PREFACE As everybody knows, the textile industry is one of the best trades in the world.

Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book

2 will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career! INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges 2 Page No. 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26

3 Procedures Advantages Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37

ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons 3

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4 Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms 4 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 .

5 L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill Documentation At Sight L/C 30days. 90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production 5 73 73 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 . 60days.

6 Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .

As 7 . Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. width should be considered with more care. pyjamas and socks are Knits. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. French Rib. towels and made ups are Woven. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. power looms and mill made. trousers. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. This system is used worldwide. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. According to the structure of fabrics. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. etc. round cutters are used. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. Pique. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. sweatshirts. Interlock.cms. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. Fleece. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. blankets. undergarments. But yarn counts. With the help of this round cutter. embroidery. making and other references.000 sq. colours. One is Woven garments. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. style. Making woven fabrics is simple. T shirts. Another is Knitted garments. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. Loop knit. But most of the times. sarees. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. Shirts. Flat back rib. finishing. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. bed spreads. accurate GSM can not be achieved. Polar fleece and Jacquards. reed & picks (warp & weft). they are called by different names. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. And we will have to keep the garment for style. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. fabric quality. Hence nowadays. Rib. we will have only the garments to find GSM. prints. If we have fabrics. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100.

higher the counts. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. 30’s.25 inches to 2. higher the prices. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. 40’s. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. 60’s. the Yarn. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. 80’s. raw material. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers.5 inches. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. a special process is being done. evenness. According to the technical parameters. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. Combed is superior quality. 25’s. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. Because of this extra process. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. etc. So when the yarn counts are increasing. the lesser the thickness. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. 8 . Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. We can consider like this. 20’s. 4’s. 36’s. 10’s. Hence after knitting or weaving. the higher the counts. Combed and Carded. etc. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. There are 2 qualities of yarn. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. 34’s. For this purpose. Yarn prices based on the thickness. the thickness becomes lesser. 24’s. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost.8 this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. availability. the fabric will have very even look. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. 100’s. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. strength. This process is called ‘Combing’. We must know. 38’s. Because of the same longer length of fibers. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. 16’s. the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. We can see. hand feel. 0’s counts are cotton fiber.

bleached mélange. Hence. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. Colour mélange. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. For example. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. To avoid this shrinkage problem. In these yarns. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. According to the required percentage and colour shades. Bleached Melange are used widely.9 The processing (dyeing. Flax mélange. There are different mélange yarns. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. 9 . Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. Ecru mélange. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. Ecru Melange. which is very important. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. etc. due to higher shrinkage. the cotton portion will be in light shade. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. They are Grey mélange. But as we use 100% Cotton. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. Grey Melange. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. For light colour mélange yarn. But for dark colour mélange yarns. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. But we must think of shrinkage. In colour mélange yarn also.

as the combing process removes shorter fibers. only combed yarns are used.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. Rs. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. For yarn dyeing. 80/2. As the finer cottons are used. 10 . Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. we can not expect the consistency of shades. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. 100/2. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. In manual yarn dyeing. yarn strength and better quality. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless. Medium colours: Rs. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. like 60/2. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. For easy reference. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength.250 per kg. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. the yarn contains more cotton. dull and dead cottons. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). Let us see some important things about these special yarns. the dyed yarns are used. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. giving more resistance and silky feel. Cost wise. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. Dark colours: Rs. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply.

the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. 2. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. 3. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. 4. Due to more heat. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. Longer life of garments. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. This will give more life to the garments. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. After combing and twisting. to minimise the cost. In any case. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. the yarn will be singed (gassed).11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). After mercerising. Due to its high resistance properties. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. These yarns do not create allergies to body. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. 5. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. Further. In this method. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. By this process. 11 . the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. This process is called Mercerising. Used for making very expensive special garments. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. underwear and hosiery. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. fabrics have to be mercerised again. Then after mercerizing. these yarns are used for knitwear. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. these dyed yarns are used. As mercerising is done two times. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments.

12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.

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13 KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13

14 When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”.

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So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. If this diameter is larger than the pattern.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. we have to be careful of their counts. polyamide (nylon). we get the single yarn with blends.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’.5cms. processed diameter is based on grey diameter.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. and 15 . it can be knitted in normal machines. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. texture and grey GSM. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes.5cms. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. We have to note that a maximum of 3. then there will be more fabric wastage. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. viscose. If the repeat width is more than 3. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. Also as we have seen earlier. machine gauge. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs.

If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. we use the above formula. Also. So. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. Counts Denier = 5315 Denier = 5315 Counts Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. we can use following conversion formula.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. To select suitable denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. Then only the knitting will be even. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. 16 . In order to select the suitable denier. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. during knitting. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric.

Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) .GSM – during knitting. same knitting machine. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. gauge.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. sleeves. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. collar.. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. before processing. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. Grey fabrics for body. before processing. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. . . qualities of dyes & chemicals. 17 . . we will get different results.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . .Diameter – machine diameter. after compacting (on cutting table). after processing. after processing. rib. cuffs. sleeves. these variations can be limited. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. If we take more care during processing.Colour (shade. processing water quality. after compacting (on cutting table). To avoid shading between body. collar. At the same time. rope. To avoid shade variations. Due to the above reasons. . even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. twill tape: 1. before finishing or compacting. rope. we will not get the same result every time. cuffs. compacting method & temperature. before finishing or compacting. Fabric for body. sleeves and grey collars.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. fastness as per approval) . For example. we have to follow the following procedures. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. after processing. collar and cuffs in one garment.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. cuffs. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. etc. 2. .Diameter (as per Pattern) . processing and compacting. sleeves. processing methods. we have to check following things before knitting.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. processing timing. rib. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. This is very important. etc. there will be shade variations between lots. same dyeing factory and same finishing process.

2. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. collars. 2. This is very important. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. 4. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. sleeves. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. Water temperature. Mixing of lots should be avoided. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. ribs. patches. etc) should be numbered during cutting. All the parts of one garment (body. before sending the fabrics for processing. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. Once 1st lot is approved. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. cuffs. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only).18 3. ribs. Collars. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. processing time. cuffs. 5. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. 4. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. 3. 6. Fabric program should be made accordingly. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. PROCESSING 18 . ropes. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. 3. Lab dips should not be referred. We must study the packing methods clearly. pockets. When we have to use yarn from different lots. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. twill tapes. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made.

hats. 2.6-Xylidine.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. p-Aminoazobenzene. 3.4-Diaminoanisole. 4. towels. 4.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. chair covers and toys.4’-Thiodianiline.3’-Dimethyl-4. 2-Naphthylamine. 4.4. hairpieces. o-aminoazotoluene.3’-dichlorobenzidine. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. O-Anisidine. wigs. 3. 4. 3. briefcases.19 AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. footwear.5-Trimethylaniline. Benzidine. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. purses. p-Chloroaniline. They are clothing. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin. If the garment supplied by a supplier.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane.4-Toluylendiamine. Hence.4’-Oxydianiline. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. diapers and other sanitary items.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. belts. 2. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. 2.4-Xylidine. p-Cresidine. 4-Aminobiphenyl. In April 1996. bedding. 2. 2. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. 19 . o-Toluidine. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. watch straps. 3.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. gloves. wallets.

It will have lesser whiteness. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost.30–35/kg. Also it will give irritation to body. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. before certifying to buyers.7. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. It is approximately Rs. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. it is banned in most of the countries. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. In this case. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. By using Continuous bleaching machine. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. Also it will not give irritation to body. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. Winch bleach is the traditional method. If we smell the fabric deeply. we can smell Chlorine. There will not be any smell. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them.000 per colour. Another is Peroxide Bleach. One is Chlorine Bleach. Any bright shades like Milk white. But this is not acceptable.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. FABRIC DYEING: 20 . Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines.10 – 12 / kg.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. If this fabric tested for azo contents. They are by using open winches. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. Above all. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs.

When the winch is rotated by a motor. Even. acid wash. After checking whether the required shade is attained. etc. it means Reactive dyeing only. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. We will have more discussions on this. Then only we will get required results. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. enzyme wash. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. This is the normal dyeing. During dyeing. After this. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. other Jersey fabric. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. Another is Soft flow dyeing. 2. 1. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. By using these dyes in dyeing. This combination is called Recipe. Discharge dyes are to be used. They are Reactive dyeing. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. There are 2 types of dyeing. only Azo Free dyes should be used. For example. fabrics will be removed from the winches. One is Winch dyeing. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash.21 There are 3 qualities of dyeing. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. bulk dyeing will be done. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. which is made with different yarn. 21 . Nowadays. the Pigment dyes are to be used. the fabric will be very stiff. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. should not be used. 3. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. When lab dips are made. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. the fabrics will roll on winches. As we discussed above. According to the approved lab dip.

timing. Temperature. the temperature of water will not be consistent. These are called ‘Combination colours’. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. Green. They have to be cut and rejected. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. For some shades. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. In these cases. There will not be any colour patches. dyes & water capacity. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Light Red. In open winch dyeing. It is a closed winch. Red.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. Lt Pink. Blue. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. Lt Green. Dark Blue. everything is computerised. Medium Green. Also the colour fastness will be better. Light Grey. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. fabric capacity. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. Grey. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. Lt Yellow. Orange. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. For the regular shades. Blue. Offwhite. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. These types of machines are used in recent years. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. etc are Medium colours. the temperature is consistent. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to 22 . It will be much lesser. Black. Yellow. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Due to this. Lt Orange. But in soft flow dyeing. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. So after dyeing.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. etc are Dark colours. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Navy. etc are the darkest colours. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. (It is too expensive. Due to this. Brown. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. Lt Blue. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. the direct dyes will not be available. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. Olive Green. Dark Navy. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. As the winch is kept opened. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. The costliest colour is Royal. etc are Light colours. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. Military Green.

But after knitting. etc. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. twill tapes. ribs. If the mercerising is not been done properly. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. We can get some reduction from the mill. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . By these colours. Due to this and due to more processing time.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced.45 to 50 per kg. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof.23 reduce the cost. Red. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. but it will have poor colour fastness. To do the fabric mercerising. Black. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. these fabrics are to be washed. but also improved colour absorbency. we can get similar shade. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). Not only the fabrics. Due to this mercerising. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. The collars. 23 . these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . Also to avoid the handling stains. Due to this. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. the dyeing quality will be inferior. smell and to get softer hand feel.

From these machines.5 per kg. we can adjust following things. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. We can get better result from these compacting machines. Steam calendering charge: Rs. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. nothing can be done. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. Shrinkage. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. 2. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting.50 / kg. With these compacting machines. 3. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM).6 per kg. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. When we calender the fabrics. There are no facilities in calendering machines.50 to 2. HEAT SETTING: 24 . glossy finish of fabric. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering.12 – 15 per kg. Diameter. To remove these wrinkles. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also.15 – 20 per kg. Some times. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. We must be aware of this important fact.24 The washing charge is normally Rs. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. 1.1. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. GSM. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines.

as cotton is the natural fiber.25 The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft.25 – 30 per kg. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. 25 . Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. we have many advantages in rotary printing. We can print the second colour. the print quality will differ. Printing is done one colour by one colour. Charges for Heat set: Rs. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. But to get better result. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. the heat set process is a must. 2. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Consistent printing colours and quality. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure.10 per kg. Charges for one side raising: Rs. If the stroke of the printer differs. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. it is better to do heat set in open width form. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. Loop knit (French rib). Viscose. Acrylic. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. 4. fleece. Perfect registration (placement). The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. it will take more time for multi colour printing. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. 1. 3. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. They are all over prints and chest prints. etc. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. They are as follows. Elastan (Spandex). After dyeing and after drying. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. only after drying the 1st colour. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. Quick and time saving. Polyamide (Nylon). PRINTING There are two different prints. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. But for the blended fabrics. Especially.

1cms. 6. Rotary screens are in tubular form. it means the fabric does not have softener. more care to be taken while making films. 4. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. If the softener is added. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. If the fabric is even slightly wet. For this. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. seating and registration. If the fabric does not absorb the water. These machines are very rare in use. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric.26 5. For printing in Rotary machines. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. Pigment prints. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. The diameter of the screen is 64. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. After printing. as the continuous process. Then the printing will look blurred. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. Some times. 3. kerosene is used as an alternate. This will create major problem in garmenting. If the fabric has softener. we can achieve perfection in printing. 2. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Even though it will cost more. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. it means the fabric has softener. the fabric will get completely dried. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. 26 . The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy.1cms. Less wastage. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. Due to this. Immediate drying. Though the films are made with computer. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. if the fabric absorbs the water. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. Also before printing. the print will be better than on the first side. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens.

For example. Advantages: 1. 2. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. 6. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. Any shade is possible. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. Selection or mixing colours are easier. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. water 27 . 5. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. Hence after printing on both sides. after the print. avoid smell. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. As an alternative for this. Print smell. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Then. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. as the normal procedure. a square design may change into a rectangle. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed.27 5. 7. 8. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. Also due to the double job. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. 6. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. 3. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. If we need softer hand feel after printing. 9. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. the fabric is to be washed after curing. Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. a round design may change into an oval shape. 7. Cheaper cost. Less process after printing. 2. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. 3. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. 4. Risk factors: 1. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. As the continuous process. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. the fabric will smell after printing. Rough hand feel. etc.

6. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). 28 . But this kind of water print is very rarely used. 7. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. the print dusts will stick to the fabric again. 8. It is called Third page image. it is better to print in open width form only. To avoid this. 2. Before bulk printing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. As the water should not be recycled. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks.28 is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. 4. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. 3. Softener should not be added in dyeing. It is called River Wash. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. Procedures: 1. Reactive dyes to be used. To remove the print dusts. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. They are made mainly from the vegetables. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. 5. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. but after printing we will get entirely new shade.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. Shade masters will prepare one shade. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. This is called water base prints. this wash is essential. For this. They are called organic dyes.

Importantly. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. It means. 4. It is better to avoid this). we have to use Discharge printing. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. 5. we can use pigment printing. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. Too many important processes to be followed. we can easily use Pigment printing. For this. it is not used widely. 2. Advantages: 1. 2. By touch. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. 2. Best colour fastness. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. in pigment printing. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Longer life for prints. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. Very expensive. Then fabric is to be dried. But this will not have better fastness. Risk factors: 1. Procedures: 1. Very soft hand feel. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. (In some cases. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). Brightness of colours even after many washes. Too much care to be taken in every process. 29 . 4. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. 3.29 9.

It is called Third page image. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. 4. 3. That is. Advantages: 1. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. 5. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. 4. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. 2. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. 3.: As we see. After printing is completed. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. Expensive print cost. No river wash is needed. 8. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). This is very important as during printing. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. 5. If White is one of the printing colours. These costs 30 . the base colour White will be visible as printed. Better soft hand feel. Better colour fastness. 7. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 5. After printing. after the removal of dyeing colour. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. Can be printed manually too. To avoid this. 6. Therefore. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Before bulk printing. Green. Then after discharge printing. Risk factors: 1. When printing. Long lasting print quality. All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. Red. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. 4. 2. after the removal of dyeing colour.30 3. All colour shades can not be achieved. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. and Navy. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. Then after discharge printing. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. Printing to be done with discharge dyes.

etc. Sticker prints. Water prints. Better colour fastness. Quick production. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost.40 lakhs). 7. Glitter prints. Sugar prints. Like all over printing on rotary machines. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Perfect colours and shades. Longer life for prints. Foil prints. Octopus machine will print automatically. 2. print area and coverage.1 lakh). This machine is very costly (about Rs. Flock prints. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. Reflective prints. 6. 3. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. 5. 1. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Better smoothness and sharpness. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. 9. 8. Less wastage. Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. There are 2 types of machines. number of colours. But prints will have the best quality. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. No smell. 4. Perfect placement and registration. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours.31 will differ according to the dyeing shades. etc. No stain in unprinted areas. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. 31 . Transfer prints. Non-PVC prints. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. Perfume prints. Foam prints. They are as follows. With these machines. Plastisol prints. Motif prints. Embossed prints.

The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. glitters. Batiks. 32 . as there will be no print smell. After the manual printing. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. it is better to check with the printers. It does not matter. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same.5 per kg. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. It is better to use Discharge dyes. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. Procedures: 1. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs.32 Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. To get the cost of other special quality prints. sugar. foam. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. etc. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. etc. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. After plastisol print. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. flock. foil. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. Fusing cost is included in the above costs.

the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. It may be stripes or any other design. 3. Fabrics for body. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. 15. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. 17. 11. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). they will not get dyed. 14. 7. This is the dyeing process. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. 16. If we do tie & dye in garment form. shrinkage and shape of garment. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. After the tie & dye process. 20. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. 6. And to be dried under shades naturally. If we use normal embroidery threads. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. shrinkage and shape. And so on. 10. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. 19. (In case of emergency. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. 12. the other colours will not fix properly. sleeves. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. (If it is Chlorine bleached. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. 4. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 9. by taking note of all the details. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. 18. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. it is better to dry them in shadows). the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. We have to remember that so far. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. If there is any other base colour except White. 5. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. As the fixing agent is fixed now. Before cutting the bits for garments. 33 . the result will not be good). It will take few minutes only. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. The dipping will be done manually. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. 13. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. 8. But to get better result. nothing can be done about measurements.33 2. If we do tie & dye in bit form.

: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form.18 to 20. 3. 4. Better colour fastness. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. we will get different qualities and results. flowers. Hence after removing the waxes. For larger quantities. length and width of the bits. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. can be made at affordable prices. etc. due to different dyes. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. Drying by machines is not possible. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. depending on the design. 34 . there will be less consistency of designs and quality. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. This is also called Wax printing. Enormous designs can be made. This is almost like tie & dye. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. for 2 colours. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. 4.34 Advantages: 1. The printing designs like stars. GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. 2. will be made by wax. methods. cutting. etc. As it is done manually. churidars. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. Mostly used for sarees. garmenting. Risk factors: 1.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. Approximately. 3. By this. This is like printing. bed spreads and lungies. the charges will be based on number of colours. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. the fabrics can be dried only naturally.. GSM. the charge may be Rs. processing. 5.. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. 2. etc. curtain cloths. During and after the process. As all the processes are done manually. BATIKS: This is also done manually.

12. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. side slits and pockets. dyed from one machine at one time. 5. cuff. cuffs. Procedures: 1. 4. The garments. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. cuffs. neck rib. 5. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. 3. Acid wash 3. placket box. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). are called Lot. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . etc. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. etc. Fabric for body. garment dyeing method is followed. the substances are to be used. 8. Faded wash. sleeves. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. 2. collars. 2. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. 14. After the fabrics are dyed. 7. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. 6. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only.35 We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). 9. shoulder seam. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). 11. sleeve. Since many parts are attached. even though we have taken more care. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. After the garment dyeing. (Depending on the required effect. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. Then body. shrinkage and shape. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect.. there may be shade variations between these parts. 1. side slits and pockets. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. 13. cuffs are attached together. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. If the garment is processed more than enough. shoulder seam. collar. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). 10. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. rope. Stone wash. As the garments are dyed in vessels. For example. for stone washed effect. Denim (Jeans) wash. placket box. Enzyme wash 4. shrinkage and shape. by taking note of all the details. There will be 35 . nothing can be done with the garments for measurements.mainly at neck seam around collar.

Because of its own quality nature. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. Different qualities of washes are possible. 2. Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. 5. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). 4. 36 . Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. Advantages: 1. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. it is expensive. there will not be any shrinkage further. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. collar. 2. sleeves. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. cuffs. This will vary from machines to machines.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully.36 difference in shades and washing effect between lots. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. Washed look can be achieved. rejections of garments will be high. In these special acoba embroidery machines. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. all over embroidery can be made. 4. some other special machines to be used. etc. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. Risk factors: 1. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. Due to the damages in garments. Due to the special effects and quality. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. There will not be any shade variation between body. 3. 3.

10 to 15 per gross.7 per zip. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. qualities. No. Even if the tapes are pulled. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs.3 zippers is lesser than No. Metal buttons. Elastics.5 zippers. though the number of stitches is lesser. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. No. ACCESSORIES Buttons. etc in addition to the number of stitches. quantity. number of colours and sizes of embroidery.50 per garment.24 per zip. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs.22 – 24 per zip. Twill tapes. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. Ropes. etc. For adult garments.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Tissue papers. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. It can 37 . Packing pins. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. For children garments.5 zippers are used. Inner boards. But the minimum cost is around 2.15 to 40 per gross. etc.37 Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees. designer’s fabrics. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Also each accessory has many dimensions.5 – 7 per zip. Due to competition. fixing cost. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers.00 per 1000 stitches.1. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. decorative fabrics. specifications. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. curtain cloths. etc. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Hang tags. Anyhow. In these auto lock zippers. Polybags. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. for making costing. blouses. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. the zipper can not be opened. Lock quality is to be checked. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. Cost of No. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs.50 to 70 per gross. Labels. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. Badges.3 zippers are used. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. Zippers.40 to 60 per gross.

Elastics with 1cm. For the special pullers. wash care labels. 10mm. In these labels. 12mm. 2. It is approximately Rs. size labels. Badges are in many types.38 be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers.2.50 per metre.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. There are plain elastics and named elastics. Elastics with the width of 4mm. There are 2 types of woven labels. 6mm. From 3. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments.00 per metre. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. From 1. thickness.1.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. the prices will be different. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. 8mm. etc.1. From 2. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. As these badges are very special.5cm. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask.50 per metre. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs.0.30 to 40 per kg.75 per metre. etc are used for legs of undergarments. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. 2cm.50 per metre. The prices are based on quality. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. quality and quantity. It depends on the design. width. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. number of colours. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. This is single 38 . Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. Yarn price to be added with this charge. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly.3.

60 to Rs. 39 . etc.0.0. sizes.39 weave. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also.50 per tag. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. style. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. the price may be Rs.1.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. composition. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta.0.0. if printing and cutting are made manually. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes. Woven labels: Main label (2. This is double weave. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water.0. die-cut design and quantity. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users. Single colour (1. This is an important thing. colours.1. number of colours.10 per label. tags are used and attached with the garments. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness.0. measurement. There are non-computerised looms are also available. design. composition. single side or both sides printing. Damask labels are woven on both sides.0.25” width x 10cm length): Rs. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.0. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. etc. colours. Hence the quality. Hence before using the printed labels.0. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels.0. prices. If the yarn colour bleeds. The tags can be made at cheaper prices.30 to Rs. In these labels.0.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. the price may be Rs. printing design. it is safer to check them too.80 per tag. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands.40 to Rs.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs.0. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. care instructions. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. With these machines also woven labels are made. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.30 to Rs. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels.15 per label. If there is anything special. If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut.00 to Rs.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs.08 per label.0.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels.0.

40 If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos.40 per bag. nowadays. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. etc.30 to Rs. the tape cost will be Rs.55. measurements. quality.00 to Rs.0. special quality with die cut: Rs.50 per board.0. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity.60 to Rs. PP bags have bright look.0. die cut (scoring) and quantity. 40 . If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.0.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.00 per board.00.30 to Rs. One is PP (Polypropylene).0.65.80 per bag.0. Due to this.0.10 to Rs. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.15 each paper. If the width of polybag is 12”. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram.50 to Rs.1. the price may be around Rs.00 per tag.0. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.24 per bag.0. If the polybag is very thin. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. the rejection of polybags will be more.0.0. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. For special sizes. Another is PE (Polyethylene). normal quality: Rs. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. prints. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look.25 to Rs.02 for one inch length. quantity.0.30 to Rs. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). it may not be recyclable. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs. depends on quality of paper & print. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.0.0. For normal size.4. depends on paper quality. As PE polybags are recyclable.50 each paper.

The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. Also the hooks are in different types.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments).00 to Rs.25. Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style. sizes suitable for different garment styles.3. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used.00 approximately. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. 41 . sizes.25 to Rs. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM.60 per garment.4. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.25 will be the master bag cost per garment. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers.00 to pack 24 to 50garments.1. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs. design. the cost will be Rs. The hangers are in different types.41 Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time.15. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments.25. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments.5.1.5. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper.00 to Rs.20. Recycled papers should not be used. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs. etc. plastic hangers. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs.40. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). etc.1.00 to Rs.00 to Rs. Hence approximately Rs.0. quantity. styles. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs.

Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. etc. flat lock & lock stitch machines. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. Making. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. time consumption.10 per pc. trims and accessories to these Job workers.Over lock machines. pockets.14 per pc. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. . quality standards. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. Making and Trimming charges. Lock stitches are used for making plackets. Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. 42 . Though CMT is Cutting. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics.42 CMT CHARGES (Cutting. Some factories will do only CMT jobs.20 per pc. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. number of jobs with over lock.12 per pc. . Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs.Lockstitch machines.18 per pc. V neck covering. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. the charges for these jobs are very much higher. There are manual and power driven machines are used. packing methods and other works. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. productivity. only the power driven machines are used. local transport. . These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser.20 per pc. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). nowadays.12 per pc. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. the charges for these jobs are higher. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. and attaching collars & labels.Flat lock machines.

FAS. it will be claimed by the buyer. EXW. rail transport. air transport. FCA.12 per pc. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. It is the same as FOB.43 Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): 43 . it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. While we confirm the orders from the customers. the charges to be added accordingly. CFR. C&F. CIP.10 to Rs. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight.8 per pc.10 per pc. If there are any extra works. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB.22 per pc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight.13 per pc.12 per pc. These above charges are approximate. EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory.10 per pc. CPT. Insurance and Freight. CIF. Ex-factory. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. It includes local road transport. It means the buyer will pay the freight .12 to Rs. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. etc. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. If it is C&F By sea. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. CIF: It is Cost. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. If it is C&F By air.it may be road or rail transport. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business.15 per pc. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. insurance premium and the freight. sea transport. etc. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs.

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. availability. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. etc. There are 20’. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. 4. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. etc. 5. the size of container is to be decided. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. 3. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. 1. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. There are 2 types of loading. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). Port expenses – Loading. Mostly FOB. 2. According to the volume of goods. If we have doubt about the terms. CIF terms are used. Customs charges – Documentation. 44 . Charges of freight. it is called FCL. Their approximate capacity is as follows. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). Some buyers will use different names for the terms.44 It is the same as FOB. In case of export to other countries. 6. Local transport to the port. 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. routing. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. inspection. C&F. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency).

Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. To solve this problem. And in Colombo port. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. Though some ports have more sea depth. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. the freight will be based on weight too. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. distance between destinations. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. the mother vessels do not come to this port. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). Shipping lines: 45 . Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. granite stones. As this port is in the main sea route. Colombo port is very big. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. It is called Loose Container Load. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. routing & transit time. etc. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. This is called Consolidation of Goods. transshipment. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . In this case. etc. The nearest port is Colombo. but with more weight – Like steel.may be stuffed in one full container. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. shipping lines and conference lines. For example. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. as Tuticorin port is small.45 If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. This system is called transshipment. Sometimes. This is also called transshipment. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports.

500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs.000 – Rs. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. Hong Kong.76. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs.99. As we discussed above. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. Taiwan.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port).36. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination.44.54. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area.22. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port.1.72. according to their capacities. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. better connection in transshipments.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs. Depending on the destination and on the flight services. their partner company will use their vessel.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L. (We will discuss about this in detail later). Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world.94. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. Japan. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines.63.46 The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.21. safety. Kuwait.000 – Rs. China.58. etc.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs. the 46 . the goods will sail on one company’s ships.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs.90.1.90. By using these Conference Lines. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs.1. This is a regular practice.17.

So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. As the freight charges are very high. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. we can use smaller airlines. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. As the leading airlines will use only their flights.80 to Rs. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. documentation charges.47 goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days.2. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. Some times by Sea + Air + Road.140 per kg. In these cases. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). etc.110 per kg. At the same time. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. The receipt is Airway Bill. loading & unloading. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. Some times. volume of goods. etc.100 to Rs. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. It will come about Rs. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. stuffing charges. As like sea shipments. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent.1. most of the shipments will go by sea only. customs clearing charges. we have to bear the local transport to the port. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines.00 to Rs. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. Hence the shipment will be delayed. 47 . the goods have to be sent by air. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay.

Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the customers. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. 48 . Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. to be taken into consideration. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. over heads. routing. transportation (road.00 to Rs. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. sales. Each product will have different price according to its quality. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. market prices and availability. etc. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. banking charges and commissions. transport and conveyance. charges of transport and conveyance. etc. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. processing. To do perfect garment costing. production. air) and freight charges. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. We must remember that the quality depends on price. methods and quality systems. finishing. advantages and risk factors. etc. sewing and packing of garments. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. is essential to make perfect costing. price depends on quality. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. procedures. marketing.48 C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. sea. the charges will come about Rs. While we do the garment costing. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. quality & quantity and payment terms.6. etc. shipping. the customer’s price level.4. distance between ports. processing and finishing of fabrics. sewing and packing. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. When we consider the value of goods. Due to the above practical reasons. this charge is very nominal.02% of the total value of goods. latest procedures. charges of knitting. knitting fabrics.

Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. Cost of trims (labels. twill tapes. 10. 1. CMT charges 8. Let us see them in detail now. But compulsorily. tags. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. cartons. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. Fabric cost per kg. badges. 3. 1. To make the garment costing. As there are many different styles in garments. we must have full measurements of the garment. Cost of a garment. Cost of accessories (hangers. 2. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. 5.) 7. The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. etc) 9. 3. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. To work on the prices exactly. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. Ladies Night dress. 7. 2. embroidery. Large (L). As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. buttons.) 6. Fabric cost per garment. Men’s Basic T shirts. 4. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). etc. Other charges (print. etc. Medium (M). we have to find out following things.49 The method of making costing will vary from style to style. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. Men’s Pyjamas. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. costings can be made for other styles too. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). inner boards. Gross weight of other components of garment. Fabric consumption. Price of a garment. Body Length and Sleeve Length. 5. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. 4. 6. polybags. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 49 . we must have the measurements of Chest. bows.

Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck.54Centimeters.000 sq. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. TRIAL COSTING NO. (No style number or no size is needed to print). 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. To find the fabric consumption. Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. As we have seen earlier.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. if the garment measurements are in Inches. XL. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. Sizes: S. In other words. the consumption will be lesser.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. M. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. Australia are measuring in Inches. Canada. As we discussed earlier. S – XXL. In any case. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. if the area of the fabric is 10.cms. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. they have to be converted into Centimeters. L. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. The garment measurements for USA. Even in Europe. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. 1 Inch = 2. USA. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. That is. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. 50 . GSM is Grams per Square Metre.000 square centimetres). Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM).50 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. If the GSM is lesser. If the GSM is higher. the consumption will also be relatively higher.

for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. Hence due to either way. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. 63 or 64cms. the finished fabric may have more width than required. (22. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. Pique & Interlock. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. Generally. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Hem = 3 cms. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. In case.000 pcs). Thus. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. if we are unable to control this. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. For example. Neck rib width = 3 cms. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. That is. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Length = 78 cms.51 Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 51 . As the fabric is in tubular. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. That is.

FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). Chest = 60 cms. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. Neck rib : 10 grams. In other words. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. to avoid shade variation.52 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. Gross weight : 197 grams. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. (0. In this case. then we have to find out by which fabric width. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. At the same time. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 52 . though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. If they are possible. Let us assume that according to the patterns. we should remember that the front body. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Let us assume following are the measurements. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. Length = 78 cms. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. Let us take the GSM is 140. the garments are based on weights.

Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight. As we had seen earlier. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length.14 mtrs of 50” width. we have to select the suitable width. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. among the possible widths. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. Let us calculate the same for 62”. It means. Then we will have to calculate as below. only if they are all over printed on open width form. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly.53 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. we can see that it will be 1. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. Thus. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment.

00 Compacting charge = 6.00 6.27 (Round off: Rs.20 X 197 1000 = 38. ropes.00 Dyeing charge = 35.44.00 9. For Medium colours For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours = 203. 38.25) Medium colours 40.00 Knitting charge = 8.70 X 197 1000 = 44. buttons.00 184. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). So there are no charges.00) = 224.00 8.70 Dark colours 135.54 The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric.00 10.00 65.70 X 197 1000 = 40.00) Likewise.70 224. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193. there is no need of print or embroidery. twill tapes. 54 .00 Dark colours 44.00 194.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours For Light colours = 193.00 6.06 (Round off: Rs.20 Medium colours 135.00 8.00 45.00 214.00 OTHER CHARGES (Print.70 203. embroidery. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135. labels.25 Light colours Fabric cost per garment = Rs. badges.38.40. COST OF TRIMS (zippers. elastic. tags.13 (Round off: Rs.

Normal (not a special one): Rs.10 Hang tag: Rs. 2.55 Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts.35 56.75 Dark cols 44.55 53.20 1.85 per garment.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs.80 per garment.38. So the total cost of accessories is Rs. We require following things.00 = -= Rs.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. cartons.00 -0. Master polybag – Normal: Rs. 0. : Rs. : Rs. sea freight / air freight). Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.50 = Rs. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one).40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.00 per garment. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment.00 = Rs.35 = Rs. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier.20 = Rs.) Cost of trims (labels.45 1. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. 55 . etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. as example. inner boards.10. Let us see what are the trims required for this style. profit.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments.85 10. 1. Polybag .0.0.0. 1. cartons. 1.25 -0.10. Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print.50. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.0. 2.70 58.35 per garment. Now let us see these things in detail. polybags. 0.35 52.85 = Rs.51. etc.0.00 1.0. 3.00 1.15 We have found out the cost of garment. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Light cols = Rs. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers.1.25 per garment.70 Medium cols 40. etc): For this Basic T shirt.85 10.30 per garment. Export carton – Normal: Rs. Let us see the cost of these things. tags. let us see the costs of the required accessories. 1.

if any. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota. 7. cartons.50 Cost of garment = Rs. 1. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value.70 58.85 CMT charges = Rs. office salary. It may be approximately Re.3333.10.1 per garment. So we don’t have to add sea freight.15 8. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. Light cols Fabric cost per garment = Rs. For our calculation. etc.70 Profit @ 15% = Rs.45 1.05 ------68. Let us recall our earlier costing.75 1.52.00 59.50. let us work on 15% profit margin.85 10. machineries.75 8.35 = Rs.38.25 -0.05 .20 1. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. etc.00 -0. 1. COMMISSION: For some orders. 0.) = -Cost of trims (labels. the quota system will be removed from January 2005.85 10.95 Dark cols 44. depreciation of machineries.35 56. 1. standards.56 SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.00 Other charges (print. electricity.90 = Rs. interest for investments.60 As there is no commission to be paid = ------Prices of garment = Rs.60.00 1. with the above costs of garments. 56 Medium cols 40. etc) = Rs.00 Cost of accessories (polybags.95 -----62.51.60 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro.20 62. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’.70 Now we add the local transport = Rs. We have to add this commission. If the terms are C&F or CIF.35 52.15 1. tags.55 53.00 1. Anyhow. It will vary from company to company depends on their size. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.00 54. etc) and profit margin.90 68. etc) = Rs. bonus.60.00 = Rs. incentives.20 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.

Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer.35 For Medium colours: Rs. If the terms are C&F and CIF. Medium. XL.40 Pls note the above prices are FOB.00 = 1 USD.40 For Dark colours : Rs. we can quote the price to buyer as follows. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333. Quota Category: 4 Price / pc USD 1. packing methods. For 160GSM – USD 1. .05 divided by 45. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices. it has to be mentioned. It is USD 1.95 divided by 45.00 = USD 1. quantity and specifications. According to the measurements.40 per pc. we have to inform like this. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours.50 FOB.If the commission is added. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.Delivery terms to be mentioned. we can mention the validity for our prices. For 150GSM – USD 1. Then we will get following prices. Enquiry Style No.60. Medium and Dark colours are equal.60 divided by 45. For 180GSM – USD 1. regular packing and ratio.40 FOB.000 pcs.If we made any change in buyer’s details.Quota category to be mentioned. . it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea.57 Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. .60 FOB. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. M. . 57 .00 = USD 1. ratio. Quantity: 20. For Light colours : Rs. Some Tips: For easy reference.If we expect any price hike in near future. it has to be mentioned. L.62.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned. Also it will be clear for our reference.68. FOB / C&F / CIF.51 We understand that the quantities of Light. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. .00 = USD 1. These are approximate prices only. XXL. it will be clear for him. For 140GSM – USD 1. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light.80 FOB.45. the prices will differ. .

To be attached with second button with hang tag. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker.. the full measurements are given here. Quantity: 48. Sizes: S. Gross weight of all parts of garment. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.5 = 16.75 = 4.25 = 14. 3.5 =7 = 1. Fabric consumption. 58 . Fabric cost per kg.5 For your reference.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. XL. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . Size. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Let us recall the steps once again. Fabric cost per garment.25 = 17.000 pcs. Size. (Pls find the attached details). Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30. 4.Hanger pack. Colour to be printed on back side. Style No.75 = 2.58 TRIAL COSTING NO.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No. RN no.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . M.. 1.5 = 2. safety instructions printed. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. 2. L.5 = 23 = 21. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem.

inner boards. polybags. 4 cm is to be added with body length. bows.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. That is. badges. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm.75” = 27. embroidery. That is 77. Cost of trims (labels. Sleeve length from centre back is 21.5 cm. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. Remember.5inches. Price of a garment. That is. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. buttons. CMT charges 8. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81.5 + 27. etc. Collar : 40 grams. etc. Cost of accessories (hangers. For our calculation.50 + 4 = 81. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm.5cm.5” – 10. 59 . If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. = 21. Cost of a garment. Body Length is 30. 10.75” = 10.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres.59 5. As this is all over print program.) 6. Other charges (print. So the body length for calculation will be 77. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. Placket : 15 grams. cartons. Half moon patch: 15 grams.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: 312 grams. As this is all over print program. tags.5” – ½ (21. etc) 9.) 7. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. Now let us do the calculation.5”) = 21.5”. So it will be 24 inches. 61cms.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 = (120. twill tapes.

75 Other charges (print.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 20. packing materials = Rs. 98.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8.45 per pc.60 Gross weight : 382 grams.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Dyeing charge = 30. 5. etc) = Rs.00 – Carton. rope. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. (0. 3.50 CMT charges = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. 98. it can be considered as printed.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23.135.155.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs. embroidery.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): 60 . for calculation.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.20 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.95 Cost of garment = Rs.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258.258. etc. 2.) = -Cost of trims (labels.00 Open width compact = 12. 2.00 = Rs.50 That is the FOB price is USD3. 3. 2.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour. tags. the cost will be approximately the same as printed.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120. 18. TRIAL COSTING NO.131.30 Price of garment = Rs.00 Printing charge = 50.00 235.

L. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams.000 pcs. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135. XL. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. M. (0. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. To be attached with the main label.. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams. Neck piping : 10 grams. Quantity: 16.00 61 . Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Sizes: S. size and warning instructions printed.61 Enquiry No. Gross weight : 316 grams. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem.

00 50.00 199. 15.00 = = = FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no.00 Cost of polybags.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 6. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’.1x1 rib at bottom legs .00 = 10.00 Cost of trims (labels.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at front centre outside waist . Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. the C&F price is USD2. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. etc) = Rs. packing materials = Rs. 66. 94.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.Solid dyed – Black. 2.00 =Rs. XXL.00 6. 62 .00 Price of garment = Rs.209. M.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . Sizes: S. 5. 3.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs.62 Knitting charge Dyeing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 8. L. tags. 97. 12.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 Cost of garment = Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO. XL. size and warning instructions printed. To be sewn at front waist. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.50 per pc.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 3. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 That is. 66.112.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 = Rs. When giving this price to buyer. carton..

let us see how to find the fabric consumption. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. There are 2 ways. For using this formula. = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. Quantity: 13. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. 63 . it is easier by using following formula. back rise & inseam. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing.63 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. we must know the measurements of thigh.500 pcs. we can find consumption by using following formula. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams.

00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10.00 214. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. By doing like this. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.70 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. We know only thigh measurement. Width wise. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. Hence if the program is Solid program. the seat is the largest measurement.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 60. we get one full thigh circumference measurement.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. But we don’t know the seat measurement. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. In this case. reasonably and competitively. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. This is not acceptable. Let us continue the costing.00 Knitting charge = 18. we can use ‘S’ cutting.00 Compacting = 6. we can minimise the wastage. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. By this way. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible.224.64 We have to work prices with the largest measurements. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. we can quote prices more accurately.70 64 . the wastage will be more. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement.

80. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.25 Cost of garment = Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO. and warning instructions printed.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. M.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 0. XL. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs.50 That is. etc) = Rs. 16. Size.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.128.85 per pc. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.00 Waist rope = Rs. 15. 2. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.75 Price of garment = Rs.00 Cost of polybags. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. To be attached with main label. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label.111. 20%Black. L. Colour to be printed on back side.65 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. 2. 4.60 Cost of trims (labels. the FOB price is USD2.. 1. packing materials = Rs.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 20%Grey Melange.00 = Rs.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 3.00 Woven patch label = Rs.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs. To be attached with main label. 65 . Size. tags. Sizes: S. Style No. Solid dyed – 60%White. 3. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 CMT charges = Rs. carton. 80.108.

00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.000 pcs.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.80 X 400 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 400 grams.205.30 66 .80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205. 40 grams.00 196. 15 grams.00 Compacting = 6.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. 15 grams. 82.66 Quantity: 72. 40 grams. (0. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams.00 Knitting charge = 15. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm. 82.

67 Embroidery Cost of trims (labels.90 per pc. 2. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton.60 = Rs. 17. 3.30 = Rs. 1. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.00 = Rs.200 pcs per combination.00 = Rs.00 = Rs. tags. Sizes: S. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 67 .00 = Rs. 2.00 = Rs. M. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. the FOB price is USD2. That is 15cm.60 Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck. Polyester printed care label. Size and warning instructions printed.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF = Rs. 2.00 = Rs.30 = Rs.110. 18. 3. packing materials Local freight charges + shipping expenses Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is. TRIAL COSTING NO. etc) Twill tape CMT charges Polybag.00 = Rs. carton. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. L. Quantity: 7.130. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.113.4 colour combinations..

: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG 68 .70 Price of garment = Rs.00 Polybag.00 = Rs.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. 19. 106.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Compacting = 6.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.106. 3.127.80 Cost of garment = Rs.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 CMT charges = Rs. 2.151.50 Cost of trims (labels. (0.00 338. Gross weight : 286 grams.35 per pc.00 Washing charge = 5. packing materials = Rs.00 That is.68 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams. TRIAL COSTING NO.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.131. tags.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams. 2.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60. etc) = Rs. 15. the FOB price is USD3. carton.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Knitting charge = 30.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 2.

50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% = 36. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7. this would be 25cm). Label: Woven Brand label at neck. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched.69 Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Size and warning instructions printed.00 Compacting = 6. That is 20cm. Likewise. Sizes: 92. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams..200 pcs total. 98.00 311. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 31.00 69 . Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook.00 Washing charge = 5. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. 110.00 Knitting charge = 50. (For adult garments. Polyester printed care label. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. the allowance for chest should be 6cm.3 colour combinations.10 Fabric cost per Kg = 342. 104. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.10 COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% = 242. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. 116.

70 Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = = = 30.00 5.00 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50

Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60 36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20

COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.

NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.

PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the 70

71 money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 71

72 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 21. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges, documents dispatch instructions, transferring conditions, etc., will be mentioned here. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. 72

Hence they are very important. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. description. the amendments are made several times. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. 73 .73 22. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. . B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. only with B/L or Airway bill. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. it is a set of following originals and copies. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. 24. before opening L/C. Only the originals have got value. changes or differences in address. let us see the importance and procedures of them. validity extension. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. price. shipment date. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. . As we have to be careful of these important documents. he can not clear the goods from his customs. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. after receiving this L/C. To avoid these amendment charges. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. B/L: As we see above. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. There may be some mistakes. Some times. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). They are only the copies.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. 26. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. This is called L/C amendment. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. 25. In this case. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. 23. Without these documents. amount.

quality. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a week. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. To 74 . To avoid all these things. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. documentation. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. It will be heavy amount. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. stress and tension. With these original B/Ls only. as we sent one original B/L by courier. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. Though we were careful in production. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods).. etc. In ‘Documents required’ clause. After the air shipment. money. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. Consignment copy. But it is a long process which will take more time. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. buyer can clear the goods. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………………….74 There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). pricing.. we must be sure of this clause in L/C. we don’t get the payment.’ If is mentioned other than this. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. the airport will charge for demurrage. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. They are 1. It is called Negotiable documents. After 3 days. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. In this case.

even commas. To be specified exactly. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. To avoid this practical problem. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. only due to the urgency. We have to remember. it is not safe for the supplier. it is mentioned as follows. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. as we had seen in sea shipment above. etc are to be taken care. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. But as per L/C condition. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date.75 avoid this demurrage charges. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). In spite of all these reasons. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. As the documents are still with them. full stops. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. Hence to be on the safer side. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. 75 . Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. Here comes the problem for exporter. Then. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. Besides. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. in order to get the claim or discount.

Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. 30 days L/C. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. he can do it. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. even though the discrepancies are not true. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. Even in this term. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. At Sight L/C: As per this term. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank.76 On receipt of these documents. we must know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a 76 . if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. etc. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. 90 days L/C. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. 60 days L/C. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. If everything is OK. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. In other words. in order to hold the documents for some days. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. 120 days L/C. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. We have to note that this is the usual period. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. In this case. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions.

Here comes the important thing. Some times. 77 . All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. After that he will not make the payment. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. Accordingly. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. Here we have to see a very important thing. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. 30 days. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. 90 days. they will ask for some discounts or claims. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. 60 days. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. As these buyers are genuine. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of receipt of documents’. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. Only difference is. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. fax or email to make the payment. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. They even say that they don’t want the goods. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. After 7 working days. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters.77 while or he does not want to pay our bills.

Hence after taking delivery. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. the buyer can get the L/C opened. As we have seen. only if he has financial strength.78 If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. These are all normal L/Cs. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. If he does not have them. he will not have the facility to open L/C. By this kind of L/C. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. 90 days. 120 days. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. validity. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. the other L/Cs for 60 days. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. As we have seen earlier. In some backward countries. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. Normally they will not open L/Cs. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. 1. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. few partial shipments are allowed. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. But the overall maximum amount. If there is any quality problem. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. In these terms. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. etc. the banks will ask the buyer to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. As no 78 . Let us see what they are. 2. number of renewals. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. In the same way. etc. In this case. at least to get the payment without any claim. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. are treated and followed. In some countries. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. Then without paying the money to the bank. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank.

By these terms. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. In these terms. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. If the buyer is genuine. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. On receipt of the documents in their bank. If the buyer is not genuine. In this case. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. Without getting 100% confirmation. these buyers will not open L/C.79 buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. the seller has to proceed with his production. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. 3. the buyer would not answer his call. 79 . After 2 or 3 weeks. If the buyer opens L/C. Due to any of these above reasons. After the shipment. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. 4. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. He would avoid the seller completely. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. Then the seller’s problem started. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. he will not show any interest in the goods. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. etc. On the other hand. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. But in D/P terms. the seller does not have any hold. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. As nothing can be done. In these days. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. At the same time. But as this buyer is not genuine. He would affect the seller psychologically. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. fax and email. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C.

other banking charges and bank interest. 3. I don’t like to put you into big loss. But in D/A terms. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. But I have convinced my customer somehow. I can do this help for you. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. 2. I will send your documents back to you. 45days. If you agree for this. 120days. Due to his commitments on this payment. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. (This is only a drama. If you want.80 1. 90days. 60days. In order to help you. the seller will have more risks of payment. This is almost like D/P terms. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. I will send your documents back. They will have different payment periods like 30days. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. I know this is not fair. I can try to sell the goods by myself. I am sorry. Believe me. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. He will not do anything with the samples). Or he would agree for D/A terms. etc. With this commission. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. In the D/P terms. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. either buyer’s bank or the seller 80 . Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. No body is interested to take the goods. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. Pls think it over and let me know. Some tips: To avoid this. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. I can not let you down because you are my friend. 75days. So in this term. I tried with our customers. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Some times he may lose his business too. Even after this period. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. friend.

Instead of giving details about them. machineries. Customer Study. 81 . It is also called as Sales. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. commitment to customers. Market Study. Some times. Working conditions of workers. etc. benefits to workers. financial strength. Marketing is very most important. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. terms of payment. of our company. staff and workers. Safety measures. we must know about the capacity. market situation and general policy of our company. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. strengths. Maternity leave for women workers. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. weaknesses. etc. preference. salary and wages. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Benefits to workers. Hours of working. Also we must know about our customers. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things.81 can not do anything. Product Study. Sampling and Quality. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. bribe. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. Communication. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. etc. safety & environment of factory. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. Purchase. Also the marketing department controls Production. Costing & Pricing. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. Work Study. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. MARKETING For every product. pollution. labour laws. Attendance. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. Pollution. Documentation. Shipping and Payment.. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. Merchandising. etc. overheads.

first aid equipment. .If emergency exits are locked. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. indecent behaviour.All exit doors should open outwards. etc. etc. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. . And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. Safety Building and Fire Safety . . First Aid . spiritual.Exits should not be blocked by cartons. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. mental. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. moral or social development. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. . These procedures are called Code of Conduct. a person is a child until the age of 18. and thus be available to all staff at all times. . . Because of the competition in their sales.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. fire extinguishers. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. We must be aware the buyers strategy.82 indirect approach. .Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. or suffers mental or bodily harm.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. such as emergency exits. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. 82 .

and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions.The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. .The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. Wages and Working Hours .The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. or engage in sexual harassment.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. and they should have the right to bargain collectively.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. . religion or ethnic background. prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . . . .All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. Working hours per day should be only 8 hours. level. Fans should be provided when needed. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association.Sanitary facilities should be clean. .Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions. . Also after returning back to work. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will.Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit. .Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy. at all times of day. but not a recommended. in case of an accident in the factory. .A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. .Wages should be paid regularly. gender.No worker should be discriminated against because of race. Factory Conditions . . . .83 .The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.It is important for the workers' well-being.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract.In developing countries. on time and be fair in respect of work performance.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. Workers’ Rights Basic Rights .All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. and for the quality of the garments. . she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. .Bonded workers. and the ventilation should be adequate. . All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer. following an injury during work in the factory.

toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. etc. Nowadays.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. . contact person’s name. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. cruelty of labour. This will help us always to take the right 84 . the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. . etc.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. .84 workers in the factory.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. With these details. some times. quality. and preferably separated for men and women. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. Also they are against to the bonded labour system. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. fire extinguishers. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. teamwork.Separate dormitories. fast pace of working and constant improvement. capacity. from the buyers’ countries. Environment . unsafe factories. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. . Basic values include believing in people. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country.All workers must be provided with their own individual bed.Fire alarms. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management. . There should be ‘open door’ policy. Housing Conditions . Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. low wages. Due to this.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. child labour. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously.

CEO. has done a mistake. In the same way. telephone operators. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. expectations. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. Marketing Manager. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. honestly. Administration Manager. All the Heads should remember one thing always. That is the reason. he can 85 . the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. Likewise. subordinates. office boys. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. the head may get personal satisfaction. workers. he can not do anything by himself alone. or even Security Head. whenever needed. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues.85 decisions in right time. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. The Head may be the Chairman. who is helping us. When a person. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. Department Head. he should not get angry with him. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. we will not get angry with him. the Head is having his employees. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. when we are doing marketing. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. assistants. grudges and grievances very well. By doing like this. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. juniors. Factory Manager. That too. So whenever needed. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. but should think that they are HELPING him. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. subordinates and other departments. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. When a Head realise this fact. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. because the subordinates are helping the Head. In simple words. Supervisors. securities. So everyone will discuss with him freely. He will have easy approach. Then only he can take appropriate. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. He will have a pleasing personality. it is very essential for us. Section Head. Managing Director. On the other hand. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. according to our policies. Production Manager. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments.

If they have self confidence. methods of production. We have to learn continuously. possibilities and impossibilities. He must know about raw materials and other materials. production. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. This is called Product Judgement. he can not sell even a small pen. etc. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. There is no end for learning. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. etc. new styles. To keep their positions. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. complete pictures of pricing. we can expect rapid changes for every season. yarn composition. utility. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. Especially in garments trade. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. colours. involvement. new patterns. measurements. Simply saying. changes are inevitable. advantages and disadvantages. but it is not an impossible thing. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. quality & blends of new fabrics. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. decorative works. fabric quality. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. For that we must have self interest. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. then he will not show any interest in learning further. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. concentration. appearance. If a man feels that he knows everything. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. quality. It may be difficult. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. immediately on seeing a garment. We can see changes everywhere at every time. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. finding and solving problems in production. speciality of garments. etc. It is the same for garment also. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. and they should be their Chief for ever. prints. dedication and quest for knowledge & information.

Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. new working systems. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. financial changes. world economy. So. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. foreign exchange. colours. before confirming the styles. That is. For example. new regulations. before April / May 2005. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. let us take the summer garments. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. fabrics. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future.87 specifications given by buyers. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. etc. etc. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. colours. measurements. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. national market. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. local market. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. Style & fit. styles. new products. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. Due to this. etc. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. Buyer has to work on pricing. In other words. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. It is not an easy thing. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. the consumers would be 87 . CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. new methods. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. colour forecast. Even after the deep study. fashion forecast. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. international market. colours. design forecast. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. etc. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. Thus. updating banking regulations. analysis and experiment of all these things. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries.

Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. unsuitable measurements. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. etc. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. Also as they are happy with our performance. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. When the food is made at home. the store sales would also be good. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. At the same time. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. But above all. Why and how? It is simple. Only because of this reason. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. Sometimes. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. if reasonable. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. the home made food tastes more than outside food. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation.. poor colour fastness. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. of satisfying our family members. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. This may be called as kindness or love or affection.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. On the other hand. As a result. So while executing the buyers’ orders. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. Or else. Some times. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. if the goods are really good in all aspects. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. the Intention. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. They will not mind increasing prices too. fit. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business.

89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89

90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.

Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).

We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90

91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91

cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. Inspection certificate. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. not to show our strength in language. Tough guys dress easy. Our purpose is to make clear message. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. They must be very good in business. So it should be handled at most care. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. But when we have a friendly. The buyer will understand. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. may be poor in English. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. Packing list. we had seen the importance of L/C. GSP Form A. There are mainly two types of documents. AEPC endorsed invoice. Export Certificate. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. If there are some small mistakes. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. Visa. etc are the shipping documents. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. there will not be any problem of payment. then appreciate. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. They are shipping documents and bank documents. These documents are called bank documents. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. 92 . Only our communication can establish. various payment terms. If there is any L/C amendment. Certificate of Origin. Honest people like simplicity. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. GR form (Exchange control). etc. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. documentation. packing list. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. They are Invoice. then try to find a solution and then will help us. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. For any terms. We must be honest to ourselves and others. this is also an important department. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. After shipping the documents. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. risk factors. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer.

finishing. this kind of systems can not be expected. each department will take care of each job. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. before stuffing the goods in to container. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. there may be some changes in prices. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. etc. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. CMT. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. By this way. then he will confirm. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. But in small and medium companies. they will produce the documents as per the old information. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. shipment date. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. So.93 Some times. And this distribution system will be perfect. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). connection details. etc. 93 . So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight.. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. To make this possible. we will be safe too. quantities. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. accessories. etc. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. In big companies. So the raw materials. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. Any decision can be taken. This department involves not only with money. trims. shipping. he may suggest any other option. other job works. quality and delivery of the purchased items. whether the company is big or medium or small. Also the charges of processing. name of the line or airline. it is responsible for the price.

the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. it is very important to develop a healthy.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Internal & external communication Earlier. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. communication. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. Sampling. and smooth relation with buyers. Mediating production and quality departments. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. Advising quality department about quality level. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. they have very high value. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. Preparing purchase orders. As we discussed earlier. Helping documentation department. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. So it is a very valuable department. Accessories & trims. documentation. shipping and payment. we can get these problems solved amicably. In any case. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. friendly. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. At the same time. When we have this kind of understanding relation. Internal & external communication. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. Lab dips. production. Advising and assisting production. 94 . Preparing internal order sheets. internal communication is also very much valuable. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. By the same way. Some times. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers.

they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. they will bring orders to us. Whenever they have enquiries.95 Even a small omission.Photo samples .Pre-production samples . They are .Proto samples or fit samples . So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. For one enquiry. We have to send many samples to buyers. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. quality standards and price level. buyer may need samples. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department.Fashion show samples .Production samples . Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. Prevention is better than cure. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. We may have to spend too much on these samples.Wash test samples . Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. Sometimes. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 .Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . product range. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . then also we will have to send these samples. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. Some times. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. they may not be correctable.

etc for making these samples. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. 3 styles or 1 style. but in the actual measurements and specifications. Based on these samples.96 style. To avoid this embarrassing situation. style and fit. He too can not help us in this regard. But as we don’t get orders. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. some times. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. measurements. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. 96 . it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. Expected sales may not be possible. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. unsuitable colours. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. etc. the approved samples should be followed in production. by showing these samples. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. making. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Any way. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. If the order is for 3 colours. unmatched prints or embroidery. Some times. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. colour fastness. for the styles which we don’t get orders. Of course these samples will help us for our business. So these samples are very important. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. etc of salesmen samples. we can not blame the buyer. due to poor quality. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. improper measurements. buyers may do some changes in measurements. time. buyer may comment on fabric. style and fit. we may not get order for even a single style. we may get orders for all 5 styles. After getting the approval. All the buyers don’t need these samples. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Some times. measurements. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. We might have spent more money. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers.

If they don’t get samples on time. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. Sometimes. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. These samples can be sent from production. packing box. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. But we can get higher prices for these orders). They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. colours. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. we can correct them in production. for some styles. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. We should not get any remark or comment. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. In this case. In any case. hang tag. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. They will accumulate the sales quantities. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. they may do wash test also. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. etc. 97 . Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. they will place orders repeatedly. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. But each order will get small quantity only. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Some times. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time.

Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals.Tube light matching. hence there might be some mistakes. . etc. They are . if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. (Some times. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. By this way. To adjust this wasted time. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. tags. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. When sending the lab dips to buyer. at least 1 week time will be wasted. For example. Each of these above matching will give different results. just a tip). It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. 98 . The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape.Sun light matching. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. Different buyers follow different matching. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. Hence before proceeding lab dips. .Sodium light matching (show room).98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. . he will have to make them again. And even if we get some comments from buyers. Our reliability will get questioned here). (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. he has to take some extra care. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). This is not cheating. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. we may think they are closer. If we see lab dips in the morning. we may think they are not suitable. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. If we expect any comments in these samples. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. it will differ in sun light. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser.Ultra Violet matching.

export price. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips.99 While making lab dips. zippers. measurements. diameter and width of required fabrics. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. From the merchandising department only. quantity. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. He may omit some information to other departments. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. accessories. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. The description. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. merchandiser and buyer. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. If the bar codes are not clear. he should order them for bulk. trims. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. weight. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. labels. When sending lab dips to buyer. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. quality standards. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. The other departments may not need these information. They should be advised to the purchase department. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. Also as usual. colours. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. like buyer’s address. specifications. etc. hang tags. So while preparing internal order sheets. inner boards. This will save a good time. price or price target. But the other information like description. etc to buyer for approval. After getting the buyer’s approvals. delivery date. polybags. 99 . It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill.

quality. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. mid final and final. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. 100 . It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. vessel connections. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. If we work with the buyers directly. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. shipping lines. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. the number of inspections will be limited. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. for the better flawless production. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. documents. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. payment terms. online. quantity. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. port discharge. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. documents and shipping departments. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. initial. delivery terms. comments and instruction. description. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. status and problems of each stage of production. B/L instructions. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. Category. purchase order number. ETA. HS code. etc. ETD. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. though there is a separate production departments. Some times. he will have to advise and assist production.

Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. accessories and trims. This is called Work Study method. proper planning is essentially needed. 101 . It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. But the garment production is not that much simple. we will see garment production in detail. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. garment styles. So now. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. In these times of rising costs. overheads. planning is important. Upholstery. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. electricity and maintenance of production floors. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. Now let us see this in detail. nowadays. which is called production cost.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. responsible and sensitive process. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. the production department looks after not only the garment production. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. time and cost. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. Furniture and Shoes. This may be a single sentence. Accordingly for the better production of garments. For helping to reduce the production cost. increasing competition. production lead time and targeted shipment date. It includes the wages. valuable. At the same time. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. As we see in the earlier chapters. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. Since 1996. but also involves the fabric production. But there is another important cost. quantity. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily.

5. This is called Line Balancing. It helps us to cost our products. pressing. In order to balance this.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. quality control and packing. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. By this latest system. prior to the start of the production process. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. sewing. The SMV of cutting. flat lock and single needle.46 + 10% = 0. This is not true. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries.5 minutes for production from cutting. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock. In GSD systems. with a high level of accuracy. while 70% to 80% is handling time. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. For example. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. It means for this particular garment takes 11. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment.414 102 . Operation break down is calculated for each operation. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine.5 = 0.46 – 10% = 0. this effect is negligible. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. Upper Critical Limit = 0.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness.

sewing.57. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. Say 90%. We can find out the production capacity by working as below.125 x 60 11. When we plan for 25 machines. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60.174 garments. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. 103 . the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly.174 garments. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. sewing and finishing. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. Total working hours per month = 241 hours.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. We do this. Say 60%. Say 110%. It is to be decided according to the number of workers.5 = 1. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. 30. For example.57. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. Working hours on week days = 9. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. pressing.250 hours. let us take 50% of this total hours. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. Single needle machine operations will take more time. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. quality checking and packing. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. Hence the productivity output will be more. That is. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line.125 hours can be the effective hours. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting.

they will not cooperate with work study department.94 = Rs. 104 . solid. all over printed.22.000 per month.00. Also if the cutting is made manually. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. management and the production lines. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. costing department.000 30.94 So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11.125 x 60 = Rs. Allowances for cutting.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. prints. yarn stripes. open width form. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting.35. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. But with so much patience.1. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. colour fastness. dyed yarns) and hand feel. GSM. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. diameter or width. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently. colour shades (dyeing. Cost Per Minute Cost Per Minute = 35.00. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. The fabrics may be in tubular form. the patterns are to be made accordingly. etc. marketing department. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics.5 x 1.

The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. some markers may not care about this wales direction. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. They made this possible. Especially. printing mistakes. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). nothing can be done with the cut bits. it is important to cut the 105 . yarn mistakes. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages.105 If shrinkage. During World War II. Once they are being cut. by using line system in their production. oil stains and other mistakes. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. This is called line system. the cutting can not be commenced. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. They may mark them in any vacant places. sewing. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. If this not been followed. Then our whole calculation will be changed. dyeing mistakes. Feeding between these operations should be even. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. colour shade and hand feel. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. plackets and other patches. diameter. But this should not be acceptable. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. pockets. knitting mistakes.

This will help to avoid shading in packing. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. we will have to reject the full garment. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. So when cutting the fabrics. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. Though they are in the same lot. This is very important. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. When the bits are numbered. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. In case of ‘S’ cutting. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. At the same time. the body. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. Because of this carelessness. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. 106 . SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. flat lock machines and single needle machines. When cutting manually and by lay. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. As we had seen earlier. Markings. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible.106 hems along the lines. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. in order to avoid shade variation. If we find any bit having a mistake. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. we can reject the bit simply.

the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. Though they know better. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. the sewing methods. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. because this has safety thread stitch. 5 threads and 6 threads. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. attaching labels. 4 threads. trimming and packing. making. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. If they correct these mistakes then and there. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. In order to get better production result. Stitches should have required strength. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. When making sewing. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. The production managers. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. Hence nowadays. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. But most of the operators don’t do this. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. patches and badges. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. Both manual and power driven machines are available. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. Speedy sewing is appreciable. But this is not enough. there will not be a big problem. attaching collars & pockets. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch.

the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. oil stains. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. This is an important thing to be followed. button holes and embroidery. shade variations and overall finishing of garments. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. they should cut with extra care. This is very important. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. If they handle carelessly. print or embroidery mistakes. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. general appearance. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. damages. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. TRIMMING: After sewing. stitching quality. The end user will wash the garments. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. 108 . if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. garment shapes.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. When they trim the threads of buttons. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. labeling.

. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. . . 109 .Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. documentation. communication. production. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. In a company the quality is expected in management. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. we have to make various types of samples. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. our approach. if the weight is above their local standard weight. way of expression. etc. etc. Hence individual packing. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. So a special team is needed for making samples. finishing. hang tags. pattern maker.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. Labels. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. .Fabrics. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. If we don’t follow them properly.in our language. before using them. our way of working. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. bar codes. our policies. training and by our systems. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. our reaction. marketing. Before purchasing cartons. Buyers may face problems from the workers. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. our dress code. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. our methods.

If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. pressing and up to packing. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. quality of garments. They will not listen to the practical problems. inspections. yarn. profit or loss. delay in shipment. But practically. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. fabrics. patterning. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. In this system. etc. etc. 110 . sewing. inspections and mainly the shipment date. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. When there are major quality problems. Quality Audit Dept. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. finishing. processing. quality. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. Quality Assurance Dept. By this way. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. nobody can be blamed. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. future orders. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. the quality department will not be appreciated. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. production cost. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. shipment. labour management. maintenance of machineries. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. the shipment will be affected. productivity. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. costs. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. production. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. but the corrective measures. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. intimation to buyers. At the same time. because every one is doing his duties well. production departments and merchandising departments. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. Most of the times.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. rejections. knitting. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. production sufferings or loss. etc. cutting. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept.

he discusses with the merchandising team. As the routine of their jobs. improper trimming. When a person knows better about the garments. they find suitable solution quickly. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. Their responsibilities can be different. Even buyers know about these things. restricting or preventing mistakes.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. This is the cause of all the problems. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. There will not be any use of these reports. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. As an unwritten rule. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. but also to correct them. loose threads on buttons & labels. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. lesser number of stitches. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. Now. In worse cases. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. loose thread ends. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. For example. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. The management. This is what happening in most of the factories. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . etc. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. I suggest making some changes in this system. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. So in my opinion. It has to work under the merchandising department. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. as everybody join their hands and heads together. the merchandiser understands the problem. But their views and intention must be the same. they will not have answer. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department.

Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. . safety. etc.To dry heat / hot pressing.To perspiration (like sweat.Bursting strength.Yarn diameter. azo test. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments.Acid / alkaline / water spotting .Fibre content and .Composition of blends.112 rectified or corrected immediately. (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). amicably and permanently. . wear resistance.Single yarn strength. . . etc). LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. sea water & chlorinated water.To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. easily. . dimensional stability (shrinkage). fabric weight (GSM). Let us see the important tests below. . . fabric handling. water resistant. . Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality.Yarn shrinkage.To washing. . 112 . The important tests are to test colour fastness .Yarn friction. . Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. . etc.To normal water. .Evenness & hairiness. saliva. . Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. colour fastness. .To bleaching.To dry cleaning. .To light.Yarn counts. . Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality.Yarn twist.

Water resistance .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat.Crease recovery.Water repellency . In the earlier chapters.Wrinkle recovery .Soil release performance . .Relaxation . washing instructions and wash care labels.Washing and tumble dry . The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Rust proof . we had seen the importance of washing methods. Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for .Snagging resistance . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers.Stretch & recovery .Steaming.Wrinkle recovery . dimensional stability.Bow & skew. appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by . Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .Water proofness . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out. Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Moisture content .Random tumble pilling .Drape coefficient .Dry cleaning .Pilling resistance . The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight. They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Abrasion resistance .Washing and flat dry . 113 .Free formaldehyde content . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.

half a minute only. 114 . Do not rub. The machine should only be half filled. with washing instructions "hand wash. For example. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. Max 40 degree Celcius. Dry heavy knitted garments. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. Within the bowl. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. High temperature. cotton. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. demand special care. for example. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. there is a figure indicating the temperature. max 40C". This can result in discolouration. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. A short spin removes excess water best. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Spin for one minute only. linen. Hand wash only. Avoid leaving garments to soak. Max. Do not soak. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. do not rub or ring out. do not ring out. Normal spin. In a separate spin dryer.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. to give it a "fuller" feel. Do not wash in water. 200C. Rinse thoroughly. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment.

For example. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. natural silk. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. wool. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Low temperature. The line refers to the water added. Do not dry clean. On the other hand. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. Many garments can also be tumble dried.115 Medium temperature. Do not iron or rotary iron. Must not be bleached. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. For example. for a maximum of one minute. acrylic. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. The letters CL. avoid tumble drying 115 . the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. polyamide (nylon). Max 110C. Max 150C.

as tumble drying weak the garment. Do not tumble dry. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. size. but also to the production processes. product variations. Tumble dry. fit. Flat dry. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. damages and imperfections. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. Quality parameters include finish. Tumble dry normal. finish. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. Tumble dry low. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. as per the instructions of buyers. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 .116 garments that you particularly cherish. colour. materials. High heat in the tumble drier. component parts and garments. materials. Hang dry. durability. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’.

colour. They are to be measured.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. quantity and finish. . trims. When the measurements are being checked.assessing operational capability of machineries used. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. tickets. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. fabric weight.taking required action where standards of fabrics. where necessary. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. as required. accessories and garments. specifications. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. They have to make sure that safety. standard operating procedures.maintaining accurate records. work standards and patterns. . trims. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output.interpreting work instructions. accessories.identifying improvements. . housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. . equipment or personnel. regulatory authorities and the company. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. environmental. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. . Or some measurements may not be achieved. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. . In these cases. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . specifications. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. patterns. interpret and follow information on job instructions. quality. 117 .

Quality checks include visual inspection. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. . sewing. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. making and measurements.the action taken promptly. 118 . It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . decoration. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. . accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. garment styles.job procedures and work instructions. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers.safety policies. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. colours. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. fabric qualities.waste and pollution management. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. Each end user will have different taste of colours. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. Also each of them will have different body fits. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. etc. . .118 If there is any change in the measurements. So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours.

fabric quality. In most of the factories. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. they don’t care much about the measurements. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. 119 . The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. By saying like this. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. they would argue about the measurement deviations. After making their quality reports. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. attractive colours and suitable styles .119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. styles are most important than the measurements. if there is any measurement problem. So logically. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. style and fit than to measurements. They don’t even bother to know about them. fabrics. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. the garment can be accepted. checkers. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. colours. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. colours. From their reports. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. workmanship. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. So when a garment is having measurement problem. We are fully responsible for them. We can not do anything on them. The reason is this. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. The colours. the presentation is also important for packed garments.

The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. At the same time. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. price tags. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. When we do the inspections. Also by these inspections. The more number of online inspections. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. They are initial. This is also called Assured Quality Level. collar bones. pilot batch. online. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. If they are not satisfied with the quality. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. Then the final inspection will be very easy. Usually the levels 4.120 The things like hang tags. Even then. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. On the other hand. the garment can not be sold. 120 . This is unsafe for the factory. middle. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections.5 are used in garment inspections. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. pre-final and final inspections. When they do only final inspections. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. So after rechecking. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. sometimes. special branded tags. inner boards.0 and 2. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. tissue papers.065 to 15. These things will not be of any use to the end users. only some garments can be checked selectively. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. without doing initial or online inspections. the more quality can be improved. But if the presentation of packing is not good. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. bands. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition.

Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. That is coordination. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. it is not an impossible thing. sincerity and hard working. honesty. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. At the same time. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. self confidence. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 .121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. But there is one thing is commonly needed. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. We should remember that this is a team work. In order to reach these higher levels. It is not easy. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. On the other hand. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities.

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