P. 1
New Latin Grammar. by Charles E. Bennett

New Latin Grammar. by Charles E. Bennett

|Views: 311|Likes:
Published by jamuleti1263

More info:

Published by: jamuleti1263 on Sep 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/04/2012

pdf

text

original

71. I. There are three degrees of Comparison,—the

Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ioi

(Neut. -ius), and the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um),

to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel ; as,—

altus, high,

altior, higher,

altissimus, \ ^^S^^^^^

( very high.

fortis, brave,

fortior,

fortissimus.

ielix,fortunate, felicior,

felicissimus.

So also Participles, when used as Adjectives ; as,—

doctus, learned, doctior,

doctissimus.

egens, needy,

egentior,

egentisaimus.

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to

the Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—

asper, rough,

asperior,

asperrimus.

pulcher, beautiful, pulchrior,

pulcheriimua.

acer, sharp,

acrior,

acerrimus.

celer, swift,

celerior,

celerrimus.

a. Notice maturus, maturior, maturissimus or maturrimus.

4- Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to

the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative

is regular. Thus :—

facilis, easy,

facilior,

facillimus.

difficilis,

difficult, difficilior,

difficillimuB.

similis, like,

similior,

simillimus.

dissimilis, tinlike, dissimilior,

dissimillimus.

humilis, low,

humilior,

humilUmus.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

41

5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative

and Superlative as though from forms in -dicSus, -ficens, -volSns.

Thus :

raaledicentiasimus

.

magnificentissimus.

benevolentissimua.

maledicus, slanderous,

maledtcentior,

magnificus, magnificent,

magnificentior,

benevolus, kindly,

benevolentior,

a. Positives in -dicens and -volena occur in early Latin ; as,

maledicens, benevolens.

6. Dives has the Comparative divitior or ditior ; Superlative

divitissimus or ditissimus.

Irregular Comparison.

72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison;

viz.—

bonus, good,

42

INFLECTIONS.

imus,

J

Inferi, gods ofthe lower world, 1

Mare Inferum, Mediterranean \ Inferior, lower,

Sea,

J

six^en, gods above,

1

.

^^--^^ j supremus, /aj^

Mare Superum, ^rfr/a^zi: 5«a!, p"P^"°''

«

'

| summus, ^z^te^

3. Comparative lacking.

vetus, old,

^

fldas, /aiiA/ul,

novus, new,

^

sacer, sacred,

iz\s\is, false,

Also in some other words less frequently used.

veterrimus.

fidissimus.

novissimus,^ last

sacerrimus.

falsissimus.

4. Superlative lacking.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 43

Adjectives not admitting Comparison.

75. Here belong—

1

.

Many adjectives, which, from the nature of their signification, do

lot admit of comparison ; as, hodiemus,^^0-

{

Qortalis, mortal.

2. Some special words ; as, mirus, gnarus, merus ; and a few

ithers.

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjec-

ives, and depend upon them for their comparison.

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and

second Declensions form the Positive by changing -i of

he Genitive Singular to -e ; those derived from adjectives

)f the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive

singular to -iter ; as,—

carus,

care, dearly;

pulcher, pulchre, beautifully;

acer,

acriter,^ercely

;

levis,

leviter, lightly.

a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead

of -iter), to form the Adverb ; as,—

sapiens, sapienter, wisely

;

sollers, sollerter, skillfully.

Note audaz, audacter, boldly.

2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accu-

ative Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective ; while the

iuperlative of the Adverb is formed by changing the -1 of the Genitive

Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to -e. Thus—

(carus)

44

INFLECTIONS.

Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.

77. I.

bene, well,

melius,

male, ill,

pejus,

magnopere, greatly, magis,

multum, much,

plus,

non multum, '

parum,

diu, long,

diutius,

nequiter, worthlessly, nequius,

saepius,

little, minus,

saepe, often,

mature, betimes,

prope, near,

nuper, recently.

secus, otherwise,

matutius,

propius,

optime.

pessime.

maxime.

plutimum.

minime.

diutissime.

nequissime.

saepissime.

'

maturrime.

maturissime.

proxime.

nuperrime.

potissimum, especially.

potius, rather,

\ previously, 1

_

_

.

P"''^'

[before,

j V^^^,first.

setius, less.

2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

form an Adverb in -o, instead of -e ; as,—

crebro,frequently

;

falso,falsely ;

continue, immediately

;

subito, suddenly

i

raro, rarely; and a few others.

a. cito, quickly, has -8.

3. A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the

Positive of the Adverb ; as,—

mxAtum, much

;

pkalMm, little

;

fy.dle, easily.

4. A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the

Positive in -iter ; as,—

firmus, iirndtetjfrmly

;

hiimanus, humaniter, humanly;

largus, largiter, copiously

;

alius, aliter, otherwise,

u. violentus has violenter.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of

which are -tus and -tim; as, antiquitus, anciently; paulatim,

f^adually.

NUMERALS.

45

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->