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Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book
2 will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career! INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges 2 Page No. 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26
3 Procedures Advantages Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37
ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons 3
6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.4 Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms 4 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 .1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.
90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production 5 73 73 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 . 60days.5 L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill Documentation At Sight L/C 30days.
6 Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .
bed spreads. According to the structure of fabrics. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. trousers. reed & picks (warp & weft). embroidery. Polar fleece and Jacquards. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. If we have fabrics. Loop knit. finishing. pyjamas and socks are Knits. sarees. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. sweatshirts. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. Another is Knitted garments. And we will have to keep the garment for style. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. Making woven fabrics is simple. round cutters are used.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. width should be considered with more care. Rib. power looms and mill made. Hence nowadays. they are called by different names. making and other references. Fleece. colours. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. Shirts. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. This system is used worldwide. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. French Rib. But most of the times. etc. Pique. style. Flat back rib. One is Woven garments. fabric quality. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. But yarn counts. accurate GSM can not be achieved.cms. T shirts. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. As 7 . By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. we will have only the garments to find GSM. blankets. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. prints. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. towels and made ups are Woven. undergarments.000 sq. With the help of this round cutter. Interlock. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100.
the thickness becomes lesser. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. the Yarn. We can consider like this. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. 20’s. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn.25 inches to 2. According to the technical parameters. So when the yarn counts are increasing. 80’s. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. etc. evenness. raw material. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. This process is called ‘Combing’. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. 100’s. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.8 this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Combed is superior quality. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. 38’s. 25’s. 4’s. the lesser the thickness. There are 2 qualities of yarn. 8 . hand feel. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. We must know. the fabric will have very even look. 10’s. 36’s. the higher the counts. 60’s. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. We can see. 34’s. 40’s. availability. Hence after knitting or weaving. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. strength. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. etc. Because of the same longer length of fibers. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 24’s.5 inches. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. Yarn prices based on the thickness. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. Combed and Carded. higher the prices. a special process is being done. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. For this purpose. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Because of this extra process. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. higher the counts. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. 16’s. 30’s. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments.
Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. According to the required percentage and colour shades. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. Flax mélange. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. Ecru mélange. Bleached Melange are used widely. But for dark colour mélange yarns. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. which is very important. But we must think of shrinkage. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. In colour mélange yarn also. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. Colour mélange. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns.9 The processing (dyeing. But as we use 100% Cotton. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. Hence. In these yarns. Ecru Melange. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. 9 . Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. etc. To avoid this shrinkage problem. They are Grey mélange. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. due to higher shrinkage. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. For example. There are different mélange yarns. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. For light colour mélange yarn. Grey Melange. the cotton portion will be in light shade. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. bleached mélange. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality.
100/2.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. only combed yarns are used. 10 . 80/2. Cost wise. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. the yarn contains more cotton.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. we can not expect the consistency of shades. For easy reference. Dark colours: Rs. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. giving more resistance and silky feel. Medium colours: Rs. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. yarn strength and better quality. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. As the finer cottons are used.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. dull and dead cottons. the dyed yarns are used.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. For yarn dyeing. Rs. In manual yarn dyeing.250 per kg. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. like 60/2. as the combing process removes shorter fibers.
Longer life of garments. This will give more life to the garments. In this method. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. 11 . Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. Due to more heat. these yarns are used for knitwear. Further. 3. underwear and hosiery. After mercerising. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. Due to its high resistance properties. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. to minimise the cost. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. 5. By this process. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. After combing and twisting. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. Then after mercerizing. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. 4. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. 2. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. As mercerising is done two times.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). This process is called Mercerising. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. Used for making very expensive special garments. these dyed yarns are used. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. These yarns do not create allergies to body. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. the yarn will be singed (gassed). Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. In any case. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. fabrics have to be mercerised again.
12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.
13 KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13
14 When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”.
5cms. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference.: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. it can be knitted in normal machines. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. If this diameter is larger than the pattern.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines.5cms. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. polyamide (nylon). and 15 . Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. we have to be careful of their counts. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. then there will be more fabric wastage. we get the single yarn with blends. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. processed diameter is based on grey diameter. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. machine gauge. Also as we have seen earlier. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. If the repeat width is more than 3. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. viscose. texture and grey GSM. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. We have to note that a maximum of 3. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes.
We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. Then only the knitting will be even. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. we can use following conversion formula. So. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. In order to select the suitable denier. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. To select suitable denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. during knitting. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. Counts Denier = 5315 Denier = 5315 Counts Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. Also. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. 16 . we use the above formula.
Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. same dyeing factory and same finishing process. 17 . rib. before processing. . 2. collar. processing methods. cuffs. At the same time. collar. . For example. sleeves and grey collars. after compacting (on cutting table). rib. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. etc. . etc. gauge. processing water quality. collar and cuffs in one garment. processing and compacting. cuffs. Grey fabrics for body. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. If we take more care during processing. .Colour (shade..Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. we have to follow the following procedures. we will not get the same result every time. sleeves. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. rope. before finishing or compacting. compacting method & temperature. cuffs. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton.Diameter – machine diameter. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. To avoid shade variations. after compacting (on cutting table). Due to the above reasons. same knitting machine. we have to check following things before knitting. sleeves. before finishing or compacting.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. This is very important. processing timing. before processing. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. there will be shade variations between lots. sleeves. after processing. after processing. after processing.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . .Diameter (as per Pattern) . even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. To avoid shading between body. we will get different results. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. qualities of dyes & chemicals.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. Fabric for body. these variations can be limited. fastness as per approval) . twill tape: 1. rope. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. .GSM – during knitting.
only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. 4. 4. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. pockets. All the parts of one garment (body. 5. twill tapes. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. cuffs. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. Water temperature. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. Collars. sleeves. 2. Once 1st lot is approved.18 3. When we have to use yarn from different lots. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. patches. 3. 3. 6. ribs. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. Mixing of lots should be avoided. PROCESSING 18 . This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. collars. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. ropes. Lab dips should not be referred. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. This is very important. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. Fabric program should be made accordingly. We must study the packing methods clearly. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. processing time. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. cuffs. ribs. before sending the fabrics for processing. 2. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. etc) should be numbered during cutting.
3. diapers and other sanitary items. 4. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. hats. wallets. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer.6-Xylidine.4’-Thiodianiline. hairpieces.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). 2. o-Toluidine. 2. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs. 2.4-Toluylendiamine. p-Cresidine. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane.3’-Dimethyl-4. 3.4-Xylidine. Hence. Benzidine. bedding.4. 19 . 2-Naphthylamine. footwear. In April 1996.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. o-aminoazotoluene. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. purses. 4. gloves. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane.3’-dichlorobenzidine.5-Trimethylaniline. belts. briefcases. 3.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. 2. watch straps. chair covers and toys. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. 4. wigs. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. 4-Aminobiphenyl. p-Chloroaniline. If the garment supplied by a supplier. towels. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs.4-Diaminoanisole. O-Anisidine. 3. They are clothing.19 AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. 4. 2.4’-Oxydianiline. p-Aminoazobenzene.
Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. There will not be any smell. Also it will not give irritation to body. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers.10 – 12 / kg. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments.7. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. Also it will give irritation to body. Another is Peroxide Bleach. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. it is banned in most of the countries.30–35/kg. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. If this fabric tested for azo contents.000 per colour. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. They are by using open winches. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. If we smell the fabric deeply. Any bright shades like Milk white. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. By using Continuous bleaching machine. It is approximately Rs. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. One is Chlorine Bleach.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. before certifying to buyers. Above all. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. we can smell Chlorine. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. FABRIC DYEING: 20 . It will have lesser whiteness. In this case. Winch bleach is the traditional method. But this is not acceptable. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time.
2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. etc. We will have more discussions on this. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. When the winch is rotated by a motor. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. There are 2 types of dyeing. As we discussed above. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. This combination is called Recipe. bulk dyeing will be done. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. After checking whether the required shade is attained. They are Reactive dyeing. Another is Soft flow dyeing. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. enzyme wash. According to the approved lab dip. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. Nowadays. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. Then only we will get required results. When lab dips are made. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. it means Reactive dyeing only. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). only Azo Free dyes should be used. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. Discharge dyes are to be used. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. One is Winch dyeing. Even. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%.21 There are 3 qualities of dyeing. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. the fabrics will roll on winches. acid wash. which is made with different yarn. During dyeing. 1. 21 . 2. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. 3. For example. After this. By using these dyes in dyeing. fabrics will be removed from the winches. other Jersey fabric. This is the normal dyeing. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. the fabric will be very stiff. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. should not be used.
For the regular shades. Grey. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. the temperature of water will not be consistent. Yellow. Olive Green. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. They have to be cut and rejected. Red. So after dyeing. dyes & water capacity. Blue. Due to this. Lt Blue. There will not be any colour patches. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to 22 . etc are Light colours. Temperature. As the winch is kept opened. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. etc are Dark colours. Lt Pink. Navy. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. Lt Yellow. Offwhite. Orange. These types of machines are used in recent years.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. Light Grey. Lt Green. the direct dyes will not be available. Black. It will be much lesser. etc are Medium colours. timing. But in soft flow dyeing. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Green. In these cases. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. Also the colour fastness will be better. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. Dark Navy. Due to this. everything is computerised. fabric capacity. Brown. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Lt Orange. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. For some shades. It is a closed winch. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Light Red. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. In open winch dyeing. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Blue. etc are the darkest colours. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. Military Green. (It is too expensive.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. the temperature is consistent. The costliest colour is Royal. Medium Green. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Dark Blue. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. These are called ‘Combination colours’.
23 . if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. these fabrics are to be washed. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. Due to this.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs.45 to 50 per kg. If the mercerising is not been done properly. Also to avoid the handling stains. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. the dyeing quality will be inferior. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. Red. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. etc. Due to this and due to more processing time. but also improved colour absorbency. smell and to get softer hand feel. Due to this mercerising. Black. We can get some reduction from the mill. twill tapes.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . but it will have poor colour fastness. Not only the fabrics. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. ribs. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. By these colours. But after knitting. To do the fabric mercerising. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. we can get similar shade. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them.23 reduce the cost. The collars. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns.
We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage.12 – 15 per kg. With these compacting machines. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also.1. There are no facilities in calendering machines. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. To remove these wrinkles.24 The washing charge is normally Rs. HEAT SETTING: 24 . COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. We must be aware of this important fact. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics.15 – 20 per kg. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. we can adjust following things. 2.5 per kg. From these machines. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. We can get better result from these compacting machines. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs.50 / kg. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. Diameter. 1. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. If we try to achieve these 3 things together.6 per kg. GSM. When we calender the fabrics. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines.50 to 2. 3. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. nothing can be done. Steam calendering charge: Rs. Shrinkage. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. Some times. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. glossy finish of fabric.
10 per kg. 25 . the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself.25 The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. Viscose. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. We can print the second colour. 4. Charges for Heat set: Rs. Acrylic. etc. as cotton is the natural fiber. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. we have many advantages in rotary printing. Consistent printing colours and quality. it is better to do heat set in open width form. Printing is done one colour by one colour. 2. fleece. Elastan (Spandex). Especially. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. Polyamide (Nylon). But for the blended fabrics. After dyeing and after drying. Perfect registration (placement). Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. PRINTING There are two different prints. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. Quick and time saving. Charges for one side raising: Rs.25 – 30 per kg. Loop knit (French rib). these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. They are as follows. the heat set process is a must. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. If the stroke of the printer differs. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. But to get better result. 3. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. the print quality will differ. They are all over prints and chest prints. it will take more time for multi colour printing. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. only after drying the 1st colour. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. 1. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised.
We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. Though the films are made with computer. Pigment dyes (inks) are used.26 5. If the fabric has softener. Pigment prints. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. the fabric will get completely dried. If the fabric does not absorb the water. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. Softener should not be added in dyeing. more care to be taken while making films. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. Even though it will cost more. Then the printing will look blurred. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. it means the fabric does not have softener. For printing in Rotary machines. the print will be better than on the first side. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 6. 2. as the continuous process. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. kerosene is used as an alternate. Rotary screens are in tubular form. seating and registration. Immediate drying. we can achieve perfection in printing. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. 4. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. Less wastage. it means the fabric has softener. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. if the fabric absorbs the water. This will create major problem in garmenting. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. Some times. If the fabric is even slightly wet. For this. These machines are very rare in use.1cms. 3.1cms. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. Also before printing. The diameter of the screen is 64. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). tubular screens are to be made for each colour. After printing. Due to this. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. If the softener is added. 26 .
3. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Less process after printing. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. Also due to the double job. Any shade is possible. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. Advantages: 1. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. 2. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. Selection or mixing colours are easier. As the continuous process. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. If we need softer hand feel after printing. the fabric is to be washed after curing. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. As an alternative for this. 9. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. 6. 3. a square design may change into a rectangle. 5. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. the fabric will smell after printing. 4. water 27 . Print smell.27 5. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. Rough hand feel. 8. 7. etc. after the print. Risk factors: 1. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. Cheaper cost. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. a round design may change into an oval shape. 7. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. Hence after printing on both sides. Then. 2. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. avoid smell. 6. Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. For example. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. as the normal procedure.
Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. Before bulk printing. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. Procedures: 1. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. this wash is essential. 2. 28 . But this kind of water print is very rarely used. They are made mainly from the vegetables. 8. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. it is better to print in open width form only. As the water should not be recycled. It is called Third page image. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. For this. Shade masters will prepare one shade. This is called water base prints. Softener should not be added in dyeing. They are called organic dyes. because of dull look and blurred print effect. To avoid this. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). 4. 5. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. But this is very expensive and very rarely used. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. To remove the print dusts. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. 6. Reactive dyes to be used. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. 3.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. the print dusts will stick to the fabric again. It is called River Wash. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. 7. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water.28 is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water.
But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. Best colour fastness. Procedures: 1.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. Longer life for prints. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. But this will not have better fastness. 4. 3. Then fabric is to be dried. it is not used widely. For this. in pigment printing. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. 5. It means. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. 2. (In some cases. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. By touch. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. we can easily use Pigment printing. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Risk factors: 1. 29 . 4. Advantages: 1. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Softener should not be added in dyeing. It is better to avoid this). we can use pigment printing. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. 2. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. 2. Too many important processes to be followed.29 9. Too much care to be taken in every process. Brightness of colours even after many washes. Very expensive. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). Importantly. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. we have to use Discharge printing. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. Very soft hand feel. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs.
the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. 4. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. After printing is completed. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. All colour shades can not be achieved. 4. 5. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. Therefore. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). 3. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. These costs 30 . the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Can be printed manually too. Before bulk printing. after the removal of dyeing colour. Advantages: 1. That is. Red. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. Then after discharge printing. All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. Then after discharge printing. To avoid this. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. 7.: As we see. Risk factors: 1. No river wash is needed. After printing. Expensive print cost. It is called Third page image. 8. This is very important as during printing. 5. and Navy. 5. 3. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. Long lasting print quality. 2. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. 2. the base colour White will be visible as printed. Green. If White is one of the printing colours. 6. Better soft hand feel. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. When printing. Better colour fastness. 4. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base.30 3. after the removal of dyeing colour. Printing to be done with discharge dyes.
The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. They are as follows. Foil prints. Longer life for prints. Like all over printing on rotary machines. With these machines. Better colour fastness. Quick production. This machine is very costly (about Rs. No stain in unprinted areas. Foam prints. Flock prints. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. 31 . Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area.31 will differ according to the dyeing shades. Glitter prints. Perfect placement and registration. Octopus machine will print automatically. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. 5. 2. print area and coverage. Embossed prints. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. Reflective prints. Motif prints. etc. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Better smoothness and sharpness. 8. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. number of colours. Perfect colours and shades. 7. 3. 6. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Non-PVC prints. Sugar prints. 1. Perfume prints. Sticker prints. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). Plastisol prints. Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually.40 lakhs).1 lakh). Transfer prints. Less wastage. etc. But prints will have the best quality. There are 2 types of machines. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. 9. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). 4. No smell. Water prints.
as there will be no print smell. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. etc. etc. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. foam. After the manual printing. it is better to check with the printers. Batiks. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. After plastisol print. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. foil. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash).5 per kg. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. glitters. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only.32 Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. Procedures: 1. It is better to use Discharge dyes. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. It does not matter. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. sugar. To get the cost of other special quality prints. 32 . Fusing cost is included in the above costs. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. flock. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish.
7. 19. the result will not be good). If we do tie & dye in bit form. the other colours will not fix properly. 10. If we use normal embroidery threads. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. 33 . as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. 13. But to get better result. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. 14. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. 11. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 17. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. Before cutting the bits for garments. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. 4. (In case of emergency. 18. If we do tie & dye in garment form. sleeves. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. 5. The dipping will be done manually. 8. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). It will take few minutes only. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. And to be dried under shades naturally. If there is any other base colour except White. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. 6. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. 3. It may be stripes or any other design. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. This is the dyeing process.33 2. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. it is better to dry them in shadows). Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. they will not get dyed. (If it is Chlorine bleached. nothing can be done about measurements. We have to remember that so far. 9. by taking note of all the details. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 15. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. shrinkage and shape of garment. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. As the fixing agent is fixed now. Fabrics for body. 16. And so on. After the tie & dye process. 20. shrinkage and shape. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. 12.
More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. etc. etc.. cutting. 3. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. As it is done manually.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. Hence after removing the waxes. flowers. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. This is almost like tie & dye. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. due to different dyes. Enormous designs can be made. As all the processes are done manually. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Drying by machines is not possible. 4. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. This is like printing. BATIKS: This is also done manually. 2. etc. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. methods. During and after the process. curtain cloths. processing. we will get different qualities and results. churidars. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. length and width of the bits. This is also called Wax printing. depending on the design. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. 2. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. bed spreads and lungies. will be made by wax. the charge may be Rs. there will be less consistency of designs and quality.. 5. By this. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. garmenting. The printing designs like stars. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. 34 . 4. Risk factors: 1. the charges will be based on number of colours. can be made at affordable prices. GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. Better colour fastness. for 2 colours. Approximately. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. For larger quantities.34 Advantages: 1. 3. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed.18 to 20. GSM. Mostly used for sarees.
Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. 11. shoulder seam. cuffs. side slits and pockets. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. placket box. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. 3. side slits and pockets. 6. garment dyeing method is followed. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. are called Lot. 4. etc. even though we have taken more care. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). dyed from one machine at one time. As the garments are dyed in vessels. shrinkage and shape.. neck rib. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. 12. 13. cuff. Faded wash. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). 7. collar. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. 14. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. Then body. 2. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. Enzyme wash 4. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. for stone washed effect. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. sleeves. For example. cuffs are attached together. 2. 5. (Depending on the required effect. rope. Fabric for body. etc. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. by taking note of all the details. There will be 35 . Acid wash 3. Since many parts are attached. After the garment dyeing. the substances are to be used. 5. 10. 9. shrinkage and shape. When we cut the fabrics for making garment. shoulder seam. sleeve.35 We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. If the garment is processed more than enough. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. there may be shade variations between these parts. The garments. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. Denim (Jeans) wash. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. Procedures: 1. After the fabrics are dyed. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. 8. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. placket box.mainly at neck seam around collar. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. Stone wash. cuffs. collars. 1.
As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. collar. rejections of garments will be high. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). Advantages: 1. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. 3. Risk factors: 1. Due to the damages in garments. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. Due to the special effects and quality. 2. sleeves. Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. there will not be any shrinkage further. some other special machines to be used. 4. Different qualities of washes are possible. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. In these special acoba embroidery machines. 2. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting.36 difference in shades and washing effect between lots. 3. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. 36 .: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. There will not be any shade variation between body. 5. etc. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. it is expensive. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. Washed look can be achieved. This will vary from machines to machines. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). 4. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. cuffs. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. Because of its own quality nature. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. all over embroidery can be made.
8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens).5 – 7 per zip. Zippers.15 to 40 per gross. curtain cloths. number of colours and sizes of embroidery.40 to 60 per gross. specifications. designer’s fabrics. Hang tags. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs.3 zippers is lesser than No. Labels. Polybags. Even if the tapes are pulled. Anyhow. etc.5 zippers. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. ACCESSORIES Buttons. decorative fabrics. quantity. Twill tapes. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. etc in addition to the number of stitches. Packing pins. etc. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs. No. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. the zipper can not be opened. Inner boards. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs. Also each accessory has many dimensions. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. No.50 per garment. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. qualities. for making costing. blouses. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. etc. For adult garments. Ropes.10 to 15 per gross. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. Badges.3 zippers are used. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. It can 37 . the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Elastics. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories.37 Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees.22 – 24 per zip. Cost of No.7 per zip. Due to competition. fixing cost. Tissue papers. But the minimum cost is around 2.1. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. wooden buttons – Varies as per design.00 per 1000 stitches. though the number of stitches is lesser. For children garments. Lock quality is to be checked. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. Metal buttons.24 per zip.5 zippers are used. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs.50 to 70 per gross. In these auto lock zippers.
75 per metre. 12mm. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside.2.5cm. Elastics with the width of 4mm. etc. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. From 1. etc are used for legs of undergarments. In these labels. There are plain elastics and named elastics. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics.3. 2. This is single 38 . Yarn price to be added with this charge. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers.30 to 40 per kg. For the special pullers.38 be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers.50 per metre. thickness. From 2. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics.0. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe. Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels.50 per metre. It is approximately Rs. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments.1. There are 2 types of woven labels. number of colours. 6mm. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. wash care labels. size labels.1. 10mm. As these badges are very special.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. From 3. Elastics with 1cm. The prices are based on quality. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. Badges are in many types. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. It depends on the design. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. 2cm. 8mm.00 per metre.50 per metre. the prices will be different. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. width. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. quality and quantity.
0.80 per tag. single side or both sides printing.1. Woven labels: Main label (2. 39 . Hence before using the printed labels. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments.25” width x 10cm length): Rs. the price may be Rs. Hence the quality.00 to Rs. sizes. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes. etc. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. Damask labels are woven on both sides. There are non-computerised looms are also available.10 per label. colours. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands. number of colours. die-cut design and quantity. If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs.0.40 to Rs.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs.15 per label. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness.0.30 to Rs.0. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water. In these labels.0. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. style.0. if printing and cutting are made manually. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. Single colour (1. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users.50 per tag. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. design.0. prices. etc. This is an important thing.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels.39 weave. the price may be Rs.08 per label.0.30 to Rs. tags are used and attached with the garments. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta.0. it is safer to check them too. With these machines also woven labels are made. measurement. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes.0.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. composition.1. printing design. composition. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size.60 to Rs. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.0. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels.0. If the yarn colour bleeds. care instructions. If there is anything special.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. This is double weave.0. The tags can be made at cheaper prices. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. colours.0.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs.
it may not be recyclable. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs. depends on paper quality.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram.02 for one inch length. die cut (scoring) and quantity. One is PP (Polypropylene).00 to Rs. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags.50 each paper.50 per board.00 per tag. the tape cost will be Rs.25 to Rs.50 to Rs. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). Due to this.10 to Rs.30 to Rs.0. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. etc. PP bags have bright look.15 each paper. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. If the polybag is very thin.0. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0.0.0. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look. As PE polybags are recyclable. quantity. If the width of polybag is 12”.0.0. special quality with die cut: Rs.65. Another is PE (Polyethylene). For normal size. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment.0.24 per bag. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.0. 40 . most of the customers insisting to use PE only. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs. quality.80 per bag.30 to Rs. If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape.0.60 to Rs.55. measurements.40 per bag.30 to Rs.00 per board.00. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. nowadays. normal quality: Rs.0. For special sizes. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs.1. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.40 If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. the rejection of polybags will be more.0. prints.0. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags. the price may be around Rs.0.4.0.
depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments.00 to pack 24 to 50garments.25. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only.4. sizes. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs.5.25. sizes suitable for different garment styles. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs.1. etc. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.00 to Rs. 41 . Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM.60 per garment.5.41 Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside.1. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. The hangers are in different types. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. Recycled papers should not be used. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs. styles.0. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. quantity.15. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs. plastic hangers.25 will be the master bag cost per garment.00 to Rs.00 to Rs. Also the hooks are in different types. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. Hence approximately Rs.00 to Rs. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers. design. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. etc. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.1. the cost will be Rs.40.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers.20.3.00 approximately.25 to Rs. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs.
number of jobs with over lock.14 per pc. packing methods and other works. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. local transport.12 per pc.12 per pc. pockets. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. the charges for these jobs are very much higher. Making. time consumption. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. . and attaching collars & labels. the charges for these jobs are higher. nowadays. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. trims and accessories to these Job workers. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. . 42 . For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used.20 per pc. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. There are manual and power driven machines are used. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. flat lock & lock stitch machines. .Lockstitch machines.18 per pc. Lock stitches are used for making plackets. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs.Flat lock machines. V neck covering.10 per pc. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high.42 CMT CHARGES (Cutting. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments.20 per pc. productivity. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. Making and Trimming charges. etc. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting.Over lock machines. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. quality standards. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. only the power driven machines are used. Though CMT is Cutting.
If it is C&F By sea. etc. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight. FAS. If it is C&F By air. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. While we confirm the orders from the customers. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs.10 per pc. CIP. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. It includes local road transport.22 per pc. CIF. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. etc. sea transport. It means the buyer will pay the freight . If there are any extra works. CIF: It is Cost. C&F. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): 43 . it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight.it may be road or rail transport. EXW.8 per pc. rail transport. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB.43 Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs.15 per pc. Insurance and Freight. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. It is the same as FOB. it will be claimed by the buyer. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. FCA. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board.12 to Rs. insurance premium and the freight.13 per pc. Ex-factory. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. CFR. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs.10 to Rs.12 per pc. air transport. These above charges are approximate.12 per pc. CPT. the charges to be added accordingly.10 per pc. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs.
etc. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). 3. inspection. Customs charges – Documentation. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. the size of container is to be decided. If we have doubt about the terms. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). Local transport to the port. 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. 5. There are 2 types of loading. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. Port expenses – Loading. There are 20’. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). According to the volume of goods. etc. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. 4. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. Charges of freight. In case of export to other countries. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. 1. availability. 2. it is called FCL. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. CIF terms are used. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. routing.44 It is the same as FOB. Their approximate capacity is as follows. Mostly FOB. 6. Charges of stuffing the goods into container. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. 44 . C&F.
Though some ports have more sea depth. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. shipping lines and conference lines. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port.45 If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. It is called Loose Container Load. the mother vessels do not come to this port. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. In this case. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. The nearest port is Colombo. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. etc. Sometimes. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. Shipping lines: 45 . Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. granite stones. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). as Tuticorin port is small. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. This is called Consolidation of Goods. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. transshipment. etc. For example. To solve this problem. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. but with more weight – Like steel. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity.may be stuffed in one full container. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. routing & transit time. This system is called transshipment. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. Colombo port is very big. This is also called transshipment. As this port is in the main sea route. the freight will be based on weight too. distance between destinations. And in Colombo port.
(We will discuss about this in detail later).000 – Rs. according to their capacities.46 The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs.000 – Rs.54. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area. better connection in transshipments. China. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. This is a regular practice. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.1.99. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port). Japan.22.58. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas.36.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.1.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. Depending on the destination and on the flight services. their partner company will use their vessel.94. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port.21.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs.76. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L.90. safety. Taiwan.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs.63. As we discussed above. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. the 46 .000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs.44. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. Hong Kong.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. By using these Conference Lines.72. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.17. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships.90. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. Kuwait. etc.1.
loading & unloading. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. volume of goods.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines.47 goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. etc. we have to bear the local transport to the port.2. documentation charges. most of the shipments will go by sea only. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. It will come about Rs. At the same time. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). they will be prompt in their connections and timings. the goods have to be sent by air. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. As the freight charges are very high.00 to Rs. stuffing charges. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. 47 .1. etc. Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment.80 to Rs. The receipt is Airway Bill. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. As like sea shipments. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. we can use smaller airlines. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. Some times. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. Hence the shipment will be delayed.140 per kg.100 to Rs. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. In these cases. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume.110 per kg. there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. customs clearing charges. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines.
procedures. marketing. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. market prices and availability. etc. sewing and packing of garments. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. shipping.00 to Rs. To do perfect garment costing. air) and freight charges. charges of transport and conveyance. quality & quantity and payment terms. production. We must remember that the quality depends on price. finishing. transportation (road. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. over heads. the customer’s price level. etc. transport and conveyance. sea. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments. sales. latest procedures. etc. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges.6. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. methods and quality systems. to be taken into consideration. the charges will come about Rs. processing and finishing of fabrics. When we consider the value of goods. knitting fabrics. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. While we do the garment costing. this charge is very nominal. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. charges of knitting. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. Each product will have different price according to its quality. advantages and risk factors. 48 . distance between ports. sewing and packing. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover.02% of the total value of goods.48 C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. routing.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. processing. price depends on quality. etc. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. Due to the above practical reasons.4. banking charges and commissions. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the customers. is essential to make perfect costing.
FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. Let us see them in detail now. badges. To make the garment costing. buttons. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. twill tapes. To work on the prices exactly. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. Cost of a garment. inner boards. 2. Gross weight of other components of garment. we must have the measurements of Chest. Cost of trims (labels. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines.49 The method of making costing will vary from style to style. we have to find out following things.) 6. we must have full measurements of the garment. Fabric cost per garment. tags. 1. As there are many different styles in garments. 7. 3. 5. cartons. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. Men’s Basic T shirts. Price of a garment. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. polybags. 4. Other charges (print. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. Men’s Pyjamas. Fabric cost per kg. etc. Fabric consumption. 5. embroidery. etc) 9. Cost of accessories (hangers.) 7. Ladies Night dress. 2. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. bows. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. 6. Large (L). 3. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 49 . It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. 10. 1. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. Body Length and Sleeve Length. costings can be made for other styles too. But compulsorily. 4. Medium (M). CMT charges 8. etc.
That is.50 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. the consumption will also be relatively higher.54Centimeters. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM.000 square centimetres).000 sq. In other words. M. 1 Inch = 2.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Sizes: S. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. To find the fabric consumption. the consumption will be lesser. Even in Europe. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. If the GSM is higher. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. 50 . We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters. Canada. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. if the area of the fabric is 10.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. XL. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. they have to be converted into Centimeters. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. In any case. S – XXL. TRIAL COSTING NO. If the GSM is lesser. As we have seen earlier. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. if the garment measurements are in Inches. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. L. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. USA. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. (No style number or no size is needed to print). The garment measurements for USA. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. Australia are measuring in Inches. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). As we discussed earlier.cms. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10.
2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. Hence due to either way. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. Thus. for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing.000 pcs).51 Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. (22. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. if we are unable to control this. the finished fabric may have more width than required. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. That is. For example. 63 or 64cms. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. Neck rib width = 3 cms. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. Pique & Interlock. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. That is. In case. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. As the fabric is in tubular. Generally. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. Length = 78 cms. Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 51 . Hem = 3 cms. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width.
the garments are based on weights. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. If they are possible. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. Let us assume that according to the patterns. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 52 .52 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. Neck rib : 10 grams. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. Let us take the GSM is 140. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. In other words. Chest = 60 cms. to avoid shade variation. In this case. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. At the same time. we should remember that the front body. (0. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. Let us assume following are the measurements. Length = 78 cms. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. then we have to find out by which fabric width. Gross weight : 197 grams. Armhole circumference = 56 cms.
As we had seen earlier. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight. This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable.53 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. among the possible widths. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. Then we will have to calculate as below.14 mtrs of 50” width. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. only if they are all over printed on open width form. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened. we can see that it will be 1. Let us calculate the same for 62”. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. Thus. It means. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. we have to select the suitable width.
00 10.00) Likewise. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.00 8. 54 . elastic.70 X 197 1000 = 40.25) Medium colours 40.40. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.00 9.06 (Round off: Rs.00 214. For Medium colours For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours = 203.13 (Round off: Rs.00 Dyeing charge = 35. twill tapes. tags.00 Compacting charge = 6.00 184. So there are no charges.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours For Light colours = 193. buttons. badges.70 Dark colours 135.00 8.25 Light colours Fabric cost per garment = Rs.20 X 197 1000 = 38.00 6. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt).70 203.00 45.00 6.54 The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric. there is no need of print or embroidery.70 224.20 Medium colours 135. 38.70 X 197 1000 = 44.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 65.00 OTHER CHARGES (Print.44. ropes.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193.00) = 224. labels. COST OF TRIMS (zippers. embroidery. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.27 (Round off: Rs.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.38.00 194.00 Dark colours 44.
50 = Rs. 0. : Rs. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.35 per garment.20 1.1.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.00 -0.20 = Rs.00 per garment. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price.15 We have found out the cost of garment. Master polybag – Normal: Rs. 1. as example. Now let us see these things in detail. 2.00 = -= Rs.35 56. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs.30 per garment. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment.00 1.0. let us see the costs of the required accessories. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment.25 per garment. sea freight / air freight). cartons.0.85 10. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label.85 per garment. : Rs. 55 . Let us see the cost of these things. 1.10 Hang tag: Rs. tags.55 53.00 1. So the total cost of accessories is Rs. inner boards.75 Dark cols 44. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier. 1. etc.35 52. profit. 1. 3. 2. cartons. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.70 Medium cols 40. Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs.10.55 Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts. Let us see what are the trims required for this style.38.0. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment.45 1.80 per garment. polybags.35 = Rs.51. We require following things.50. etc): For this Basic T shirt.10.0.0.) Cost of trims (labels. Polybag .85 10.25 -0.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Light cols = Rs. Export carton – Normal: Rs. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers.Normal (not a special one): Rs.0. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one). 0.85 = Rs.00 = Rs.70 58.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.40 per carton to contain 48 garments.
10. bonus. incentives. Light cols Fabric cost per garment = Rs. So we don’t have to add sea freight. Let us recall our earlier costing.15 8. depreciation of machineries.56 SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.00 59.35 = Rs. etc) and profit margin. let us work on 15% profit margin.1 per garment.) = -Cost of trims (labels. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance.75 8.52. machineries.70 Profit @ 15% = Rs. 1.38.95 -----62. 1. electricity.35 52.15 1. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value.90 = Rs. 7. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only.45 1. cartons. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No. For our calculation.70 Now we add the local transport = Rs.60 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. Anyhow.85 10. It will vary from company to company depends on their size.60.3333.60. It may be approximately Re. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’.51.35 56.05 .00 1.95 Dark cols 44. if any.00 Other charges (print. 0. with the above costs of garments. COMMISSION: For some orders. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota. tags. interest for investments.05 ------68. office salary.00 -0.85 CMT charges = Rs.20 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. 56 Medium cols 40.75 1.00 = Rs. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now.90 68.85 10. etc) = Rs.00 54. the quota system will be removed from January 2005.60 As there is no commission to be paid = ------Prices of garment = Rs. standards.50. If the terms are C&F or CIF.55 53.25 -0. etc. etc.20 1.00 Cost of accessories (polybags.70 58.00 1. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price.20 62.50 Cost of garment = Rs. We have to add this commission. etc) = Rs. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. 1.
3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light. Medium and Dark colours are equal. Some Tips: For easy reference. .51 We understand that the quantities of Light. These are approximate prices only. we can mention the validity for our prices.00 = 1 USD. .40 Pls note the above prices are FOB. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. it has to be mentioned. Then we will get following prices. Medium.60 FOB. For Light colours : Rs. For 180GSM – USD 1. 57 . L. the prices will differ. For 150GSM – USD 1. For 140GSM – USD 1.If we made any change in buyer’s details. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer. quantity and specifications. . According to the measurements. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.00 = USD 1. For 160GSM – USD 1.35 For Medium colours: Rs.000 pcs. Also it will be clear for our reference. ratio.00 = USD 1. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours.40 FOB.00 = USD 1.95 divided by 45. XXL.If the commission is added.Quota category to be mentioned.Delivery terms to be mentioned.60. it has to be mentioned. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. If the terms are C&F and CIF. regular packing and ratio. FOB / C&F / CIF.40 For Dark colours : Rs. packing methods.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned.50 FOB. M.60 divided by 45.80 FOB.68. . as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333.05 divided by 45. XL. Enquiry Style No.45. .If we expect any price hike in near future.57 Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. . it will be clear for him. It is USD 1. we can quote the price to buyer as follows. Quantity: 20.62. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices. Quota Category: 4 Price / pc USD 1. we have to inform like this.40 per pc.
58 TRIAL COSTING NO. RN no. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. To be attached with second button with hang tag.5 = 16.Hanger pack. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. 2. Let us recall the steps once again. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30.5 =7 = 1.5 = 2.5 = 23 = 21. Gross weight of all parts of garment. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Sizes: S.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. Colour to be printed on back side. 4. Fabric consumption.25 = 14.75 = 4. Size..Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.25 = 17. Fabric cost per kg. Style No. XL. Quantity: 48. safety instructions printed.5 For your reference. Size. Fabric cost per garment. 1. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. (Pls find the attached details). the full measurements are given here. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. 3.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . 58 .75 = 2. L.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No. M.. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.000 pcs.
we will get sleeve length from shoulder point.) 6. etc. inner boards. cartons. That is. 4 cm is to be added with body length. For our calculation. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm.5inches. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres. bows. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. twill tapes.5 cm. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. embroidery. Remember.59 5. Now let us do the calculation.50 + 4 = 81. So the body length for calculation will be 77. = 21.5cm. Price of a garment. That is.5 + 27. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: 312 grams. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length.5” – 10. 59 .5”. As this is all over print program. polybags. CMT charges 8. Sleeve length from centre back is 21. tags. etc. 10. Cost of trims (labels.) 7.75” = 27.75” = 10. Cost of a garment. So it will be 24 inches. As this is all over print program.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 = (120.5”) = 21. buttons. etc) 9. 61cms. Cost of accessories (hangers.5” – ½ (21. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. Collar : 40 grams. Placket : 15 grams. That is 77. Body Length is 30.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. Half moon patch: 15 grams. badges. Other charges (print.
2.258.20 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.95 Cost of garment = Rs. for calculation.155.00 235.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.50 CMT charges = Rs.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs. tags. 18. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. etc) = Rs. 5.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15. TRIAL COSTING NO.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.60 Gross weight : 382 grams.00 Printing charge = 50.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258. embroidery. 2.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Knitting charge = 8. it can be considered as printed.00 – Carton. 3.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. packing materials = Rs.) = -Cost of trims (labels. 20.00 Dyeing charge = 30.30 Price of garment = Rs.00 Open width compact = 12. (0.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): 60 . the cost will be approximately the same as printed. 98. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23.00 = Rs. rope.75 Other charges (print.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed.135. 98.131. 3. 2. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120. etc.50 That is the FOB price is USD3.45 per pc.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.
Terms: C&F Rotterdam port. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.00 61 . Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. size and warning instructions printed. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.61 Enquiry No. (0.000 pcs. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Neck piping : 10 grams. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem.. XL. M. Quantity: 16. L. Gross weight : 316 grams. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135. Sizes: S. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. To be attached with the main label.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck.
00 Price of garment = Rs.00 Cost of polybags.00 199. Sizes: S. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. size and warning instructions printed.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 62 . 6.1x1 rib at bottom legs .00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. packing materials = Rs.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs. tags. M. 3. 3.00 = 10. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. 66. L.62 Knitting charge Dyeing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 8. 12.00 Cost of trims (labels. XXL.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at front centre outside waist . 2.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 50. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 That is. XL.112.209.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. When giving this price to buyer.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 =Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio. 66. the C&F price is USD2.00 6. To be sewn at front waist.Solid dyed – Black. 97.. etc) = Rs.00 = Rs.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 per pc. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Cost of garment = Rs.00 = = = FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209. 5. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’. carton. 15.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . 94.
If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Quantity: 13. back rise & inseam. For using this formula. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton.63 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes.500 pcs. we must know the measurements of thigh. we can find consumption by using following formula. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. There are 2 ways. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. 63 . it is easier by using following formula.
Let us continue the costing.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. This is not acceptable. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. Width wise. By doing like this. the wastage will be more.00 Compacting = 6. we can use ‘S’ cutting. we get one full thigh circumference measurement.224. By this way.00 Knitting charge = 18.70 64 . FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. we can minimise the wastage. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.70 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10. In this case.00 214. We know only thigh measurement.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 60. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. Hence if the program is Solid program. we can quote prices more accurately. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. reasonably and competitively.64 We have to work prices with the largest measurements. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. But we don’t know the seat measurement. the seat is the largest measurement.
Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.00 Waist rope = Rs. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs. 2. 3.00 Woven patch label = Rs. carton.. 3. 80. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. and warning instructions printed. XL.00 = Rs.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs. Size. 65 . Sizes: S.50 That is.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Solid dyed – 60%White.00 CMT charges = Rs. 0. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck.65 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. 16. L.85 per pc.111.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.128.108. 80.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. packing materials = Rs.00 Cost of polybags. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. To be attached with main label. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. TRIAL COSTING NO. Colour to be printed on back side.60 Cost of trims (labels. Size.75 Price of garment = Rs. 20%Grey Melange. To be attached with main label. 4. 15. etc) = Rs.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Style No. M. 1. tags.25 Cost of garment = Rs. 20%Black. the FOB price is USD2. 2.
400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.30 66 . 15 grams.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205.00 Compacting = 6. 40 grams. 400 grams. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams. 82. 15 grams.00 Knitting charge = 15.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.205.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.80 X 400 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 82.66 Quantity: 72.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 196. 40 grams.000 pcs. (0.
That is 15cm. TRIAL COSTING NO. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.00 = Rs. L.130. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.200 pcs per combination. carton. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 67 .00 = Rs.60 Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck.4 colour combinations. 3. 2. Size and warning instructions printed. 17. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton.00 = Rs.30 = Rs. 1. 2. tags. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. 3.110. 2.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.30 = Rs.00 = Rs. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.113.00 = Rs.67 Embroidery Cost of trims (labels.60 = Rs. 18. Polyester printed care label.00 = Rs.90 per pc. M. the FOB price is USD2.00 = Rs. Sizes: S. Quantity: 7. packing materials Local freight charges + shipping expenses Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is.. etc) Twill tape CMT charges Polybag.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF = Rs.
00 Knitting charge = 30.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 CMT charges = Rs.00 Compacting = 6.70 Price of garment = Rs.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. 15.00 = Rs. Neck piping : 10 grams.68 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. etc) = Rs.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372.151.00 338.127.35 per pc. 2.106. packing materials = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.131. carton. (0.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG 68 .00 Washing charge = 5. 2.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 19. TRIAL COSTING NO.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.00 Polybag. the FOB price is USD3. 2.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33.80 Cost of garment = Rs.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.50 Cost of trims (labels. Gross weight : 286 grams. 106. 3. tags.00 That is.
116. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. 98.00 69 . Likewise.10 COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% = 242. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.00 Knitting charge = 50.69 Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Sizes: 92. the allowance for chest should be 6cm.10 Fabric cost per Kg = 342.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 31.00 Compacting = 6. (For adult garments. Polyester printed care label. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. That is 20cm. Size and warning instructions printed. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes.00 Washing charge = 5. 104.200 pcs total.00 311.3 colour combinations. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% = 36. this would be 25cm). Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.. 110. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched.
70 Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = = = 30.00 5.00 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50
Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60 36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20
COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.
NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.
PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the 70
71 money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 71
72 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 21. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges, documents dispatch instructions, transferring conditions, etc., will be mentioned here. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. 72
the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. amount.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. In this case. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. . Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. Without these documents. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. it is a set of following originals and copies. . before opening L/C. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. 73 . This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. 26. the amendments are made several times. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. They are only the copies. shipment date. description. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). There may be some mistakes. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. Some times. let us see the importance and procedures of them. 25. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. 23. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. To avoid these amendment charges. Hence they are very important. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). he can not clear the goods from his customs. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. validity extension. Only the originals have got value. changes or differences in address. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. This is called L/C amendment. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. B/L: As we see above.73 22. price. after receiving this L/C. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. 24. only with B/L or Airway bill. As we have to be careful of these important documents. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift.
So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. documentation. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. Consignment copy. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. To avoid all these things. To 74 . It is called Negotiable documents. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. money. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. They are 1. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill.74 There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). quality. With these original B/Ls only. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). After 3 days. It will be heavy amount. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. In this case. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. we must be sure of this clause in L/C. In ‘Documents required’ clause. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. pricing. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. the airport will charge for demurrage. But it is a long process which will take more time.. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. After the air shipment.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. stress and tension.. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a week.’ If is mentioned other than this. as we sent one original B/L by courier. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. we don’t get the payment. buyer can clear the goods. Though we were careful in production. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. etc. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer.
75 avoid this demurrage charges. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. 75 . the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. etc are to be taken care. it is mentioned as follows. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. In spite of all these reasons. To avoid this practical problem. only due to the urgency. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. as we had seen in sea shipment above. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. We have to remember. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. in order to get the claim or discount. even commas. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. it is not safe for the supplier. full stops. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. Hence to be on the safer side. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. Besides. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. To be specified exactly. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. Here comes the problem for exporter. As the documents are still with them. But as per L/C condition. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. Then. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival.
Due to all the above procedures and formalities. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. If everything is OK. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. Even in this term. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. in order to hold the documents for some days. 90 days L/C. even though the discrepancies are not true. he can do it. At Sight L/C: As per this term. 120 days L/C. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. etc. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. In this case. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. 30 days L/C. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. we must know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a 76 . In other words. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. We have to note that this is the usual period. 60 days L/C.76 On receipt of these documents.
They use to send the discrepancy letter first. 77 . they will ask for some discounts or claims. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. Accordingly. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. Some times. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. After that he will not make the payment.77 while or he does not want to pay our bills. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of receipt of documents’. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. 60 days. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). fax or email to make the payment. Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. They even say that they don’t want the goods. Only difference is. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. As these buyers are genuine. Here we have to see a very important thing. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. 90 days. Here comes the important thing. After 7 working days. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. 30 days. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight.
Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. 120 days. In the same way. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. In these terms. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. In this case. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. These are all normal L/Cs. only if he has financial strength. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. the banks will ask the buyer to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. 1. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. Then without paying the money to the bank. validity. As we have seen. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. If there is any quality problem. In some countries. etc. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. the other L/Cs for 60 days. few partial shipments are allowed. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. Normally they will not open L/Cs. 2. Hence after taking delivery. the buyer can get the L/C opened.78 If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. As no 78 . Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. But the overall maximum amount. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. By this kind of L/C. at least to get the payment without any claim. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. In some backward countries. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. Let us see what they are. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. 90 days. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. etc. number of renewals. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. he will not have the facility to open L/C. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. are treated and followed. If he does not have them. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. As we have seen earlier. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment.
If the buyer is genuine. In these days. 3. If the buyer is not genuine. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. On receipt of the documents in their bank. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. At the same time. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. these buyers will not open L/C. 4. Then the seller’s problem started. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. In this case. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. he will not show any interest in the goods. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. In these terms. If the buyer opens L/C. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. By these terms. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. fax and email. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. the seller has to proceed with his production. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. He would affect the seller psychologically. After 2 or 3 weeks. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. Without getting 100% confirmation. 79 . As nothing can be done.79 buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. But as this buyer is not genuine. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. the buyer would not answer his call. On the other hand. etc. But in D/P terms. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the seller does not have any hold. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. Due to any of these above reasons. He would avoid the seller completely. After the shipment. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action.
They will have different payment periods like 30days. 60days. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. I am sorry. the seller will have more risks of payment. 75days. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. He will not do anything with the samples). I don’t like to put you into big loss. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. I can not let you down because you are my friend. In the D/P terms. Some tips: To avoid this. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. With this commission. This is almost like D/P terms. Some times he may lose his business too. I know this is not fair. I can do this help for you. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. either buyer’s bank or the seller 80 . Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. etc. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. If you want. (This is only a drama. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. Pls think it over and let me know. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. 120days. In order to help you. I will send your documents back. friend. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Even after this period. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. So in this term. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. 3. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. Believe me. 2. No body is interested to take the goods. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. other banking charges and bank interest. But in D/A terms. 45days.80 1. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. If you agree for this. Or he would agree for D/A terms. But I have convinced my customer somehow. Due to his commitments on this payment. I tried with our customers. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. I will send your documents back to you. I can try to sell the goods by myself. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. 90days. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods.
Documentation. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing.81 can not do anything. Sampling and Quality. benefits to workers. Pollution. Attendance. machineries. terms of payment. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Hours of working. commitment to customers. Purchase. Work Study. Marketing is very most important. Instead of giving details about them. MARKETING For every product. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. Shipping and Payment. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. Customer Study. Costing & Pricing. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. labour laws. market situation and general policy of our company. Also the marketing department controls Production. Working conditions of workers. preference. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. etc. staff and workers. Also we must know about our customers. Communication. pollution. financial strength. etc. Merchandising. 81 . salary and wages. It is also called as Sales. safety & environment of factory.. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. etc. Product Study. of our company. Market Study. etc. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. we must know about the capacity. bribe. Some times. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. Maternity leave for women workers. weaknesses. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. overheads. strengths. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Benefits to workers. Safety measures.
such as emergency exits. etc. First Aid . Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. indecent behaviour. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. etc. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. moral or social development.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. a person is a child until the age of 18. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. . first aid equipment. mental. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly.All exit doors should open outwards. 82 . and thus be available to all staff at all times. .Exits should not be blocked by cartons. . As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. . fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly.If emergency exits are locked. spiritual.82 indirect approach. . fire extinguishers. We must be aware the buyers strategy.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. Safety Building and Fire Safety . Because of the competition in their sales.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. . and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. . or suffers mental or bodily harm.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times.
and the ventilation should be adequate.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. .It is important for the workers' well-being. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer. .Wages should be paid regularly.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. Also after returning back to work. .All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. and for the quality of the garments.In developing countries.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. . Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. . . . prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy. Fans should be provided when needed.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum. religion or ethnic background. . .The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. .83 . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. level. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated. Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . and they should have the right to bargain collectively.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. . gender. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. at all times of day. .No worker should be discriminated against because of race.All workers should be entitled to an employment contract.Sanitary facilities should be clean.Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. following an injury during work in the factory. but not a recommended. . or engage in sexual harassment. in case of an accident in the factory. on time and be fair in respect of work performance.Bonded workers. . and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. Wages and Working Hours . .The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. . Factory Conditions . Working hours per day should be only 8 hours. .The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed.
the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. child labour. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. . So it is our duty to study our organisation well.Fire alarms. cruelty of labour.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. unsafe factories. teamwork. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. Also they are against to the bonded labour system. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. and preferably separated for men and women. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. With these details. . Nowadays. .Separate dormitories. Housing Conditions .All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. Due to this. contact person’s name. etc. from the buyers’ countries. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. quality. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. fire extinguishers. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women.84 workers in the factory. some times. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. Environment . The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. low wages. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. There should be ‘open door’ policy. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously. Basic values include believing in people. fast pace of working and constant improvement.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. This will help us always to take the right 84 . . Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. etc. . capacity. Also the company policies must be known to every worker.
All the Heads should remember one thing always. Likewise. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. So whenever needed. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. when we are doing marketing. subordinates. On the other hand. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. has done a mistake. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. juniors. securities. Then only he can take appropriate. expectations. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. That is the reason. By doing like this. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. That too. who is helping us. but should think that they are HELPING him. the Head is having his employees. subordinates and other departments. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. whenever needed. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. In the same way. honestly. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties.85 decisions in right time. we will not get angry with him. He will have easy approach. he should not get angry with him. So everyone will discuss with him freely. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. because the subordinates are helping the Head. In simple words. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. office boys. When a Head realise this fact. When a person. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. he can 85 . If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. The Head may be the Chairman. Marketing Manager. Production Manager. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. workers. the head may get personal satisfaction. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. Department Head. Section Head. Supervisors. according to our policies. assistants. CEO. Managing Director. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. telephone operators. Factory Manager. it is very essential for us. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. grudges and grievances very well. He will have a pleasing personality. he can not do anything by himself alone. or even Security Head. Administration Manager.
MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. etc. There is no end for learning. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. etc. quality. advantages and disadvantages. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. complete pictures of pricing. then he will not show any interest in learning further. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. If a man feels that he knows everything. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. If they have self confidence. To keep their positions. This is called Product Judgement. etc. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 .86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. we can expect rapid changes for every season. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. concentration. measurements. Simply saying. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. For that we must have self interest. prints. speciality of garments. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. appearance. changes are inevitable. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. fabric quality. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. involvement. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. It may be difficult. We have to learn continuously. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. quality & blends of new fabrics. We can see changes everywhere at every time. production. decorative works. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. He must know about raw materials and other materials. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. Especially in garments trade. possibilities and impossibilities. utility. colours. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. finding and solving problems in production. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. methods of production. yarn composition. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. and they should be their Chief for ever. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. new patterns. immediately on seeing a garment. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. It is the same for garment also. he can not sell even a small pen. new styles. but it is not an impossible thing. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow.
international market. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. That is. new methods. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. new products. Style & fit. colours. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. world economy. local market. updating banking regulations. national market. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. measurements. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. etc. the consumers would be 87 . We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. So. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. For example. etc. Buyer has to work on pricing. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. Even after the deep study. before April / May 2005.87 specifications given by buyers. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. colours. colour forecast. etc. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. fashion forecast. foreign exchange. new regulations. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. Thus. Due to this. fabrics. before confirming the styles. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. It is not an easy thing. financial changes. new working systems. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. etc. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. analysis and experiment of all these things. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. styles. colours. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. design forecast. let us take the summer garments. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. In other words. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country.
fit. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. if the goods are really good in all aspects. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. the store sales would also be good. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. At the same time. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. if reasonable. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. the Intention. Some times. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. Only because of this reason. unsuitable measurements. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. of satisfying our family members. So while executing the buyers’ orders. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. Also as they are happy with our performance. On the other hand. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . etc. Why and how? It is simple. As a result. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. They will not mind increasing prices too. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. the home made food tastes more than outside food. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. poor colour fastness. Or else. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. When the food is made at home. But above all.. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Sometimes.
89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89
90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.
Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).
We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90
91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91
So it should be handled at most care. GSP Form A. etc are the shipping documents. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. 92 . Export Certificate. this is also an important department. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. there will not be any problem of payment. Only our communication can establish. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. not to show our strength in language. For any terms. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. These documents are called bank documents. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. may be poor in English. Honest people like simplicity. If there are some small mistakes. then appreciate. They are Invoice. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. etc. packing list.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. GR form (Exchange control). risk factors. Visa. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. AEPC endorsed invoice. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. There are mainly two types of documents. Certificate of Origin. Inspection certificate. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. Packing list. Tough guys dress easy. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. They are shipping documents and bank documents. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. various payment terms. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. then try to find a solution and then will help us. They must be very good in business. After shipping the documents. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. documentation. We must be honest to ourselves and others. The buyer will understand. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. Our purpose is to make clear message. But when we have a friendly. If there is any L/C amendment. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. we had seen the importance of L/C.
are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. etc. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. By this way. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. In big companies. quantities. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. 93 . before stuffing the goods in to container. whether the company is big or medium or small. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. And this distribution system will be perfect. CMT. they will produce the documents as per the old information. name of the line or airline. Also the charges of processing. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. To make this possible. connection details. other job works. shipment date. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). we will be safe too. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. finishing. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. it is responsible for the price. shipping. This department involves not only with money. etc. Any decision can be taken. etc. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. But in small and medium companies. quality and delivery of the purchased items. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. So the raw materials. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. then he will confirm.93 Some times. each department will take care of each job. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. trims. there may be some changes in prices. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. So. this kind of systems can not be expected. accessories.. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. he may suggest any other option.
When we have this kind of understanding relation. Preparing internal order sheets. production. Lab dips. Internal & external communication Earlier. Sampling. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. communication.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. 94 . internal communication is also very much valuable. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. Mediating production and quality departments. Internal & external communication. shipping and payment. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. Accessories & trims. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. As we discussed earlier. Helping documentation department. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Advising quality department about quality level. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. friendly. we can get these problems solved amicably. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. Some times. In any case. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. At the same time. Preparing purchase orders. they have very high value. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. it is very important to develop a healthy. documentation. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. By the same way. Advising and assisting production. So it is a very valuable department. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. and smooth relation with buyers. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment.
they will bring orders to us. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office.Photo samples .Pre-production samples . we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. buyer may need samples. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. Prevention is better than cure.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .Wash test samples . Sometimes. We have to send many samples to buyers. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. then also we will have to send these samples.Fashion show samples . Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. Whenever they have enquiries. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers.Proto samples or fit samples . Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. We may have to spend too much on these samples. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 . Some times.Production samples . Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. They are .95 Even a small omission. quality standards and price level. For one enquiry. they may not be correctable. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. product range.
We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. But as we don’t get orders. measurements. by showing these samples. To avoid this embarrassing situation. After getting the approval. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. buyer may comment on fabric. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. unsuitable colours. we can not blame the buyer.96 style. we may get orders for all 5 styles. measurements. All the buyers don’t need these samples. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. 96 . Some genuine buyers will agree for this. for the styles which we don’t get orders. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. style and fit. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. Some times. style and fit. buyers may do some changes in measurements. the approved samples should be followed in production. Expected sales may not be possible. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. making. If the order is for 3 colours. Of course these samples will help us for our business. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. etc for making these samples. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. etc. etc of salesmen samples. we may not get order for even a single style. but in the actual measurements and specifications. time. So these samples are very important. Based on these samples. He too can not help us in this regard. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. 3 styles or 1 style. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. Some times. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. colour fastness. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. due to poor quality. some times. We might have spent more money. Any way. unmatched prints or embroidery. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. improper measurements.
Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. But each order will get small quantity only. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. They will accumulate the sales quantities. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Some times. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. hang tag. they will place orders repeatedly. If they don’t get samples on time. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. In this case. Sometimes. for some styles. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. But we can get higher prices for these orders). Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. they may do wash test also. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. In any case. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. we can correct them in production. 97 . These samples can be sent from production. etc. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. colours. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. packing box. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. We should not get any remark or comment. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners.
To adjust this wasted time. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. we may think they are not suitable. If we expect any comments in these samples. he will have to make them again. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades.Sun light matching. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. . tags. Hence before proceeding lab dips. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). This is not cheating. They are . . if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. hence there might be some mistakes. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this.Tube light matching.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. at least 1 week time will be wasted. Different buyers follow different matching. When sending the lab dips to buyer. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. 98 . the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. Our reliability will get questioned here). So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips.Ultra Violet matching. (Some times. we may think they are closer. he has to take some extra care. And even if we get some comments from buyers. Each of these above matching will give different results. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. For example. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. it will differ in sun light.Sodium light matching (show room). . The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. By this way. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. If we see lab dips in the morning. etc. just a tip). Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately.
From the merchandising department only. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. specifications. But the other information like description. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. If the bar codes are not clear. accessories. The other departments may not need these information. They should be advised to the purchase department. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. He may omit some information to other departments. etc to buyer for approval. inner boards. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. zippers. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. colours. like buyer’s address. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. price or price target. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. merchandiser and buyer. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. After getting the buyer’s approvals. quantity. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. delivery date. diameter and width of required fabrics. So while preparing internal order sheets. trims. 99 . This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. he should order them for bulk. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. measurements. quality standards.99 While making lab dips. This will save a good time. etc. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. export price. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. weight. The description. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. hang tags. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. Also as usual. When sending lab dips to buyer. labels. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. polybags. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail.
though there is a separate production departments. status and problems of each stage of production. etc. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. ETD. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. documents and shipping departments. documents. Some times. mid final and final. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. for the better flawless production. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. online. he will have to advise and assist production. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. quantity. quality. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. Category. HS code. B/L instructions. ETA. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. payment terms. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. description. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. purchase order number. comments and instruction. If we work with the buyers directly. delivery terms. port discharge. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. shipping lines. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. the number of inspections will be limited. initial. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. 100 . vessel connections. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices.
nowadays. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. Since 1996. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. garment styles. 101 . increasing competition. which is called production cost. overheads. time and cost. we will see garment production in detail. For helping to reduce the production cost. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. Upholstery. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. latest technical procedures and standards are followed.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. but also involves the fabric production. In these times of rising costs. Furniture and Shoes. electricity and maintenance of production floors. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. It includes the wages. accessories and trims. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. This may be a single sentence. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. This is called Work Study method. But the garment production is not that much simple. proper planning is essentially needed. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. production lead time and targeted shipment date. But there is another important cost. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. valuable. responsible and sensitive process. quantity. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Now let us see this in detail. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. the production department looks after not only the garment production. As we see in the earlier chapters. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. At the same time. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. planning is important. Accordingly for the better production of garments. So now.
Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated.5 minutes for production from cutting. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. In order to balance this. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. It means for this particular garment takes 11. pressing. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. In GSD systems. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes.414 102 . production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. sewing.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. while 70% to 80% is handling time. This is called Line Balancing. quality control and packing. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. It helps us to cost our products.5 = 0. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. this effect is negligible. flat lock and single needle. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. The SMV of cutting. For example. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock.46 + 10% = 0. with a high level of accuracy. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. But when we use these advanced GSD systems.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. Upper Critical Limit = 0. This is not true. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. prior to the start of the production process.5. By this latest system. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow.46 – 10% = 0.
174 garments. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. Single needle machine operations will take more time. 103 .125 hours can be the effective hours.250 hours. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. sewing and finishing. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line.57. Hence the productivity output will be more. It is to be decided according to the number of workers.174 garments. 30. Working hours on week days = 9. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. pressing. Say 60%. When we plan for 25 machines. Say 110%.57. sewing. That is. Say 90%. We can find out the production capacity by working as below. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. For example. We do this. let us take 50% of this total hours. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly.125 x 60 11. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. quality checking and packing. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time.5 = 1. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output.
dyed yarns) and hand feel.94 So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. open width form. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. diameter or width. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. Cost Per Minute Cost Per Minute = 35. etc. all over printed. colour fastness.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment.22. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. But with so much patience. yarn stripes. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. they will not cooperate with work study department.5 x 1. costing department.00. management and the production lines. 104 . Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics.000 per month. Allowances for cutting.94 = Rs.1. colour shades (dyeing.125 x 60 = Rs. Also if the cutting is made manually. GSM.00. prints. The fabrics may be in tubular form. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs.35. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. marketing department. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting.000 30. solid. the patterns are to be made accordingly. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates.
then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. dyeing mistakes. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. They may mark them in any vacant places. by using line system in their production. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. oil stains and other mistakes. Especially. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics.105 If shrinkage. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. yarn mistakes. If this not been followed. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. pockets. Feeding between these operations should be even. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. nothing can be done with the cut bits. plackets and other patches. But this should not be acceptable. some markers may not care about this wales direction. Then our whole calculation will be changed. This is called line system. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. Once they are being cut. it is important to cut the 105 . sewing. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. diameter. printing mistakes. During World War II. colour shade and hand feel. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. They made this possible. knitting mistakes. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). the cutting can not be commenced. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches.
the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. Because of this carelessness. 106 . No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. we can reject the bit simply. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. This will help to avoid shading in packing. flat lock machines and single needle machines. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. This is very important. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. the body. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. At the same time. Markings. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program.106 hems along the lines. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. As we had seen earlier. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. When cutting manually and by lay. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. Though they are in the same lot. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. If we find any bit having a mistake. in order to avoid shade variation. we will have to reject the full garment. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. When the bits are numbered. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. So when cutting the fabrics. In case of ‘S’ cutting.
supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. Speedy sewing is appreciable. the sewing methods. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. If they correct these mistakes then and there. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. When making sewing. Stitches should have required strength. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. patches and badges.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. But most of the operators don’t do this. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Though they know better. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. 5 threads and 6 threads. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. Hence nowadays. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. attaching collars & pockets. there will not be a big problem. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. attaching labels. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. trimming and packing. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. The production managers. 4 threads. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. In order to get better production result. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. Both manual and power driven machines are available. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. because this has safety thread stitch. But this is not enough. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. making. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch.
It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. stitching quality. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. shade variations and overall finishing of garments. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. When they trim the threads of buttons. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. 108 . The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. This is an important thing to be followed. they should cut with extra care. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. garment shapes. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. damages. labeling. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. If they handle carelessly. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. button holes and embroidery. print or embroidery mistakes. The end user will wash the garments. oil stains. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. This is very important. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. TRIMMING: After sewing. general appearance. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only.
The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. Labels. communication. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. our methods. etc. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. In a company the quality is expected in management.Fabrics. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. Buyers may face problems from the workers. training and by our systems. production. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. hang tags.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. . etc. our approach. If we don’t follow them properly. So a special team is needed for making samples. . . Hence individual packing. way of expression.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. bar codes. 109 . our way of working. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. if the weight is above their local standard weight. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. our policies. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. pattern maker. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. finishing. before using them. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. marketing.in our language.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. . SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. we have to make various types of samples. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. documentation. our dress code. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. our reaction.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. Before purchasing cartons. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse.
This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. the shipment will be affected. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. quality. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. sewing. Most of the times. rejections. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. Quality Audit Dept. maintenance of machineries. Quality Assurance Dept. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. etc. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. inspections and mainly the shipment date. production departments and merchandising departments. etc. intimation to buyers. cutting. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. future orders. but the corrective measures. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. When there are major quality problems. At the same time. inspections. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. pressing and up to packing. productivity. delay in shipment. nobody can be blamed. But practically.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. processing. They will not listen to the practical problems. profit or loss. production. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. production sufferings or loss. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. labour management. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. 110 . because every one is doing his duties well. quality of garments. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. In this system. yarn. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. shipment. By this way. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. etc. knitting. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. patterning. production cost. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. fabrics. finishing. costs. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. the quality department will not be appreciated. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning.
So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. loose thread ends. as everybody join their hands and heads together. In worse cases. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. The management. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. improper trimming. Their responsibilities can be different. the merchandiser understands the problem. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. This is the cause of all the problems. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. It has to work under the merchandising department.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. This is what happening in most of the factories. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. When a person knows better about the garments. There will not be any use of these reports. So in my opinion. Even buyers know about these things. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. loose threads on buttons & labels. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. restricting or preventing mistakes. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. Now. For example. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. But their views and intention must be the same. lesser number of stitches. As an unwritten rule. etc. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. but also to correct them. they will not have answer. they find suitable solution quickly. he discusses with the merchandising team. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. As the routine of their jobs. I suggest making some changes in this system. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking.
112 . Let us see the important tests below.To dry cleaning. Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. . dimensional stability (shrinkage).Acid / alkaline / water spotting . safety. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments. . fabric handling. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality.Yarn twist.To bleaching. .112 rectified or corrected immediately.Bursting strength.Yarn counts.To washing. . . etc.Yarn friction. . Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. wear resistance. .Fibre content and . easily. etc. azo test.To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. etc). amicably and permanently. water resistant. . The important tests are to test colour fastness . . . Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests.To light.To normal water.Evenness & hairiness. . saliva. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. . colour fastness. LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments.Composition of blends. fabric weight (GSM). sea water & chlorinated water. (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details).Yarn diameter. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested.Yarn shrinkage.To dry heat / hot pressing. . .Single yarn strength. . .To perspiration (like sweat.
washing instructions and wash care labels. But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat.Rust proof . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.Soil release performance . appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.Free formaldehyde content .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. we had seen the importance of washing methods.Water proofness .Moisture content .Abrasion resistance . dimensional stability.Pilling resistance .Drape coefficient . . Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for . 113 .Steaming.Water repellency .Random tumble pilling .Wrinkle recovery .Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .Washing and flat dry .Stretch & recovery . The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric. The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Washing and tumble dry .Crease recovery. In the earlier chapters. the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers.Snagging resistance . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Dry cleaning . They can become discoloured and sun-bleached.Relaxation . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Bow & skew.Water resistance .Wrinkle recovery .
Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. Do not rub. 114 . Normal spin. to give it a "fuller" feel.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. do not ring out. Max. Do not soak. there is a figure indicating the temperature. do not rub or ring out. linen. demand special care. max 40C". Shake out the garment once it is half dry. Within the bowl. 200C. half a minute only. For example. Max 40 degree Celcius. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. A short spin removes excess water best. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. Hand wash only. Do not wash in water. Spin for one minute only. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. Dry heavy knitted garments. In a separate spin dryer. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. for example. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. High temperature. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. with washing instructions "hand wash. Rinse thoroughly. cotton. Avoid leaving garments to soak. This can result in discolouration. The machine should only be half filled.
acrylic. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. polyamide (nylon). Low temperature. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. The letters CL. wool. For example. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. Do not dry clean. avoid tumble drying 115 . Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. Do not iron or rotary iron. Many garments can also be tumble dried. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. On the other hand. For example. The line refers to the water added. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. Max 150C. for a maximum of one minute. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. Max 110C. Must not be bleached. natural silk. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used.115 Medium temperature. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha.
colour. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. Tumble dry normal. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. Tumble dry low. Tumble dry. Flat dry. High heat in the tumble drier. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. size. as per the instructions of buyers. product variations. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . fit. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. damages and imperfections. Do not tumble dry. So let us discuss about the quality system in general.116 garments that you particularly cherish. as tumble drying weak the garment. durability. materials. Hang dry. materials. but also to the production processes. finish. Quality parameters include finish. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. component parts and garments.
interpret and follow information on job instructions. standard operating procedures. . In these cases. accessories and garments. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. tickets. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. . Or some measurements may not be achieved. regulatory authorities and the company. They have to make sure that safety. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production.maintaining accurate records. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. work standards and patterns. They are to be measured.assessing operational capability of machineries used. where necessary. trims. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in .taking required action where standards of fabrics. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. colour. equipment or personnel.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. . fabric weight. specifications. . order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. environmental.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. patterns. accessories. specifications.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. 117 . When the measurements are being checked. as required. trims. quantity and finish. quality. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production. .interpreting work instructions.identifying improvements. .
colours. Each end user will have different taste of colours. garment styles. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. . etc. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. sewing. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. . decoration. Quality checks include visual inspection. . it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production.the action taken promptly. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. fabric qualities. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. . Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. 118 . Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects. making and measurements.118 If there is any change in the measurements.safety policies.waste and pollution management. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. Also each of them will have different body fits.job procedures and work instructions.
QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. 119 . PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. In most of the factories. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. they don’t care much about the measurements. So when a garment is having measurement problem. attractive colours and suitable styles . they would argue about the measurement deviations. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. checkers. fabrics. We are fully responsible for them.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. the garment can be accepted. colours. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. workmanship. colours. We can not do anything on them. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. So logically. By saying like this. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. After making their quality reports. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. The colours. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. if there is any measurement problem. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. style and fit than to measurements. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. The reason is this. fabric quality. From their reports. styles are most important than the measurements. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. They don’t even bother to know about them. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. the presentation is also important for packed garments. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements.
collar bones. They are initial. The more number of online inspections. tissue papers. Then the final inspection will be very easy. the more quality can be improved. This is unsafe for the factory. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. pre-final and final inspections. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing.0 and 2. At the same time. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. special branded tags. bands. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed.065 to 15. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. So after rechecking. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. This is also called Assured Quality Level. Also by these inspections. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. If they are not satisfied with the quality. online. When we do the inspections. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. But if the presentation of packing is not good. Even then. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality.120 The things like hang tags. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. price tags. 120 . sometimes.5 are used in garment inspections. without doing initial or online inspections. When they do only final inspections. pilot batch. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. These things will not be of any use to the end users. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. middle. the garment can not be sold. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. only some garments can be checked selectively. On the other hand. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. inner boards. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. Usually the levels 4.
121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . To say exactly this is a team work of teams. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. It is not easy. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. But there is one thing is commonly needed. sincerity and hard working. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. That is coordination. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. We should remember that this is a team work. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. honesty. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. On the other hand. At the same time. self confidence. In order to reach these higher levels. it is not an impossible thing.
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