This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Protocols in MSS/MGW
© Nokia Networks Oy
Protocols in MSS/MGW
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia's customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia and the customer. However, Nokia has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia's liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. NOKIA WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Oyj. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Oyj 2006. All rights reserved.
© Nokia Networks Oy
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 5 5.1 5.2 Objectives ................................................................................. 5 Introduction............................................................................... 6 Network Transfer Mode ............................................................ 7 Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Multiplexing ................................................................................ 7 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) .......................................... 7 ATM cell..................................................................................... 9 Fields in the ATM cell header ................................................... 10 ATM connection...................................................................... 12 ATM virtual connections ........................................................... 12 Network elements involved in the transport of user plane information................................................................................ 13 Statistical multiplexing........................................................... 16 ATM protocol .......................................................................... 17 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) groups ............................... 20 ATM Adaptation Layer............................................................ 22 Switching in ATM network ..................................................... 27 Switching in ATM layer ............................................................. 27 AAL type 2 switching ................................................................ 28 Signalling in 3G network ........................................................ 30 Signalling protocol layers .......................................................... 30 AAL type 2 signalling ................................................................ 31 General protocol model for UTRAN terrestrial interfaces .......... 33 ATM traffic management ........................................................ 35 Traffic management functions................................................... 35 Traffic contract and negotiation................................................. 39 ATM layer service categories.................................................... 41 Resource management in ATM network ............................... 43 Physical Layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP) ...................... 44 ATM interface ........................................................................... 44 Access profile of ATM interface ................................................ 45 VP/VC Link termination point .................................................... 47
6 7 7.1 8 9 9.1 9.2 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4
© Nokia Networks Oy
.....................................................................................2 21 21................................. 95 Further note on the number and types of IP addresses for network elements ..................... 85 Applying protocol stacks ........................................................... 81 SIGTRAN .....248.1 14.................................................................... 68 IP connectivity in MGW Rel................... 65 Redundancy in MSC Server system ..... 48 Digit analysis ........................................... 49 IP addressing in MSS system network elements ................................................................................................... 63 LAN architecture in MSC Server network configuration....................... 48 Routing objects in ATM network .......................................................................................................................1 18 18.......................................3 20 20..... 91 Appendix (for reference only) ..............................................2 19................ 76 TDM Backbone (optional topic) .2 4 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy ............................................................Protocols in MSS/MGW 13 13............................................................ 87 User plane routing ..........4..1 20...............................248 ..........................................3 14 14..................... 88 Control and user plane routing.................2 16 Routing and digit analysis ............... 61 IP address and stack configuration for IPv4 ...2 14........... 84 H.............................3 14.....1 21............................................ 48 Routing ........ 51 IP addresses for Release 4 Core network elements .......................................................1 19........................................................................................... 95 Sub-networking principles in MSC Server ...... 69 IP connectivity configuration of Multimedia Gateway ....................................... 98 17 17.......5 15 15..1 15...... 73 Configuring IP connection for IP backbone Nb user plane ................................................................................. 70 IP Backbone in Nokia MGW...................2 13...4 14................... 81 TDM backbone in Nokia MGW... 83 Overview H............ 84 BICC.............................. 82 Stream Control Transmission Protocol..1 19 19...... 90 User Plane Analysis..................................1 13...................... 51 Introduction to TCP/IP (optional topic) .............
After completing this module, the student should be able to:
List all the necessary internal and external IP addresses for relevant units in MSS and MGW. Name the three planes in ATM protocol reference model and their functions. List the three main protocol layers of ATM and describe their functions. Describe the main functions of AAL type 2 signalling protocol. Define the bandwidth of an ATM interface and its tube structure. Create Virtual Paths and Virtual Channels in an ATM interface. Define traffic descriptors, service class as well as Quality of Service parameters of the channels. Describe the relation of BICC protocol with the device control protocol H.248 with the help of a basic call case Define the protocol structure in MSS for device control protocol H.248 needed between MSS and MGW
• • • • •
© Nokia Networks Oy
Protocols in MSS/MGW
Signalling is the exchange of information specifically concerned with the establishment and control of connections, and with management, in a telecommunications network. To work efficiently, signals must be understood. Therefore, signalling systems must be standardised for all users. Sometimes groups of users may have differing standards. In this case, the translation system that operates between the standards must be compatible for all systems. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organisation within which governments and the private sector co-ordinate global telecom networks and services. Signalling standards are nowadays set by the Telecommunication Standardisation Sector of the ITU (ITU-T) and Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) organizations.
© Nokia Networks Oy
Network Transfer Mode
Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Multiplexing
Asynchronous multiplexing (which is used in ATM technology), is more efficient than synchronous multiplexing technologies, such as Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). With TDM, each user is assigned to a time slot or time slots, and no other station can send in that time slot or those time slots. If a station has a lot of data to send, it can send only when its time slot comes up, even if all other time slots are empty. If, however, a station has nothing to transmit when its time slot comes up, the time slot is sent empty and is wasted. With asynchronous multiplexing nature, 'bandwidth on demand' is offered, that is, the user traffic can be sent at any available time slot according to the agreement between the user and the network.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
The basic functioning of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) can be compared to an inner city street with separate lanes for different traffic types. For example there can be one or more lanes for normal traffic, maybe reserved lanes for bus traffic and finally bicycle lanes all with different properties and resource needs. ATM, also known as cell relay, is a fast packet switching and multiplexing technology. ATM was developed as part of the work on broadband ISDN to support a universe of services (for example, voice, data and video over public network). ATM is a connection-oriented, error-detecting protocol. ATM does not offer error correction. Error correction is the responsibility of end user nodes. Minimizing error correction in intermediate nodes provides the advantages of increased speed of switching and elimination of associated delay. ATM provides efficient support for transmission of bursty wideband services and offers an integrated solution to voice (circuit mode as well as packet voice), data, and video. ATM provides quality of service (QoS) guarantee and reliability even when resources are shared and thus ATM provides the benefit of sharing network resources and predictable network behaviour based on packet switching technology. ATM utilises statistical multiplexing to take advantage of the inherently bursty nature of applications. For a group of bursty connections, less bandwidth can be reserved than if bandwidth reservation would be based on the peak rate of the connections. Achieved transmissions cost savings are considerable.
© Nokia Networks Oy
Figure 1. The fixed size of the cell allows efficient switching. that are easy to handle. called 'cells'. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 8 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW The fundamental strategy behind ATM is to split the information into small fixed-size units. multiplexing of many connections with variable rate characteristics). which altogether reduces the overall bandwidth requirements. ATM networks allow statistical multiplexing (that is.
ATM cell structure There are two formats of an ATM cell (depending on the type of the interface): • ATM UNI (User-Network Interface) cell that is used for communication between ATM endpoints and ATM switches. • For ATM interfaces in 3G networks. User-Network Interface (UNI) refers to the interface between terminal equipment and a network termination where access protocols apply. ATM NNI (Network-Node Interface) cell that is used for communication between ATM switches. © Nokia Networks Oy 9 (99) .Protocols 4 ATM cell The user traffic is split and delivered in fixed length packets called ATM cells. The ATM cell is relayed based on a label in the header: Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) and Virtual Path Identifier (VPI). which is divided into a 5-byte header and a 48-byte payload field. Figure 3 shows the specified ATM interfaces between network elements in a 3G network. The interface between a RNC and a WCDMA BTS is seen as an UNI interface. Network-Node Interface (NNI) is the interface between two network nodes like a RNC and an MGW. The size of the cell is 53 bytes. 53 bytes Header 5 bytes Payload 48 bytes Figure 2.
Instead the NNI header has a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) field that occupies the first 12 bits. such as identifying multiple stations that share a single ATM interface. Basic ATM cell format 4. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 VPI 4 3 2 1 GFC VPI Header (5 bytes) VCI HEC Payload (48 bytes) Payload VCI VPI VCI VPI VCI VCI PT CLP VCI HEC Payload PT CLP User Network Interface (UNI) GFC VPI VCI Generic Flow Control Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Network Node Interface (NNI) PT CLP HEC Payload Type Cell Loss Priority Header Error Control Figure 4. This field is typically not used and is set to its default value. There is a slight difference between the first byte of the UNI and NNI header. The NNI header does not include the Generic Flow Control (GFC) field. 10 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW ATM is employed Iub BS RNC UNI Iur NNI UNI BS RNC UNI BS SGSN GGSN IP network Iu-PS NNI NNI Iu-CS MGW A MSC B PSTN Uu UE Gn Gi Figure 3. ATM interfaces in 3G network.1 Fields in the ATM cell header Generic Flow Control (GFC) Provides local functions. allowing larger trunks between public ATM switches.
Payload Type (PT) Indicates in the first bit whether the cell contains user data or control data. the second bit indicates congestion. The network instantly discards any cell that fails the header error check.Protocols Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) In conjunction with the VCI. identifies the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on the way to its destination. Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) In conjunction with the VPI. identifies the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on the way to its destination. If the CLP bit equals 1. Cell Loss Priority (CLP) Indicates whether the cell should be discarded if there is congestion in the network. © Nokia Networks Oy 11 (99) . the cell should be discarded in preference to cells with the CLP bit equal to zero. and the third bit indicates whether the cell is the last in a series of cells that represent a single AAL5 frame. If the cell contains user data. Header Error Control (HEC) Calculates the checksum only on the header itself.
Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) is a logical connection in ATM. A specific value of a VPI is assigned each time a VP is switched in the network. There are two types of ATM connections: • • Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) Virtual Path Connection (VPC). Transmission path is a bundle of VPs. Thus. The end-to-end route is defined through the network at the beginning of the connection setup and the route remains the same throughout the connection. 12 (99) Relation between a transmission path. all the cells flowing in a single VPC are switched together. A specific value of a VCI is assigned each time a VC is switched in the network.Protocols in MSS/MGW 5 ATM connection ATM is a connection-oriented technique. Each ATM cell contains a label in its header to explicitly identify the VC. it has only local meaning. The following figure shows the relation among VCs. 5. Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) identifies a group of VC links at a given reference point that share the same VPC. ATM cells are routed on the same route to both directions. Virtual Path Connection (VPC) is a logical grouping of VCCs having the same endpoints. VC VP Transmission path VC VP Figure 5.1 ATM virtual connections Virtual connections (VC) are used for providing connectivity between communicating endpoints. This guarantees that the cells arrive in the receiving end in the same order they where sent. Virtual paths are used for bundling a number of virtual channels into a higher bandwidth stream routed through ATM switches. cell delay variation is also minimised and since routes are known it is possible to predict link behaviour. Hence. Furthermore. Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) identifies a particular VC link under a given VPC. This label consists of two parts: Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) and Virtual Path Identifier (VPI). VPs and a transmission path. VPs and VCs © Nokia Networks Oy . to which the cell belongs. That is. crossconnection and switching can be done on a higher level and not on individual VCC level.
By reserving capacity on a VPC in anticipation of later call arrivals. new VCCs can be established by executing simple control functions at the end points of the VPC. the user may define closed user groups or closed networks of VC bundles. Segregation of traffic A form of priority control can be implemented by segregating traffic types requiring different quality of service (QoS). Virtual Path Connections (VPCs) have many advantages: Simplified network architecture Network transport functions can be separated into those related to individual logical connections (VCC) and those related to a group of logical connections (VPC). no call processing is required at transit nodes. which connects VP links.311): VP cross-connect is a network element. It translates VPI (not VCI) values and is directed by management plane functions − not by control plane functions.Protocols Virtual paths help to reduce the control cost by grouping connections that share common paths through the network into a single unit. Reduced processing and short connection setup time Much of the work is done when the VPC is set up. © Nokia Networks Oy 13 (99) . Enhanced network services The VPC is used internally in the network but is also visible to the end user.2 Network elements involved in the transport of user plane information The following are the definitions of the network elements involved in the transport of user plane information (from ITU-T I. Thus. the addition of new VCCs to an existing VPC involves minimal processing which decreases the connection setup delay. aggregated entities. 5. Network management actions can then be applied to a small number of groups of connections instead of a large number of individual VCC connections. Increased network performance and reliability The network deals with fewer. Thus.
It terminates VPCs and translates VCI values and is directed by control plane functions. VC and VP switching 14 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW VC cross-connect is a network element. This routing involves translation of the VCI values of the incoming VC links into the VCI values of the outgoing VC links. Figure 6 and Figure 7 show examples of VP and VC switching. VP-VC switch is a network element that acts both as a VP switch and as a VC switch. It is directed by control plane functions. It is directed by management plane functions − not by control plane functions. VP switch is a network element that connects VP links. VP-VC cross-connect is a network element that acts both as a VP crossconnect and as a VC cross-connect. It terminates VPCs and translates VCI values and is directed by management plane functions − not by control plane functions. It translates VPI (not VCI) values and is directed by control plane functions. Routing functions of virtual channels are done at a VC switch/crossconnect. Figure 6. VC switch is a network element that connects VC links. which connects VC links.
Protocols Figure 7. VP switching © Nokia Networks Oy 15 (99) .
Figure 8. like in ATM. The picture on the right hand side shows the so-called statistical multiplexing gain. If VPs are statistically multiplexed. VPs are either deterministically or statistically multiplexed on a physical link. The amount of network resources required by users changes as a function of time.Protocols in MSS/MGW 6 Statistical multiplexing Statistical multiplexing is one of the main benefits of ATM. they do share the bandwidth nominally reserved for them with the other VPs on the same link. Operators can utilise statistical multiplexing to take advantage of the inherently bursty nature of applications. VCs are statistically multiplexed on a VP. Users of ATM networks generate numbers of cells according to the amount of information they want to transfer. At the VC level. when principle of statistical multiplexing is used in the bandwidth reservation. The network resources are shared among users with either VCCs or VPCs. When these resources are shared among users. they do not share the bandwidth reserved for them with the other VPs on the same link. This phenomenon is called statistical multiplexing. If VPs are deterministically multiplexed. two levels of multiplexing exist: VC level and VP level. At the VP level. The picture on the lefthand side shows required amount of bandwidth when the capacity of each connection is reserved according to the peak cell rate. The sum of the reserved bandwidths of the VPs cannot exceed the bandwidth of the link. Statistical multiplexing gain When virtual paths are used. This means that the network operator can either reduce the amount of resources required for a fixed load or it can accommodate more load with the same amount of resources. VPs do not have strictly reserved bandwidths. Figure 8 shows an example of statistical multiplexing. it is very unlikely that all users send at their peak cell rate simultaneously. 16 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .
PMD sublayer is dependent on the physical medium used. ATM protocol layers The physical layer defines the transmission medium. Management plane contains two components: • Layer management. and adaptation to the medium. The ATM physical layer is divided into two parts: • • Physical medium dependent sublayer Transmission convergence sublayer Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer This layer is responsible for coding. scrambling. which performs management functions relating to layer's resources and parameters (for instance. OAM information flows). decoding. electrical characteristic. Plane management.Protocols 7 ATM protocol The ATM reference model includes three planes. network interfaces. Physical layer ATM layer ATM adaptation layer (AAL) • The ATM protocol reference model includes three functional layers: • • • Convergence Sublayer (CS) ATM Adaptation Layer Segmentation And Reassembly (SAR) ATM Layer ATM Layer Transmission Convergence (TC) Physical Layer Physical Medium (PM) Figure 9. and a signal-encoding scheme. which consist of all layers: User plane is responsible for user information transfer and associated controls (such as flow control and error control) Control plane performs call and connection control functions (such as signalling procedures). ATM can © Nokia Networks Oy 17 (99) . which performs management functions related to the system as a whole.
T1 and JT1. AAL is needed for adapting upper-layer protocol data units such as TCP/IP and signalling to ATM layer. The user traffic is split and delivered in fixed length packets called ATM cells. In addition to traditional PDH order multiplexing levels (for example. such as SDH.Protocols in MSS/MGW use any physical medium capable of carrying ATM cells. multiplexing and switching of cells takes place at the ATM layer. which must be adapted to ATM layer services. The size of the cell is 53 bytes. and performs bit rate adaptation. Transmission Convergence (TC) sublayer The convergence sublayer handles all the processes involved in taking cells to/from the ATM layer. The layer translates the values of the VCI and VPI at the ATM switches or cross-connects. there is need to transport ATM cells also using PDH transmission networks. where the bandwidth requirements are low and capacity and cost optimisation are necessary. The ATM layer provides virtual connections between end points and maintains the contracted quality of service (QoS) by applying a traffic contract procedure at a call setup time. 53 bytes Header 5 bytes Payload 48 bytes Figure 10. and adaptation to the physical mediums structure. and extracts the header before the cell is delivered to the AAL. It is also used to "police" the agreed traffic contract while the connection is in progress. The ATM adaptation layer (AAL) provides data link services for upper layer protocols. 18 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . which provides flexible transmission capacity building according to the operator's needs. In addition. Although the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) forms the basis of transport of the ATM traffic. Existing transmission networks are widely based on Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH). ATM cell structure The ATM layer adds the cell header to the 48-byte cell payload after it has been assembled in the ATM adaptation layer (AAL). is also supported at the ATM physical layer. Interface types are E1. inverse multiplexing. Furthermore voice codecs generate short voice packets. which is divided into a 5-byte header and a 48-byte payload field. PDH interfaces are especially suitable for links between RNC and base station (BS). SONET and E1. cell delineation. PDH-based ATM interfaces are used for providing low-speed link connections between the ATM network elements. between E1 or E3 level). header protection.
compensating for cell delay variation and dealing with other problems introduced by the network (e. This sublayer is service dependent.Protocols The AAL maps user data from higher layer into standard ATM cells to be transported over an ATM network. including clock recovery. It also reassembles the contents of the ATM cell information fields into higher layer information formats. It performs a variety of functions that depend on the actual service being supported. © Nokia Networks Oy 19 (99) . Then it collects information from the ATM cells for delivery to higher layers.g. ATM adaptation layer functions Convergence sublayer (CS) provides the AAL service to the higher layer protocol. cell loss). AAL layer includes two sublayers: • • Convergence sublayer (CS) Segmentation and assembly sublayer (SAR) User data Convergence Sublayer (CS) AAL Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR) 48 bytes ATM Layer Header Payload Header Payload 5 bytes 48 bytes Physical Layer Transmission Convergence (TC) Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Header Payload Scramble frame and adapts the signals to the optical or electrical transmission medium SDH O/H STM-1 Frame Figure 11. Segmentation and reassembly sublayer (SAR) provides segmentation of the users' information (together with any supporting information added by the convergence sublayer) into 48-byte segments that form the payload field of an ATM cell.
There can be several IMA groups per one functional unit. between two RNCs or between MGW and RNC. A PET can only belong to one IMA group.Protocols in MSS/MGW 7. How does the inverse multiplexing work? When user traffic is transmitted across the IMA link. All the PETs of one IMA group have to belong to the same NIP1 functional unit. that can be grouped into one IMA group is 8 x E1 (2 Mbit/s) lines or 8 x T1/J1 (1. However. which are seen as one virtual IMA link. but all the transmission lines of one IMA group must go to the same direction. the transmission lines are identified with the PDH Exchange Terminals (PETs) that they are connected to. the maximum number is 16 x E1 or T1/J1 lines. between MGW and RNC There can also be a SDH transmission medium between a WCDMA BTS and a RNC . When transferring a PET from one group to another. the ATM cell stream is passed from the ATM layer to the IMA sublayer. At Iu-Cs interface. When creating IMA groups. the operator may also have to make changes in the switching. Note When configuring IMA groups. the original ATM cell stream is recreated and passed back to the ATM layer. In the IMA sublayer. in which IMA frames carry the traffic to the receiving end of the IMA link. and the traffic is distributed evenly onto the physical links. The maximum number of transmission lines at Iub interface. At Iur interface. the maximum number is 8 x E1 (2 Mbit/s) lines or 8 x T1/J1 (1. provided that the groups share the same functional unit. The existing PDH transmission medium can be utilised as an IMA group: • • • between WCDMA BTS and a Radio Network Controller (RNC) between two RNCs. How are the IMA groups created? The IMA groups are created at both ends of the transmission lines. the ATM cell stream is split on a cell-by-cell basis. The PDH exchange terminals at both ends of the IMA virtual link have to be tied up to the same kind of functional units. At the receiving end of the IMA link.1 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) groups The purpose of Inverse Multiplexing in ATM network (IMA) is that the capacity of many low-bit-rate transmission lines can be combined into a group that is seen as a single virtual link by the ATM layer of a network element. between Nokia WCDMA BTS and a RNC. between two RNCs. a PET can be transferred from one IMA group to another. the grouped transmission lines should all have 20 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .5 Mbit/s) lines.5 Mbit/s) lines. The transmitting end (the near-end) must align the transmission of IMA frames to all physical links. which allows the receiving end (the far-end) to adjust for differential link delays by measuring the arrival times of the IMA frames on each physical link. between MGW and RNC.
The transmission line defined as the TRL cannot be removed from the IMA group and added to another IMA group. That is. © Nokia Networks Oy 21 (99) . the IMA frames from one link should not have to wait for a long time for the IMA frames from other links before they are recombined into an ATM cell stream at the receiving end of the IMA virtual link. Note One of the transmission lines in the IMA group is defined initially as a Timing Reference Link (TRL).Protocols the same physical route in order to keep the delays between the physical links as small as possible.
uncompressed video traffic and circuit emulation service. AAL2 AAL2 is for variable bit rate (VBR) information. SMDS AAL AAL3/4 ATM layer Physical layer Figure 12. Bit rate Timing required between source & dest. Frame Relay. which requires a strict relationship between the transmission and reception clocks. It is appropriate for transporting telephone traffic. It provides the bandwidth efficient transmission of short. This AAL is aimed at compressed video. This is aimed at variable bit rate information. IP AAL5 Example of traffic types Voice. It has been mainly designed for transporting compressed voice in mobile networks. which requires timing synchronisation between the source and destination. but will also be used for compressed voice in wireline applications. AAL3/4 AAL3/4 is for data transmission in a connection oriented or connectionless mode. which will vary its bit rate significantly. AAL2 multiplexes short packets from multiple users into one ATM connection. variable length packets in delaysensitive applications. Connection mode Constant Synchronised Connection oriented Video. voice with silence removed AAL2 Variable Not synchronised Connection oriented or connectionless Data. ATM adaptation layers and supported traffic AAL1 AAL1 is for constant bit rate (CBR) information. The following figure shows the characteristics of user traffic supported by each AAL. which has no strict timing 22 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . circuit emulation AAL1 Data.Protocols in MSS/MGW 8 ATM Adaptation Layer Several AALs are currently specified to support different types of traffic.
The packet header consists of a channel identification number. AAL5 AAL5 supports connection oriented or connectionless variable bit rate data. Each cell's payload has a one-byte start field to indicate the next packet's starting point.1 ATM adaptation layer 2 (AAL2) The human speech contains significant periods of silence and requires low network bandwidth for transmission. AAL2 is able to multiplex up to 248 connections into one ATM VCC. Voice/user data is accumulated into a short packet having a 3-byte header.1. packet length. Compressed voice is inherently variable bit rate (VBR) but delay sensitive. AAL5 is also known as Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer (SEAL). but it provides the service in a much simpler way and with significantly fewer overheads. © Nokia Networks Oy 23 (99) . such as IP over ATM and Local Area Network (LAN) emulation. The AAL2 layer is multiplexing the transport channels into ATM VCCs as individual AAL2 connections. It is used to transfer most non-SMDS data.Protocols relationship between the transmitter and receiver. In order to meet the QoS requirements for real time applications ATM and AAL2 has been selected as transport technology for the Iub Iur and Iu-cs in UMTS Release 99 and Release 4. and it does not include a multiplexing capacity. because in a silent period in a conversation. and Frame Relay/ATM interworking. It is used to transmit Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) packets over an ATM network. which maximises the packet packing density in cell assembly for low bit rate voice. The AAL2 enables these low bit rate and delay sensitive applications to share a single ATM VCC thus improving the network bandwidth utilisation and reducing the call establishment time as shown in Figure 13. 8. It provides a similar data transport service to AAL3/4. These short packets are accumulated into a standard ATM cell. No timing relationship is required between the transmitter and receiver. the short packets do not have to be accumulated into a cell. In addition. the silence compression function on a codec works effectively using AAL2. and a header error control code. user-to-user indication. signalling channels.
64 bytes) from different users to be assembled in an ATM cell payload and transmitted on the same ATM virtual connection. The Common Part Sublayer (CPS) encapsulates the segments created by the SSCS layer by adding a 3-byte header... 24 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . A packet (minicell) received from a user is converted to a CPS packet with a 3-byte header that includes a single byte Channel ID (CID) to distinguish AAL2 connections within a single ATM VCC. In order to increase the multiplexing gain a timer is initialized whenever the CPS PDU is smaller than 48 bytes i.. Short packet Standard ATM cell H H h ch#1 h ch#1 h ch#2 h ch#2 h ch#3 h ch#3 h ch#4 h ch#4 H H h ch#2 h ch#2 ... Start field Figure 13.. The ATM cell is filled up with padding bits and sent when the timer value expires and there is no new CPS Packet arriving to the multiplexer. but also packet size of 64 bytes can be used. Multiplexing and demultiplexing in the AAL2 occurs in the CPS. A longer timer value results in larger delay and higher multiplexing gain. The encapsulated segments are called CPS Packets and their size is at maximum 48 bytes (note that segmentation to 64 bytes is also allowed). Also longer packet lengths up to 64 Kbytes are supported by AAL2. AAL2 cell packing AAL2 is especially suitable for carrying voice packets that are produced by speech codecs. the CPS Packets waiting in the assembly buffer are not filling an ATM cell. The AAL2 multiplexer assembles the CPS Packets into CPS PDUs (with 1 byte header). The PDU:s are in fact the payload of the ATM cells and their maximum size is 48 bytes.. 45 bytes by default). AAL2 is divided into two sublayers: Service specific convergence layer (SSCS) performs the segmentation and reassembly function for application packets longer than CPS packet size (that is..e. In order to reduce the delay on the AAL2 layer the value of the timer is often set to zero.Protocols in MSS/MGW Low bit rate voice ch#4 ch#3 ch#2 ch#1 CID in the header Silence . i. the load of ATM links is reduced.. . This way an ATM cell is generated upon arrival of a CPS Packet into empty assembly buffer regardless of its size.e. Common part sublayer (CPS) enables variable-size packets (0 ..
In practice SSCOP provides for example: flow control and thus a switch or end system can control the rate at which it receives signalling messages. The Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) is. The SSCS may also be null.1. Different Service Specific Convergence Sublayer protocols (SSCSs) to support specific AAL user services or groups of services are defined. Those AAL5 common part sublayers can be implemented as the combination of a SAR chip and a device driver or as a pure software implementation. ATM adaptation layer 2 sublayers 8. Each SSCOP PDU contains a sequence number. this allows SSCOP to determine if one PDU has been lost and request retransmission. release and monitoring of signalling information exchanged between peer signalling entities. SAR and CPCS layers are common for all AAL5 service users.2 ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) AAL5 includes two main sublayers: Segmentation and Assembly Sublayer (SAR) and Convergence Sublayer (CS). Connection establishment and resynchronization involves negotiation of buffer sizes and other transfer characteristics and renegotiation of these parameters © Nokia Networks Oy 25 (99) . when active. The CPCS and the SAR sublayer are called the Common Part of the AAL type 5. responsible for providing mechanisms for the establishment. The CS is divided into the Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) as shown in Figure 15.Protocols Higher layers AAL2 SSCS Segmentation and reassembly function for application packets User data AAL2 AAL2 CPS CPS AAL2 channel multiplexing and demultiplexing ATM layer CPS SSCS Common Part Sublayer Service Specific Convergence Sublayer Figure 14. SSCOP can also ensure sequential integrity by using these sequence numbers. in the sense that it only provides for the mapping of application protocol to the Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) and vice versa.
Protocols in MSS/MGW should a connection fail. e. AAL5 capability is available in all units having ATM connectivity (in some units only for system internal use. message passing). and FR/ATM interworking. signalling traffic bearer. Higher layers AAL5 SSCS SSCS CPCS SSCF Maps Layer 3 to SSCOP SSCOP Reliable data transfer AAL5 Common part AAL5 CPS CPCS Transparent transport of SDUs SAR SDU segmentation and reassembly ATM layer Figure 15. The health of a connection is monitored via exchange of status messages and connections are maintained through use of keep alive messages. 26 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy SAR CS . ATM adaptation layer 5 sublayers AAL5 can be used for IP over ATM traffic.g. Internal control connections of RNC/MGW (ATM module) are based on ATM AAL5 connections between units.
However. VP switches terminate VP links. The VCI values are changed in a VC switch and the VPI values are changed as they pass through a VP switch. Then. these values are remapped.Protocols 9 Switching in ATM network In ATM network. at each switch. Because all VCIs and VPIs have only local significance across a particular link. The switch looks up the connection value in a local translation table to determine the outgoing port (or ports) of the connection and the new VPI/VCI value of the connection on that link. the user traffic can be switched in ATM layer or ATM adaptation layer (AAL). VCI values are not changed when passing through a VP switch. A table is maintained on each interface identifying input and output ports associated with certain VPI/VCI. There are two levels of switching capability within an ATM switch (which perform switching at ATM layer): Virtual Path (VP) switching and Virtual Channel (VC) switching.1 Switching in ATM layer The basic operation of an ATM switch is straightforward: The cell is received across a link on a known VCI or VPI value. This has the advantage that many VCIs destined for the same network endpoint can be "bulk switched". VP switching is shown in Figure 16. © Nokia Networks Oy 27 (99) . the switch retransmits the cell on that outgoing link with the appropriate connection identifiers. Virtual channel (VC) switching VC switching takes place when all cells on a physical interface are identified and switched to their destination through the switch fabric based on a combination of the VPI/VCI values. 9. VC switching is shown in Figure 16. Virtual path (VP) switching VP switching occurs when only the VPI field within the cell header is used to describe the destination of the cells. as necessary. The switching in ATM adaptation layer used in mobile network is AAL type 2 switching. A VP switch translates incoming VPIs to the corresponding outgoing VPIs according to the destination of the VPC whereas VCI values remain unchanged.
then switched and assembled into outgoing ATM cells according to the entries found in the VPI/VCI/CID table. The traditional VPI/VCI table used for ATM cell switching is extended one more level by introducing CID entries to identify AAL type 2 connections. the traffic from the users is multiplexed by AAL2 in one ATM cell. In Figure 17.2 AAL type 2 switching AAL2 supports multiplexing of different sources on a single ATM virtual connection. Virtual channel and virtual path switching 9. If an AAL2 connection is routed through ATM switches that do not support AAL2 switching. An ATM cell received at an AAL type 2 switch is first demultiplexed into AAL type 2 connections (CIDs). The Channel Identifier (CID) is used to distinguish AAL connections within a single ATM VCC. it is considered to be AAL2 trunking and those switches support only ATM level switching. An AAL2 switching system performs AAL2 level switching. These kinds of connections are referred to as virtual AAL2 connections inside the virtual ATM connection. while an ATM node performs only ATM level switching. 28 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW VC switch Port Port VCI 9 VCI 10 VPI 3 VP switch VPI 36 VPI 8 VCI 15 VCI 26 VCI 9 VCI 10 VCI 9 VCI 10 VPI 23 VPI 9 Port Figure 16.
Protocols User 1 User 2 User 3 BS Upper layer RNC Upper layer MGW Upper layer AAL2 Process #1 #2 #3 AAL2 Process #1 #2 #3 H #5 #6 #7 AAL2 Process #5 #6 #7 ATM H ATM H ATM H ATM cell PHY PHY ATM cell ATM cell PHY ATM cell AAL2 connections VCC ATM connection VCC ATM connection Figure 17. ATM virtual connections and AAL2 connections © Nokia Networks Oy 29 (99) .
ATM protocol for signalling and user data Signalling occurs over a Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) residing between the ATM layer and the signalling protocol. which consists of Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR) and Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) functions. The common part ensures information transfer and detection of corrupt service data units.1 Signalling protocol layers Signalling protocol can be looked at as an application running on top of the lower. There are two types of SAAL: • 30 (99) SAAL-NNI © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW 10 Signalling in 3G network 10. physical. The Common Part is based on AAL5. and monitoring signalling information exchange between signalling entities. ATM and AAL layers. The Service Specific Part is divided into: • • Service Specific Co-ordination Function (SSCF) Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) The SSCF maps signalling messages from the upper level in to SSCOP while SSCOP provides mechanisms for establishing. The SAAL provides reliable transport of signalling messages between two ATM systems to include the recovery of multiple gaps within the data stream. C-Plane Signalling protocol U-Plane User data Signalling AAL ATM layer AAL Physical layer Figure 18. The SAAL is composed of two sublayers: Common Part and Service Specific Part. releasing.
The ATM level connections can be established using any existing ATM signalling protocol.2110 BISDN SAAL . A further benefit is that switched AAL2 connections can be established on top of any ATM network regardless of the protocol used for establishing ATM level connections. This approach increases the speed of AAL2 connection establishment because intermediate "ATM-only" switches do not delay the process by storing and forwarding AAL2 signalling protocol messages. for example.Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP). Q.Protocols • SAAL-UNI SAAL-NNI complies with ITU-T Q. or ATM Forum User-Network Interface (UNI).2931.2144 B-ISDN Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) – Layer Management for the SAAL at the Network-Node Interface (NNI). ATM Forum Private Network-Network Interface (PNNI). SAAL-UNI complies with ITU-T Q. ITU-T Q.2 AAL type 2 signalling AAL2 signalling protocol is a separate new protocol − not an extension of any existing ATM signalling protocols. ITU-T Broadband ISDN User Part (B-ISUP).Service Specific Co-ordination Function for Signalling at the Network-Node Interface (SSCF at NNI).2130 B-ISDN AAL Service Specific Co-ordination Function (SSCF) for signalling at the User-Network Interface (UNI). 10.2140 B-ISDN AAL . Q. RNSAP/RANAP SCCP MTP3b SSCF-NNI AAL2 SIG STC NBAP SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM Physical Figure 19.2110 B-ISDN AAL Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) and Q. Note AAL type 2 signalling protocol and Node B Application Protocol (NBAP) application protocol use UNI SAAL in point-to-point signalling connections in 3G RAN Iub interface where there is no SS7 signalling network available. AAL 2 signalling protocol © Nokia Networks Oy 31 (99) .
It provides assured data transport and service availability indication services independent of the underlying signalling bearer.Protocols in MSS/MGW The AAL type 2 signalling protocol provides functions to dynamically establish and release AAL type 2 point-to-point connections as requested by AAL2 served users in a network comprised of AAL2 endpoints and AAL2 switches. The AAL2 signalling protocol is used by higher layer functionalities for AAL2 connection establishment and release of a connection. The feature also contains a mechanism for blocking and unblocking resources during test procedures. for example. The AAL2 served user in 3G networks is the radio resource management and handover control entity. The Signalling Transport Converter (STC) provides the generic signalling bearer service for exchanging AAL2 signalling messages between protocol entities.VPI/VCI) AAL2 ch = AAL2 path & CID CID = 8-255 ATM Switch Figure 20 AAL Type 2 signalling The feature contains procedures to establish an AAL2 connection. which establishes/releases AAL2 connections when new soft handover legs are established/released. which is used to return one or several AAL2 channels to idle condition. release an AAL2 connection and maintenance functions to align the status of the AAL2 resources within the two peer AAL2 nodes. before service-in or modification of it bandwidth. if the signalling peer entity does not respond to message. It is invoked after an unrecognised status of connection. AAL Type 2 Signaling SETUP AAL2 Switch CID(x) Signaling channel AAL2 paths AAL2 Switch CID(x) Path = ATM VCC (Interface. Examples of signalling bearers are MTP-3 and SAAL UNI. It offers a reset mechanism. The AAL2 signalling protocol feature provides a clear and efficient interface to the users of the AAL2 signalling protocol. 32 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .
These signalling connections are configured as permanent ATM connections between AAL type 2 switches. The transport network layer represents standard transport technology that is selected. 10. General protocol model for UTRAN terrestrial interfaces Horizontal layers The protocol structure consists of two main layers: • • Radio network layer Transport network layer All UTRAN-related issues are visible only in the radio network layer. Iur.2630.Protocols Note The signalling bearer converters use AAL5 connections. AAL2 signalling complies with ITU-T Q. Iub) are designed according to the same general protocol model as shown in Figure 21.1 AAL type 2 signalling protocol (Capability Set 1). Vertical planes There are four main planes in the protocol structure: © Nokia Networks Oy 33 (99) .3 General protocol model for UTRAN terrestrial interfaces The protocol structures in UTRAN terrestrial interfaces (Iu. Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane ALCAP(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Physical Transmission layer User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer Data Bearer(s) Figure 21.
the transport network control plane is not needed at all. It also includes the signalling bearers needed for the ALCAP.e. such as coded voice in a voice call or the packets in an Internet connection. • • Transport network user plane The data bearer(s) in the user plane and the signalling bearer(s) for the application protocol also belong to the transport network user plane. It includes the application protocol (i. 34 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . RANAP in Iu. are transported via the user plane. If there is no ALCAP signalling transaction. RNSAP in Iur. When using the transport network control plane. The signalling bearer for the application protocol is always set up by O&M actions. The application protocol is used. The data bearers in the transport network user plane are directly controlled by the transport network control plane.e. The user plane includes the data stream(s) and the data bearer(s). The signalling bearer for ALCAP is always set up by O&M actions. It includes the ALCAP protocol that is needed to set up the transport bearers (data bearers) for the user plane. This transaction triggers the setup of the data bearer by the ALCAP protocol that is specific for the user plane technology. for setting up bearers to the UE (i. It should be noted that ALCAP may not be used for all types of data bearers. the transport bearers for the data bearer in the user plane are set up in the following fashion: First there is a signalling transaction by the application protocol in the control plane. but the control actions required for setting up the signalling bearer(s) for the application protocol are considered O&M actions. • User plane All information sent and received by the user. NBAP in Iub) and the signalling bearer for transporting the application protocol messages. ALCAP (Access Link Control Application Part) protocol is the generic name for the transport signalling protocols used to set up and tear down transport bearers. This is the case when preconfigured data bearers are used. among other things. Transport network control plane The transport network control plane is used for all control signalling within the transport network layer. the radio access bearer in Iu and subsequently the radio link in Iur and Iub).Protocols in MSS/MGW • Control plane The control plane is used for all 3G specific control signalling. The signalling bearer for the ALCAP may not be of the same type as that for the application protocol.
1. frame discard etc. The two basic control functions are Connection Admission Control (CAC) and Usage/Network Parameter Control (UPC/NPC).Protocols 11 ATM traffic management ATM provides a mechanism to ensure that the quality of service (QoS) remains as high as possible while the operator is able to utilise the network capacity in an efficient way. Bandwidth of ATM connections can be allocated flexibly according to application needs. CAC verifies whether network (or node) is able to offer requested QoS without risking the QoS of the existing connections. The operator can use ATM traffic management for providing QoS for ATM connections. Connection Admission Control (CAC) © Nokia Networks Oy 35 (99) . 11.1 Traffic management functions There are different functions to manage and control the traffic in ATM networks. CAC is defined as a set of actions taken by the network at the connection establishment phase in order to decide whether a virtual channel/path connection can be accepted or rejected. On top of this two basic control functions. Sophisticated CAC algorithms allow maximal utilisation of network element internal resources and external links while guaranteeing agreed bandwidth and quality of service for all existing connections. Also fairness of resource allocation between users can be guaranteed with traffic management functions.1 Connection Admission Control (CAC) Connection Admission Control (CAC) is used for checking that there are bandwidth and buffer resources for requested connections. the following ones may be used in appropriate combinations to support and complement the actions of UPC/NPC and CAC: traffic shaping. ATM Network User Usea A Setup CAC User B Figure 22. The actions taken to achieve the QoS targets in ATM networks are called traffic management. 11. priority control.
Protocols in MSS/MGW 11. UPC is applied in the User-Network Interface (UNI) and NPC is performed in the Network-Node Interface (NNI). or to ensure conformance in a subsequent interface.3 Traffic shaping Traffic shaping is a mechanism that alters the traffic characteristics of a stream of cells on a connection to achieve better network efficiency whilst meeting the QoS objectives. A network may employ shaping when transferring a cell flow to another network in order to meet the conditions of a network-to-network traffic contract. This is done by detecting violations of negotiated parameters and taking appropriate actions. Usage Parameter Control (UPC) and Network Parameter Control (NPC) Traffic policing is defined as a set of actions taken by the network to monitor and control the amount of incoming ATM traffic.g. or in order to ensure that the receiving user application operates in an acceptable way. Both UPC and NPC function can be enabled or disabled for all connections at an interface. Traffic shaping capability is particularly important when connecting across a public User-Network Interface (UNI) to a public network. Traffic shaping is performed by delaying (buffering) cells until they can be transmitted in accordance with the traffic parameters. Traffic contract defines traffic parameters (e.1. UPC/NPC supports the QoS objectives for all compliant connections. At the ATM cell level actions may include cell passing. since many such networks are basing their tariffs to a particular aggregate bandwidth. An ATM network does not need to guarantee QoS performance for nonconforming cells and thus a user wanting guaranteed QoS must shape traffic to ensure conformance to the traffic parameters in an agreed traffic contract. 11. cell tagging (only for CLP=0 cell stream) and cell discarding. User A UPC UNI ATM Network NPC NPC NNI ATM Network UPC User B UNI Figure 2.2 Usage / Network Parameter Control (UPC/NPC) Usage/Network Parameter Control (UPC/NPC).1. The main purpose is to protect resources from misbehaviour that can affect the QoS of other already established connections. peak cell rate) for each connection. also known as traffic policing. 36 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . is used for monitoring the compliance of ATM end systems to agreed traffic contracts.
• Cell loss priority bit in ATM cell header can be used to generate different priority cell flows within a virtual path connection or virtual channel connection.5 Frame Discard If a congested network needs to discard cells.1. Selective cell discard buffer management method ensures that lower priority (CLP=1) ATM cells are dropped before higher priority CLP=0 cells in © Nokia Networks Oy 37 (99) . 11. the entire higher level datagrams are dropped. The two most common congestion control mechanisms implemented in ATM are: • Partial Packet Discard If a cell is dropped from a switch buffer. Early Packet Discard When the switch buffer queues reach a threshold level. Traffic originating unit provides shaping of generated ATM traffic according to configured traffic parameters. which in turn may cause more traffic when congestion is already occurring. In addition Multiplexing unit (MXU) and NIS units shape outgoing traffic per port. If a single cell is discarded. Generic placement of policing and shaping functions Note Traffic shaping capability is implemented in each RNC/MGW computer or signal processing (DMCU/TCU) unit terminating/originating traffic. it may be better to drop all the cells of one Protocol Data Unit (PDU) rather than to randomly drop cells belonging to different PDUs.1. the subsequent cells in the higher layer protocol datagram are also discarded.4 Priority control Cell loss priority bit in ATM cell header can be used to generate different priority cell flows within a virtual path or channel connection. A network element may selectively discard cells with low priority (CLP=1) before higher priority cell (CLP=0) in congestion situation. Discarding a packet may help to avoid congestion in the ATM network and can increase throughput. it may cause the retransmission of the whole PDU.Protocols User A Network A Network B User B Shaping Policing Shaping Policing Shaping Shaping Policing Shaping Policing Shaping Figure 5. 11.
all cells from the AAL5 frame are discarded. Also. Therefore. If the buffer threshold is exceeded. the switch does not look in the buffer for earlier cells that belong to the same packet. This will continue until the number of cells in the buffer drops below the set threshold. Once the switch drops a cell from a PDU. offering significant improvement over PPD. PPD discards the the remaining cells.1. because the switch begins to drop cells only when the buffer overflows. PPD discards cells Figure 6. cells from the corrupt packet may be forwarded from the switch even though PPD is in effect. the ATM switch will begin dropping entire PDUs prior to buffer overflow. buffer management starts to discard incoming lower priority CLP=1 cells. The switch drops the first arriving cell and all subsequent cells of that particular PDU. the first cell dropped might belong to a packet in which the majority of cells have already been forwarded. the switch continues dropping cells from the same PDU until the end of the PDU is indicated. The last cell is not discarded.5.2 Early Packet Discard (EPD) Early Packet Discard (EPD) greatly reduces the number of corrupted PDUs transmitted. Buffer positions for cells When the buffer reaches the capacity. when the switch first drops a cell. PPD occurs if a user cell is discarded because of policing violations.1 Partial Packet Discard (PPD) This congestion control mechanism drops all subsequent cells from a PDU as soon as one cell has been dropped. Whenever the proportion of the buffer in use exceeds a fixed threshold.5. When buffer occupancy reaches pre-configured threshold value. Early Packet Discard (EPD) and Partial Packet Discard (PPD) buffer management methods can be taken into use for VCs carrying AAL5 traffic. The EPD threshold is evaluated before a new AAL5 frame is admitted to the buffer. Partial Packet Discard (PPD) 11. a cell loss priority (CLP1 or CLP0+1) threshold violation or if no free buffer space is available. PPD offers limited improvement.1. 38 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . as it is required to indicate the end of the PDU and by implication indicate the start of the next PDU. 11. except the last one. PPD discards all remaining user cells of the AAL5 frame except for the last cell of the frame.Protocols in MSS/MGW congestion situation.
EPD only discards packets, which have already been buffered.
Buffer positions for cells When the buffer level exceeds the EPD threshold, the cells are selectively discarded from the entire frames EPD Threshold
EPD Discards Frames
Early Packet Discard (EPD)
Traffic contract and negotiation
Traffic contract negotiated during connection establishment consists of the connection traffic descriptor, the requested QoS class and the definition of a compliant connection. The values of the traffic contract parameters can be specified either explicitly or implicitly. A parameter value is explicitly specified in the initial call establishment message. This can be accomplished via signalling for SVCs (Switched Virtual Connections) or via the Network Management System (NMS) for PVCs (Permanent Virtual Connections). A parameter value is implicitly specified when its value is assigned by the network using default rules.
ATM quality of service (QoS)
One of the advantages of ATM is the QoS. The ATM supports QoS guarantees for different types of traffic. The quality of service defines the performance to be guaranteed. There are six QoS parameters. Three of these are negotiated between the end system and the networks. The QoS parameters that are negotiated:
• • •
Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) Cell Delay Variation (CDV)
The QoS parameters that are not negotiated:
© Nokia Networks Oy 39 (99)
Protocols in MSS/MGW
• • •
Cell Error Ratio (CER) Severely Errored Cell Block Ratio (SECBR) Cell Misinsertion Rate (CMR)
Propagation delay dominates the fixed delay component of CTD, while queuing behaviour contributes to delay variations in heavily loaded networks. The effects of queue service strategy and buffer sizes dominate loss and delay variation performance in congested networks. Transmission link error characteristics largely determine the CER, SECBR and CMR parameters.
The traffic parameters describe traffic characteristics of a source. The traffic descriptors are the generic list of traffic parameters, which describe the traffic characteristics of an ATM connection. The traffic descriptor consists of:
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) The PCR represents the maximum allowable cell rate. It is defined as the inverse of the minimum inter-arrival time T between two consecutive cells. T is called the peak emission interval of the connection. Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) The SCR represents a theoretical average of the cell average rate ( cell ) transmission sustained over the duration of a transmission, for a VBR connection.
Burst Tolerance (BT) The BT represents the maximum time in advance allowed to transmit a cell compared to it’s nominal transmission time: TSCR = 1 / SCR. The Maximum Burst Size (MBS) The MBS specifies the maximum number of cells that can be transmitted at PCR while still being compliant to the negotiated SCR Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) The MCR represents the minimum user's required bandwidth or the minimum cell rate guaranteed for the user. It is the descriptor used for ABR service. Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT) The CDVT gives information on the maximum time in advance allowed for a cell arrival. It can be used with PCR and SCR.
© Nokia Networks Oy
Definition of a compliant connection
Once the connection has been accepted, the QoS requested is provided as long as the connection is compliant with the traffic contract. A connection is catalogued as compliant as long as the proportion of nonconforming cells does not exceed a certain positive threshold, the value of which has to be specified in the traffic contract by the network operator. For non-compliant connections, the network does not need to respect the contracted QoS, that is, the network could release the connection. For compliant connections, the requested QoS has always to be supported by the network.
ATM layer service categories
The traffic in ATM networks has different demands regarding the QoS. One idea how to fulfil these requirements is to create so-called traffic classes, also known as service categories. One service category has same kind of QoS requirements.
Service classes divide connections into "main" classes (real time, non-real time, bursty, etc.) Traffic parameters define mainly the bandwidth requirements
QoS parameters define finally the QoS of the connection: delay, cell loss, etc.
Relation between service classes, traffic parameters and QoS
ATM service categories include: Constant Bit Rate (CBR) is used by applications that request a static amount of bandwidth that is continuously available during the connection lifetime. This amount of bandwidth is characterised by a peak cell rate value. In the CBR capability, the source can emit cells at the peak cell rate at any time and for any duration and the QoS commitments still pertain.
© Nokia Networks Oy
The CBR and VBR are the terms used by ATM Forum. whereas VBR is equivalent with SBR (Statistical Bit Rate). 42 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .Protocols in MSS/MGW Bandwidth Time Figure 24. Unspecified but rate (UBR) Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is meant for non-real time applications that do not have strict requirements for delay and delay variance. Constant bit rate (CBR) Bandwidth Time Figure 25. Note CBR is equivalent to DBR (Deterministic Bit Rate). UBR does not have guaranteed QoS and is also known as 'best effort' traffic class. while the DBR and SBR are used by ITU-T.
Protocols 12 Resource management in ATM network The resource management is used for reserving resources of an ATM exchange for different purposes such as signalling. © Nokia Networks Oy 43 (99) . routing and IP over ATM connections as well as for permanent cross-connections through an ATM network element. The resource management covers the following areas: • • Management of a Physical layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP) Management of ATM interfaces. • • • The following figures illustrate the resource creation order when building connections on VC level. ATM resource creation order The ATM resources are created on the external interfaces of a network element and they form the basis for VP and VC level connections to other network elements. VC connection creation order phyTTP ATM interface Access profiles of ATM interfaces VPL termination point (VPLtp) VCL termination point (VCLtp) VC connection Figure 26. related to a Physical layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP) Management of the access profiles of ATM interfaces Management of VP Link termination points Management of VC Link termination points.
Lt p Phy TTP ATM logical interface 12.phyTTP id .phyTTP id AT M Ph log VP VC y ica Lt Lt TT l p. CNBAP . AAL2SL. Resource management in the ATM network ATM logical interface Phy TTP Signalling traffic (CBR.VCI . A Physical layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP) can consist of one of the following: a single PET. 44 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . p P int erf ac VC e VP Lt p Lt p.1 Physical Layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP) The phyTTP is used to hide the properties of the physical resources from the upper protocol layers.service category . IPOAM) . an IMA group. a single SDH VC path or an SDH protection group. In an ATM network. under which the connections are built. It is configured between the physical layer and the ATM Layer. The ATM interface can work as: • • UNI (User Network Interface) or NNI (Network Node Interface). DNBAP. SCR.QoS class . VC Lt p Figure 27. for example ATM cells. IPOAM.traffic parameters: PCR.interface id .PET/IMA/ SET/ PROTGROUP . The only interesting property from the upper layer point of view is the capacity of the phyTTP that can be used to transport the protocol data units of the upper layer. p VP MGW RNC . AAL2UD) AT M VP logPh VC ica y Lt Lt p p.VPL service level: VP/VC . The NNI interface is the interface between two network nodes like a RNC and an MGW. it is tied up to a Physical layer Trail Termination Point (phyTTP).UNI / NNI .service category: CBR/UBR .2 ATM interface The ATM interface is an external logical interface. 12. When an ATM interface is created.Protocols in MSS/MGW . the interface between a RNC and a WCDMA BTS is seen as an UNI interface. Lt p O&M traffic (UBR. MTP3SL. AAL2UD. UNI refers to the interface between terminal equipment and a network termination where access protocols apply. MTP3SL) User traffic (CBR. CDVT.traffic and QoS parameters VC Lt Lt p. l TT int P erf ac VC Lt VP e p Lt VC p.VPI . Burst tolerance .max VPI/VCI bits 2 Access profile of ATM interface 3 4 VP Lt VC 1 p.max bandwidth .usage e.g.
The maximum allowed ingress and egress transmission bandwidth value given for the access profile of a STM-1 interface is 149760 kbit/s. the maximum allowed bandwidth is 4528 c/s. For further information on ATM Interface creation. Therefore.99 x <number of E1/T1 links> x <maximum allowed bandwidth for E1/T1>. refer to refer to Nokia online document. The parameter value is a decimal number ranging from 10 to 9999.3 Access profile of ATM interface The access profile created for an ATM interface defines the connection structure built under that ATM interface. The maximum bandwidth values This parameter identifies the numerical value of the maximum ingress transmission bandwidth at the ATM interface. © Nokia Networks Oy 45 (99) . 12.The parameter is obligatory. as the IMA frame length is not currently modifiable. IMA frames use a part of the payload. that is 353 207 c/s (= the payload). The remaining resource (5760 kbit/s) is available only for the physical layer overhead. The following parameters have to be specified : interface id the maximum ingress and egress transmission bandwidth the maximum ingress and egress bandwidth unit the maximum number of VPI bits the maximum number of VCI bits • • • • • Interface id This parameter identifies the ATM interface whose access profile you want to create.Protocols The capacity of an ATM interface must be smaller than the capacity of the object it is tied up to. The parameter value is a decimal number ranging from 1 to 320. In case of an ATM interface connected to an E1 transmission link. When an ATM interface is connected to an IMA group. you can calculate the maximum allowed bandwidth for an ATM interface with an IMA group with the following formula: 0. the maximum value is 3622 c/s. In case of an ATM interface connected to a T1 transmission link.
The parameter can have the following values: CPS Cells per second KCPS Kilo-cells per second MCPS Mega-cells per second Note The egress bandwidth (for outgoing traffic) cannot be defined larger than the capacity of the neighbouring ATM exchange. The parameter is used by the system to select the appropriate VPI values when establishing ATM connections. For example. For further information on calculating bandwidth. it means that the maximum number of VPLtp's that can be created under the ATM interface is 16 (= 24). This parameter is used by the system to select the appropriate VCI values when establishing ATM connections. This parameter identifies the maximum number of allocated bits of the VPI sub field for the defined ATM interface. you must use VCI number 32 or bigger for an external VC connection. You should select the lowest possible value. VPI bits and VCI bits The maximum number of VPI bits defines the space (number of bits) available for specifying the VPLtp's under the interface. The parameter value can range from 1 to 8 for a UNI interface and from 1 to 12 for an NNI interface. This parameter identifies the maximum number of allocated bits of the VCI sub field per VPLtp of the defined ATM interface. if the space reserved for VPI is 4 bits. you should reserve at least 6 VCI bits (= 26 different VCI values). VCI 3 and VCI 4 are reserved for O&M (operation and maintenance). For this reason. For example. The maximum ingress and egress bandwidth unit This parameter identifies the unit of the maximum ingress/egress transmission bandwidth at the ATM interface. ATM Forum. This defines the maximum number of Virtual Channels (VCs) that can be created inside each virtual path. otherwise ATM cells are lost. The parameter value can range from 1 to 14 for both UNI and NNI interface. The VCI values 1 .1. if the ATM interface is tied up to an IMA group with 3*2 Mbit/s lines. 46 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . if the space reserved for VCI is 8 bits. When creating an access profile. the maximum bandwidth is 0. The maximum number of VCI bits defines the space (number of bits) available for specifying VCLtp's under the interface. refer to Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) Specification Version 1. For example.99*3*4528 c/s = 13448 c/s. This defines the maximum number of Virtual Paths (VPs).31 are reserved for specific purposes. the maximum number of VCLtp's that can be created under a VPLtp is (= 28) .Protocols in MSS/MGW For example.1 = 255 (VCI with value 0 is not allowed).
and thus the connections. Each VPLtp is related to one ATM interface. when reserving capacity for a VPLtp. you can create VCLtp's of UBR1 type under a VPLtp of CBR type.4 VP/VC Link termination point External termination points are created both on VP level and VC level. 12. The VCLtp's created under a certain VPLtp of UBR1 type must have the same service category and conformance definition as that VPLtp. Therefore. or only a few large VPs with numerous VCs inside each path. Service category and conformance definition In the current ATM network. Virtual Path Link termination points (VPLtp's) must be created before any Virtual Channel Link termination points (VCLtp's) and VC level connections can be created under the VPLtp. the service category CBR (Constant Bit Rate) is applied for user plane and signalling traffic. there can be many Virtual Paths with a few Virtual Channels inside each path. you should plan how many VC level connections are needed under that VPLtp. you define the purpose.Protocols It depends on the network level planning how the ATM interface and its access profile. © Nokia Networks Oy 47 (99) . and the service category UBR1 (Unspecified Bit Rate) is applied for IP over ATM connections. should be created. for which the VPLtp and the underlying VCLtps will be used. For further information on VP/VC link termination point. The conformance definition must comply with the service category used. However. For example. They are the terminating ends of the VP/VC connections. The interface configuration defines the limits to the total VPLtp capacity reservations. refer to Nokia on-line document. • • When creating a VPLtp with VC service level. The number of VCLtps created under each VPLtp depends on the total VPLtp capacity. Termination points are reserved for: • • Signalling links on VC level VCC endpoints and thus for allowing the creation of AAL type 2 connections for user traffic IP over ATM connections on VC level Permanent Virtual Connections (PVCs) on VP and VC level inside an ATM network element.
They function in a call setup phase.2 Routing Routing is used for finding free resources under a given route for connections going to another network element. 13. it is the starting point of routing. When the result of digit analysis is the route. Each unique set of digits is associated with a destination. A Subdestination is always mapped to one route. or data connections to the desired destination and for finding free resources for the connection. Digit analysis analyses the digit sequences that it receives. used in TDM. The address points to a certain AAL2 or ATM termination point in the neighbouring node. The received digits are analysed in an analysis tree to locate the destination for the connection. A route can be seen as a common concept in ATM/TDM environment. Digit analysis is used in the RNC for finding a route to a Backbone MGW or an RNC (in Iur interface). Digit analysis and routing are closely connected to each other. The address to be analysed in MGW is the AAL2 Service Endpoint Address (A2EA) which uses AESA format. for example. voice. but digit analysis may be used to analyse any number sequence that can be analysed hierarchically digit by digit. Analysis and routing also offer functions to configure and manage the routing and analysis -related objects. concept of circuit groups/circuits. In ATM. An analysis tree is a chain of records in an analysis file beginning from the first digit of the analysed number sequence.Protocols in MSS/MGW 13 Routing and digit analysis Analysis and routing are needed in the network element for directing user plane traffic. A Subdestination determines which ATM route is selected. The digit is analysed when a new connection at Nb is needed. Typically the received sequence is an address of the receiving end. 13. Digit analysis gets the address of other network element and finds the route for the destination by analysing the address. are replaced by new concepts: − Virtual Channel Connection Endpoint Group (VCCEG) 48 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .1 Digit analysis The purpose of the digit analysis is to find a destination for the call and to select a route to the destination. a new call establishment or soft handover branch to the existing call is going to be added. Destination is comprised of one or more routing alternatives.
Under one ATM route there may be one or several endpoint groups. Subdestination provides necessary routing data that is needed in the connection establishment phase. In ATM. ATM route. when a free circuit is © Nokia Networks Oy 49 (99) . VCC endpoint group is a group of individual VCC endpoints having similar properties. subdestination. ATM routes consist always of VCC endpoints. It is different from the TDM world. Under this selected VCC an AAL type 2 connection may be created. which also automatically allocates a Channel Connection Identifier (CID) value for each AAL type 2 connection. Routes in this context mean external ATM routes that consist of one or more hunted Virtual Paths (VPs) or Virtual Channels (VCs). it first finds a suitable VCC endpoint group and then selects one VCC endpoint from that group according to the routing algorithm. In TDM. Operations related to the AAL type 2 connections are managed by AAL type 2 connection control. The VCCE identifies the VC Link termination point (VCLtp). where AAL type 2 level routing is used as in RNC and MGW. Therefore. The AAL type 2 connections are built inside an AAL type 2 path (VCC). under which the AAL2 connection (CID) is created. Destination symbolises the end node where the connection is routed. When routing starts selecting a VCC for the connection.3 Routing objects in ATM network In ATM network element. routing has a close relationship to Connection Admission Control (CAC). 13. Destination is the result of digit analysis and it is obtained on the basis of the call origin and received address. where AAL2 level signalled connections are used. In RNC and MGW. which connect two ATM network elements and are using the same signalling protocol. After a suitable VCC has been selected by routing. only AAL2 level routing is used for user traffic. VCC endpoint groups and VCC endpoints. Subdestination is a routing alternative and it always belongs to some destination. only AAL type 2 level routing is used for all user traffic. In RNC and MGW. AAL type 2 is finally the level where all user traffic is carried between the ATM network elements. Routing is used for finding a suitable Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) candidate under a given route having free resources and providing desired properties for the connection. the routing objects are destination. AAL type 2 connection control selects a free AAL type 2 channel for the AAL2 type 2 connection under this VCC. VCC extends between two Virtual Channel Connection endpoints and it is identified with an AAL type path identifier.Protocols − Virtual Channel Connection Endpoint (VCCE) Routing manages these objects and provides selection of VPCs/VCCs according to needed quality of service (QoS) and traffic parameters.
6. AAL2 connection control selects a free AAL type 2 channel for making the connection. 2. The number of ATM routes to be created depends on the number of neighbouring network elements and the capacity of the exchange. The subdestination determines which external ATM route is used for the connection. The following steps show the function of the digit analysis and routing: 1. CAC decides finally if the new connection can be accepted without violating the guaranteed quality of service for existing connections. Under each ATM route there can be up to 16 endpoint groups. 5. These must fit with the values of the Virtual Channel Link termination points (VCLtp's) that will become endpoints. 3. The destination provides the subdestination. the resource is found for the connection. Digits are directed into digit analysis. Each endpoint group can include max. Under the ATM route the routing selects an appropriate VCC endpoint group.Protocols in MSS/MGW hunted. 50 endpoints 50 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . Digit analysis goes through the received digit sequence and the information about the origin of the call in digit analysis tree in order to find a destination for the call. Under the VCC endpoint group the routing selects an appropriate VCC endpoint and thus an appropriate virtual channel. The external ATM route is used for directing the call to another exchange. In ATM. 4. Finally. which have the ingress and egress service categories as characteristics. In the Iub and Iur interfaces each destination currently provides only one subdestination. CAC is needed after selection of VPC/VCC. 7.
Each layer performs a distinct function. This process is referred to as fragmentation. all entities must agree upon a protocol for successful communications. OSI-model vs.Protocols 14 IP addressing in MSS system network elements 14. adds a header to the PDU. Layer ISO OSI Model Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer (Data) Link Layer Physical Layer TCP/IP Protocol Stack 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Transport (TCP. Sometimes if the PDU is larger than an acceptable maximum due to technological limitations. A protocol can define many aspects of communications including what is the nature of communications. UDP) ICMP. TCP/IP © Nokia Networks Oy 51 (99) . An entity has the capacity to transmit and receive data.1 Introduction to TCP/IP (optional topic) Data communications involve the transmission and reception of data between entities across different networks. The process of adding headers to the PDU is called encapsulation. In order for an entity to function correctly. how will the entities communicate. and when will the communications take place. Most protocols can be represented in a layered architecture or layered model. A protocol is a set of rules defining data communications between entities. the PDU may be broken into smaller PDUs. IGMP Internet Protocol ARP. RARP Network Interface (layer 1 and 2 are not specified within the Internet protocol suite) Figure 28. and sends the resulting PDU to the layer below it. performs some processing on it. It receives a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from the layer above it.
Each packet will have an address for both sender and receiver. Public IP addresses are globally unique in that all IP packets in a public network will have unique IP sender and receiver addresses. the usage of TCP/IP protocols is. Although TCP/IP can be mapped and explained with the classical layered OSIprotocol model. a client sends a request to a server that maybe located on another network somewhere on the Internet. data is transported to the destination without the establishment of a connection between the source and the destination similar to a postal system. supported by every WAN and LAN technology used today. The server processes the client’s request and sends a reply to the client. Transport.org).server model. In order for the requests and replies to be understood. there are some differences. Session. that is. IETF membership is free and there is no subscription fee for documents. 52 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . and Physical layers.server model interaction 14. Most data communication uses the client . Communication Network Client Server Figure 29. Each layer performs a distinct function. Network (or Inter-network).1 Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP) is a layer-3 protocol that is used to carry data over different types of network.Protocols in MSS/MGW The OSI model contains seven layers: Application. Client . for example. but the functionality of these is built directly into application layer protocols. In this model. There are.1. IP works in connectionless packet mode.ietf. Presentation. no session or presentation layers defined. Today TCP/IP protocols are developed and standardised by the Internet Engineering Task Force (www. in practice. the client and the server must speak the same language. Data link. which is referred to as an IP address. There are two types of IP address: private IP addresses and public IP addresses. Because of its widespread use and relatively easy implementation.
IP network example 53 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . The network does not guarantee when and how the packets will arrive. If Router 1 has packets that need to go to the Internet. It is referred to as a best effort network. it can send packets via Router 3 in IP Network A or through Router 4 in IP Network B.Protocols IP Address logic House 1 House 2 House 1 House 3 New Street Crossing A Old Street Router A Network 1 Network 2 Host 1 Host 2 Host 1 Host 2 Host 3 Figure 30 IP can be compared to street addressing IP is used as the interconnection protocol in the Internet. Each packet will have an address for the sender and the receiver. IP Network B IP Network C Router 1 IP Network A Router 2 Router 3 Internet Figure 31. The figure shows four different IP networks interconnected together. assuming this has not been denied for security reasons. The use of unique addresses means that every machine connected to the Internet can send packets to any other machine connected to the Internet. Large deliveries may be divided or fragmented into several smaller packets to help transportation.
which will have a small number of computers attached to their network.18.104.22.168.255. Five classes of IP addressing were defined: • Class A addresses were designed for very large organisations. In this address 193 represents the most significant octet of the IP address.100. • • • 54 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . The length of the IPv4 address is 32 bits.Protocols in MSS/MGW 14.B. However. The Net ID represents the network to which the host or gateway belongs to and the Host ID identifies the specific host within that particular network.0. Class D addresses were designed for multicasting purposes.255 is used for local broadcasting to all hosts across a network. At the beginning of this section it was mentioned that an IP address consists of 32 bits.1.com) is 193. Since the range of each octet has been specified. 232 results in 4295 million addresses (approximately).nokia.C. not all IP addresses are available. Each octet has the decimal range of 0 (00000000) to 255 (11111111). the IP address for Nokia’s global web site (http://www. the IP addresses 0. Therefore. Each number in this notation corresponds to an octet or 8 bits. Class B addresses were designed for mid-size organisations having a large amount of computers attached to their network. 14. The number of bits used to represent the Net ID and the Host ID varies depending if class or classless IP addressing is used. Because humans find it difficult to write 32 binary bits. Class C addresses were designed for small size organisations. since some are reserved for special purposes.2 Internet Protocol Version 4 An IP address identifies a host on a network. IP address are written in a dotted decimal notation as A. The Net ID always precedes the Host ID.255. Net ID Host ID Figure 32 IPv4 address structure An IP address is composed of two parts: the Network ID (Net ID) and the Host ID.3 Class based IP addressing Class based IP addressing was the original mode of allocating addresses and a detailed description of it can be found in RFC 791. the question now is how many addresses are available.D. For instance. which will have a substantial amount of computers attached to their network. For example. The current version of IP is IP version 4 (IPv4).0 and 255. All routing functions are based on the Net ID portion of the IP address. The IP address 255.255 are used for special purposes. and each bit has a binary representation of 0 or 1.65.105.
these bits can be used to compute the number of networks supported by each class as well as the number of hosts per network supported by each class.d/23 Then netmask = 11111111. The ‘/x’ says that first x bits of the IP address is a Net ID.255.98.11111111.0000000 = 255. 14.0.1 to 126. Characteristics of class based IP addresses Furthermore. or 21 bits. the number of bits can be specified for Net ID and Host ID depending on the class.0.255 1111 Reserved for special use Class E Figure 33.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 55 (99) .1 to 239. A classless IP address is represented as a. A netmask contains a series of 1s corresponding to the Net ID followed by a series of 0s corresponding to the host ID. a netmask is used to distinguish between the Net ID and Host ID bits of the IP address. 32 bits binary format 0 1 7 8 31 dotted decimal format Class A 16777214 users/net 0.11111111. Examples of netmask are given below: If IP address = a.Protocols • Class E addresses are reserved by the Internet for special use.0.1 to 223. Classless addressing was developed as one of many solutions to address the shortage of IP addresses in the earlier class based addressing.255.c.0.255.255. Similarly.11111111.254 65534 users/net 128.255.4 Classless based IP addressing The second type of addressing is known as classless addressing.0.0000000 = 255.0.c.254 254 users/net 192.d/24 Then netmask = 11111111.b.1 to 191. Oktet 1 Oktet 2 Oktet 3 01100010 Oktet 4 01010000 11000000 01111010 192.255.b.255. class E type addresses have no Net ID or Host ID. In this scheme the Net ID is not confined to 7.d / x.b.c. The Net ID can be between 2 and 31 bits and hence there is a need to indicate the boundary between the Net ID and Host ID.255.0 If IP address = a. This is also illustrated above. 22.214.171.124.255. Additionally.11111110.254 0 Net ID 01 2 15 16 31 10 012 3 Net ID 23 24 31 Class B 110 0 123 4 Net ID 31 Class C 1110 0 123 4 Multicast 31 Class D 268435454 groups 224. The figure below summarises the characteristics of each class of IP addresses.254.0.122. In this addressing scheme.255.
00000000 Figure 34.d/22 Then netmask = 11111111. One of the main reasons for the introduction of IPv6 is that the number of IP addresses available with the current IPv4 is running short.11111111.168.0.c.Protocols in MSS/MGW If IP address = a.1 192.10101000.1010100.1.b.0 11111111.0 255. which is estimated to last a lot longer than the 32 bits in IPv4.1 Binary Representation 11000000.0 Decimal Representation IP Address 192.11111111. which is used to send a packet to any one group of nodes in a network.00000001 11000000.00000000 Network Address 192.255. This change was invoked so that the commoncase processing cost of packet handling can be reduced and limit the bandwidth cost of IPv6 header.11111111. Bit-wise Anding of IP address and netmask The IP address and netmask are ANDed together bit wise resulting in the binary representation of the network address 14.255.0 192. Header format simplification In contrast to the header format of IPv4.255.5 Internet Protocol version 6 IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet Protocol developed by IETF. anycast address.0000000 = 255.252.0000000.11111111.255. IPv6 also includes a new type of address.00000000.0.11111100.10101000. some of the header fields of IPv6 have been discarded or made optional.168. The address size of IPv6 is 128 bits.0 11000000.101010000. as well as more addressable nodes and simple autoconfiguration of addresses.000000000.255.00000001 Bitwise ANDing Netmask 255.00000000 11111111. There are also other reasons for introducing IPv6 as highlighted in RFC1883: Expanded addressing capabilities The increased address space of 128 bits will allow IPv6 to support more levels of addressing hierarchy. 56 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .11111126.96.36.199.00000000 11000000.00000000.168.
data integrity. Flow labelling capability This is a new capability feature.6 IP routing and routers Any IP device that can forward IP packets (which have a destination address other than its own) to other IP devices is called a router. which allows the labelling of packets belonging to a particular traffic flow. In dynamic routing. The process of selecting the best data link and next hop on the route to the right destination network is called routing. for which the user requests special handling. and data confidentiality. This dynamic information is exchanged via routing protocols like the OSPF (Open Shortest © Nokia Networks Oy 57 (99) . This was compensated by the development of IPsec. Application TCP/ UDP Router Routing is the process of selecting the next destination using a routing table. segmentation or reassembly may necessary IP IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP L2 L1 Router Figure 35. this adds flexibility of further options that can be implemented in the future. A router and its tasks Routing can be either static or dynamic. In static routing the router will have a fixed routing table. IPv6 contains many features of IPsec as well as other features to support authentication. 14. Additionally there are less stringent limits on the length of options. Authentication and privacy capabilities IPv4 did not have any authentication and privacy capabilities. the routers exchange information on the destination IP networks and corresponding next hops.Protocols Improved support for extensions and options The changes implemented in IPv6 for header options permit more efficient forwarding.1. which includes the destination IP networks and corresponding next hops. • Layer 3 „switch“ • decides were to transmit the IP packet next after analysis of the IP header information depending on data link and physical link layer. This includes non-default quality of service or ‘real time’ service.
168.168.0 -notation.0.2. 58 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .1. Routers are needed in IP based LAN/WAN networks to interconnect IP network that employ similar or dissimilar lower layer (data link) protocols.0.168.5 Interface Ethernet 0 Ethernet 1 Ethernet 0 Ethernet 1 192. then the packet will be sent to the default gateway.255. packets from one subnetwork to the other will have to be sent to a router.0/24 Ethernet 0 192.168.168.1.0.0.168.168.0.1/24 Router 1 Ethernet 1 188.8.131.52 0.168.168.1. that is. A router is needed even if both the sender and the receiver are connected to the same physical data link network.0. The router then forwards packets between the two IP subnetworks.168.168.168. so the routers and the hosts use a default gateway or default route.5/24 192.1. IP is a connectionless protocol and routing will be done individually for each and every packet even if they belong to the same data transfer.255. In real life it is impossible and impractical to know the route to every IPnetwork in the world. A typical routing table for Router 1 is shown below. An IP packet arriving from a network using one type of data link can be easily forwarded to the next hop network based on another type of data link.0 184.108.40.206.255.2. Therefore.5 192.0.5/24 192.168.Protocols in MSS/MGW Path First).0 Next hop 192. the IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) and the BGP (Border Gateway Protocol).0/24 Router 2 192.0 Mask 255.0. IP routers and routing table Let us assume that a malfunction occurs in Router 3. Destination 192. an Ethernet segment.0 0.0 255. In this case.0.0. which has an interface to both subnetworks.0.0 / mask 0.255. Every router between the sender and the receiver performs the routing function. The default gateway/default route is typically marked with the address 0.7/24 Internet Router 3 Figure 36. Router 1 has to find an alternative path to route its packets to the Internet.2.0.0/24 192.0.0 192. If more accurate information is not known of a destination IPnetwork. the RIP (Routing Information Protocol). but they are using IP addresses from different IP subnetworks.1/24 192.0 255.3/24 192.
248(Data) Ethernet IP TCP FTP (Data) Ethernet IP SCTP H.248(Data) Figure 38. packet acknowledgements. Ethernet IP TCP IP Ethernet SCTP Packet 2. Peer-to-peer communication in the transport layer Both TCP and UDP can help. They are used to help in the end-to-end transport of data over IP networks. © Nokia Networks Oy 59 (99) .Protocols 14.1.7 Transport protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Its functionality includes sequence numbering. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and SCTP are all layer-4 transport protocols. in segmenting user data to variablelength IP packets and adding a sequence number to each packet. correct loss or corruption of data. Appli cation Communication Appli cation TCP/UDP SCTP virtual connection TCP/UDP/ SCTP Router Router IP IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP IP L2 L1 L2 L1 Router Router Figure 37. FTP (Data) H. for example. IP data flow TCP The Transmission Control Protocol is used to provide reliable data transfer between two IP end points. flow control. From the sequence number the receiver knows how to reassemble the user data even if the actual IP packets arrive in different order to that transmitted. and checksum for data corruption supervision. FTP (Data) H.248(Data) Packet 1.
H. SCTP SCTP is a reliable transport protocol operating on top of a potentially unreliable connectionless packet service such as IP. Data corruption can be checked with the use of checksum. HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol is an application layer protocol used to define web contents and its transfer. A selective retransmission mechanism is applied to correct loss or corruption of data. It offers acknowledged error-free nonduplicated transfer of datagrams (messages). Some of them are listed in this section. 14. the SCTP path/session failure detection mechanisms. the Media Gateway Control Protocol. For such applications.8 Application protocols There is a wide range of application layer protocols. Where in TCP a stream is referred to as a sequence of bytes.248. FTP File Transfer Protocol is an application layer protocol used for file transfers. loss of data and duplication of data is achieved by using checksums and sequence numbers.248 Megaco/H.Protocols in MSS/MGW UDP The User Datagram Protocol is used to provide fast data transfer between two IP endpoints. but this is optional. especially the heartbeat. The main difference to TCP is multi-homing and the concept of several streams within a connection. This protocol is used instead of TCP when speed is more important than reliability. is for control of elements in a physically decomposed multimedia gateway. which enables separation of call control from media conversion. an SCTP stream represents a sequence of messages. will actively monitor the connectivity of the session. and/or upper or lower layer protocols already support reliable data transfer functionality. Telnet This application layer protocol is used for providing virtual terminal (VT) sessions between IP capable equipment. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol is an application layer protocol used for network management in TCP/IP networks. 60 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . Detection of data corruption.1. SCTP can be used as the transport protocol for applications where monitoring and detection of loss of session is required.
and private IP addresses can be used for the O&M related units. A plan should cover at least the main principles for assigning private and public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and network masks. Most commonly © Nokia Networks Oy 61 (99) . Control plane traffic is either IPv4 or IPv6 based. The O&M units are mainly OMUs and NEMUs. Various types of traffic are transported between network elements in an MSS site. can be separated from O&M. and the interoperability of subnets and VLANs.Protocols ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is a layer 3 control protocol used to carry error and control messages between IP nodes. over multicast or unicast network services. and what kind of addresses and network masks are needed in the IP backbone. Both IP address allocation and subnets formation should be planned carefully beforehand. even though charging traffic. 14. meaning that each VLAN should have large enough IP address space. It should also allow for the possible need for subnet expansion to the maximum configuration. for example. video or simulation data. but there can also be CHUs and STUs. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks. RTP and RTCP are designed to be independent of the underlying transport and network layers. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. The protocol supports the use of RTP-level translators and mixers.2 IP addresses for Release 4 Core network elements This section gives some guidelines about how addresses are configured. such as audio. Real Time Protocol and Real Time Control Protocol RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data. The three main types that are relevant from the addressing point of view are: • • • O&M traffic Control plane traffic User plane traffic O&M traffic: O&M traffic exists in every network element. The O&M traffic is IPv4 based. O&M traffic may also include charging and statistics related information. Control plane traffic: The control plane is used for controlling communication between network elements. and to provide minimal control and identification functionality.
Each unit has one IP address (IPv4). IP addresses must be configured in TCUs and IP NIU. The number of IP addresses required depends on how many pieces of each unit are used. all addresses can be private. If there are no external connections from the backbone. BSU and SIGU. (2N). there are OMU (2N). • Additionally.Protocols in MSS/MGW public addresses are used. Examples of control plane units are the ISU in the MGW. In cases when they are communicating with MGW. they can also have IPv6 addresses. The unit types that may be used are CCSU. they can also have IPv6 addresses. there are OMU (2N). STU (2N). Integrated Gateway Control Server • An integrated GCS has a maximum of 33 signalling units (*SU). CHU (2N) and BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. • The number of IP addresses needed for a standalone MSS can be large including addresses for a public control plane containing the signalling Units. Each unit has one IP address (IPv4). In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. there are OMU (2N). STU (2N). In addition. These units are N+1 redundant. The unit type that can be used is CCSU or SIGU. they can have also IPv6 addresses. The number of IP addresses required depends on how many of each unit are used. there are OMU. CHU (2N) and BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. Integrated MSC Server • An integrated MSC Server has a maximum of 14 signalling units (*SU). Additionally. STU. In addition. and 16 BSUs. The units are N+1 redundant. and the CCSU/SIGU in the MSS. 62 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . In cases where the units are communicating with MGW. Standalone MSC Server A standalone MSC Server has a maximum of 38 signalling units (*SU). they can also have IPv6 addresses. User plane traffic: The user plane is used for carrying the actual user data. CHU (2N) and BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. they can also have IPv6 addresses. Note: The decision of whether to use private or public addresses depends on the site and backbone solution. In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. Standalone Gateway Control Server A standalone Gateway Control Server (GCS) has a maximum of 30 signalling units (*SU). CHU (2N) and BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address.
In total. This parameter is obligatory if you want to assign a physical IP address to © Nokia Networks Oy 63 (99) Unit group Unit index . OMUs. they can also have IPv6 addresses. The index of the computer unit in which you want to configure a network interface. the NEMU and LAN switches. units that require IP addresses are TCUs.1 Network interface configurations for IPv4 When configuring network interfaces for network elements. Each TCU has four Transcoder Processor Groups which all need separate addresses.3 IP address and stack configuration for IPv4 The IP addresses and IP stacks needed for MSC Server system network elements are configured using network element specific MML commands. The program provides a list of computer units for you to choose from. IP addresses are required for GSU (N+1). This parameter is obligatory. The unit group number of the computer unit in which you want to configure a network interface. The maximum value of the parameter is determined by the number of computer unit groups (or stages). This parameter is asked for only when it is needed.3. 14. * For more details on IP connectivity refer to the Appendix of this module and to Nokia Site connectivity documents and courses. in which case it is obligatory. the number of IP addresses needed for an MGW is: • • • 312 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for TCUs 11 public control plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for ISUs 2 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for IPGE/O pairs or 16 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for IPFE pairs 3 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches 1 private O&M IPv4 address for OMUs 1 private O&M IPv4 address for NEMU • • • Circuit Switched Data Server In a Circuit Switched Data Server. 14. you need to specify the following: Unit type The type of computer unit in which you want to configure a network interface. IPNIU pairs. ISUs. OMU (2N) and LAN switches.Protocols Multimedia Gateway for MSC Server In a Multimedia Gateway. The following sections present the parameters that need to be configured in each network element. The maximum value of this parameter is determined by the number of units. In cases when the GSU units are communicating with MGW.
The name is from 3 to 8 characters long and must start with 'AA' (external ATM point to point interface). Check that the interface really is point-topoint type with MML command. The maximum transmittable size of a single. Note that with the physical IP address you have to identify both unit type and unit index. netmask length The length of the numerical part of the IP address (in bits). If state is omitted and the network interface has been configured before. In N+1 units you have to identify the unit type and unit index. complete IP data unit. If you give several computer units with && mark. The logical IP address can be given to 2N and N+1 units. its state does not change. the unit index is not needed. Interface name The name of the network interface that you want to configure. The next IP address is created by incrementing the previous address. The logical IP address follows the active unit. then the IP address you give is the one to start with. DOWN= the interface is blocked. 16 for class B address. 'IFETH' and 'IFFGE' (Etherent interfaces in Chorus units). the default value is UP. In 2N units you only have to identify the unit type of the 2N unit. IP address for the network interface or for the interface pair of 2N redundant unit. The value you enter for this parameter must be a whole number between 4 and 30.#. You can use && mark to specify a group of interfaces to be configured. This parameter indicates the initial administrative state of the interface immediately after configuration. 'AI' (internal ATM point to point interface). and 24 for class C address.#). Possible values are: L = Logical IP address. It is assigned to the first unit you gave. P = Physical IP address. You can only give MTU for some interfaces. 'EL' (Ethernet interface in DMX units).Protocols in MSS/MGW the network interface or if you are configuring a network interface in an N+1 redundant unit. This is the default value. IP address type The logical or physical IP address for the network interface. The address is specified in conventional dot notation (#. This is the default for point-to-point (PPP) IP address The following parameters can have the default values: Destination IP MTU State 64 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . 'PPP' (POS interface in IP-NIU units) or 'LO' (Loopback interface). This address belongs to the specified interface of the specified functional unit. You can use && mark to specify a group of indexes to be configured. Physical IP address is not allowed in IP-NIU type units.#. This parameter is obligatory. For Ethernet interfaces the default MTU is 1500. The default length of the netmask is determined by the IP address: 8 for class A address. for IP over ATM interfaces it is 9180. The range of parameters for each part of the address is from zero to 255. This address is assigned to the specified computer unit permanently. If the interface is configured for the first time. The possible values of the parameter are: UP = the interface is in use. The IP address of point-to-point link.
14.4. redundant ESB20/ESB26 LAN switches are connected to different Ethernet line cards in the OSR. which is used in the example configurations for providing in-site connectivity and the WAN interface. ESA24: ESA24 is a 24 port 10/100BaseT/Tx Ethernet LAN switch plug-in unit integrated into the MGW mechanics. GCS. IP-NIU: IP-NIU is an IP network interface unit in the MGW. OSR 7609:OSR 7609 is a multilayer LAN switch/edge router.Protocols 14. The Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) is required for redundancy purposes. In the maximum configuration. Each signalling unit is connected to the ESB20/ESB26 pair of the same cabinet. or 2 ports from two different Ethernet line cards in one OSR configuration. In twoOSR configurations the redundant ESB20 LAN switches are connected to different OSRs.1 MSC Server LAN Integrated MSS control LAN For the integrated MSS control LAN topology with duplicated multilayer LAN switch / edge routers (OSR) and duplicated DNS servers there are several alternative control cabinet configurations: Each cabinet has a redundant ESB20/ESB26 pair for the control LAN. If one OSR is used. The other port is used for DNS queries and the other one is for O&M. both DNS units reserve 2 ports from each OSR7609. It allows a redundant router to automatically assume the function of an active router in case the active router fails. The same DNS is used for the MSS. The IP-NIU for Ethernet connectivity is implemented with IPFGE plug-in unit which offers either 1 x 1000Base-LX/LH Ethernet + 1000Base-T Ethernet interface or 8 x 100Base-T Ethernet interfaces. GCS and CDS mechanics. Standalone MSS control LAN The following figure presents the standalone MSS control LAN topology with duplicated OSRs and DNS servers: © Nokia Networks Oy 65 (99) . CDS and MGW. MSC Server.4 LAN architecture in MSC Server network configuration The basic building blocks for LAN connections are: ESB20/ESB26: ESB26 is a 26 port 10/100BaseT/Tx Ethernet LAN switch plugin unit integrated into the MSCi. If a redundant DNS pair is used on the site. the control LAN reserves 2 x 4 x 10/100Base-T Ethernet ports in the OSR7609. HSRP is particularly useful when the users on one subnet need continuous access to resources in the network.
The O&M LAN traffic can be further divided into three separate VLANs in the ESB20 on a per port basis: • • • O&M VLAN Charging VLAN BDCU VLAN In the integrated MSC Server the radio network control traffic can be separated into its own VLANs on a per port basis in the ESB20. In the minimum configuration there is only IPCF and one IPCG0 cabinet. If a redundant DNS pair is used on the site. redundant ESB20 are connected to different Ethernet line cards in the OSR. or 2 ports from two different Ethernet line cards in a oneOSR-configuration. UDP). In two-OSR configurations the redundant ESB20 are connected to different OSRs. GCS. TCP. CDS and MGW.2 MSC Server virtual LANs In the OSR the control and O&M LANs can be separated into different VLANs based on the port that the traffic comes from. In the maximum configuration the control LAN reserves 2 x 5 x 10/100Base-T Ethernet ports in an OSR7609. 66 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . the both DNS units reserve 2 ports from each OSR7609. See Domain name system in MSC Server system for more information about the recommended DNS solutions. some of the control plane signallings can be separated in the OSR with help of the access lists. TCP/UDP port number or protocol (SCTP. This separation can be done on the basis of an IP address. 14. If one OSR is used.4. whereas IPCG1. One port is used for DNS queries and the other is for O&M.Protocols in MSS/MGW Figure 39 Control LAN topology for standalone MSC Server Each cabinet has a redundant ESB20/ESB26 pair for the control LAN. IPCG2 and IPCH cabinets are optional. If necessary. The same DNS is used for the MSS.
The VACLs are only restricted for security packet filtering and redirecting traffic to specific physical switch ports in OSR. © Nokia Networks Oy 67 (99) . or are bridged within a VLAN. the DNS can be included in the control VLAN. since both the charging and O&M VLANs are using the same physical interface. The configuration principles are as follows: • The MSS/GCS control VLAN packets are either bridged or routed to the GCS and MGW control VLANs The MSS/GCS O&M VLAN packets are routed to the OSS The charging VLAN packets are either routed to the Charging Gateway (CG) or customer care and billing centre (CCBS) The BDCU VLAN packets are routed to the short message service centre (SMSC) or to the NetAct" Traffica The O&M port of the DNS belongs to the O&M VLAN • • • • If charging traffic is separated into its own VLAN in the O&M LAN.Protocols If the core network control plane signallings are the only user of the DNS services. a VLAN trunk has to be defined between the ESB20 and the OSR. The following figure presents an example of traffic separation in MSS by using virtual LANs: Figure 40 MSC Server VLANs The VLAN access lists (VACL) on the OSR are configured so that they apply to all packets that are either routed into or out of a VLAN.
Thus. when selecting the LAN interface the CPU simultaneously selects the ESB20 LAN switch.Protocols in MSS/MGW 14. BSU. OMU. SIGU. CHU. This interconnection can be removed later if the CPU software is updated with higher layer supervision. Thus each computer unit has two separate connections to the LAN infrastructure. if the LAN cable or the LAN port in the CPU or ESB20 fails. So. after the interface switchover. STU) has two functionally independent LAN interfaces. The CPU LAN interfaces are connected to different ESB20 switches. to the other ESB20. at the same time. the CPU can perform switchover to the other interface and. At any given time. MSS is shown as an example of a general way to connect a single Ethernet interface of a network element to the OSR. N+1) in their functional units. only one of the interfaces is used to carry traffic whereas the other one is idle. which can detect link failure behind an ESB.1 MSC Server LAN redundancy principles Redundancy in CPU and ESB20 Each computer unit having a LAN interface (BDCU.5. CCSU. Therefore the CPU cannot make an interface changeover in cases when the link between ESB and OSR fails. Redundancy in the intra-site LAN is implemented as illustrated in the following figure. Figure 41 Redundancy in CPU LAN interfaces and ESB20 The physical layer supervision of the LAN interfaces in the CPU can only detect failures in the link between the CPU and the ESB. For this reason the redundant ESB20 pair can be interconnected in order to supply a backup route to the OSR via the other ESB20.5 Redundancy in MSC Server system The MSC Server system network elements support the conventional DX200 and IPA2800 redundancy schemes (such as 2N. 14. which it uses. Each computer unit independently makes the decision on which of the two interfaces is active and which one is idle. MGW supports MSP 1+1 protection system in its STM-1/OC-3c network interfaces. 68 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . During the switchover the IP address is retained and then the new MAC address is advertised using a gratuitous ARP message with IPv4. and Neighbour Discovery protocol with IPv6.
248 control. connectivity provides the following: • • Evolution path to All-IP Core protects the operator's investments Ethernet and STM-1 interfaces give flexibility to connect MGW Rel. the IP backbone. H. However. IP connectivity is used for the following protocols: • • • RTP/RTCP H.Protocols 15 IP connectivity in MGW Rel. if there is a need to increase the security of the control plane traffic.4 to different network environments and to build variable solutions IP as a common network platform provides agile network development Transmission cost savings • • Functionality By default (1Gbit/s Ethernet) both control plane (SIGTRAN and H. it provides connections for SIGTRAN and H. As regards the benefits.248 signalling) and user plane traffic is routed through the same unit (IP-NIU). it can be isolated from the user plane traffic by using the 100Mbit/s Fast Ethernet (FE) connection from ISU or IP-NIU. Figure 42 Isolating control plane from IP user plane © Nokia Networks Oy 69 (99) .248 and SIGTRAN to core network routers.4 The IP connectivity feature provides Fast Ethernet (100Mbit/s) and 1Gbit/s Ethernet connections for the IP backbone and IP Trunk user plane traffic. For the control plane traffic.4.248 SIGTRAN IP connection also adds the routing functionality to MGW Rel. The routing functionality can be used for routing user plane (RTP).
Ethernet interface • Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet interface from MGW for MSS (3GPP Rel-4) is possible with IPGE/O type of IP-NIU. The interfaces are of the type 1000 Base-T. MGW supports both IPv4 and IPv6 routing. The Gigabit Ethernet interface is mainly used for user plane traffic and it is connected directly to an OSR. MTU default 1500. Ethernet connections are commonly connected to an OSR. The values of the parameters can be modified. Encapsulation according IEEE 802. This section describes the functionality of the following interfaces: • • • Ethernet STM-1 for Packet over SDH/SONET (POS) STM-1 for IP over ATM traffic (IPoA) The traffic types listed above are connected from different types of IP-NIU units. All units are configured using MML commands. Routing in both IPv4 and IPv6 is based on static routing. Selection of the used interface is based on available backbone devices. POS connections can be connected to an OSR or an MGX. One IP4S1 in the MGW has four STM-1 ports with VC3/VC4 mapping offering an interface speed of 155 Mbit/s each.1 IP connectivity configuration of Multimedia Gateway The MGW has various types of interfaces to ensure its connectivity in different environments. Cisco MGX switch is used as an example of an ATM switch. Dual Stack. Note that at the moment VC3 can only be used for IPoA. With Gigabit Ethernet two types of physical interfaces are possible: optical IPGO and electrical IPGE. RJ-45 category 5. • 70 (99) 100 Megabit Ethernet © Nokia Networks Oy . The IP configuration is made using MML commands as described earlier in IP address and stack configuration for IPv4 and IPv6 . or 1000 Base-LX/LH SMF. are used. Ethernet connections cannot be configured via IP4S1 units. but not for POS. the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for IP address mapping. 15.Protocols in MSS/MGW When Ethernet connections are used for transporting IP traffic. Cisco OSR LAN switch / IP router is used as an example for providing the local IP connectivity. LC connector. but the configuration parameters and values differ. As regards routing. No VLAN support. for example.3. and IPoA connections to an MGX. but it is recommended that the default values for the OSR.
802. These LAN switches are also used for O&M traffic. IP over ATM interface (IPoA) The MGW must support some suitable connection to the operators' existing ATM networks. Packet over SDH/SONET interface is a standard interface based on RFC2615 and RFC2472 (IPv6) specifications. The same MML is used for both IPoA and POS configurations.3X. and the point-to-point protocol (PPP) is specified for that.1. The MGW can open PPP links for example to another MGW (over the Nb interface) and to a core network router. The IP over SDH/SONET requires some point-to-point link layer protocol between IP and SDH. The uplink traffic from the MGW is connected to the MGX using STM-1 link(s). The ESA12 units used for integrated ESA 12 LAN switches are 12-port 10/ 100BaseT full duplex Ethernet switches that comply with the IEEE standards 802. In case of IP-NIUs. An IPFE has eight interfaces to be used for control plane and user plane traffic. One or two trunks can be defined (1 .Protocols 100 Megabit Ethernet interfaces can be used in two ways: there can either be separate IP-NIU with 100Mb interfaces or internal LAN switches with 100Mb uplinks. You need to configure the following: SDH exchange This parameter identifies the SDH exchange terminal with a unique Numeric © Nokia Networks Oy 71 (99) . BSSAP) and Media Control Protocol (H. RJ-45 category 5. auto negotiation (enable/disable).1 Configuring the physical layer The physical layer is configured with a network element specific MML command. The IPoA functionality connects the MGW's internal units to the external devices via IP over ATM. The PPP over SDH/SONET uses a high-level data link control protocol (HDLC) such as standard framing.1q and 802.248) between a MGW and a MSC Server. back pressure support in HDX mode and flow control in FDX mode. IPFE is used.1D.6 ports per trunk). 802. Integrated LAN switches are used when control plane traffic is taken from the ISU-units. Packet over SDH/SONET interface (POS) The Packet over SDH interface of the MGW is used for transmitting user plane traffic to an IP backbone but can also be used for transmitting signalling protocols (RANAP. The rest of the configuration parameters are the same as with the Gigabit Ethernet interface above. 802.3.1p. 15. Their functions include full/half duplex selection. The IPFE units are of the type 100 Base-TX.
This parameter is used to switch the laser power on or off. This parameter can have the following values: ITU = SDH standardised by ITU ATMML = SDH specified by NTT ATM Mega Link Service Physical layer configuration also includes configuring SDH protection group and defining Physical Layer Trail Termination Point configuration. NNI = Network-Node Interface is the interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. or to take SET out of use. This parameter identifies the numeric value of the SF (Signal Fail) BER (Bit Errors Ratio) threshold in the SDH interface. The parameter is obligatory. This parameter identifies the numeric value of the SD (Signal Degrade) BER (Bit Errors Ratio) threshold in the SDH interface. This parameter is optional and the value can range from 1 to 8000 SDH frames per second. This parameter specifies the Virtual Container mapping on the SDH interface. This parameter identifies the status of the line loopback and is used for testing purposes. This parameter identifies the status of the diagnostic loopback and is used for testing purposes. It © Nokia Networks Oy . For IPoA. The value can range from 1 to 320. you need to configure the following parameters (LCC/SNAP or VCMux): interface ID interface type This parameter identifies the ATM interface with a unique numerical value. The Off option can be used for testing purposes. Configuring Layer 2 Layer 2 is configured using MML commands. It can be used for testing internal connections.Protocols in MSS/MGW SES BIP threshold This parameter identifies the numeric value of the SES (Severely Errored Second) BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity check) threshold in the SDH interface. This parameter describes the type of the ATM interface. As a default a free ID is selected by the system. These are configured using different MMLs. The parameter can have the following values: UNI = User-Network Interface is interface between the terminal equipment and a network termination where the access protocols apply. There are different MML commands for IPoA and POS. This parameter can have the following values: VC3 = VC-3 mapping for STM-0 or 3xVC-3 mapping for STM-1 VC4 = VC-4 mapping for STM-1 SD BER threshold SF BER threshold diagnostic line loopback laser status VC mapping SDH protocol The parameter specifies which SDH protocol is used in the SDH interface. PhyTTP 72 (99) This parameter identifies the physical resource that the interface is based on.
The default value is unlocked. If set to 0 supervision is not used. The natural choice for transmitting media over IP in backbone connections is the IP over SDH/Sonet. you need to configure the following parameters (Point-to-point protocol (PPP) configuration): unit type unit index physical trail layer This parameter identifies the computer unit type. © Nokia Networks Oy 73 (99) . This parameter indicates the packet size that the peer can handle. This parameter is unique within the network element. It can range from 1 to 320. There are two possible values: IPS1 and IPSP.Protocols can range from 0 to 320. network interface supervision interval maximum receive PPP interface This parameter identifies the management state of the PPP interface. where xx is a decimal number from 0 to 99. It can range from 0 to 3600 seconds. This parameter defines the supervision interval of the PPP link. Default value is 1500 bytes. Unlocked = The resource is administratively permitted to perform services for its users. This interface parameter identifies a network interface with a unique name. The parameter can have the following values: Locked = The resource is administratively prohibited from performing services for its users. 15. Default value is 10 seconds. This parameter identifies the unit index for the computer unit. The value of the parameter is PPPxx. The parameter is obligatory. the range of unit index is from 0 to 3. For IPS1. the IP backbone is used to transport speech traffic between the GGSN and Multimedia Gateway (Gi reference point). The physical trail layer termination point parameter identifies a phyTTP with a unique numerical value. In All-IP mobility core networks. administrative state This parameter describes the administrative state of the ATM interface. Allowed values are UP and DOWN (default). It can range from 128 to 16384 bytes. For POS.2 IP Backbone in Nokia MGW Nokia Multimedia Gateway provides the possibility to use IP backbone networks as such for transporting media for circuit-switched connections between gateways (Nb reference point). This parameter is unique within the network element.
PPP support according RFC 1661. 2615 and 2472) STM-1 IP over ATM (VC-4.1662. then there is no possibility to isolate signalling traffic into a separate physical Ethernet interface via IP-NIU. This makes RTP an ideal protocol for real-time applications such as voice over IP (VoIP).248 traffic) and user traffic are routed via the IP-NIU unit using either fast Ethernet (FE) or 1G interfaces. MTU>1500 bytes) STM-1 Packet over SDH/Sonet (VC-4. New signalling unit type CCP10.Protocols in MSS/MGW Media over the IP backbone is transferred using the real time protocol (RTP). The network interface unit in the Nokia Multimedia Gateway provides the following options for transmitting media over IP: • 1 Gigabit Ethernet interface (1000 Base-T. Full duplex. the signalling can be routed directly from ISU units to layer 2 switches located at the Multimedia Gateway cabinet. auto-negotiation. The existing CCPC2-A units in ISU use need to be upgraded to CCP10. RTP provides end-to-end delivery services for data with real-time characteristics. MTU>1500 bytes) 8 Fast Ethernet interfaces (100 Base-TX. 1000 Base-LX. auto-negotiation. New hardware in Nokia MGW All hardware units from the U1. Multimedia Gateway provides the possibility of assigning separate physical interfaces for signalling traffic and user plane traffic. • • 74 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . 1669. flow control. time stamping and delivery monitoring. If FE interfaces are used. The following new hardware items are provided: • Interface unit IP-NIU for IP user plane connectivity. according RFC 2684 LLC/SNAP) • • • Separating signalling from user plane By default. as well. These services include payload type identification. such as interactive audio. both signalling (containing SIGTRAN traffic and H. Full duplex. This signalling unit is a new manufacture with a more powerful processor compared to the previous CCPC2-A unit in the earlier releases. This is to provide better security for signalling against external attacks.5 release are applicable as such in the same network element. This unit is used for all signalling units in new deliveries. and from those switches then onto the router and MSC Server or gateway control server. In such cases. If 1G interface is used for the user plane. Voice announcement samples are located and controlled via the VANU unit. OC-3c. flow control. sequence numbering. They can be utilised in another network element. CCP10 also provides a redundant Ethernet interface and integrated IPsec support. Voice Announcement Unit (VANU). If IP interface for the user plane is not needed. then this unit is not needed.
Depending on the requirements of different network environments and variable site solutions. requires the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) to convey user plane traffic. thus making it an ideal protocol for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP). IP backbone must either support IPv4 or IPv6 routing. the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is required for IP address mapping. The Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) can be used to monitor the RTP stream and to collect statistical data. RTP provides end-to-end delivery services for data with real-time characteristics (such as interactive audio transmission). This is because routing daemons implement different routing protocols for IPv4 and IPv6 (IPv4 and IPv6 must also be given separate routing tables). © Nokia Networks Oy 75 (99) . Routing in both IPv4 and IPv6 is based on static routing.1 Requirements for an IP backbone connected to a MGW Rel. IP backbone must support at least one of the following connections: • • Fast Ethernet (100Mbit/s) Ethernet (1Gbit/s) When Ethernet connections are used for transporting IP traffic.4 network elements (Nb interface).4 IP backbone. As regards routing.2. located between two MGW Rel.Protocols 15.
When the IP backbone is used to connect two MGW Rel. In the Nb interface with G. In each sent RTP packet. The table below lists the available IP-NIU options. This means that 400 or 100 RTP packets with voice as payload are sent per each RTP session (call with 2 participants) every second. respectively. However.) IPGEP (electr. all of the options require a new IP network interface unit (IP-NIU). the RTP packet contains 5 ms of voice. sequence numbering.4 network elements. Every 5 seconds. there is 5 ms or 20 ms of coded voice as a payload. RTP provides end-to-end delivery services for data with real-time characteristics.Protocols in MSS/MGW 16 Configuring IP connection for IP backbone Nb user plane The user plane traffic within the IP backbone (Nb interface) is conveyed by using the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP).Access VoIP interfaces and Nb interface with some other codec than G. two RTCP packets (one for each way) are sent per active session for control purposes.) IPGOP (optic) Physical unit IPFGE Fast Ethernet IPFE IPFEP IPFGE The key factor determining which IP backbone solution will be used is whether the operator wants to separate the control plane traffic from the user plane traffic. In the Multi. the RTP packet contains 20 ms of voice.711 (for example. depending on the used interface and codec.) IPGO (optic. In an IP backbone RTP and RTCP protocols are used. This makes RTP an ideal protocol for real-time applications such as voice over IP (VoIP). time stamping and delivery monitoring.711 codec. 76 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . UMTS AMR). there are several options available for the operator to establish the connection. Table 1 IP-NIU options in IP backbone Physical interface Gigabit Ethernet Functional unit IPGE (electr. These services include payload type identification. such as interactive audio.
Protocols Figure 43 User plane IP stack IP backbone with control plane and user plane separated If the operator decides to use control plane isolation (for security or capacity reasons). there are two options. When the Gigabit Ethernet physical interface is used for the user plane traffic. 1. The new signalling unit CCP10 provides redundant LAN interface for this purpose. However. Figure 44 IP backbone with Gigabit Ethernet (control plane and user plane separated) © Nokia Networks Oy 77 (99) . The figure below illustrates the ESA12 solution. IP-NIU (IPGE/IPGO) cannot be used to separate the control plane traffic from the user plane traffic. which enable the encryption of the control plane traffic with a separate device. it is still possible to isolate control plane traffic by routing it directly from the ISU units into ESA12 (L2 switch).
The remaining interfaces can be dedicated to user plane traffic. thus providing a separate LAN for control plane traffic. 3. Note Before attempting to configure an IP address to the interface. it will cause a 2-star recovery initiating alarm on the IPFGE unit.1 IP connection with IP backbone for Nb user plane configuration steps in MGW Rel. Then create the default static route between the TPG units and the IP-NIU.Protocols in MSS/MGW 2. Configure external connection through IP-NIU. it is also possible to utilise more than one backbone solution simultaneously. When the Fast Ethernet physical interface is used. of which one or several interfaces can be exclusively dedicated to the control plane.160.4 The IP connection for Nb user plane traffic between MGW Rel. Configure a logical IP address for the Ethernet interface of IPFEP.5. Configure internal connections for IP-NIU Configure the external connection Configure the IPFE/IPFEP/IPGE/IPGEP/IPGO/IPGOP unit. The AI interfaces of the IPFGE unit have the same IP address as the Ethernet interface. User plane traffic is transported through the IPFE/IPFEP/IPGE/IPGEP/IPGO/IPGOP unit. you need to configure the external connections. and how to connect the IPFE unit to an external router via Ethernet connections. only the type of the interface is unnumbered.4 and the IP backbone must be configured during integration. IP-NIU can be used to separate the control plane traffic from the user plane traffic. 16. ZQRN:IPFEP. The example shows how to configure internal IP over ATM interfaces between TCU (TPG) units and the IPFEP unit.1. Assign physical IP address for the IP interface AI0 of the TPG units and give the IP address of the IFETH0 interface of the IP-NIU as the destination IP address. the external Ethernet cables should be attached to a router unit.1. Configure the IP stack of the TCU unit Configure the IP stack of the TPG units in TCU. In switchover the spare unit inherits the logical IP addresses from the active unit. The following figure shows how to configure internal IP interfaces between TCU units and IPFEP units.0:IFETH0:192. 1. 1. IP backbone or TDM backbone. If there is failure to the connection. Note The Nb interface can be created using ATM backbone. The 2N redundant IP-NIU has 8 Fast Ethernet interfaces. so the addresses are only configured in the active unit. After configuring the internal IP interfaces. 2. However. 78 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . The IPFEP-1 unit is the spare unit for the IPFEP-0 unit.
because Inverse ATM Address Resolution Protocol (InATMARP) is used in the IP over ATM interfaces between TPG and IPFEP. ZQKC:IPFEP. ZQKC:IPFEP. ZQRN:IPFEP. 5.Protocols Configure the same logical IP address for the ATM interfaces of IPFEP. Note that you do not need to specify the destination address. ZQKC:TPG.160.1.10:29.2:29.::192.0. Create the default routes from TPG units to the IPFEP unit.0:IFFGE2:10. Note The external IP interface addresses must be configured in different subnets. ZQRN:IPFEP.2.0. 6. The destination IP address is the logical IP address of IPFEP.0. Configure physical IP addresses for the ATM interfaces of TPG units.0:IFFGE1:10.0.1:LOG.0. ZQRN:IPFEP. Create static routes from IPFEP to the external router.P. ZQRN:TPG.0.0:IFFGE0:10.18:29.5. ZQKC:IPFEP.0.0&&7:AI0:196. Example: Configuring Ethernet interfaces between IPFEP units and an external router Interrogate the state of the units. ZQRN:IPFEP.1.0.U:192.1.0::10.160.0.160. 2.0:AI0&&AI7. Create the Ethernet interfaces for the IPFEP unit.0::10.0.17:LOG.160.0::10.5. ZUSI:IPFEP.5. 3. © Nokia Networks Oy 79 (99) . 4.9:LOG.0. 7.0&&7::192.0.1.
Protocols in MSS/MGW Figure 45 Nb over IP in MGW 80 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .
thus lowering. Change the state of the circuit group to WO-EX (ZCIM) 4.5 SPE) is provided for environments where large interconnect points are desired. for example. STM-1 VC-12 allows connecting of 63 E1 interfaces (or alternatively 84 T1 interfaces) over a single fiber. Upgrading to the MSS system inevitably requires changes in the network because the control plane and user plane traffic are separated. Change the state of the circuits to WO-EX (ZCIM) © Nokia Networks Oy 81 (99) . it does not hinder taking the bearer independent network architecture into use. Signalling from MGW towards TDM-based networks is handled using SS7 standards. TDM is used in the A-interface for transporting speech. schedule risk in the network installation phase. Changing the backbone to a packet-based one for reaching all benefits from bearer independent network architecture can then be scheduled to a later phase according to operator-specific plans. Create a special circuit group (SPE CGR) with the USE parameter (ZRCC) 2. The physical interface towards other TDM networks is E1/T1/JT1. In this way the MSS system deployment can be divided into several easily controllable phases. The user plane traffic (speech and data) is always routed via MGW to the TDM/ATM/IP backbone.Protocols 17 TDM Backbone (optional topic) The Nokia MGW provides an interconnection between legacy SS7 TDM networks and packet/cell -based networks. If the existing transmission network is cost-effective. data and SS7-based signalling between MGW/MSC Server and the BSS. Alternatively. The TDM backbone enables reducing the number of simultaneous changes when upgrading the network. In the MGW the procedure necessary is to create a CGR. Add TDM circuits to the SPE CGR (ZRCA) 3.1 TDM backbone in Nokia MGW The Nokia Multimedia Gateway can be easily adapted to the existing mobile environment by using the existing TDM-based transmission network also in the Nb interface. 1. while the control plane traffic (BSSAP signalling) is routed either directly to MSC Server or transparently via MGW to MSC Server. The primary physical interfaces used between legacy SS7 TDM networks and packet/cell -based networks are E1/T1/J1 and STM-1/OC3. and if there are no other reasons (such as need for more capacity) for changing the transmission network type. The A-interface is connected either to MGW or to MSC Server depending on the needs of the operator. STM-1 VC-12 (OC-3 V51. To create the Nb over TDM routing objects for TDM resources controlled by MSC server must be created in the MSS. 17.
The SIGTRAN feature affects only the transport layer of the SS7 signalling: It provides a new adaptation layer designed to fit the MTP layer 3 messages on the IP network. When the IP 82 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . The TCAP or RANAP messages are transferred transparently by the M3UA as SCCP payload. IETF has standardized various ways for adapting SS7 signalling messages on the IP network. For this reason some of the existing concepts have been redefined. and SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part). They include M3UA (SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer) and SUA (SS7 SCCP-User Adaptation Layer). SS7 MTP3 – User Adaption layer MAP TCAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP MAP TCAP SUA SCTP IP SS7 SCCP – User Adaption layer Figure 46 SIGTRAN protocol stack options The SIGTRAN M3UA (SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer) provides the applications with the same services as the MTP3 in the SCN (Switched Circuit Network).921 (PBX) . as they are SCCP-User protocols. The list of these protocols include for example the following: ISUP (ISDN User Part). like Q. TUP (Telephone User Part). primary purpose of this working group is to address the transport of packet-based PSTN signaling over IP Networks. It routes the MTP layer 3 messages from the applications to the correct IP resources (SCTP associations). Most of the SS7 signalling functionality remains identical to the existing SCN (Switched Circuit Network) signalling. ISUP and SCCP. SIGTRAN defines a framework how different existing signalling protocols can be transferred over IP. taking into account functional and performance requirements of the PSTN signaling. The M3UA supports the transfer of the messages of any protocol layer that is identified to the MTP Level 3 layer as a user part .Protocols in MSS/MGW 18 SIGTRAN Signaling Transport SIGTRAN is a Working Group in IETF.) The M3UA signalling channels always lead to a SEP (Signalling End Point) network element. Nokia implements the MTP layer 3 of the M3UA adaptation with feature 50035 and SCTP ((Stream Control Transmission Protocol) protocol used for adapting SS7 messages to the IP connections by the feature 50037. The STP (Signalling Transfer Point) function between SCNIP and IP-IP networks is supported when both networks share a SPC (Signalling Point Code).
1 Stream Control Transmission Protocol SCTP is a reliable transport protocol operating on top of a potentially unreliable connectionless packet service such as IP. each of which is an IP resource allocation. an SCTP stream represents a sequence of messages. Detection of data corruption. loss of data and duplication of data is achieved by using checksums and sequence numbers.Protocols is used as transport media. It offers acknowledged error-free nonduplicated transfer of datagrams (messages). DX200 Signalling point A Addressing based on SPCs! Signalling point B Association Set (up to 16 associations) SCTP Association HLR (Client) CCSU_0 MSC (Server) CCSU_0 CCSU_1 CCSU_2 IP CCSU_1 CCSU_2 CM CM SPC_1 IP Addresses SPC_2 Figure 47 Associations 18. The SIGTRAN M3UA signalling channel acts as a link to the logical SCTP association set which leads to the next network element. An SCTP association set consists of a group of SCTP associations. The concepts signalling link set and signalling route set remain as defined by the ITU-T. The decisive difference to TCP is multhoming and the concept of several streams within a connection which are referred to as associations. © Nokia Networks Oy 83 (99) . Where in TCP a stream is referred to as a sequence of bytes. the concept signalling channel refers to a logical resource instead of a physical resource (PCM-TSL). SIGTRAN can be used between a Signalling Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or between any other exchanges like an MSC and a HLR. A selective retransmission mechanism is applied to correct loss or corruption of data.
which can be inspected and modified by the MSS. A termination may have more than one stream. Megaco addresses the relationship between Media Gateways (MG) and Media Gateway Controllers (MGC). which are defined as when two or more termination streams are mixed and connected together.248 instructs a MGW to connect streams coming from outside a packet or cell data network onto a packet or cell stream such as the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP). (See Figure1) This relationship has a master/slave structure. There are two basic components in Megaco/H. video. Megaco/H. where masters are MGCs and slave devices are MGs.Protocols in MSS/MGW 19 Overview H. which converts circuit-switched voice to packet-based traffic. Media Gateway Controller (MGC): Controls the parts of the call state that pertain to connection control for media channels in a MG. the latest one is H. 19.248: terminations and contexts. such as the maximum size of a jitter buffer. 2002. and therefore a context may be a multi-stream context.248 Megaco is a new protocol developed by IETF Megaco Working Group together with ITU-T Study Group 16 to be the standard for physically decomposed multimedia gateway structures. MSS and MGW shall implement both TCP and UDP. A context is created by adding the first termination. a MG could terminate bearer channels from a switched circuit network and media streams from a packet network. The MGW is provisioned with a name or address (such as DNS name or IP address) 84 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .248. in May. which have been replaced by RFC3525 in June. For pure IP connections. Terminations may be placed into contexts. Media Gateway (MG): The media gateway converts media provided in one type of network to the format required in another type of network.1 H. and data streams may exist in a context among several terminations For transport of the protocol over IP. Megaco is a one to one protocol.248 addresses the relationship between the Media Gateway.248. References for Megaco are available in RFC 2805 (requirements) and RFC 3015. For example. or MP3 streams). and it is released by removing (subtracting) the last termination. where each MG is controlled by only one MGC. Terminations represent streams entering or leaving the MGW (for example.1. H. RTP streams. Audio. which execute commands sent by master devices. Terminations have properties. The protocol is specified by IETF as Megaco and by ITU-T as H.248 Megaco/H. 2003. analogue telephone lines. and the Media Gateway Controller which dictates the service logic of that traffic. Contexts are created and released by the MGW under command of the MSS. version 2.248/SCTP/IP should be used.
Such transactions remain independent though and no order is implied by such a concatenation. SSCOPMCE or SIGTRAN.1902) is a call control protocol designed to be able to transport call control signalling information.1 Message structure Megaco commands sent to the media gateway are grouped into an entity called transaction. to be used for bearer control signalling. IP/Ethernet or something else.1.2 BICC The Bearer Independent Call Control Protocol (BICC. All commands within the same actions will be executed sequentially in the order described in the transaction. The reason to have transactions is that transactions guarantee ordered command processing. The BICC protocol is an adaptation of the ISUP protocol definition. Signalling message transport independence means that BICC signalling can be transported over several different signalling transports such as MTP3. © Nokia Networks Oy 85 (99) . The actual call control level signalling uses BICC.1). Several transactions can be later concatenated into a message. BICC accomplishes this by defining a set of procedures separately for call control signalling and bearer control signalling. and allows different protocols. Since BICC is based on ISUP it provides natural interworking with ISUP and BICC networks and allows the existing supplementary services to be used without modifications.Protocols of a primary and zero or more secondary MSS that is the address the MGW uses to send messages to the MSS. independent of the used bearer technology and signalling message transport technology. and actions contain a list of commands. ITU-T Q. but it is not peer-to-peer compatible with ISUP (see ITU-T Q.248 19. such as AAL2 signalling. Each action applies only to one context.248 SCTP L1 TCP IPv4 or IPv6 Tb User data Figure 48 H.1912. Transaction on the other hand can be executed in any order. Bearer independence means that the actual used media can thus be ATM. which is based on ISUP. Protocol stack MGW context C Ta terminations User data H. A message is essentially a transport mechanism 19. A transaction on the other hand contains actions.
For both IP and ATM backbone interface. MGW is the based on ATM HW and IPA2800 platform. It can be IP or ATM. different bearer establishment methods are possible between MGWs. For IP backbone. Media Gateway (MGW).Protocols in MSS/MGW In the MSS concept the User Plane (bearer) and the Control Plane (signalling and call control) have been separated. The needed bearer-information is transferred between MSSs in BICC through APM-mechanism. This feature implements the BICC CS2 signalling through the IP network between the two MSSs according to ITU-T Draft Recommendations Q. Depending up on backbone. It brings new media and functions which must be taken into account in call control signalling. This includes the following: • Call and bearer establishment over ATM AAL1. AAL2 and IP • • • • Codec negotiation procedure Codec modify procedure Out of band transport of DTMFs APM/BAT ASE functionality The vertical interface MGW-MSS (Mc in 3GPP) uses H. which takes care of the User Plane and the MSS controls it. Nokia implements BICC with feature 1330. BICC can be used on Nc interface. /2/.X /1/. • Fast Forward setup • • 86 (99) Delayed Forward setup Backward setup © Nokia Networks Oy . /3/. Its main task is to transfer the bearer-specific information between the two MSSs on a Control Plane level. /4/ specifications.1902. MSC Server IAM Bearer cntr MSC Server Bearer cntr MGW address MGW MGW Figure 49 BICC IAM Nb interface is backbone interface.248 to convey the bearer-related information. Following methods are used for IP backbone. There is a new Network Element (NE). bearer control signalling is encapsulated (tunneled) in BICC. For that reason Bearer Association Transport Application Service Element/Application Transport Mechanism (APM/BAT ASE) has been introduced in BICC.
Protocols In case of ATM backbone. An example is provided below. MSC Server MSC Server BSSAP RANAP BSSAP BSC SCCP MTP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP M3UA SCTP IP BICC H. • • Forward bearer set up Backward bearer set up Origination node always selects the bearer establishment method as well as used bearer network connection characteristics 19.3 Applying protocol stacks The various interfaces can be configured in many ways. For ATM backbone. following bearer establishment methods are used.248 M3UA SCTP IP SCCP RANAP SCCP RNC MTP3b AAL5 ATM Phy MTP3b AAL5 ATM Phy MTP Backbone MGW MGW MGW MTP PSTN Figure 50 Creating protocols stacks © Nokia Networks Oy 87 (99) .248 BICC ISUP M3UA SCTP IP H. bearer control signalling is AAL type 2 signalling between MGWs.
Separating the control plane from the user plane makes it easier for the operator to configure the network in one MSC server area. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) resources Internet Protocol (IP) resources • • 88 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . Local TDMs. There are two types of TDMs. handles user plane traffic. connected to the MGW.248/Megaco Sigtran Packet based Backbone (IP/ATM) & TDM based PSTN Rel 4 Iu-CS Rel’99 IuA & Iu-CS Figure 51 MSS Routing in Rel’99 & Rel4 The MSS handles the following types of resources: • Time Division Multiplex (TDM) resources.Protocols in MSS/MGW 20 User plane routing MSC Server (MSS) can be deployed in an operator's 2G network by integrating the MSS functionality into an existing MSCi. on the other hand. that is. The MSC functionality is split into two distinct logical entities. The following figure illustrates the network architecture. MSCi A TDM based Backbone & PSTN A' MSS H. The MGW. The MSS handles call control and controls Multimedia Gateways (MGW). connected to the MSS and Quasi TDMs. or as a standalone network element.
The control plane routing closely corresponds to the traditional NSS routing and analysis functions. charging and EOS attribute analyses. A PUPD indicates Preceding User Plane Destination(PUPD) Topology database •UPD:s •Interconnections MSS A ROUTE BICC CGR MSS B BSC Mc A GSM BSC A Mc RNC RNC WCDMA Iu-CS MGW IP/ATM Backbone MGW Iu-CS UPD: Refers to one or more MGW sharing a common interconnection type UPD 10 UPD 20 UPD: Refers to one or more MGW sharing a common interconnection type Figure 52 Overview of user plane entities 90 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . User Plane Destination Reference (UPDR) is added to provide input to the user plane routing functions and analyses. To enable the user plane control there are defined six different phases of user plane analysis and two databases.4. MSS A A route is related to outgoing traffic. and extended pre-analysis.1 Control and user plane routing In UMTS Rel. UPDR is defined on the circuit group or route level. A new attribute (BNC characteristic) is introduced which can be used to affect the control plane analysis with the help of routing.Protocols in MSS/MGW 20. A SUPDR indicates Succeeding User Plane Destination(SUPD) MSS B A Circuit Group is related to incoming traffic. the control plane and user plane routing functions have been separated.User Plane Routing Structure MGW selection functionality in MSC Server must be able to make user plane routing decisions for many different call scenarios. A new result parameter in the control plane routing.
The result of an analysis can be the input parameter for the next phase. The operator can define the relationship of parameters (call's and network's) and analysis phases by User Plane Analysis' MML. User Plane Analysis and its components are created by using UANHAN MML. The user plane control application uses topology data to route the user plane to the proper destination. which are itemized by phase names.1 Phases The different phase of User Plane Analysis have relationship to each other. The user plane topology database contains user plane topology information.2. which in turn is related to SUPD ultimately leading to MGW selection.Error! Reference source not found. In a UPD the MGWs share the same kind of interconnection type. 20. which is related to PUPDR. 20. The user plane routing and analysis consists of several entities connecting user plane and control plane. The analysis consists several sub analysis. this will lead to a SUPDR. It consists several analysis chains. A User Plane Destination (UPD) defines one or several MGWs controlled by one MSS. In the MSS routes are related to Succeeding User Plane References (SUPDR) and BICC/SIP circuit groups to Preceding User Plane Destination References. The ultimate purpose of user plane routing and analysis is to select MGWs and route user plane traffic. © Nokia Networks Oy 91 (99) . This creates a logical chain where analysis can be used to determine a route for an outgoing call. which leads to a PUPD finally resulting in MGW selection. All phases are not executed for each call case. The same kind of logical chain can be described for incoming calls where the analysis determines a circuit group. which can be linked to chains and the different kind of results. The Multimedia Gateway (MGW) database is a common storage place in the MSC Server (MSS) for MGW-specific parameters that are used for user plane routing purposes.2 User Plane Analysis One part of the user plane routing configuration is User Plane Analysis. The analysis chain is variable depending on the call setup case.
6* 2.6* 220.127.116.11* Figure 54 Analysis combination table 1.2.6* 2.4. Preceeding UPD determination 18.104.22.168. An example is the case of 3G call to 3G call under the same MSS but two different MGW where only analysis number 6.6* SIP 2.6* 1. More complex cases can be constructed based on the analysis table. Inter-connecting BNC characteristics would be executed to determine the backbone type.2. Preceding UPD determination (incoming side) 2.6* 1.6* 22.214.171.124. Inter-Connecting BNC Characteristics determination Figure 53 User Plane Analysis’s' relationship The different analysis types are executed in certain combinations depending on the call case.6* 1. Succeeding Action indicator determination 6. Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination 3.4.6* 1.6* 92 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . CMN determination (general) 4. Outgoing Signaling UE MS 6* 6* 6* 1. Succeeding UPD determination (outgoing side) Incoming Signaling UE MS TRUNK BICC SIP 6* 6* 6* 1.4.6* TRUNK 6* 6* 6* 1.6* 1.4.6* 1.5. CMN determination 4.4.5. Succeeding UPD determination 5.Protocols in MSS/MGW 1.6* 2. In some cases only one analysis may be needed and in other several. Succeeding BNC characteristics determination (outgoing side) 126.96.36.199* BICC 2.3.5.
• Phase Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination This Phase is needed to determine the bearer technology used towards succeeding MGW. Pre-condition for this analysis execution is that Phase Succeeding BNC Characteristics determination has been executed. • • Phase Succeeding Action indicator determination Phase Inter-Connecting BNC Characteristics determination © Nokia Networks Oy 93 (99) . Succeeding Action Indicator determination (outgoing side) 6. 5.Error! Reference source not found. RANAP signalling is able to determine the appropriate UPD for a call. • Phase CMN determination This Phase is used to detect whether a MSC Server should act as a CMN node. RANAP signalling is able to determine the appropriate UPD for a call. Interconnecting BNC characteristics determination (general) (*executed only if more than one MGW is involved in the call in the same MSS area) • Phase Preceding UPD determination This Phase is needed only for BICC and SIP signallings. • Phase Succeeding UPD determination This Phase is needed only for BICC and SIP signallings. This Phase is valid with BICC and SIP signalling.
Protocols in MSS/MGW 94 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy .
Note The numbers given in this section are indicative whereas the actual address allocation should always be based on the latest information on the number of units in each network element. BSU and SIGU. • • 7 private O&M IPv4 addresses for CPUs 12 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches. 3+3 x CHU (2N) and 3 x BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. The unit type that can be used is CCSU or SIGU. These units are N+1 redundant. such as how many addresses are needed in each element. there are 1+1 x OMU (2N). 21 Appendix (for reference only) 21.1 Further note on the number and types of IP addresses for network elements This section concentrates on network element specific information. Standalone MSC Server A standalone MSC Server has a maximum of 38 signalling units (*SU). the number of IP addresses needed for a standalone MSS is: • 38 public control plane IPv4 addresses for the *SUs In cases where the units are communicating with MGW. Standalone Gateway Control Server A standalone Gateway Control Server (GCS) has a maximum of 30 signalling units (*SU). The number of IP addresses required depends on how many of each unit are used. they can also have IPv6 addresses. Note that in the case of 2N redundant units logical IP addresses are used and only one address per CPU pair is needed. Additionally. The units are © Nokia Networks Oy 95 (99) . Each unit has one IP address (IPv4). they can also have IPv6 addresses.Error! Reference source not found. In total. The maximum number of LAN switches is 12. The latest details can be checked from the network element engineering descriptions that are included in network element specific documentation. 1+1 x STU (2N). In cases when they are communicating with MGW. The unit types that may be used are CCSU.
In addition. the number of additional IP addresses needed for an integrated MSS with IP Trunk functionality is: • • 304 public IP addresses for IPETs 44 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches. In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. If the integrated MSC Server includes the IP Trunk functionality. In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. but in practice the maximum number is 304. Integrated Gateway Control Server An integrated GCS has a maximum of 33 signalling units (*SU). 3+3 x CHU (2N) and 5 x BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. 1+1 x STU (2N). there are 1+1 x OMU. The maximum number of LAN switches is 10. In total. Each IPET unit requires one IP address. the number of IP addresses needed for an integrated MSS is: • • • 30 public control plane IPv4 addresses for the *SUs 7 private O&M IPv4 addresses for CPUs 10 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches. 1+1 x STU. The maximum number of LAN switches is 10. In total.Protocols in MSS/MGW N+1 redundant. In total. there are 1+1 x OMU (2N). and 16 BSUs. they can have also IPv6 addresses. there are 1+1 x OMU (2N). The number of IP addresses required depends on how many pieces of each unit are used. In addition. Additionally. Each unit has one IP address (IPv4). 3+3 x CHU (2N) and 3 x BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. 1+1 x STU (2N). they can also have IPv6 addresses. additional addresses are needed for the IPET units and additional LAN switches. they can also have IPv6 addresses. In total. The maximum number of LAN switches is 44. In cases when the units are communicating with MGW. 3+3 x CHU (2N) and 3 x BDCU (N+1) computer units that need an IP address. the number of IP addresses needed for an integrated GCS is: 96 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . The maximum number of LAN switches is 10. the number of IP addresses needed for a standalone GCS is: • • • 30 public control plane IPv4 addresses for the *SUs 7 private O&M IPv4 addresses for CPUs 10 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches Integrated MSC Server An integrated MSC Server has a maximum of 14 signalling units (*SU). The theoretical maximum number of IPET units is 456.
In cases when the GSU units are communicating with MGW. but in practice the maximum number is 304. the number of IP addresses needed for a CDS is: • • • 3 public control plane IPv4 addresses for the GSUs 1 private O&M IPv4 address for OMU 2 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches Total number of IP addresses The table below sums up the number of IP addresses required for each MSC Server system element. the number of additional IP addresses needed for an integrated GCS with IP Trunk functionality is: • • 304 public IP addresses for IPETs 44 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches. additional addresses are needed for the IPET units and additional LAN switches. The theoretical maximum number of IPET units is 456. Each IPET unit requires one IP address. Each TCU has four PQ2 processors which all need separate addresses. the number of IP addresses needed for an MGW is: • • • 312 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for TCUs 11 public control plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for ISUs 2 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for IPGE/O pairs or 16 public user plane IPv6/IPv4 addresses for IPFE pairs 3 IPv4 addresses for management purposes for LAN switches 1 private O&M IPv4 address for OMUs 1 private O&M IPv4 address for NEMU • • • Circuit Switched Data Server In a Circuit Switched Data Server. In total. Allocation of these addresses into their own subnets and VLANs is described in the next chapter Subnetworking principles in MSC server. the NEMU and LAN switches. The maximum number of LAN switches is 44. Multimedia Gateway for MSC Server In a Multimedia Gateway. In total. IPNIU pairs. 1 +1 OMU (2N) and LAN switches. In total. • • 33 public control plane IPv4 addresses for the *SUs 10 private O&M IPv4 addresses for CPUs If the integrated GCS includes the IP Trunk functionality. © Nokia Networks Oy 97 (99) . ISUs. they can also have IPv6 addresses. units that require IP addresses are TCUs. OMUs. IP addresses are required for 3 x GSU (N+1).Error! Reference source not found.
sixteen /29 subnets.0/28 VLAN1 10.0.10. Normally address allocation is a much more complex issue that must be carefully considered case by case. MSS's internal communication addresses between IPETs and TGSUs MSS Priv VLAN10 10.2 Sub-networking principles in MSC Server The address allocation principles described here can be used in cases where every different type of traffic is segmented to its own subnet.10.0/23 Control Plane Ipv4 addresses for units that require control plane addresses: CP Publ VLAN20 188.8.131.52. 21. which are included in network element specific documentation.Protocols in MSS/MGW Note The numbers given in this table are indicative whereas the actual address allocation should always be based on the latest information about the number of units in each network element.128/25 Since the IP-NIU interfaces in the MGW are configured as router interfaces. OSR is the multilayer LAN switch/edge router used in the example configurations for providing in-site connectivity and the WAN interface.10.2.0/22 VLAN20 xxxx:xxxx:::xxx/64 Addresses for O&M traffic O&M Priv VLAN40 10.12. Address spaces are shared between network elements.0/25 Management addresses for LAN switches MGMNT Priv Addresses for DNS DNS Publ VLAN2 10. Note that the subnet examples given below are only rough examples. The latest details can be checked from the network element engineering descriptions. 98 (99) © Nokia Networks Oy . A Gigabit Ethernet requires two /29 subnets.0/24 Control Plane Ipv4 addresses for units that require control plane addresses: CP Publ User plane Ipv4 address: UP Publ User plane Ipv4 address: UP Publ VLAN30 xxxx:xxxx:::xxx/64 VLAN30 130. subnets must be created between the IP-NIU and the OSR router. and a Fast Ethernet.0.3. These subnets also include addresses that are configured in the OSR's router interfaces.
Error! Reference source not found. Figure 55 Example of addressing in MSC Server system network elements © Nokia Networks Oy 99 (99) .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.