as free human beings, equal in the eyes of the Almighty; until
that day, the African continent shall not know peace. We Africans will fight if necessary
and we know that we shall win as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.
—English translation of 1963 Speech delivered to the United Nations and popularized in
a song called War by Bob Marley.
Apart from the Kingdom of the Lord there is not on this earth any nation that is superior
to any other. Should it happen that a strong Government finds it may with impunity
destroy a weak people, then the hour strikes for that weak people to appeal to the League
of Nations to give its judgment in all freedom. God and history will remember your
judgment.
—Address to the League of Nations, 1936.
We have finished the job. What shall we do with the tools?"
— Telegram to Winston Churchill, 1941.
Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted; the
indifference of those who should have known better; the silence of the voice of justice
when it mattered most; that has made it possible for evil to triumph.
Today I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded
by its discredited predecessor.
—In a speech to the United Nations.
Misguided people sometimes create misguided ideas. Some of my ancestors were Oromo.
How can I colonize myself?
— in response to accusations by dissidents
I have heard of that idea [i.e., of Haile Selassie being the reincarnation of Jesus Christ]. I
also met certain Rastafarians. I told them clearly that I am a man, that I am mortal, and
that I would be replaced by the oncoming generation, and that they should never make a
mistake in assuming or pretending that the human being is emanated from a deity."
— Interview with Bill Mc Neil).
A qualified man with vision, unmoved by daily selfish interests, will be led to right
decisions by his conscience. In general, a man who knows from whence he comes and
where he is going will co-operate with his fellow human beings. He will not be satisfied
with merely doing his ordinary duties but will inspire others by his good example. You
are being watched by the nation and you should realize that you will satisfy it if you do
good; but if, on the contrary, you do evil, it will lose its hope and its confidence in you."
— 2 July, 1963 - University Graduation

[edit] Honours
 Chief Commander of the 
Grand Cross of the National Order of
Order of the Star of Ethiopia Vietnam- 1958
- 1909 
Order of Truth of Burma - 1958
 Grand Cordon of the Order 
Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross of
of Solomon - 1930 Brazil - 1958
 Riband of the Three Military 
Collar of the Order of the Leopard of Zaire
Orders Of Christ 
Order of the Lion of Senegal
 Knight of the Order of the 
Order of the Lion of Malawi
Most Holy Annunciation - 
Order of Valor of Cameroon
1928 
Order of the Sun of Peru
 Order of the Elephant - 1954 
Collar of the Order of the Bust of the
 Order of the Gold Lion of Liberator Simon Bolivar of Venezuela
the House of Nassau of 
Order of the Condor of the Andes of Bolivia
Luxembourg - 1924 
Special Grade of the Order of the Propitious
 Collar of the Order of the Clouds of China
Seraphim - 1954 
Order of Oummaya of Syria
 Maha Chakri - 1954 
Order of Mono of Togo
 Order of Suvorov 1st class of 
Order of Congolese Merit of the Republic of
USSR - 1959 the Congo
 Collar of the Order of 
Order of the Leopard of Somalia - 1960
Muhammad Ali of Egypt - 
Order of the Equatorial Star of Gabon
1930 
Order of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
 Grand Cross of the Legion 
Order of the Source of the Nile of Uganda
d'Honneur - 1924 
Order of the Eagle of Zambia
 Chief Commander of the 
Special Class of the Order of Merit of the
Legion of Merit - 1945 Federal Republic of Germany - 1954
 Grand Collar of the Order of 
Collar of the Order of the Republic of Italy -
Pahlevi - 1964 1955
 Collar of the Order of the 
National orders of Lebanon, Chile, Central
Aztec Eagle - 1954 Africa, Upper Volta, Chad, Benin, Mali,
 Royal Victorian Chain Madagascar, Mauritania, Guinea and Niger.
(RVC) - 1930 
Collar of the National Order of Honour and
 Knight of the Order of the Merit of Haiti - 1966
Garter (KG) - 1954 
Knight Grand Band of the Order of the
 Knight Grand Cross of the Pioneers of Liberia
Order of the Bath (GCB) - 
Grand Chief of the Order of the Golden
1924 Heart of Kenya
 Knight Grand Cross of the 
Grand Star of the Decoration of Honor for
Order of St Michael and St Merit of Austria - 1954
George (GCMG) - 1917 
Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st Class -
 Knight Grand Cross of the 1958
Royal Victorian Order 
Raja of the Order of Sikatuna of the
(GCVO) - 1924 Philippines
 Collar of the Order of the 
Commander of the Order of the Shield and
Chrysanthemum-1956 Spears of Uganda - 1964
(Grand Cordon-1930) 
Order of the Yugoslav Great Star - 1954
 Order of the Liberator San 
Order of Pakistan, 1st Class - 1958
Martin of Argentina 
Order of the State Crown of Malaysia - 1968
 Order of the Nile of Egypt 
Order of King Abdul Aziz, 1st Class, of
 Order of Pius IX of the Saudi Arabia
Vatican - 1970 
Order of the Star of Ghana - 1970
 Order of Idris I of Libya 
Banner of the People's Republic of Hungary,
 Order of Independence of 1st Class with Diamonds - 1964
Tunisia 
Military Medal of France - 1954
 Order of Hussein ibn Ali of 
Honorary citizen of the Socialist Federal
the Jordan Republic of Yugoslavia - 1972 [161]
 Order of Muhammad of
Morocco 
Honorary citizen of Belgrade - 1954 [162]
 Chain of Honor of the Sudan
 Grand Order of the
Hashemites of Iraq
 Order of the Crown of Italy -
1917
 Order of Leopold (Belgium)
- 1924
 Order of Saints Maurice and
Lazarus - 1924
 Order of the Tower and
Sword of Portugal - 1925
 Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of William - 1954
 Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Netherlands
Lion - 1930
 Order of the White Eagle of
Poland - 1930
 Collar of the Order of St
Olav of Norway - 1949
 Collar of the Order of
Charles III of Spain

 Collar of the Order of the


White Rose of Finland
[163]

[edit] Military ranks


Haile Selassie held the following ranks:[164]

 Field Marshal, Imperial Ethiopia Army


 Admiral of the Fleet, Imperial Ethiopian Navy
 Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force
 Field Marshal, British Army

[edit] Ancestry

4. Dejazmatch Wolde Mikael Gudessa

2. Ras Mäkonnen Wäldä-Mika'él Guddisa


10. Sahle Selassie

5. Princess Tenagnework Sahle Selassie

11. Woizero
Yimegnushal

1. Haile Selassie I of
Ethiopia

6. Dejazmach Ali Abajifar of Woreilu


3. Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar

14. Ato Yimeru of


Gurage

7. Ima-Hoy Walatta Ihata Giyorgis Yimeru

[edit] See also


 Arba Lijoch - A group of 40 Armenian orphans sponsored during the 1924 trip to
Europe.
 Black Lions
 Darge Sahle Selassie
 Desta Damtew
[edit] Notes
Footnotes
1.
^ Balcha Safo brought an army of ten thousand with him from Sidamo.[41]
2.
^ Balcha Safo's personal bodyguard numbered about five hundred.[44]

Citations
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37. ^ ETHIOPIAN ROYALTIES DON SHOES IN CAIRO, The New York Times. 5
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in an African Diaspora. 2001, page 34.
50. ^ Brockman, Norbert C. An African Biographical Dictionary. 1994, page 381.
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52. ^ a b Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page 12.
53. ^ ABYSSINIAN RULER HONORS AMERICANS. The New York Times. 24
October 1930.
54. ^ Wallace, Irving. 'Everybody's Rover Boy', in The Sunday Gentleman. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 1965, p. 113.
55. ^ Emperor is Crowned in Regal Splendor at African Capital. The New York Times.
3 November 1930.
56. ^ ABYSSINIA'S GUESTS RECEIVE COSTLY GIFTS. The New York Times. 12
November 1930.
57. ^ Emperor of Ethiopia Honors Bishop Freeman; Sends Gold-Encased Bible and
Cross for Prayer. The New York Times. 27 January 1931.
58. ^ Nahum, Fasil. Constitution for a Nation of Nations: The Ethiopian Prospect.
1997, page 17
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1997, page 22
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page 158.
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the Italo-Ethiopian War. 2006, page 168.
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2006, p. 62.
70. ^ Barker, A. J. The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 132
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2006, page 72.
72. ^ Moseley, Ray. Mussolini's Shadow: The Double Life of Count Galeazzo Ciano.
1999, page 27.
73. ^ Jarrett-Macauley, Delia. The Life of Una Marson, 1905-65. 1998, page 102-3.
74. ^ Safire, William. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. 1997, page
318.
75. ^ Haile Selassie, "Appeal to the League of Nations", June 1936
76. ^ Time Magazine Man of the Year. 6 January 1936.
77. ^ Time Magazine, Distressed Negus
78. ^ Elleray, D. Robert (1998). A Millennium Encyclopaedia of Worthing History.
Worthing: Optimus Books. p. 119. ISBN 0-9533132-0-4.
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81. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 26-7.
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page 60-1.
84. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 27.
85. ^ a b c My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 40-2.
86. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 170.
87. ^ Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 3.
88. ^ Haber, Lutz. The Emperor Haile Selassie I in Bath 1936 - 1940. The Anglo-
Ethiopian Society.
89. ^ Barker, A. J. The Rape of Ethiopia 1936. page 156
90. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 165.
91. ^ Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 201.
92. ^ a b Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 140-1.
93. ^ a b c d e Ofcansky, Thomas P. and Berry, Laverle. Ethiopia: A Country Study.
2004, page 63-4.
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page 78.
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2004, page 30.
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Federation", Issue: A Journal of Opinion, 15 (1987), pp. 9-17
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Ethiopia. 1991, page 58.
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estimate from the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute. While this figure is still repeated
in some texts and media sources, it was an estimate that was later found to be
"overly pessimistic". See also: De Waal, Alexander. Evil Days: Thirty Years of
War and Famine in Ethiopia. 1991, page 58.
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2005.
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Ethiopia. 1991, page 61.
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Relations. 2003, page 175.
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2005, page 239-40.
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the Heart of Despair. 2005, page 216.
116. ^ a b Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical
Dictionary of Ethiopia. 2004, page 44.
117. ^ "Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Dies at 83". New York Times. 28 August
1975. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0723.html.
Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Haile Selassie, the last emperor in the 3,000-year-old
Ethiopian monarchy, who ruled for half a century before he was deposed by
military coup last September, died yesterday in a small apartment in his former
palace. He was 83 years old. His death was played down by the military rulers
who succeeded him in Addis Ababa, who announced it in a normally scheduled
radio newscast there at 7 a.m. They said that he had been found dead in his bed by
a servant, and that the cause of death was probably related to the effects of a
prostate operation Haile Selassie underwent two months ago."
118. ^ a b An Imperial Burial for Haile Selassie, 25 Years After Death. New
York Times. 6 November 2000.
119. ^ Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York:
Africana, 1978), p. 109 n. 22
120. ^ Ethiopians Celebrate a Mass for Exhumed Haile Selassie. New York
Times. 1 March 1992.
121. ^ a b Lorch, Donatella. Ethiopia Deals With Legacy of Kings and Colonels.
The New York Times. 31 December 1995.
122. ^ Edmonds, Ennis Barrington. Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture
Bearers. 2003, page 55.
123. ^ Granddaughter Esther Selassie's website genealogy
124. ^ Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page xxvii.
125. ^ Rastafarian beliefs
126. ^ The African Diaspora, Ethiopianism, and Rastafari
127. ^ Haile Selassie King of Kings, Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah
128. ^ Haile Selassie
129. ^ a b c Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-
98650-3
130. ^ The Re-evolution of Rastafari
131. ^ The Rastafarians by Leonard E. Barrett
132. ^ Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley by Christopher John Farley,
p. 145
133. ^ People Funny Boy (Lee Perry biography) by David Katz, p. 41.
134. ^ Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader by Nathaniel Samuel
Murrell, William David Spencer, Adrian Anthony McFarlane, p. 64.
135. ^ Kingston: A Cultural and Literary History, by David Howard p. 176.
136. ^ The State Visit of Emperor Haile Selassie I
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Newspaper, 22 April 2005.
138. ^ Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley by Timothy White p. 15, 210, 211.
139. ^ Black Heretics, Black Prophets: Radical Political Intellectuals p. 189 by
Anthony Bogues
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p. 192-193.
141. ^ Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers by Ennis Barrington
Edmonds, p. 86.
142. ^ Verbal Riddim: The Politics and Aesthetics of African-Caribbean Dub
Poetry by Christian Habekost, p. 83.
143. ^ Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers Page 86 by Ennis
Barrington Edmonds
144. ^ Verbal Riddim: The Politics and Aesthetics of African-Caribbean Dub
Poetry, page 83 by Christian Habekost
145. ^ Edmonds, p. 86
146. ^ Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music By Kevin O'Brien, p. 243.
147. ^ "African Crossroads - Spiritual Kinsmen" Dr. Ikael Tafari, The Daily
Nation, Dec. 24 2007
148. ^ White, p. 211.
149. ^ Life Is an Excellent Adventure, Jerry Funk, 2003, p. 149
150. ^ No Woman, No Cry, Rita Marley, p. 43.
151. ^ Bob Marley the Devoted Rastafarian!
152. ^ Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-Talk by Robert E.
Hood, p. 93 ISBN 0-8006-2449-1
153. ^ http://www.religionfacts.com/a-z-religion-index/rastafarianism.htm
154. ^ "African Crossroads - Spiritual Kinsmen" The Daily Nation, 24 Dec.
2007
155. ^ Wilgoren, Debbi (13 January 2006). "Ethiopians in D.C. Region Mourn
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Geographic.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/02/0204_050204_bob_marley_2.
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157. ^ "Haile Selassie I - God of the Black race". BBC.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/rastafari/beliefs/haileselassie.shtml.
158. ^ Mirror, Mirror: Identity, Race and Protest in Jamaica, Rex Nettleford,
William Collins and Sangster Ltd., Jamaica (1970)
159. ^ Jamaican Rastafarian Development Community website
160. ^ The History and Location of the Shashamane Settlement Community
Development Foundation, Inc., USA
161. ^ Odluka o proglašenju Njegovog Carskog Veličanstva Cara Etiopije
Haila Selasija Prvog za počasnog građanina SFRJ ("Službeni list SFRJ", br. 33/72
319-655
162. ^ Đilas podržao predlog
163. ^ Shoa6
164. ^ http://www.royalark.net/Ethiopia/shoa6.htm

[edit] References
 Fage, J.D., Roberts, A.D., and Oliver, Roland Anthony (1994). The Cambridge
History of Africa: From 1905 to 1940, Volume 7. Cambridge: Press Sindicate of
the University of Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-22505-1.
 Haile Selassie I. My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor
Haile Sellassie I. Translated from Amharic by Edward Ullendorff. New York:
Frontline Books, 1999. ISBN 0-948390-40-9
 Paul B. Henze. "The Rise of Haile Selassie: Time of Troubles, Regent, Emperor,
Exile" and "Ethiopia in the Modern World: Haile Selassie from Triumph to
Tragedy" in Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: Palgrave, 2000.
ISBN 0-312-22719-1
 Ryszard Kapuściński, The Emperor: Downfall of an Autocrat. 1978. ISBN 0-679-
72203-3
 Marcus, Harold G. (1994). A History of Ethiopia. London: University of
California Press. pp. 316. ISBN 0-520-22479-5.
 Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
 Haile Selassie I : Ethiopia's Lion of Judah, 1979, ISBN 0-88229-342-7
 Haile Selassie's war : the Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, 1984, ISBN 0-
394-54222-3
 Haile Selassie, western education, and political revolution in Ethiopia, 2006,
ISBN 978-1-934043-20-2

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Wikisource has original works written by or about: Haile Selassie

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Haile Selassie I


 Ethiopian Treasures - Emperor Haile Selassie I - The Ethiopian Revolution
 Imperial Crown Council of Ethiopia
 Speech to the League of Nations, June 1936 (full text)
 Marcus Garvey's prophecy of Haile Selassie I as the returned messiah
 Haile Selassie I and the Italo-Ethiopian war
 Haile Selassie I, the Later Years
 A critical look at the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
 BBC article, memories of his personal servant
 Watch News Reel: His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
visits Jamaica, 21 April 1966
 Ba Beta Kristiyan Haile Selassie I - The Church of Haile Selassie I
 Haile Selassie I Speaks -Text & Audio-
 "Distressed Negus.". Time Magazine. November 15, 1937.
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758326,00.html. Retrieved
January 19, 2010.

Haile Selassie I
House of Solomon
Born: 23 July 1892 Died: 27 August 1975
Regnal titles
Emperor of Ethiopia
Preceded by
2 November 1930 – 12 September Monarchy abolished
Zewditu I
1974
Titles in pretence
— TITULAR —
Succeeded by
Loss of title Emperor of Ethiopia
12 September 1974 – 27 August Crown Prince Amha
Communist take-over
Selassie
1975
[show]
v•d•e
Emperors of Ethiopia (1270–1974)

[show]
v•d•e
Chairpersons of the Organisation of African Unity and the African Union
(AU)

[show]
v•d•e
Pan-Africanism
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Time Persons of the Year

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1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh (1927) · Walter Chrysler (1928) · Owen D. Young (1929) · Mahatma
Gandhi (1930) · Pierre Laval (1931) · Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) · Hugh Samuel
Johnson (1933) · Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) · Haile Selassie I (1935) · Wallis Simpson
(1936) · Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937) · Adolf Hitler (1938) · Joseph Stalin
(1939) · Winston Churchill (1940) · Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) · Joseph Stalin (1942) ·
George Marshall (1943) · Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) · Harry S. Truman (1945) ·
James F. Byrnes (1946) · George Marshall (1947) · Harry S. Truman (1948) · Winston
Churchill (1949) · The American Fighting-Man (1950)

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1951–1975

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1976–2000

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2001–present

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haile_Selassie_I"


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