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Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book
2 will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career! INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges 2 Page No. 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26
3 Procedures Advantages Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37
ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons 3
6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.4 Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms 4 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 .3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.
90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production 5 73 73 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 . 60days.5 L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill Documentation At Sight L/C 30days.
6 Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .
accurate GSM can not be achieved. making and other references. undergarments. As 7 . Hence nowadays. Pique. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. towels and made ups are Woven. trousers. etc. And we will have to keep the garment for style. pyjamas and socks are Knits. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. Polar fleece and Jacquards. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. sweatshirts.000 sq. According to the structure of fabrics. prints. colours. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. round cutters are used. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. One is Woven garments. width should be considered with more care. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. Another is Knitted garments.cms. Loop knit. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. But yarn counts. But most of the times. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. reed & picks (warp & weft). then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. power looms and mill made. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. This system is used worldwide. With the help of this round cutter. If we have fabrics. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. Interlock. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. they are called by different names. blankets. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. Rib. Fleece. style. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. French Rib. T shirts. fabric quality. finishing. bed spreads. sarees. Flat back rib. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. Making woven fabrics is simple. embroidery. we will have only the garments to find GSM. Shirts.
40’s. We can see. etc. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. 80’s. the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. etc. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. This process is called ‘Combing’. 36’s. 24’s. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. 10’s.8 this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. raw material. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. availability. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. According to the technical parameters. We can consider like this. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. 25’s. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. So when the yarn counts are increasing. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 60’s. hand feel. 8 . Combed and Carded. the fabric will have very even look. 20’s. For this purpose. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. 100’s. Hence after knitting or weaving. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. the Yarn. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is.25 inches to 2. 38’s. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. higher the prices. strength. Yarn prices based on the thickness. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. 34’s. 30’s. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn.5 inches. evenness. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. We must know. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. 16’s. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. a special process is being done. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. the thickness becomes lesser. Because of the same longer length of fibers. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. higher the counts. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. the lesser the thickness. the higher the counts. Because of this extra process. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. 4’s. Combed is superior quality.
Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. But as we use 100% Cotton. Ecru mélange. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. etc. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. which is very important. due to higher shrinkage. In colour mélange yarn also. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. Flax mélange. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. Hence. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. But we must think of shrinkage.9 The processing (dyeing. Bleached Melange are used widely. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. Colour mélange. For example. There are different mélange yarns. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. Grey Melange. 9 . For light colour mélange yarn. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. But for dark colour mélange yarns. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. the cotton portion will be in light shade. In these yarns. They are Grey mélange. bleached mélange. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. Ecru Melange. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. According to the required percentage and colour shades. To avoid this shrinkage problem. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns.
Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. we can not expect the consistency of shades.250 per kg.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. the yarn contains more cotton. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. 100/2. Dark colours: Rs. In manual yarn dyeing.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. For easy reference. 10 . the dyed yarns are used. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. 80/2. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. yarn strength and better quality. dull and dead cottons. Rs. Cost wise. giving more resistance and silky feel. Medium colours: Rs. like 60/2. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. As the finer cottons are used. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. For yarn dyeing. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. only combed yarns are used.
After mercerising. to minimise the cost. 11 . As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. As mercerising is done two times. these dyed yarns are used. These yarns do not create allergies to body. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. 3. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. the yarn will be singed (gassed). For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. This process is called Mercerising. After combing and twisting. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. By this process. 4. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. Due to more heat. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. 2. these yarns are used for knitwear. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. fabrics have to be mercerised again. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). Due to its high resistance properties. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. Then after mercerizing. underwear and hosiery. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. This will give more life to the garments. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. Further. Longer life of garments. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. 5. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. In this method.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. Used for making very expensive special garments. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. In any case. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn.
12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.
13 KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13
14 When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”.
Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. If this diameter is larger than the pattern. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. If the repeat width is more than 3. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. we get the single yarn with blends. machine gauge. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. Also as we have seen earlier. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. we have to be careful of their counts. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. viscose. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines.5cms. texture and grey GSM. We have to note that a maximum of 3.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. then there will be more fabric wastage. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs.5cms. processed diameter is based on grey diameter. it can be knitted in normal machines. grey diameter is based on machine diameter.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. polyamide (nylon).5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. and 15 . KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy.
we use the above formula. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. we can use following conversion formula. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. Counts Denier = 5315 Denier = 5315 Counts Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. So. during knitting. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. To select suitable denier. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. Also. Then only the knitting will be even. 16 . If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. In order to select the suitable denier. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn.
compacting method & temperature. processing water quality. qualities of dyes & chemicals.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . Fabric for body. rope. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. cuffs. cuffs. If we take more care during processing. processing methods. . rope. collar and cuffs in one garment. we have to check following things before knitting. To avoid shading between body. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. rib. there will be shade variations between lots. At the same time. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. sleeves and grey collars. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. after processing. after compacting (on cutting table). We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. after processing. . twill tape: 1. same dyeing factory and same finishing process.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. after processing. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%.Diameter (as per Pattern) . these variations can be limited. . etc. sleeves. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. we will get different results. rib. For example. To avoid shade variations. before processing. sleeves. . processing timing. we have to follow the following procedures.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting.GSM – during knitting. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. we will not get the same result every time. sleeves.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . same knitting machine. fastness as per approval) .. gauge. Due to the above reasons. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. before processing. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. . So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. after compacting (on cutting table). collar. Grey fabrics for body. before finishing or compacting. processing and compacting. collar.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. etc. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. before finishing or compacting.Colour (shade. 17 . This is very important. . cuffs. 2.Diameter – machine diameter.
If the packing is Solid size in one carton. cuffs. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. Collars. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. 4. etc) should be numbered during cutting. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. ribs. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. cuffs. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. We must study the packing methods clearly. PROCESSING 18 . processing time. Water temperature. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. 3. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). twill tapes. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. before sending the fabrics for processing. 4. This is very important. sleeves. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. 6. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. 2. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot.18 3. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. When we have to use yarn from different lots. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. pockets. Once 1st lot is approved. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. collars. patches. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. 2. 3. Lab dips should not be referred. All the parts of one garment (body. ribs. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. Fabric program should be made accordingly. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. 5. Mixing of lots should be avoided. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. ropes. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY.
3’-dichlorobenzidine. 3. 2. gloves. o-Toluidine. In April 1996. briefcases. 3. 3. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. 4. If the garment supplied by a supplier.6-Xylidine.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. p-Cresidine. Benzidine. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. hairpieces.4’-Oxydianiline. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. diapers and other sanitary items.4-Xylidine. 2. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs.4-Diaminoanisole. 3. 2.5-Trimethylaniline. 4. Hence. bedding. chair covers and toys. 2-Naphthylamine.4. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. O-Anisidine. wallets. p-Aminoazobenzene.4’-Thiodianiline.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin. They are clothing.19 AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing.3’-Dimethyl-4. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. 19 . the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline).4-Toluylendiamine. wigs. 4. hats. p-Chloroaniline. towels. footwear.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane. 2. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. purses.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. 2. belts. 4. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. o-aminoazotoluene. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. 4-Aminobiphenyl. watch straps.
Winch bleach is the traditional method. They are by using open winches. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. In this case. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. Any bright shades like Milk white. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. It is approximately Rs. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. One is Chlorine Bleach. Above all. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods.7. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. Also it will give irritation to body. If we smell the fabric deeply. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. Also it will not give irritation to body. By using Continuous bleaching machine.10 – 12 / kg. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. But this is not acceptable. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost.000 per colour. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. it is banned in most of the countries. It will have lesser whiteness. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. before certifying to buyers.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. If this fabric tested for azo contents. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. we can smell Chlorine. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. Another is Peroxide Bleach.30–35/kg. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. There will not be any smell. FABRIC DYEING: 20 .
3. One is Winch dyeing. fabrics will be removed from the winches. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. This combination is called Recipe. Another is Soft flow dyeing. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. other Jersey fabric. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. We will have more discussions on this. This is the normal dyeing. When lab dips are made. 2. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. Nowadays. Discharge dyes are to be used. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. the fabric will be very stiff. it means Reactive dyeing only. After checking whether the required shade is attained. Even. As we discussed above. which is made with different yarn. For example. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. They are Reactive dyeing. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. Then only we will get required results. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. acid wash. During dyeing. enzyme wash. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. When the winch is rotated by a motor. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). According to the approved lab dip. only Azo Free dyes should be used.21 There are 3 qualities of dyeing. After this. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. bulk dyeing will be done. There are 2 types of dyeing. etc. 21 . the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. 1. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. By using these dyes in dyeing. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. should not be used. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. the fabrics will roll on winches.
Light Red. the dyes are available in suitable shades. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. the direct dyes will not be available. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. Brown. For some shades. etc are Dark colours. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. The costliest colour is Royal. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. Temperature. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. Olive Green. Lt Pink. For the regular shades. Lt Green. Blue. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. So after dyeing. Lt Blue. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to 22 . Military Green. In these cases. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. These types of machines are used in recent years. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Lt Orange. In open winch dyeing. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. Light Grey. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. Green. Red. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. etc are Medium colours. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. Navy. etc are the darkest colours. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Yellow. Dark Blue. Due to this.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. There will not be any colour patches. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. These are called ‘Combination colours’. the temperature of water will not be consistent. It is a closed winch. timing. But in soft flow dyeing. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. fabric capacity. Medium Green. Dark Navy. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Grey. As the winch is kept opened. Lt Yellow. everything is computerised. They have to be cut and rejected. Orange. Black. Also the colour fastness will be better. Blue. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. Due to this. It will be much lesser. the temperature is consistent. etc are Light colours. dyes & water capacity. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. (It is too expensive. Offwhite.
So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. To do the fabric mercerising. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. twill tapes. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. Due to this and due to more processing time. we can get similar shade. smell and to get softer hand feel. but it will have poor colour fastness.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality.45 to 50 per kg.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. Not only the fabrics. Due to this. If the mercerising is not been done properly. 23 . the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. Black. but also improved colour absorbency. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. etc. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. Due to this mercerising. We can get some reduction from the mill. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. Red.23 reduce the cost. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . By these colours. Also to avoid the handling stains. But after knitting. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. these fabrics are to be washed. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. The collars. the dyeing quality will be inferior. ribs. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges.
6 per kg. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. Steam calendering charge: Rs. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases.1. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. GSM. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. Shrinkage.15 – 20 per kg.24 The washing charge is normally Rs. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. When we calender the fabrics. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. nothing can be done. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying.12 – 15 per kg.5 per kg. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. 1.50 / kg. 2. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. Some times.50 to 2. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. With these compacting machines. There are no facilities in calendering machines. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. To remove these wrinkles. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. We can get better result from these compacting machines. From these machines. we can adjust following things. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. We must be aware of this important fact. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. HEAT SETTING: 24 . 3. Diameter. glossy finish of fabric. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously.
and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. But for the blended fabrics. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. We can print the second colour. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. etc. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. But to get better result. Quick and time saving. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Perfect registration (placement).25 The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. only after drying the 1st colour. If the stroke of the printer differs. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. Acrylic. Loop knit (French rib). The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. Elastan (Spandex). the fabric will be very stiff and hard. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. Charges for Heat set: Rs.10 per kg. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. 1.25 – 30 per kg. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. it will take more time for multi colour printing. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. 3. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. as cotton is the natural fiber. the heat set process is a must. After dyeing and after drying. we have many advantages in rotary printing. Polyamide (Nylon). 2. the print quality will differ. fleece. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. Printing is done one colour by one colour. PRINTING There are two different prints. it is better to do heat set in open width form. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. 4. They are as follows. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. Charges for one side raising: Rs. Especially. 25 . Viscose. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Consistent printing colours and quality. They are all over prints and chest prints. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process.
screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. if the fabric absorbs the water. If the fabric has softener. Then the printing will look blurred. If the softener is added. If the fabric is even slightly wet. Due to this. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. 4. Immediate drying. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. 6. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. seating and registration.1cms. These machines are very rare in use. kerosene is used as an alternate. The diameter of the screen is 64. we can achieve perfection in printing. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. This will create major problem in garmenting. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. For printing in Rotary machines. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. For this. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. Even though it will cost more. Rotary screens are in tubular form. it means the fabric has softener. it means the fabric does not have softener. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. Though the films are made with computer. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. 2. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product.1cms. the fabric will get completely dried. Pigment prints. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. If the fabric does not absorb the water. as the continuous process. After printing. Some times.26 5. 26 . the print will be better than on the first side. 3. Less wastage. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. Also before printing. more care to be taken while making films. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines.
Cheaper cost. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Advantages: 1. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. 3. 3. 4. If we need softer hand feel after printing. after the print. the fabric will smell after printing. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. 2. 5. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. As the continuous process. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. etc. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. water 27 . 2. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. avoid smell. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. Selection or mixing colours are easier. a square design may change into a rectangle. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. as the normal procedure. Rough hand feel. Also due to the double job. Hence after printing on both sides. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. 6. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print.27 5. a round design may change into an oval shape. Print smell. Any shade is possible. 6. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. For example. 8. Less process after printing. As an alternative for this. Then. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. 7. 7. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. 9. the fabric is to be washed after curing. Risk factors: 1. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks.
Procedures: 1. 8. 5. This is called water base prints. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. 7. 28 . It is called Third page image. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. They are made mainly from the vegetables.28 is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. Softener should not be added in dyeing. 3. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. For this. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. Shade masters will prepare one shade. 2. Reactive dyes to be used. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. They are called organic dyes. the print dusts will stick to the fabric again. 4. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. it is better to print in open width form only. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. It is called River Wash. To remove the print dusts. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. To avoid this. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. this wash is essential. As the water should not be recycled. Before bulk printing. 6. But this kind of water print is very rarely used.
2. 2. 4. For this. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. Very soft hand feel. It is better to avoid this). But this will not have better fastness. we can easily use Pigment printing. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. Too many important processes to be followed. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour.29 9. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Softener should not be added in dyeing. it is not used widely. Importantly. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. Best colour fastness. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. By touch. Risk factors: 1. 3. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Procedures: 1. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. 2. Very expensive. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. in pigment printing. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes).: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. Then fabric is to be dried. Brightness of colours even after many washes. Too much care to be taken in every process. Longer life for prints. Advantages: 1. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. (In some cases. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. we have to use Discharge printing. It means. we can use pigment printing. 4. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. 5. 29 .
5. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours.: As we see. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. 6. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. 4. 8. After printing. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. Advantages: 1. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. Better colour fastness. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. Expensive print cost. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. the base colour White will be visible as printed. 7. This is very important as during printing. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. after the removal of dyeing colour. To avoid this. Therefore. 4. Then after discharge printing. If White is one of the printing colours. No river wash is needed. Before bulk printing. Risk factors: 1. Green. All colour shades can not be achieved. 2. 5. 4. When printing.30 3. After printing is completed. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. 5. Better soft hand feel. 2. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. 3. after the removal of dyeing colour. Can be printed manually too. and Navy. It is called Third page image. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. These costs 30 . Printing to be done with discharge dyes. Then after discharge printing. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. Red. 3. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. Long lasting print quality. That is. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black.
31 . Perfect placement and registration. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. number of colours. print area and coverage. 2.1 lakh). 7. Perfume prints. Sticker prints. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. 8. Non-PVC prints. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. 4. Reflective prints. No stain in unprinted areas. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages.31 will differ according to the dyeing shades. etc. Longer life for prints. Sugar prints. Quick production. 3. Foam prints. But prints will have the best quality. Foil prints. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. 6. 5. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. Water prints.40 lakhs). 1. This machine is very costly (about Rs. Like all over printing on rotary machines. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. They are as follows. Better smoothness and sharpness. Better colour fastness. Transfer prints. No smell. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. 9. There are 2 types of machines. Motif prints. Flock prints. Glitter prints. etc. Octopus machine will print automatically. Embossed prints. Perfect colours and shades. With these machines. Plastisol prints. Less wastage. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost.
the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. 32 . Fusing cost is included in the above costs. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. etc. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. foil. as there will be no print smell. glitters. Batiks. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. It does not matter. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. After plastisol print. To get the cost of other special quality prints. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. it is better to check with the printers. After the manual printing. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. flock. foam. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. etc.5 per kg. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only.32 Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. Procedures: 1. It is better to use Discharge dyes. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. sugar.
the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. 33 . We have to remember that so far. It may be stripes or any other design. After the tie & dye process.33 2. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. The dipping will be done manually. 15. If we use normal embroidery threads. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. It will take few minutes only. shrinkage and shape. 11. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. 7. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. And so on. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. by taking note of all the details. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. (In case of emergency. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. But to get better result. 20. 8. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. As the fixing agent is fixed now. If we do tie & dye in bit form. If we do tie & dye in garment form. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. 17. Before cutting the bits for garments. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. 14. the other colours will not fix properly. 13. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. 6. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. If there is any other base colour except White. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. 18. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. 10. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. 4. Fabrics for body. the result will not be good). 16. 9. (If it is Chlorine bleached. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. 12. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. 3. This is the dyeing process. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. 19. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. sleeves. it is better to dry them in shadows). shrinkage and shape of garment. they will not get dyed. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. nothing can be done about measurements. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. And to be dried under shades naturally. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 5.
18 to 20.. 2. This is also called Wax printing. Enormous designs can be made. garmenting. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. will be made by wax. GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. Risk factors: 1. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. processing. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. 2. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems.. This is like printing. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. 34 . curtain cloths. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. Mostly used for sarees. This is almost like tie & dye. Drying by machines is not possible. Approximately. The printing designs like stars. 3. depending on the design. length and width of the bits. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. As it is done manually. bed spreads and lungies. can be made at affordable prices. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. By this. Better colour fastness. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. 4. etc. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. For larger quantities. the charge may be Rs. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. churidars. 5. cutting. etc. Hence after removing the waxes.34 Advantages: 1. for 2 colours. 4. due to different dyes. methods. During and after the process.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. As all the processes are done manually. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. we will get different qualities and results. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. GSM. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. the charges will be based on number of colours. flowers. BATIKS: This is also done manually. etc. 3.
Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. the substances are to be used. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 1. As the garments are dyed in vessels. sleeves. rope. 3. After the fabrics are dyed. side slits and pockets. are called Lot. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. (Depending on the required effect. garment dyeing method is followed. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. Faded wash. sleeve. Fabric for body. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. cuffs. even though we have taken more care. neck rib. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. 2. cuff. 5. Denim (Jeans) wash. shrinkage and shape. Acid wash 3. 11.. collars. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. placket box. shoulder seam. After the garment dyeing. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). Enzyme wash 4. shrinkage and shape. 9. 13. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. dyed from one machine at one time. side slits and pockets. etc. There will be 35 . To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. Then body. 12. 7. If the garment is processed more than enough. by taking note of all the details. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. cuffs. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. etc. collar. cuffs are attached together. 14. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. Stone wash. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. 6. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. 5. Since many parts are attached. 8. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . For example. Procedures: 1.35 We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). placket box. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. 10. there may be shade variations between these parts. 4. The garments. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. for stone washed effect. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot.mainly at neck seam around collar. 2. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. shoulder seam. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye.
: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. all over embroidery can be made. rejections of garments will be high. Different qualities of washes are possible. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. cuffs. some other special machines to be used. There will not be any shade variation between body. 4. 2. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. 4. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. In these special acoba embroidery machines. 5. Due to the special effects and quality. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. Due to the damages in garments. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. This will vary from machines to machines.36 difference in shades and washing effect between lots. 3. collar. Risk factors: 1. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. Washed look can be achieved. 3. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. Because of its own quality nature. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). sleeves. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). there will not be any shrinkage further. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. it is expensive. Advantages: 1. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. etc. 2. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. 36 .
Cost of No.24 per zip. curtain cloths. etc in addition to the number of stitches. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs. Labels. Tissue papers. fixing cost. In these auto lock zippers. ACCESSORIES Buttons. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs.40 to 60 per gross. Packing pins.50 to 70 per gross.7 per zip. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. though the number of stitches is lesser.00 per 1000 stitches. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details.3 zippers are used.15 to 40 per gross. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. For children garments. Anyhow. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Elastics. blouses.50 per garment. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. It can 37 . designer’s fabrics.10 to 15 per gross.1.5 zippers. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. Ropes. Inner boards. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. Lock quality is to be checked. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. No. Zippers. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Hang tags.3 zippers is lesser than No. Metal buttons. quantity. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. for making costing. Also each accessory has many dimensions. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. Due to competition. etc. specifications. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. No. Badges. etc.37 Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees. the zipper can not be opened. But the minimum cost is around 2. Twill tapes.5 – 7 per zip.5 zippers are used. Even if the tapes are pulled. decorative fabrics. etc. Polybags. For adult garments. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs.22 – 24 per zip. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. qualities.
One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. number of colours. From 1. etc. wash care labels.30 to 40 per kg. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed.0. 8mm. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs. It depends on the design. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. etc are used for legs of undergarments. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. For the special pullers.50 per metre. As these badges are very special. The prices are based on quality. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe. There are 2 types of woven labels. It is approximately Rs.38 be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs.1. size labels. 2.5cm.50 per metre. Elastics with the width of 4mm.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. thickness. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. From 3.00 per metre. 12mm. Elastics with 1cm. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics.2.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. width. 10mm.1. From 2.75 per metre. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. In these labels. This is single 38 . 6mm. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly. Yarn price to be added with this charge. Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity.3. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. Badges are in many types. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. There are plain elastics and named elastics. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside.50 per metre. 2cm. quality and quantity. the prices will be different.
Hence the quality.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs. number of colours.0. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. single side or both sides printing. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes.0. design. There are non-computerised looms are also available. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users.0.0.0.80 per tag. style. This is an important thing. With these machines also woven labels are made.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. care instructions.00 to Rs.0.0. If there is anything special. Damask labels are woven on both sides. colours.08 per label. 39 .60 to Rs.1. This is double weave. the price may be Rs. The tags can be made at cheaper prices.25” width x 10cm length): Rs. the price may be Rs.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look.0. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. composition.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. it is safer to check them too. If the yarn colour bleeds. In these labels.30 to Rs. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.40 to Rs.0.0. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing.39 weave. Hence before using the printed labels.1.0. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands. If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. tags are used and attached with the garments.10 per label.0. composition. if printing and cutting are made manually.0. prices. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels. measurement.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. etc.15 per label. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. printing design. Single colour (1. etc. Woven labels: Main label (2. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. die-cut design and quantity.50 per tag. colours. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also. sizes. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.30 to Rs.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water.0.
10 to Rs.50 each paper. measurements.0.30 to Rs.00 per board. the rejection of polybags will be more. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs.00. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. For normal size. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs.0. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes.60 to Rs. PP bags have bright look.0.00 per tag.30 to Rs.0. quantity. Due to this.02 for one inch length. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. One is PP (Polypropylene). If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.50 to Rs. die cut (scoring) and quantity.0. If the width of polybag is 12”. special quality with die cut: Rs.00 to Rs. 40 .0.24 per bag. quality.30 to Rs. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment.80 per bag.0. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. prints. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. Another is PE (Polyethylene).0.0. most of the customers insisting to use PE only. the price may be around Rs.4. it may not be recyclable. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs.1. For special sizes. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins. etc. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. the tape cost will be Rs.25 to Rs. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look.0.40 per bag.65. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags.15 each paper.50 per board. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs.0. depends on paper quality. If the polybag is very thin. depends on quality of paper & print. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs.0.0. nowadays.40 If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. As PE polybags are recyclable.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread.55. normal quality: Rs. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0.0.
00 approximately. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers.1. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. Hence approximately Rs.00 to Rs. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs.3. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments.25 will be the master bag cost per garment.4. sizes. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM).5. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. plastic hangers. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used.00 to Rs. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.00 to pack 24 to 50garments.41 Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. the cost will be Rs. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only.00 to Rs. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers.15. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper.0. etc. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea. Recycled papers should not be used. design. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. etc. The hangers are in different types. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs.18.104.22.168. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs. quantity.20. styles. 41 .25 to Rs. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. Also the hooks are in different types. sizes suitable for different garment styles.60 per garment. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM.25.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments).1. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.00 to Rs.
it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread.Flat lock machines. CMT charge depends on the style of garment.12 per pc. Making and Trimming charges.20 per pc.42 CMT CHARGES (Cutting. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. packing methods and other works. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs.12 per pc. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. productivity. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. and attaching collars & labels. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. . the charges for these jobs are higher. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders.18 per pc. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. . Making. There are manual and power driven machines are used.10 per pc. local transport. quality standards. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. trims and accessories to these Job workers.Lockstitch machines. the charges for these jobs are very much higher. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. etc. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. nowadays. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting. time consumption. 42 . Some factories will do only CMT jobs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments.Over lock machines. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. only the power driven machines are used. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock).14 per pc. . number of jobs with over lock. pockets. Though CMT is Cutting. flat lock & lock stitch machines. V neck covering. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge.20 per pc. Lock stitches are used for making plackets.
These above charges are approximate. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs.it may be road or rail transport.13 per pc. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. etc. It includes local road transport. it will be claimed by the buyer. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. sea transport. While we confirm the orders from the customers. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): 43 . EXW. air transport.8 per pc. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss.10 per pc. It is the same as FOB. Insurance and Freight. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. CPT. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB.12 per pc. It means the buyer will pay the freight . FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board.10 to Rs. Ex-factory. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. etc. the charges to be added accordingly.12 to Rs. EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. C&F.15 per pc. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. CIF: It is Cost. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight.10 per pc. CIP.43 Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. CIF. If there are any extra works. FCA.12 per pc. rail transport. If it is C&F By sea. insurance premium and the freight. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. If it is C&F By air. CFR. FAS. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB.22 per pc.
There are 20’. etc. Local transport to the port. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. Mostly FOB. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). C&F. Customs charges – Documentation. There are 2 types of loading. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. routing. According to the volume of goods. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). etc. Charges of freight. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. 3. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. Port expenses – Loading. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF.44 It is the same as FOB. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. 4. 1. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. the size of container is to be decided. it is called FCL. 2. CIF terms are used. 5. 44 . Their approximate capacity is as follows. inspection. 6. In case of export to other countries. If we have doubt about the terms. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. availability.
Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. granite stones. This is called Consolidation of Goods. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. etc. To solve this problem. distance between destinations. Shipping lines: 45 . The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. This system is called transshipment. This is also called transshipment. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. as Tuticorin port is small. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. transshipment. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. It is called Loose Container Load. but with more weight – Like steel. routing & transit time. Colombo port is very big. shipping lines and conference lines. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available.may be stuffed in one full container. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . Though some ports have more sea depth. the freight will be based on weight too. etc. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. the mother vessels do not come to this port. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. For example. In this case. As this port is in the main sea route. Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. Sometimes.45 If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. And in Colombo port. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. The nearest port is Colombo.
The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world. the 46 . if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air.99.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs.72.94. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines.76. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. Depending on the destination and on the flight services.1. By using these Conference Lines.46 The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. Japan. etc.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs.58. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs. Kuwait.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. China. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area.000 – Rs. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments.44. better connection in transshipments.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs. (We will discuss about this in detail later).500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. safety.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.17.54. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines. As we discussed above.22.63.000 – Rs.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port).1.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs.1.21. Hong Kong.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs. their partner company will use their vessel.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs.90.36. according to their capacities. Taiwan. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore.90. This is a regular practice.
There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. Some times.100 to Rs. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines.140 per kg. etc.110 per kg. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. we can use smaller airlines. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. As like sea shipments.1. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form.2. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports.80 to Rs. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. we have to bear the local transport to the port. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment.47 goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. documentation charges. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. The receipt is Airway Bill. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. customs clearing charges. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. the goods have to be sent by air. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). As the freight charges are very high. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. 47 . we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. stuffing charges. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. etc. volume of goods. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. In these cases. It will come about Rs.00 to Rs. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. At the same time. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. loading & unloading. Hence the shipment will be delayed. most of the shipments will go by sea only.
We must remember that the quality depends on price. sales. routing. this charge is very nominal.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. shipping. Each product will have different price according to its quality. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. processing and finishing of fabrics. etc. charges of transport and conveyance. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the customers.6. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. processing. procedures. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. methods and quality systems. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. To do perfect garment costing. marketing. transportation (road. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. price depends on quality. the charges will come about Rs. While we do the garment costing. air) and freight charges.02% of the total value of goods.4. to be taken into consideration. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. transport and conveyance. quality & quantity and payment terms. banking charges and commissions. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. production. Due to the above practical reasons. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. distance between ports. sewing and packing. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. charges of knitting. etc. the customer’s price level. market prices and availability. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories.00 to Rs. is essential to make perfect costing. etc. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. finishing. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. advantages and risk factors. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs.48 C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. etc. sewing and packing of garments. over heads. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. sea. 48 . latest procedures. When we consider the value of goods. knitting fabrics.
Gross weight of other components of garment. 7.) 6. CMT charges 8. tags. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely.49 The method of making costing will vary from style to style. Fabric consumption. Large (L). we must have the measurements of Chest. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. etc) 9. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. etc. Let us see them in detail now. 4.) 7. To work on the prices exactly. 6. polybags. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. embroidery. costings can be made for other styles too. cartons. Price of a garment. Cost of trims (labels. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Body Length and Sleeve Length. badges. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. Men’s Basic T shirts. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. 5. 5. etc. 4. buttons. we must have full measurements of the garment. Cost of accessories (hangers. twill tapes. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). Ladies Night dress. 2. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. Men’s Pyjamas. Cost of a garment. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. 1. 1. 2. 3. To make the garment costing. As there are many different styles in garments. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 49 . we have to find out following things. 3. The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. Fabric cost per kg. bows. But compulsorily. inner boards. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. 10. Medium (M). Fabric cost per garment. Other charges (print.
cms. That is. Sizes: S. Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. Australia are measuring in Inches. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. USA. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. if the area of the fabric is 10. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. As we discussed earlier. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. TRIAL COSTING NO. the consumption will be lesser.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. 50 . 1 Inch = 2. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. S – XXL. Even in Europe.000 square centimetres). M. L. XL. The garment measurements for USA. if the garment measurements are in Inches. Canada.54Centimeters. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. In any case.50 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. In other words. To find the fabric consumption. As we have seen earlier. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. they have to be converted into Centimeters. If the GSM is lesser. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. (No style number or no size is needed to print). we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. If the GSM is higher. the consumption will also be relatively higher. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes.000 sq. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters.
As the fabric is in tubular. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. That is. For example. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Length = 78 cms. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Neck rib width = 3 cms. That is. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. Hence due to either way. Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 51 . for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. the finished fabric may have more width than required.51 Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Hem = 3 cms. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. Generally. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. if we are unable to control this. In case. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. Pique & Interlock. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. (22. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. Thus. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. 63 or 64cms.000 pcs). For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length.
though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. Let us assume that according to the patterns.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. In other words. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. we should remember that the front body. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 52 . Length = 78 cms. Neck rib : 10 grams. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Gross weight : 197 grams. to avoid shade variation. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. At the same time. (0. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. the garments are based on weights.52 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. Let us assume following are the measurements. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. Chest = 60 cms. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. If they are possible. In this case. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). Let us take the GSM is 140. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. then we have to find out by which fabric width.
This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. Then we will have to calculate as below. we have to select the suitable width. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. we can see that it will be 1. among the possible widths. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. Thus. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. It means. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. As we had seen earlier.53 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight. Let us calculate the same for 62”. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment.14 mtrs of 50” width. Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. only if they are all over printed on open width form.
badges.00 Knitting charge = 8.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193.00 OTHER CHARGES (Print.44.20 X 197 1000 = 38. ropes.38.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours For Light colours = 193.25) Medium colours 40.00 6.70 X 197 1000 = 44.54 The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric.70 203.00 10.00 9.27 (Round off: Rs. there is no need of print or embroidery.00 8. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). let us work for Medium & Dark colours. So there are no charges.06 (Round off: Rs.00) Likewise. twill tapes. COST OF TRIMS (zippers. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135. tags.00 184. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.00) = 224.25 Light colours Fabric cost per garment = Rs.13 (Round off: Rs.00 45. 38.00 194. For Medium colours For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours = 203.00 Dyeing charge = 35.00 214.40.00 8. buttons.00 Dark colours 44.70 X 197 1000 = 40.70 Dark colours 135. labels.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 Compacting charge = 6. 54 . elastic.00 6. embroidery.70 224.20 Medium colours 135.00 65.
1.Normal (not a special one): Rs.0. tags.20 = Rs.85 10.00 1. sea freight / air freight). cartons.00 = -= Rs. 1.10 Hang tag: Rs.00 1. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment.35 = Rs.0. Polybag .40 So the total cost of trims is Rs. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one).38.00 -0. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. 0. Now let us see these things in detail.45 1. etc. 55 . : Rs.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. Let us see the cost of these things. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. 2. 3.00 = Rs. inner boards.70 Medium cols 40. Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. cartons. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Light cols = Rs. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. etc): For this Basic T shirt.20 1. as example.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs. let us see the costs of the required accessories.10.0. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2. 2. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier.51. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price.0.70 58.75 Dark cols 44.10.85 10.55 Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts.50.30 per garment. 1.00 per garment. polybags. Master polybag – Normal: Rs. profit.50 = Rs.0.35 56.25 -0.55 53. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.35 per garment.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.35 52.80 per garment.1. : Rs. Let us see what are the trims required for this style. We require following things.85 per garment.0.15 We have found out the cost of garment.85 = Rs. 0. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers.25 per garment. Export carton – Normal: Rs. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.) Cost of trims (labels. 1.
51.38.35 52.75 1.55 53. if any. 7. incentives.35 = Rs. Anyhow. Light cols Fabric cost per garment = Rs.95 -----62. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. machineries.60 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. standards.85 CMT charges = Rs.85 10. COMMISSION: For some orders. interest for investments. 1.75 8.90 68. etc.00 Other charges (print.70 Now we add the local transport = Rs. 56 Medium cols 40.15 8.00 Cost of accessories (polybags. etc) = Rs. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. let us work on 15% profit margin.35 56. electricity.) = -Cost of trims (labels. etc.60 As there is no commission to be paid = ------Prices of garment = Rs.45 1. It may be approximately Re.56 SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.90 = Rs.50.05 ------68. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example.05 . 1.1 per garment. depreciation of machineries.3333.20 1.00 59. etc) = Rs. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price.00 1.60. So we don’t have to add sea freight.70 58.15 1.20 62. office salary. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. 0.20 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. with the above costs of garments. If the terms are C&F or CIF. tags.25 -0. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota. 1.85 10. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’. Let us recall our earlier costing. the quota system will be removed from January 2005.00 = Rs. etc) and profit margin.70 Profit @ 15% = Rs. cartons.60. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.10. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. bonus. It will vary from company to company depends on their size.95 Dark cols 44.50 Cost of garment = Rs. We have to add this commission. For our calculation.00 54. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No.00 -0.52.00 1.
L. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.40 FOB.40 For Dark colours : Rs.00 = USD 1.80 FOB.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned.If we made any change in buyer’s details. Some Tips: For easy reference. quantity and specifications.If we expect any price hike in near future. Quota Category: 4 Price / pc USD 1.60 divided by 45.57 Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. For 180GSM – USD 1. FOB / C&F / CIF.05 divided by 45. ratio. we can quote the price to buyer as follows.50 FOB. For 150GSM – USD 1.00 = 1 USD. Also it will be clear for our reference. For 140GSM – USD 1. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer. If the terms are C&F and CIF. the prices will differ. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours. M. regular packing and ratio. XL. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. For Light colours : Rs. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format.00 = USD 1. For 160GSM – USD 1. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices. . 57 . we have to inform like this.60.60 FOB. .95 divided by 45. . Quantity: 20. . it has to be mentioned. packing methods. According to the measurements. Medium and Dark colours are equal.40 Pls note the above prices are FOB.Delivery terms to be mentioned. It is USD 1. These are approximate prices only. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S.000 pcs.51 We understand that the quantities of Light. XXL. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333.Quota category to be mentioned. we can mention the validity for our prices.35 For Medium colours: Rs.62. it will be clear for him.If the commission is added. Enquiry Style No. . it has to be mentioned. Medium. Then we will get following prices.00 = USD 1. .68.45.40 per pc.
Style No.5 = 48 = 48 = 21.. Gross weight of all parts of garment. 58 .25 = 17.75 = 4. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.5 = 2. the full measurements are given here.5 = 16.5 For your reference. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30. Quantity: 48. Size. M. Fabric cost per garment. Size. Sizes: S. Fabric cost per kg. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem.75 = 2. safety instructions printed. 1. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.000 pcs. 3. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.5 = 23 = 21. Let us recall the steps once again. 4.5 =7 = 1. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. To be attached with second button with hang tag.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.. XL.Hanger pack.25 = 14. 2.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No. Fabric consumption.58 TRIAL COSTING NO. (Pls find the attached details). Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Colour to be printed on back side.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . L. RN no.
3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm.5 cm.75” = 27. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. Collar : 40 grams. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. Price of a garment. etc) 9. As this is all over print program.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: 312 grams. Placket : 15 grams. That is. Cost of a garment.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. buttons.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 = (120.) 6. That is. Other charges (print. Half moon patch: 15 grams. tags. inner boards. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length.5 + 27.5cm.5”. Remember. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. So it will be 24 inches. cartons.5” – 10. Now let us do the calculation. twill tapes.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. = 21. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design.5” – ½ (21.50 + 4 = 81. For our calculation.5inches. badges. Cost of trims (labels. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm. 10. Cost of accessories (hangers. 59 . CMT charges 8. embroidery. Sleeve length from centre back is 21.59 5. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. polybags. So the body length for calculation will be 77. etc. bows. 4 cm is to be added with body length.5”) = 21. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. 61cms. That is 77. etc. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. Body Length is 30.) 7. As this is all over print program.75” = 10. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point.
00 Knitting charge = 8. 3.00 Printing charge = 50. 3. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.20 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.131.00 Dyeing charge = 30. 18.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. for calculation.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 98. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.45 per pc. 2.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs. 5.155. etc. 20.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15.75 Other charges (print. it can be considered as printed. 98.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.50 That is the FOB price is USD3. tags.00 = Rs. 2. packing materials = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 – Carton. the cost will be approximately the same as printed. (0.00 Open width compact = 12. embroidery.95 Cost of garment = Rs. rope.) = -Cost of trims (labels.258.30 Price of garment = Rs.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed.00 235.50 CMT charges = Rs. etc) = Rs. 2.135.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258.60 Gross weight : 382 grams.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): 60 .
L. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.000 pcs. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Gross weight : 316 grams.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. To be attached with the main label. Quantity: 16. Sizes: S. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. M. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.61 Enquiry No. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. size and warning instructions printed. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Neck piping : 10 grams.. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams.00 61 . (0. XL.
00 Price of garment = Rs. 12. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. 66. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Cost of trims (labels. 6.00 6. 94. 15. Sizes: S.00 199.. XXL.00 50. etc) = Rs. 97. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.1x1 rib at bottom legs .62 Knitting charge Dyeing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 8.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at front centre outside waist . the C&F price is USD2.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’. To be sewn at front waist.00 = Rs.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 Cost of garment = Rs. L. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist.112. 66. When giving this price to buyer.00 Cost of polybags. 5. packing materials = Rs.00 CMT charges = Rs.209.Solid dyed – Black. 3. 2. XL. carton.00 = 10. M.00 =Rs.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. tags.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . 3. size and warning instructions printed.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 = = = FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 That is.50 per pc. 62 . Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label.
Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.63 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. it is easier by using following formula.500 pcs. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams. There are 2 ways. we can find consumption by using following formula. For using this formula. 63 . 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. we must know the measurements of thigh. Quantity: 13. back rise & inseam. = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement.
Width wise. Let us continue the costing. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. reasonably and competitively.00 Knitting charge = 18. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 60.64 We have to work prices with the largest measurements. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. But we don’t know the seat measurement. we can use ‘S’ cutting.224.70 64 .00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10. In this case. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2. the seat is the largest measurement. By this way. We know only thigh measurement.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts.00 Compacting = 6. This is not acceptable. we can minimise the wastage. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement.70 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. Hence if the program is Solid program. if we cut the fabrics in regular method.00 214. we get one full thigh circumference measurement. By doing like this. we can quote prices more accurately. the wastage will be more.
00 Cost of polybags. 4. Style No. 15. the FOB price is USD2.00 CMT charges = Rs. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 3. 80. Solid dyed – 60%White. To be attached with main label. M. Colour to be printed on back side.00 Woven patch label = Rs.108.60 Cost of trims (labels. Sizes: S. carton.111. packing materials = Rs.50 That is. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.65 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.75 Price of garment = Rs. Size. 65 . 2.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 1.128. To be attached with main label. 20%Grey Melange. tags.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. etc) = Rs. and warning instructions printed. 16. 80.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.25 Cost of garment = Rs.85 per pc. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. 3. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.00 = Rs.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs.00 Waist rope = Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. TRIAL COSTING NO. Size. 2. XL. 0. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. 20%Black. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. L..
Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm.80 X 400 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.000 pcs.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.00 Knitting charge = 15. 15 grams. 400 grams.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams. 82. 15 grams.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. 82.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205.00 196.00 Compacting = 6.205. 40 grams. 40 grams.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.30 66 . (0.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.66 Quantity: 72.
etc) Twill tape CMT charges Polybag. M.00 = Rs. 2. That is 15cm. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. the FOB price is USD2.00 = Rs. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style.. 2.130. 17. 18. 3.60 Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck.200 pcs per combination. Sizes: S.90 per pc.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Size and warning instructions printed.30 = Rs.4 colour combinations. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 = Rs. carton.00 = Rs.67 Embroidery Cost of trims (labels. 1. packing materials Local freight charges + shipping expenses Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is. Polyester printed care label.60 = Rs.00 = Rs.00 = Rs. tags.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF = Rs. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.110. 3. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. L.30 = Rs. 2.113. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 67 . Quantity: 7.00 = Rs.
tags.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. packing materials = Rs.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG 68 .00 338.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.00 That is.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.00 Washing charge = 5. 106.151. 2.00 Compacting = 6. TRIAL COSTING NO. 15.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 2.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. the FOB price is USD3.00 Knitting charge = 30. Gross weight : 286 grams. 2.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.68 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.50 Cost of trims (labels. carton.106.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.00 CMT charges = Rs.131. 19.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. etc) = Rs.00 = Rs.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. (0.00 Polybag.35 per pc.127. Neck piping : 10 grams.70 Price of garment = Rs.80 Cost of garment = Rs. 3.
00 Compacting = 6. 110.00 69 . Sizes: 92. 98.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 31.10 Fabric cost per Kg = 342.3 colour combinations. Likewise.. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style.10 COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% = 242. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.00 311. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. 104.00 Washing charge = 5. this would be 25cm). That is 20cm. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.200 pcs total. (For adult garments.00 Knitting charge = 50. Polyester printed care label.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% = 36. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. 116. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams. Size and warning instructions printed.69 Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook.
70 Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = = = 30.00 5.00 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50
Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60 36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20
COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.
NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.
PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the 70
71 money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 71
72 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 21. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges, documents dispatch instructions, transferring conditions, etc., will be mentioned here. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. 72
after receiving this L/C. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. description. validity extension. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. shipment date. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. 24. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. only with B/L or Airway bill. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. he can not clear the goods from his customs. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). As we have to be careful of these important documents. 25. In this case. Without these documents. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport.73 22. Hence they are very important. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. before opening L/C. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. the amendments are made several times. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. 23. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. price. This is called L/C amendment. . Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). let us see the importance and procedures of them. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. . Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. 26. They are only the copies. B/L: As we see above. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. There may be some mistakes. amount. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. changes or differences in address. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. 73 . To avoid these amendment charges. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. Only the originals have got value. it is a set of following originals and copies. Some times. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C.
So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank.74 There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. They are 1. we don’t get the payment. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. In ‘Documents required’ clause. To 74 . documentation. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods).. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. Though we were careful in production. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. It is called Negotiable documents. After 3 days. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. To avoid all these things. In this case. But it is a long process which will take more time. After the air shipment. It will be heavy amount. buyer can clear the goods.’ If is mentioned other than this. With these original B/Ls only. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. etc. as we sent one original B/L by courier. quality.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. money. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. the airport will charge for demurrage. pricing. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a week. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. Consignment copy. stress and tension. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING………….. we must be sure of this clause in L/C.
whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. To avoid this practical problem. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. even commas. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. To be specified exactly. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. 75 . the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. Besides. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. only due to the urgency. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. etc are to be taken care. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). In spite of all these reasons. Here comes the problem for exporter. But as per L/C condition. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). buyer does not need other documents from the bank. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. We have to remember. it is mentioned as follows. Then. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. it is not safe for the supplier. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. As the documents are still with them. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. as we had seen in sea shipment above. in order to get the claim or discount. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. full stops. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport.75 avoid this demurrage charges. Hence to be on the safer side. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities.
We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. we must know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a 76 . the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. In other words. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. etc. 120 days L/C. If everything is OK. We have to note that this is the usual period.76 On receipt of these documents. 90 days L/C. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. in order to hold the documents for some days. Even in this term. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. even though the discrepancies are not true. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. 60 days L/C. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. he can do it. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. In this case. 30 days L/C. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. At Sight L/C: As per this term.
the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. Only difference is. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. 90 days. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. fax or email to make the payment. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. 60 days. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. 30 days. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. Accordingly. they will ask for some discounts or claims. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. After 7 working days. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. They even say that they don’t want the goods. As these buyers are genuine. Here we have to see a very important thing. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. After that he will not make the payment. Some times. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce.77 while or he does not want to pay our bills. 77 . If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of receipt of documents’. Here comes the important thing.
there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. In some countries. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. the banks will ask the buyer to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. Then without paying the money to the bank. If there is any quality problem. 90 days. In this case. 2.78 If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. he will not have the facility to open L/C. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. few partial shipments are allowed. are treated and followed. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. As we have seen. Normally they will not open L/Cs. These are all normal L/Cs. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. By this kind of L/C. validity. the buyer can get the L/C opened. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. etc. only if he has financial strength. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. In the same way. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. 120 days. But the overall maximum amount. In some backward countries. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. If he does not have them. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. In these terms. Let us see what they are. 1. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. number of renewals. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. at least to get the payment without any claim. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. Hence after taking delivery. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. As no 78 . As we have seen earlier. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. etc. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. the other L/Cs for 60 days. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C.
Due to any of these above reasons. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. these buyers will not open L/C. He would avoid the seller completely. As nothing can be done. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. After 2 or 3 weeks. In this case. Then the seller’s problem started. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. In these days. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. In these terms. But in D/P terms. He would affect the seller psychologically. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. 3. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. etc. On receipt of the documents in their bank. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. By these terms. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. the seller does not have any hold. the seller has to proceed with his production. 79 . buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. At the same time. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. fax and email. On the other hand. If the buyer is genuine. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. 4. Without getting 100% confirmation. he will not show any interest in the goods. After the shipment.79 buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. If the buyer is not genuine. If the buyer opens L/C. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. But as this buyer is not genuine. the buyer would not answer his call. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment.
other banking charges and bank interest. Believe me. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. If you want. (This is only a drama. In order to help you. No body is interested to take the goods. Some tips: To avoid this. But I have convinced my customer somehow. This is almost like D/P terms. friend. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. If you agree for this. I can not let you down because you are my friend. In the D/P terms. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. 120days.80 1. 60days. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. I can do this help for you. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. 75days. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. 45days. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. I can try to sell the goods by myself. But in D/A terms. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. With this commission. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. the seller will have more risks of payment. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. I know this is not fair. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. either buyer’s bank or the seller 80 . I don’t like to put you into big loss. So in this term. Some times he may lose his business too. 2. Even after this period. I will send your documents back. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. Pls think it over and let me know. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. 90days. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. They will have different payment periods like 30days. etc. I tried with our customers. He will not do anything with the samples). I am sorry. 3. Due to his commitments on this payment. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. Or he would agree for D/A terms. I will send your documents back to you. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods.
It is also called as Sales. Attendance. Instead of giving details about them. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. Also we must know about our customers. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. Also the marketing department controls Production. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. etc. Working conditions of workers. Maternity leave for women workers. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. bribe. safety & environment of factory. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. etc. preference. Merchandising. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. overheads. MARKETING For every product. pollution. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. commitment to customers. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Customer Study. Product Study. benefits to workers. etc. Communication. Some times. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. staff and workers. salary and wages. Costing & Pricing. Sampling and Quality. of our company. Hours of working. financial strength. etc. Purchase. 81 . Shipping and Payment. Marketing is very most important.81 can not do anything. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. we must know about the capacity. Documentation. market situation and general policy of our company. labour laws. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Work Study. Benefits to workers. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. Safety measures. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. weaknesses. Pollution. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. strengths. machineries.. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. terms of payment. Market Study.
All exit doors should open outwards. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. . . mental. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. moral or social development.Exits should not be blocked by cartons. .If emergency exits are locked. or suffers mental or bodily harm. etc. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. Because of the competition in their sales. .82 indirect approach.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. . Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. Safety Building and Fire Safety . indecent behaviour. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. We must be aware the buyers strategy. etc.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. a person is a child until the age of 18. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. . spiritual. 82 . and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. first aid equipment. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. and thus be available to all staff at all times. First Aid . Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. fire extinguishers. such as emergency exits. .
No worker should be discriminated against because of race. . on time and be fair in respect of work performance. at all times of day. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. .It is important for the workers' well-being.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment.83 . .Wages should be paid regularly. Factory Conditions . . it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. . Wages and Working Hours . prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories.Sanitary facilities should be clean.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract. that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. . . and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. religion or ethnic background. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. .Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum. Also after returning back to work. . Fans should be provided when needed. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care. . . and for the quality of the garments. following an injury during work in the factory. .All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. . Workers’ Rights Basic Rights .Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. .In developing countries. or engage in sexual harassment. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . . she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. in case of an accident in the factory.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice.Bonded workers. Working hours per day should be only 8 hours. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. .The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. but not a recommended. . and the ventilation should be adequate. and they should have the right to bargain collectively.The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. gender. level.
We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. some times. unsafe factories. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. This will help us always to take the right 84 . So the buyers don’t like to take any risk.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country.84 workers in the factory.Separate dormitories. from the buyers’ countries. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. Also they are against to the bonded labour system. fast pace of working and constant improvement. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. low wages. Nowadays. child labour. Due to this. and preferably separated for men and women. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. contact person’s name.Fire alarms. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. teamwork. etc. Environment .If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. etc. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing.All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. . Also the company policies must be known to every worker. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. cruelty of labour. . . There should be ‘open door’ policy. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. With these details. quality. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. Housing Conditions . . As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. capacity. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. . Basic values include believing in people. fire extinguishers. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries.
On the other hand. expectations. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. he can 85 . All the Heads should remember one thing always. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. according to our policies. In the same way. When a person. grudges and grievances very well. That is the reason. CEO. office boys. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. honestly. juniors. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. Likewise. Managing Director. Department Head. the head may get personal satisfaction. That too. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. workers. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. When a Head realise this fact. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. or even Security Head. Marketing Manager. He will have easy approach. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. it is very essential for us. because the subordinates are helping the Head. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. the Head is having his employees. Administration Manager. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. He will have a pleasing personality. when we are doing marketing. Section Head. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. Supervisors. In simple words. telephone operators. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. we will not get angry with him. he can not do anything by himself alone. Production Manager. Factory Manager. subordinates. whenever needed. but should think that they are HELPING him. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. Then only he can take appropriate. So whenever needed. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. The Head may be the Chairman. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. has done a mistake. who is helping us. subordinates and other departments. So everyone will discuss with him freely. securities. By doing like this.85 decisions in right time. assistants. he should not get angry with him. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time.
They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. finding and solving problems in production. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. then he will not show any interest in learning further. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. We have to learn continuously. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. quality & blends of new fabrics. If a man feels that he knows everything. speciality of garments. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. There is no end for learning. Especially in garments trade. possibilities and impossibilities. but it is not an impossible thing. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. advantages and disadvantages.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. quality. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. concentration. To keep their positions. utility. etc. If they have self confidence. new styles. Simply saying. complete pictures of pricing. yarn composition. methods of production. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. It may be difficult. production. For that we must have self interest. This is called Product Judgement. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. he can not sell even a small pen. new patterns. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. We can see changes everywhere at every time. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. etc. He must know about raw materials and other materials. appearance. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. etc. measurements. we can expect rapid changes for every season. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. colours. immediately on seeing a garment. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. It is the same for garment also. and they should be their Chief for ever. fabric quality. prints. decorative works. involvement. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. changes are inevitable. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement.
87 specifications given by buyers. new regulations. In other words. etc. So. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. Even after the deep study. etc. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. That is. styles. etc. foreign exchange. world economy. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. international market. let us take the summer garments. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. colour forecast. Buyer has to work on pricing. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. colours. Thus. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. fashion forecast. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. fabrics. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. new methods. before confirming the styles. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. For example. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. measurements. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. colours. Style & fit. national market. financial changes. local market. new working systems. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. design forecast. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. before April / May 2005. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. updating banking regulations. analysis and experiment of all these things. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. the consumers would be 87 . It is not an easy thing. etc. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. new products. Due to this. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. colours.
if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. the store sales would also be good. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. They will not mind increasing prices too. Sometimes. if reasonable. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. Why and how? It is simple. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. unsuitable measurements. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. fit. etc. if the goods are really good in all aspects. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. When the food is made at home. the Intention. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. At the same time. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. Some times. As a result. Or else. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. So while executing the buyers’ orders. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. the home made food tastes more than outside food. Also as they are happy with our performance. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment.. But above all. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. poor colour fastness. of satisfying our family members. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. On the other hand. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. Only because of this reason.
89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89
90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.
Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).
We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90
91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91
Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. If there is any L/C amendment. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. Visa. AEPC endorsed invoice. The buyer will understand. Tough guys dress easy. If there are some small mistakes. They are shipping documents and bank documents. They are Invoice. Our purpose is to make clear message. They must be very good in business. GSP Form A. risk factors. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. documentation. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. etc are the shipping documents. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. we had seen the importance of L/C. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. then appreciate. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. But when we have a friendly. So it should be handled at most care. this is also an important department. After shipping the documents. Honest people like simplicity. packing list. may be poor in English. there will not be any problem of payment. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. We must be honest to ourselves and others. Packing list. Inspection certificate. Export Certificate. For any terms.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. Certificate of Origin. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. 92 . Only our communication can establish. GR form (Exchange control). not to show our strength in language. These documents are called bank documents. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. etc. various payment terms. then try to find a solution and then will help us. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. There are mainly two types of documents.
he may suggest any other option. other job works. To make this possible.. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. quality and delivery of the purchased items. whether the company is big or medium or small. finishing. By this way. And this distribution system will be perfect. etc. trims. CMT. connection details. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. So the raw materials. then he will confirm. we will be safe too. This department involves not only with money. Any decision can be taken. it is responsible for the price. accessories. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. there may be some changes in prices. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. etc. etc. they will produce the documents as per the old information. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). So there will not be any problem of getting payment. 93 . These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. name of the line or airline. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. But in small and medium companies. In big companies. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. this kind of systems can not be expected. each department will take care of each job.93 Some times. shipping. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. before stuffing the goods in to container. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. So. Also the charges of processing. quantities. shipment date. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer.
MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. production. and smooth relation with buyers. Sampling. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. Accessories & trims. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. documentation.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. Mediating production and quality departments. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Some times. it is very important to develop a healthy. we can get these problems solved amicably. Advising quality department about quality level. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. shipping and payment. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. friendly. 94 . internal communication is also very much valuable. As we discussed earlier. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. Helping documentation department. they have very high value. communication. By the same way. At the same time. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. When we have this kind of understanding relation. Internal & external communication Earlier. Lab dips. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. So it is a very valuable department. Internal & external communication. Advising and assisting production. Preparing internal order sheets. Preparing purchase orders. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. In any case.
Pre-production samples . Whenever they have enquiries. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers.Proto samples or fit samples . We may have to spend too much on these samples. For one enquiry.95 Even a small omission. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . Sometimes. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. buyer may need samples. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. quality standards and price level. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from.Fashion show samples . then also we will have to send these samples. product range. they may not be correctable. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Production samples .Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. they will bring orders to us.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. Prevention is better than cure. They are . even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 . Some times. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. We have to send many samples to buyers. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department.Wash test samples . Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric.Photo samples .
measurements. Based on these samples. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. We might have spent more money. improper measurements. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. He too can not help us in this regard. some times. style and fit. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. After getting the approval. Any way. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. making. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. But as we don’t get orders. 96 . All the buyers don’t need these samples. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. etc of salesmen samples. unmatched prints or embroidery.96 style. etc. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. Some times. Some times. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. we can not blame the buyer. due to poor quality. but in the actual measurements and specifications. by showing these samples. Of course these samples will help us for our business. style and fit. buyer may comment on fabric. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. for the styles which we don’t get orders. the approved samples should be followed in production. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. we may not get order for even a single style. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. etc for making these samples. buyers may do some changes in measurements. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. time. unsuitable colours. 3 styles or 1 style. These samples are needed to check the measurements. colour fastness. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. So these samples are very important. To avoid this embarrassing situation. measurements. we may get orders for all 5 styles. Expected sales may not be possible. If the order is for 3 colours. We have to follow his comments carefully in production.
they will place orders repeatedly. colours. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. they may do wash test also. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. Sometimes. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. In this case. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Some times. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. We should not get any remark or comment. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. If they don’t get samples on time. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. we can correct them in production. packing box. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. hang tag. But each order will get small quantity only. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. 97 . They will accumulate the sales quantities. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. for some styles. These samples can be sent from production. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. etc. But we can get higher prices for these orders). Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. In any case. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time.
just a tip). we may think they are closer. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. he has to take some extra care.Tube light matching. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. tags. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. To adjust this wasted time.Sun light matching. When sending the lab dips to buyer. it will differ in sun light. hence there might be some mistakes. we may think they are not suitable. Each of these above matching will give different results. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. If we see lab dips in the morning. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. .Sodium light matching (show room).Ultra Violet matching. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. . And even if we get some comments from buyers. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. Hence before proceeding lab dips. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. 98 .98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. If we expect any comments in these samples. By this way. he will have to make them again. For example. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. They are . if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. This is not cheating. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. . etc. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. Different buyers follow different matching. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. at least 1 week time will be wasted. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. (Some times. Our reliability will get questioned here).
price or price target. If the bar codes are not clear. weight. The other departments may not need these information. But the other information like description. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. export price. delivery date. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. They should be advised to the purchase department. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. From the merchandising department only. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. labels. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. So while preparing internal order sheets. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. polybags. etc. colours. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. merchandiser and buyer. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. This will save a good time.99 While making lab dips. He may omit some information to other departments. inner boards. When sending lab dips to buyer. he should order them for bulk. measurements. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. accessories. trims. specifications. 99 . like buyer’s address. hang tags. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. Also as usual. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. quantity. zippers. The description. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. diameter and width of required fabrics. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. etc to buyer for approval. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. quality standards. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. After getting the buyer’s approvals.
etc. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. documents and shipping departments. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. quality. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. payment terms. delivery terms. HS code. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. Some times. mid final and final. documents. purchase order number. he will have to advise and assist production. initial. If we work with the buyers directly. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. the number of inspections will be limited. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. shipping lines. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. though there is a separate production departments. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. status and problems of each stage of production. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. comments and instruction. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. vessel connections. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. quantity. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. 100 . for the better flawless production. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. B/L instructions. port discharge. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. Category. description. ETD. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. ETA. online.
It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. For helping to reduce the production cost. Upholstery. quantity. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. So now. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. proper planning is essentially needed. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. This may be a single sentence. At the same time. Furniture and Shoes. garment styles. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. responsible and sensitive process. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. Since 1996. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. overheads. nowadays. But the garment production is not that much simple. production lead time and targeted shipment date.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. This is called Work Study method. Accordingly for the better production of garments. increasing competition. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. In these times of rising costs. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. accessories and trims. planning is important. but also involves the fabric production. But there is another important cost. which is called production cost. we will see garment production in detail. electricity and maintenance of production floors. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. 101 . WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. As we see in the earlier chapters. It includes the wages. time and cost. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. Now let us see this in detail. valuable. the production department looks after not only the garment production. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. latest technical procedures and standards are followed.
When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. In order to balance this. prior to the start of the production process. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. with a high level of accuracy. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT.5 minutes for production from cutting. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. It means for this particular garment takes 11. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated. For example.414 102 . This is called Line Balancing. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment. Upper Critical Limit = 0. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. This is not true. quality control and packing. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production.46 – 10% = 0. It helps us to cost our products. flat lock and single needle. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. sewing. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. pressing. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. while 70% to 80% is handling time.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. In GSD systems. The SMV of cutting. this effect is negligible.5. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. By this latest system. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments.46 + 10% = 0. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine.5 = 0. whether it is a machine or a manual operation.
57. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. Working hours on week days = 9. 30. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. Hence the productivity output will be more. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30.174 garments. sewing. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly. Say 110%.57.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. quality checking and packing.250 hours.174 garments.125 x 60 11. Say 60%. Single needle machine operations will take more time. That is. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. We do this. For example. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. pressing. 103 .5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. We can find out the production capacity by working as below.125 hours can be the effective hours. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. sewing and finishing. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. let us take 50% of this total hours.5 = 1. Say 90%. When we plan for 25 machines.
Allowances for cutting. The fabrics may be in tubular form.22. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. dyed yarns) and hand feel. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. open width form.5 x 1.1.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently.125 x 60 = Rs.35. costing department.000 per month.94 = Rs. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. all over printed. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs.94 So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. solid. management and the production lines. GSM. Cost Per Minute Cost Per Minute = 35. 104 . the patterns are to be made accordingly. yarn stripes. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. marketing department. diameter or width. colour shades (dyeing. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. But with so much patience.00. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics. etc. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. colour fastness.000 30. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. they will not cooperate with work study department. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. Also if the cutting is made manually. prints.00.
When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. Then our whole calculation will be changed. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. by using line system in their production. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. pockets. dyeing mistakes. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. nothing can be done with the cut bits. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. Feeding between these operations should be even. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. some markers may not care about this wales direction. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. If this not been followed. yarn mistakes. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. it is important to cut the 105 . CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. colour shade and hand feel.105 If shrinkage. They made this possible. They may mark them in any vacant places. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. Especially. oil stains and other mistakes. But this should not be acceptable. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. During World War II. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. This is called line system. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. Once they are being cut. plackets and other patches. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. printing mistakes. the cutting can not be commenced. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). sewing. knitting mistakes. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. diameter.
106 . Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. Markings. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. we can reject the bit simply. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. When the bits are numbered. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. As we had seen earlier. In case of ‘S’ cutting. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program.106 hems along the lines. in order to avoid shade variation. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. we will have to reject the full garment. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. This is very important. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. Because of this carelessness. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. At the same time. When cutting manually and by lay. If we find any bit having a mistake. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. flat lock machines and single needle machines. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. Though they are in the same lot. So when cutting the fabrics. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. This will help to avoid shading in packing. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. the body. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. the cut bits can not be used for sewing.
The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. making. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. 4 threads. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. Stitches should have required strength. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . the sewing methods. The production managers. attaching labels. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. Both manual and power driven machines are available. But this is not enough. there will not be a big problem. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. When making sewing. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. attaching collars & pockets. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Speedy sewing is appreciable. patches and badges. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. 5 threads and 6 threads. If they correct these mistakes then and there. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. In order to get better production result. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. trimming and packing. Though they know better. because this has safety thread stitch. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. Hence nowadays. But most of the operators don’t do this.
they should cut with extra care. general appearance. 108 . button holes and embroidery. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. print or embroidery mistakes. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. shade variations and overall finishing of garments. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. damages. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. When they trim the threads of buttons. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. oil stains. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. This is an important thing to be followed. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. The end user will wash the garments. TRIMMING: After sewing. stitching quality. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. This is very important. If they handle carelessly. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. garment shapes. labeling. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements.
communication. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. Labels. bar codes. our approach. if the weight is above their local standard weight. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. pattern maker. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere .Samples are to be sent strictly on time. etc.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. documentation. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. Before purchasing cartons. In a company the quality is expected in management.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. Buyers may face problems from the workers. finishing. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. . before using them. our methods.in our language. 109 . way of expression. our reaction. Hence individual packing. training and by our systems. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. . we have to make various types of samples. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. production. our policies. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. our dress code.Fabrics. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. . The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. our way of working. So a special team is needed for making samples. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. hang tags. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. etc. . If we don’t follow them properly. marketing.
In this system. profit or loss. etc. because every one is doing his duties well. quality. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. inspections. etc. They will not listen to the practical problems. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. By this way. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. the quality department will not be appreciated. When there are major quality problems. production sufferings or loss. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. future orders. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. rejections. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. productivity. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. But practically. processing. knitting. At the same time. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. maintenance of machineries. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. Most of the times. etc. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. quality of garments. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. shipment. labour management. nobody can be blamed. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. finishing. delay in shipment. production departments and merchandising departments. fabrics. inspections and mainly the shipment date. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. but the corrective measures. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. pressing and up to packing. sewing. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. costs. intimation to buyers. production cost. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. cutting. Quality Assurance Dept. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. production. yarn. patterning. Quality Audit Dept. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. 110 . the shipment will be affected. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way.
For example. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. The management. As the routine of their jobs. the merchandiser understands the problem. There will not be any use of these reports. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. they will not have answer. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. So in my opinion. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. he discusses with the merchandising team. improper trimming. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. loose thread ends. This is the cause of all the problems. restricting or preventing mistakes. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. Their responsibilities can be different. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. As an unwritten rule. Even buyers know about these things. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . When a person knows better about the garments. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. but also to correct them. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. loose threads on buttons & labels. as everybody join their hands and heads together. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. they find suitable solution quickly. This is what happening in most of the factories. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. lesser number of stitches. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. It has to work under the merchandising department. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. I suggest making some changes in this system. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. In worse cases. etc. But their views and intention must be the same. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. Now.
safety.To dry heat / hot pressing. 112 . . dimensional stability (shrinkage).To washing.To light. Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. . . saliva. azo test.Single yarn strength.Fibre content and .To perspiration (like sweat. The important tests are to test colour fastness . fabric weight (GSM). colour fastness.Yarn friction. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments. .To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry.To normal water. amicably and permanently. Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .To bleaching. . sea water & chlorinated water. LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality.Evenness & hairiness.Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. . . Let us see the important tests below. .Yarn twist.Yarn shrinkage.112 rectified or corrected immediately. fabric handling. water resistant.Yarn counts. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. . . wear resistance. . .Yarn diameter.Acid / alkaline / water spotting .To dry cleaning.Bursting strength.Composition of blends. easily. etc. . Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. etc. . . (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). etc).
appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by .Drape coefficient .Snagging resistance .Wrinkle recovery .Washing and tumble dry . dimensional stability.Dry cleaning . . 113 . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general. The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Washing and flat dry .Abrasion resistance .Water resistance . washing instructions and wash care labels.Water repellency . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers. Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for .Bow & skew. In the earlier chapters.Rust proof . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.Wrinkle recovery . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat.Steaming.Moisture content .Pilling resistance .Free formaldehyde content . Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. we had seen the importance of washing methods.Water proofness .Stretch & recovery .Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight. They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Crease recovery.Soil release performance .Random tumble pilling . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Relaxation . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.
Avoid leaving garments to soak. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. 114 . The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. do not rub or ring out. High temperature. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. Do not wash in water. Dry heavy knitted garments. For example. Spin for one minute only. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. Do not soak. to give it a "fuller" feel. 200C. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. half a minute only. there is a figure indicating the temperature. Normal spin. This can result in discolouration. Max. cotton. linen. do not ring out. Rinse thoroughly. In a separate spin dryer.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. Max 40 degree Celcius. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. Hand wash only. Do not rub. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. A short spin removes excess water best. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. max 40C". demand special care. Within the bowl. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. for example. The machine should only be half filled. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. with washing instructions "hand wash. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak.
Max 150C. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. Max 110C. For example. acrylic. natural silk. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. Do not iron or rotary iron. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. For example. wool. polyamide (nylon). the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. The letters CL. The line refers to the water added.115 Medium temperature. avoid tumble drying 115 . Low temperature. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. Many garments can also be tumble dried. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. Do not dry clean. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. for a maximum of one minute. Must not be bleached. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. On the other hand. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used.
durability. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. product variations. Hang dry. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. Tumble dry. but also to the production processes. Tumble dry normal. Do not tumble dry. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . damages and imperfections. colour. component parts and garments. as per the instructions of buyers. as tumble drying weak the garment. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. Tumble dry low. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. Flat dry.116 garments that you particularly cherish. Quality parameters include finish. High heat in the tumble drier. finish. materials. materials. fit. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. size.
checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. . order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. quality. patterns. accessories. standard operating procedures. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output.interpreting work instructions. . All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. . .maintaining accurate records. trims. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. as required. They are to be measured. tickets. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers.taking required action where standards of fabrics. colour.assessing operational capability of machineries used. trims. equipment or personnel. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. accessories and garments. interpret and follow information on job instructions. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. . regulatory authorities and the company. work standards and patterns. specifications. 117 . QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. specifications. where necessary. Or some measurements may not be achieved. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. .applying safety precautions relevant to the task. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. environmental. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . In these cases. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units.identifying improvements. fabric weight. When the measurements are being checked. They have to make sure that safety. quantity and finish.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims.
recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. sewing. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories.118 If there is any change in the measurements. . garment styles. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. physical measurements and checks against patterns. .job procedures and work instructions. fabric qualities. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. Also each of them will have different body fits. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. Quality checks include visual inspection. . including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . making and measurements. . Each end user will have different taste of colours. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users.the action taken promptly. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. 118 .waste and pollution management. etc. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. decoration. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels.safety policies. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects. colours. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken.
if the workmanship and general appearance are good. they would argue about the measurement deviations. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. the garment can be accepted. checkers. The colours. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. By saying like this. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. They don’t even bother to know about them. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. the presentation is also important for packed garments. workmanship. So when a garment is having measurement problem. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. they don’t care much about the measurements. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. colours. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. We are fully responsible for them. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. 119 . One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. We can not do anything on them. So logically. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. The reason is this. if there is any measurement problem. fabric quality. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. attractive colours and suitable styles . In most of the factories. After making their quality reports. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. From their reports. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. style and fit than to measurements. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. fabrics. colours. styles are most important than the measurements.
Also by these inspections. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. On the other hand. This is also called Assured Quality Level. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. The more number of online inspections. They are initial. At the same time. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. Usually the levels 4. When they do only final inspections. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship.5 are used in garment inspections. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. So after rechecking. This is unsafe for the factory. When we do the inspections. These things will not be of any use to the end users. 120 . bands. tissue papers. pre-final and final inspections. Then the final inspection will be very easy. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality.065 to 15. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. Even then. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. the more quality can be improved. If they are not satisfied with the quality. only some garments can be checked selectively. the garment can not be sold. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. collar bones. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made.120 The things like hang tags. without doing initial or online inspections. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. middle. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections.0 and 2. special branded tags. inner boards. online. pilot batch. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. price tags. But if the presentation of packing is not good. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. sometimes.
In order to reach these higher levels. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. On the other hand. it is not an impossible thing. We should remember that this is a team work. honesty. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . That is coordination. self confidence. sincerity and hard working. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. At the same time. It is not easy. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. But there is one thing is commonly needed.
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