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Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book
2 will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career! INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges 2 Page No. 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26
3 Procedures Advantages Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37
ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons 3
4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms 4 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 .3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.4 Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.
90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production 5 73 73 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 .5 L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill Documentation At Sight L/C 30days. 60days.
6 Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .
Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. style. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. According to the structure of fabrics. sweatshirts. One is Woven garments. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. undergarments. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. As 7 . Rib. French Rib. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. trousers. And we will have to keep the garment for style. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. etc. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. Pique.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. If we have fabrics. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. T shirts. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. they are called by different names. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. This system is used worldwide. But yarn counts. prints. embroidery. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. pyjamas and socks are Knits. width should be considered with more care. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10.000 sq. we will have only the garments to find GSM. With the help of this round cutter. Polar fleece and Jacquards. Interlock. Another is Knitted garments. sarees. finishing. colours. bed spreads.cms. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. round cutters are used. accurate GSM can not be achieved. blankets. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. making and other references. Loop knit. Shirts. towels and made ups are Woven. Making woven fabrics is simple. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. reed & picks (warp & weft). The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. power looms and mill made. Hence nowadays. fabric quality. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. But most of the times. Flat back rib. Fleece.
We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. raw material. Hence after knitting or weaving. 34’s. 16’s. 30’s. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. 38’s. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. 60’s. Combed is superior quality. Because of this extra process. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. 4’s. There are 2 qualities of yarn. higher the prices. Yarn prices based on the thickness. 100’s. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. 80’s. We can see. the lesser the thickness. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. Combed and Carded. Because of the same longer length of fibers. 20’s. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. etc. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. hand feel. the higher the counts. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. For this purpose. 36’s. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. 10’s. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. the Yarn. 8 . higher the counts.25 inches to 2. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. etc. evenness. a special process is being done. 40’s. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. availability. So when the yarn counts are increasing. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. According to the technical parameters. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. We can consider like this. We must know. the thickness becomes lesser. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. This process is called ‘Combing’.5 inches.8 this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. strength. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. the fabric will have very even look. 25’s. 24’s. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost.
Grey Melange. In colour mélange yarn also. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. They are Grey mélange. Flax mélange. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. bleached mélange. There are different mélange yarns. Ecru mélange. But as we use 100% Cotton. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. Bleached Melange are used widely. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. 9 . Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. Hence. which is very important. According to the required percentage and colour shades. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. Ecru Melange. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. the cotton portion will be in light shade. due to higher shrinkage. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. In these yarns. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. Colour mélange. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. etc. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. For light colour mélange yarn. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. But we must think of shrinkage. To avoid this shrinkage problem. But for dark colour mélange yarns. For example.9 The processing (dyeing.
Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. 80/2. In manual yarn dyeing. For easy reference. 100/2.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Cost wise. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. As the finer cottons are used. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. Dark colours: Rs. dull and dead cottons. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. Rs.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. giving more resistance and silky feel.250 per kg. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. For yarn dyeing. only combed yarns are used. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. Medium colours: Rs. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. Let us see some important things about these special yarns.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. as the combing process removes shorter fibers. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. the yarn contains more cotton. yarn strength and better quality. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. 10 . we can not expect the consistency of shades. like 60/2. the dyed yarns are used. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP).
5. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. the yarn will be singed (gassed). As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. By this process. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). Used for making very expensive special garments. Then after mercerizing. 3. This will give more life to the garments.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). underwear and hosiery. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. Longer life of garments. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. As mercerising is done two times. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. Further. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. these dyed yarns are used. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns. 11 . They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. In this method. these yarns are used for knitwear. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. fabrics have to be mercerised again. 4. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. 2. After mercerising. Due to more heat. Due to its high resistance properties. In any case. to minimise the cost. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. These yarns do not create allergies to body. This process is called Mercerising. After combing and twisting.
12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.
13 KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13
14 When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”.
polyamide (nylon).: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy.5cms. processed diameter is based on grey diameter. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. then there will be more fabric wastage. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. If the repeat width is more than 3. we get the single yarn with blends. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference. and 15 . it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. We have to note that a maximum of 3. As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines.5cms. Also as we have seen earlier. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. machine gauge. viscose. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs. If this diameter is larger than the pattern. it can be knitted in normal machines. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. texture and grey GSM. we have to be careful of their counts. it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts.
during knitting. Also. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. So. we use the above formula. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. To select suitable denier. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra. Then only the knitting will be even. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. In order to select the suitable denier. Counts Denier = 5315 Denier = 5315 Counts Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. 16 . we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. we can use following conversion formula. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn.
. . twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot. qualities of dyes & chemicals. For example. To avoid shading between body. . before finishing or compacting. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. same knitting machine. before processing. twill tape: 1.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . we have to check following things before knitting. sleeves. To avoid shade variations. Grey fabrics for body.GSM (as per Purchase Order) . before processing.. should be dyed or processed in one lot only.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. This is very important. processing timing. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. processing and compacting. these variations can be limited. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. rib. same dyeing factory and same finishing process. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. rope. Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. we will not get the same result every time. Fabric for body. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton.Diameter – machine diameter. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. we will get different results.Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. cuffs. gauge.Diameter (as per Pattern) . 2.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric. after processing. after processing. after compacting (on cutting table). sleeves. At the same time. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. etc. processing water quality. .GSM – during knitting. before finishing or compacting. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. fastness as per approval) . collar. If we take more care during processing.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. 17 . compacting method & temperature. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. after compacting (on cutting table).Colour (shade. sleeves. we have to follow the following procedures. Due to the above reasons. sleeves and grey collars. processing methods. collar. . cuffs. etc. we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations. cuffs. collar and cuffs in one garment. rope. there will be shade variations between lots. after processing. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. rib. .
PROCESSING 18 . Once 1st lot is approved. cuffs. 3. before sending the fabrics for processing. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. 4. processing time. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately. twill tapes. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. Water temperature. collars. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. Fabric program should be made accordingly. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. pockets. ribs. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity.18 3. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. When we have to use yarn from different lots. etc) should be numbered during cutting. ribs. All the parts of one garment (body. 2. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. ropes. Lab dips should not be referred. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. Collars. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. 3. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. cuffs. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made. This is very important. Mixing of lots should be avoided. We must study the packing methods clearly. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. sleeves. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. 2. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. 5. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. patches. 6. 4.
4. 2. Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs. In April 1996.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. p-Chloroaniline.3’-dichlorobenzidine. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. wallets. They are clothing. 2.4’-Oxydianiline.4-Diaminoanisole. 4. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. 4. 3. 2. towels.3’-Dimethyl-4.4-Toluylendiamine. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only.4-Xylidine. 3. p-Aminoazobenzene. p-Cresidine. 4. bedding. footwear. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene. O-Anisidine. If the garment supplied by a supplier. 3. 19 . belts.19 AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. hairpieces. briefcases. 2. 2-Naphthylamine. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free.4. o-Toluidine. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this. chair covers and toys. 4-Aminobiphenyl. 3.5-Trimethylaniline. hats.4’-Thiodianiline. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. Hence. wigs. purses.6-Xylidine. Benzidine. diapers and other sanitary items. watch straps. o-aminoazotoluene. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. 2.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. gloves. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs.4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline).
the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. They are by using open winches. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. it is banned in most of the countries. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. It is approximately Rs. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. Also it will give irritation to body.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. But this is not acceptable.10 – 12 / kg.7. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs.000 per colour.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. If this fabric tested for azo contents. Another is Peroxide Bleach. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. If we smell the fabric deeply. Also it will not give irritation to body. In this case. By using Continuous bleaching machine. we can smell Chlorine. Above all. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs. before certifying to buyers. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water. FABRIC DYEING: 20 . Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. Winch bleach is the traditional method. It will have lesser whiteness.30–35/kg. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. There will not be any smell. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Any bright shades like Milk white. One is Chlorine Bleach.
For example. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. should not be used. 21 . We will have more discussions on this. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. the fabric will be very stiff. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. During dyeing. Discharge dyes are to be used. One is Winch dyeing. Another is Soft flow dyeing. This is the normal dyeing. After this. According to the approved lab dip. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. This combination is called Recipe. When the winch is rotated by a motor. the Pigment dyes are to be used. Nowadays. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. They are Reactive dyeing.21 There are 3 qualities of dyeing. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. When lab dips are made. acid wash. only Azo Free dyes should be used. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. it means Reactive dyeing only. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. which is made with different yarn. bulk dyeing will be done. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). After checking whether the required shade is attained. Then only we will get required results. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. 2. other Jersey fabric. the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. By using these dyes in dyeing. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. As we discussed above. the fabrics will roll on winches. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. etc. There are 2 types of dyeing. fabrics will be removed from the winches. 3. 1. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. Even. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. enzyme wash.
Lt Blue. Lt Green. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. Navy. etc are Medium colours. Grey. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55. As the winch is kept opened. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. For the regular shades. the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. Orange. But in soft flow dyeing. fabric may not absorb some colours properly.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. the dyes are available in suitable shades.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. timing. etc are Light colours. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. Lt Pink. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. They have to be cut and rejected. Military Green. Dark Blue. Temperature. These are called ‘Combination colours’. Offwhite. etc are Dark colours. Dark Navy. Light Grey. the direct dyes will not be available. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to 22 . Black. Brown. Blue. fabric capacity. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. For some shades. Also the colour fastness will be better. Light Red. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Lt Yellow. So after dyeing. These types of machines are used in recent years. Green. It will be much lesser. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. Yellow. Lt Orange. It is a closed winch. Blue. everything is computerised. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. Medium Green. There will not be any colour patches. Olive Green. In these cases. The costliest colour is Royal. etc are the darkest colours. Red. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. the temperature is consistent. (It is too expensive. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. dyes & water capacity. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. In open winch dyeing. the temperature of water will not be consistent. Due to this. Due to this.
Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. ribs. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. Due to this and due to more processing time. the dyeing quality will be inferior. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. We can get some reduction from the mill. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. By these colours. etc. Not only the fabrics. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only).23 reduce the cost. we can get similar shade. twill tapes. If the mercerising is not been done properly. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. 23 . Red. Due to this mercerising.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. but it will have poor colour fastness. To do the fabric mercerising. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. Black. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. smell and to get softer hand feel. The collars. Also to avoid the handling stains. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. But after knitting. but also improved colour absorbency. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. Due to this. these fabrics are to be washed. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof.45 to 50 per kg.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges.
There are no facilities in calendering machines. Shrinkage. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases.50 to 2. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). From these machines.50 / kg. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. We must be aware of this important fact. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs. When we calender the fabrics.15 – 20 per kg. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. Some times. We can get better result from these compacting machines. we can adjust following things. glossy finish of fabric. With these compacting machines. 2.6 per kg. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. nothing can be done. Steam calendering charge: Rs.24 The washing charge is normally Rs. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter.12 – 15 per kg. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. To remove these wrinkles. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. 1. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines.1.5 per kg. HEAT SETTING: 24 . 3. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form. Diameter. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. GSM.
Charges for Heat set: Rs. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. After dyeing and after drying. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. If the stroke of the printer differs. the print quality will differ. it will take more time for multi colour printing. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. we have many advantages in rotary printing.25 The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. only after drying the 1st colour. Consistent printing colours and quality. We can print the second colour. Charges for one side raising: Rs. They are all over prints and chest prints. the heat set process is a must. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. 1. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour.10 per kg. 25 . require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. etc. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. Especially. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. Quick and time saving. Acrylic. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. PRINTING There are two different prints. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness.25 – 30 per kg. Printing is done one colour by one colour. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. Polyamide (Nylon). But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. 4. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. Perfect registration (placement). Viscose. fleece. it is better to do heat set in open width form. But for the blended fabrics. the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. 2. But to get better result. They are as follows. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. Elastan (Spandex). Loop knit (French rib). Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. 3. as cotton is the natural fiber. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only.
Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. 4. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. Less wastage. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. kerosene is used as an alternate. Some times. These machines are very rare in use. Even though it will cost more. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. seating and registration. as the continuous process.26 5. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. The diameter of the screen is 64. we can achieve perfection in printing. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. This will create major problem in garmenting.1cms. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. After printing. Due to this. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. If the fabric has softener. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. 6. Rotary screens are in tubular form. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. more care to be taken while making films. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. the fabric will get completely dried. Though the films are made with computer. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. Immediate drying. Pigment prints. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. For printing in Rotary machines. Also before printing. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. If the fabric is even slightly wet. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. If the softener is added. it means the fabric has softener. the print will be better than on the first side. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. For this. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. 3. If the fabric does not absorb the water. if the fabric absorbs the water. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. Then the printing will look blurred. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. 26 . 2. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again.1cms. Softener should not be added in dyeing. it means the fabric does not have softener. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration.
4. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. Less process after printing. a round design may change into an oval shape. 7. as the normal procedure. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. the fabric will smell after printing. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. As the continuous process. after the print. Also due to the double job. etc. 5. For example. 8. 7. Advantages: 1. the fabric is to be washed after curing. Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. 9. 6. Hence after printing on both sides. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen. Then. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. avoid smell. 2. As an alternative for this. water 27 . the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. Cheaper cost.27 5. a square design may change into a rectangle. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. Any shade is possible. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. 6. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. If we need softer hand feel after printing. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. Rough hand feel. 2. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Selection or mixing colours are easier. Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. Print smell. 3. Risk factors: 1. 3.
It is called Third page image. 4. 28 . But this is very expensive and very rarely used. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. the print dusts will stick to the fabric again. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 7. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. it is better to print in open width form only. As the water should not be recycled. They are called organic dyes. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. 3. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. Procedures: 1. 8. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. This is called water base prints. To remove the print dusts.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. Before bulk printing. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. To avoid this. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. 6. 2. this wash is essential. Shade masters will prepare one shade. Softener should not be added in dyeing. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. But this kind of water print is very rarely used. 5. It is called River Wash. Reactive dyes to be used. For this. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). there may be print impression on third page of fabric. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks.28 is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. They are made mainly from the vegetables.
(In some cases. It is better to avoid this). Risk factors: 1. By touch. 4. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. Brightness of colours even after many washes.29 9. it is not used widely. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. 3. Procedures: 1. 2. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. 2. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Advantages: 1. It means.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. Too much care to be taken in every process. we have to use Discharge printing. Importantly. in pigment printing. we can use pigment printing. But this will not have better fastness. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. 4. Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. Best colour fastness. 5. 29 . as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Longer life for prints. For this. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. Very soft hand feel. we can easily use Pigment printing. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric. 2. Too many important processes to be followed. Then fabric is to be dried. Very expensive. if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base.
After printing. Expensive print cost. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. 3. Long lasting print quality. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. 5. All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. Risk factors: 1. Then after discharge printing. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. 3. after the removal of dyeing colour. Better colour fastness. Red. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. 5. the base colour White will be visible as printed. 2.: As we see. These costs 30 . and Navy. Then after discharge printing. after the removal of dyeing colour. 4. When printing. It is called Third page image. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. All colour shades can not be achieved. 2. 4. After printing is completed. To avoid this. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. 4. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. 7. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care.30 3. This is very important as during printing. 8. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. Advantages: 1. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). No river wash is needed. If White is one of the printing colours. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. the fabric is to be discharge dyed. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. 5. That is. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. Can be printed manually too. Before bulk printing. Therefore. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. Green. 6. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. Better soft hand feel.
This machine is very costly (about Rs. Motif prints. Like all over printing on rotary machines. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. Longer life for prints. 3. 31 . Quick production. Plastisol prints. print area and coverage. Sticker prints. Perfect colours and shades. No smell. etc. Octopus machine will print automatically. 8. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Water prints. 5. Foil prints. Embossed prints. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. Foam prints. Glitter prints.1 lakh). printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. Sugar prints.31 will differ according to the dyeing shades. Non-PVC prints. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. Reflective prints. etc. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). With these machines. 2. There are 2 types of machines. Perfume prints. But prints will have the best quality.40 lakhs). Better smoothness and sharpness. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. number of colours. 9. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Better colour fastness. Transfer prints. 7. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). 6. Perfect placement and registration. Flock prints. 1. They are as follows. No stain in unprinted areas. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. 4. Less wastage. Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually.
Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. foam. sugar. Procedures: 1. etc. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only.5 per kg. flock. glitters. After plastisol print. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. After the manual printing.32 Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. It is better to use Discharge dyes. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. as there will be no print smell. Fusing cost is included in the above costs. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. It does not matter. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. it is better to check with the printers. Batiks. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. etc. foil. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. 32 . the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. To get the cost of other special quality prints. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not.
If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). by taking note of all the details. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. If there is any other base colour except White. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. 18. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. 15. And to be dried under shades naturally. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. 8. shrinkage and shape. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. 20. 12. It may be stripes or any other design. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. But to get better result. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. Fabrics for body. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. the result will not be good). the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. 17. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. sleeves. 11. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 14. they will not get dyed. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. (If it is Chlorine bleached. 9. 13. The dipping will be done manually. 3.33 2. 19. 4. If we do tie & dye in bit form. This is the dyeing process. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. nothing can be done about measurements. (In case of emergency. 10. Before cutting the bits for garments. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. And so on. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. If we do tie & dye in garment form. We have to remember that so far. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. 33 . As the fixing agent is fixed now. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. 16. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. the other colours will not fix properly. After the tie & dye process. 7. shrinkage and shape of garment. 5. 6. If we use normal embroidery threads. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. it is better to dry them in shadows). It will take few minutes only.
As all the processes are done manually. The printing designs like stars. the fabric will look like the designs are printed.34 Advantages: 1. By this.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form.18 to 20. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. etc. GSM. etc. churidars. we will get different qualities and results. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. processing. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Drying by machines is not possible. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. As it is done manually. GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. 4. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. 3. will be made by wax. Risk factors: 1. flowers. 4. Approximately. curtain cloths. can be made at affordable prices. This is almost like tie & dye. Enormous designs can be made. During and after the process. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. 5.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. 2. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. 34 . bed spreads and lungies. Better colour fastness. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. For larger quantities. This is like printing. Hence after removing the waxes. cutting. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. due to different dyes. the charges will be based on number of colours. BATIKS: This is also done manually. the charge may be Rs.. depending on the design. etc.. 3. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye. methods. Mostly used for sarees. garmenting. for 2 colours. 2. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed. length and width of the bits. This is also called Wax printing.
To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. 11. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. rope. 3. For example. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. placket box. By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved. After the fabrics are dyed. cuff. 4. dyed from one machine at one time. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. there may be shade variations between these parts. If the garment is processed more than enough. nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. side slits and pockets. by taking note of all the details. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. Procedures: 1. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect. Fabric for body. There will be 35 . 12. Then body. 9. Denim (Jeans) wash. Enzyme wash 4. After the garment dyeing. are called Lot. 13. 6. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). etc. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. shrinkage and shape. As the garments are dyed in vessels. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. 2. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. etc. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). cuffs. side slits and pockets. the substances are to be used. neck rib. Faded wash. 7. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). The garments. 5. shrinkage and shape. collar.35 We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). 2.. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing.mainly at neck seam around collar. sleeve. (Depending on the required effect. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. for stone washed effect. Since many parts are attached. Stone wash. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. Acid wash 3. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 5. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . When we cut the fabrics for making garment. garment dyeing method is followed. shoulder seam. even though we have taken more care. cuffs. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. 8. 14. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. 10. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. 1. cuffs are attached together. placket box. the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. sleeves. shoulder seam. collars. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed.
Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. Different qualities of washes are possible. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. 5. Advantages: 1. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. collar. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. some other special machines to be used. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. In these special acoba embroidery machines. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. Due to the special effects and quality. Due to the damages in garments. rejections of garments will be high. Risk factors: 1. This will vary from machines to machines. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. sleeves. etc. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). all over embroidery can be made. Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). there will not be any shrinkage further. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. 3. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. There will not be any shade variation between body.36 difference in shades and washing effect between lots. 4. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting. 2. Because of its own quality nature. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. cuffs. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. Washed look can be achieved. 2. 36 .: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. it is expensive. 3. 4.
3 zippers are used. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. It can 37 . Metal buttons. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used. Hang tags. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. Ropes. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs.5 zippers. Lock quality is to be checked. qualities. Packing pins. Also each accessory has many dimensions. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Polybags. quantity. the zipper can not be opened. etc.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens).15 to 40 per gross. curtain cloths. Even if the tapes are pulled. Anyhow. Twill tapes. fixing cost. In these auto lock zippers. For children garments. For adult garments. ACCESSORIES Buttons. No. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. Zippers. Due to competition. But the minimum cost is around 2. etc. designer’s fabrics.00 per 1000 stitches.24 per zip. No. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs.5 zippers are used. etc. for making costing. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs.7 per zip.1. though the number of stitches is lesser. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. specifications.3 zippers is lesser than No. decorative fabrics. Tissue papers. blouses.50 per garment.50 to 70 per gross. Elastics. etc in addition to the number of stitches. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches.5 – 7 per zip. Inner boards. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. wooden buttons – Varies as per design. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Badges.40 to 60 per gross. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below.10 to 15 per gross.37 Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Labels. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs.22 – 24 per zip. The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. Cost of No.
From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs.2. Elastics with the width of 4mm.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly.00 per metre.75 per metre. There are plain elastics and named elastics. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. etc are used for legs of undergarments. In these labels. size labels. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers.3. It is approximately Rs. For the special pullers. Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. 2cm.50 per metre. width. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier.1. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. wash care labels. number of colours. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed.5cm.38 be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers. quality and quantity. This is single 38 . thickness.1. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe. 6mm. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers. Yarn price to be added with this charge. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes.50 per metre. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels. the prices will be different. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. 2. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. As these badges are very special. From 1. Elastics with 1cm.0. Badges are in many types. etc. From 2. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. From 3. There are 2 types of woven labels.30 to 40 per kg. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments. 10mm. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. 12mm.50 per metre. The prices are based on quality. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics. It depends on the design. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. 8mm.
The tags can be made at cheaper prices. In these labels. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness.30 to Rs. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. If the yarn colour bleeds.0.15 per label.80 per tag. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also.1.00 to Rs. design. If there is anything special. it is safer to check them too. There are non-computerised looms are also available. measurement. the price may be Rs. Hence before using the printed labels. Single colour (1.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs.50 per tag.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs. the price may be Rs.30 to Rs. If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels. prices. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.0.40 to Rs.0. printing design. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels.0. sizes. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands. This is double weave.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs. if printing and cutting are made manually.0. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing. This is an important thing. Damask labels are woven on both sides.0. 39 . But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. style. Woven labels: Main label (2. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. colours.25” width x 10cm length): Rs.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. tags are used and attached with the garments.60 to Rs. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board.0. number of colours. With these machines also woven labels are made. etc.1.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. single side or both sides printing.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels. composition.0. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users.0.10 per label.39 weave. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes. Hence the quality.0.0. etc.0. die-cut design and quantity. colours. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size. composition. care instructions.08 per label.0.0.
Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins.0. If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes.00. special quality with die cut: Rs.0.0.65. If the polybag is very thin. depends on quality of paper & print.40 per bag. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs.0. Due to this. Price depends on thickness (Gauge). measurements.10 to Rs.4.50 per board. Another is PE (Polyethylene). If the width of polybag is 12”. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags.25 to Rs.60 to Rs.0. quality.0. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs.0.0. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. quantity. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs. One is PP (Polypropylene).15 each paper. prints. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags. 40 .0. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look. it may not be recyclable.0.0.50 to Rs. etc.55. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used.0.50 each paper. nowadays. the tape cost will be Rs.00 per tag. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies.00 to Rs. depends on paper quality. the rejection of polybags will be more.24 per bag.02 for one inch length.30 to Rs.0. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. the price may be around Rs. normal quality: Rs.50 depending on the quality of pin & thread.1. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.80 per bag.30 to Rs.30 to Rs. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity. die cut (scoring) and quantity.40 If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos.0. For normal size. As PE polybags are recyclable.00 per board. PP bags have bright look. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags. For special sizes.0.
the cost will be Rs. sizes.1. etc. sizes suitable for different garment styles. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers.0.00 to pack 24 to 50garments. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs. plastic hangers.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.15.00 to Rs.5. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. 41 .00 to Rs. Also the hooks are in different types. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. Hence approximately Rs. quantity.20. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.40. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs.25.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments.60 per garment. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag.00 to Rs.1. But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. styles.4. Recycled papers should not be used. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments. The hangers are in different types. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers.00 to Rs. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs.25 to Rs.5. design. etc.25 will be the master bag cost per garment. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside. Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs.25.41 Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside.00 approximately. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers.1.3. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM).
packing methods and other works.14 per pc. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit.Lockstitch machines. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. the charges for these jobs are higher. nowadays.12 per pc. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. Making and Trimming charges.42 CMT CHARGES (Cutting. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge. pockets. it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. number of jobs with over lock. Though CMT is Cutting.Flat lock machines. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. local transport. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. etc. Lock stitches are used for making plackets.18 per pc. and attaching collars & labels. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. . time consumption. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. Making. flat lock & lock stitch machines. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. The export factories will supply the required fabrics.10 per pc. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock). quality standards.20 per pc. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders.20 per pc. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs.12 per pc. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. only the power driven machines are used. . There are manual and power driven machines are used. 42 . Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. trims and accessories to these Job workers. . the charges for these jobs are very much higher. V neck covering.Over lock machines. productivity. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting.
12 per pc. CPT.10 per pc. If it is C&F By air. CIF. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB.8 per pc.12 per pc. CIP. It is the same as FOB. FCA. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. air transport. etc. Ex-factory.12 to Rs. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. Insurance and Freight. If it is C&F By sea. While we confirm the orders from the customers. FAS. C&F.13 per pc.43 Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs. These above charges are approximate. rail transport. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs. EXW. It means the buyer will pay the freight . Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. etc. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight.22 per pc. sea transport. the charges to be added accordingly. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): 43 . SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods.it may be road or rail transport. If there are any extra works. It includes local road transport. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs.10 to Rs. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. CFR.15 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. CIF: It is Cost. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss.10 per pc. insurance premium and the freight. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. it will be claimed by the buyer.
Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. 5. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. 1.44 It is the same as FOB. Port expenses – Loading. Mostly FOB. 44 . 6. Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. There are 2 types of loading. inspection. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. availability. 4. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. Local transport to the port. Their approximate capacity is as follows. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. If we have doubt about the terms. According to the volume of goods. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. CIF terms are used. In case of export to other countries. etc. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. etc. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). Charges of stuffing the goods into container. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. 3. C&F. the size of container is to be decided. Charges of freight. 2. There are 20’. it is called FCL. Customs charges – Documentation. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). routing.
Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. For example. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. Shipping lines: 45 . These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. In this case. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. It is called Loose Container Load. routing & transit time. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight.may be stuffed in one full container. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). This is also called transshipment. Sometimes. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. shipping lines and conference lines. transshipment. etc.45 If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. but with more weight – Like steel. granite stones. etc. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. distance between destinations. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. This system is called transshipment. The nearest port is Colombo. Colombo port is very big. As this port is in the main sea route. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. This is called Consolidation of Goods. Though some ports have more sea depth. To solve this problem. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. the mother vessels do not come to this port. Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. as Tuticorin port is small. And in Colombo port. the freight will be based on weight too. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes.
Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. the 46 . Japan. according to their capacities. By using these Conference Lines.44.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments. etc.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs. Hong Kong.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines.76.000 – Rs.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world. the goods will sail on one company’s ships. (We will discuss about this in detail later). Kuwait. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.54.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs.94. safety.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs.000 – Rs.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination. Depending on the destination and on the flight services.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs.000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port). their partner company will use their vessel. China.1.17. Taiwan. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. better connection in transshipments. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.72. As we discussed above.21.90. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port.99. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs. This is a regular practice.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.
Some times. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. stuffing charges. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available.110 per kg. volume of goods. we have to bear the local transport to the port.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port. To American and Canadian airports: Rs. the goods have to be sent by air. In these cases.100 to Rs. we can use smaller airlines. most of the shipments will go by sea only. 47 . they will be prompt in their connections and timings. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay.80 to Rs.2. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination). At the same time. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports. etc. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. The receipt is Airway Bill.47 goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly.00 to Rs. etc. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. As like sea shipments. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. documentation charges. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. customs clearing charges. then only the shipment will go by a single flight.1. It will come about Rs. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill.140 per kg. Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. As the freight charges are very high. loading & unloading. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). So we can be sure of the prompt delivery. The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. Hence the shipment will be delayed.
knitting fabrics. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. sewing and packing of garments. routing. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments.4. etc. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. this charge is very nominal. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. advantages and risk factors. market prices and availability. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. methods and quality systems. When we consider the value of goods. transport and conveyance. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the customers. sea. air) and freight charges. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. Due to the above practical reasons. finishing. production. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. etc. shipping. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing.48 C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. transportation (road. etc. the charges will come about Rs. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. sales. While we do the garment costing. procedures.02% of the total value of goods. To do perfect garment costing. the customer’s price level. etc.6. distance between ports. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. 48 . processing and finishing of fabrics. over heads. processing.00 to Rs. price depends on quality. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. charges of knitting. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. latest procedures. sewing and packing. quality & quantity and payment terms. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. banking charges and commissions. to be taken into consideration. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. We must remember that the quality depends on price. charges of transport and conveyance. is essential to make perfect costing. marketing. Each product will have different price according to its quality.
1. Fabric cost per garment.49 The method of making costing will vary from style to style. twill tapes. Fabric cost per kg. costings can be made for other styles too. Cost of trims (labels. etc) 9. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. tags. etc. 7. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. Medium (M). we have to find out following things. 10. As there are many different styles in garments. 6. To work on the prices exactly. bows. Fabric consumption. Gross weight of other components of garment. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). Let us see them in detail now. buttons. 3. 2. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. we must have full measurements of the garment. Men’s Pyjamas. Price of a garment. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. Ladies Night dress.) 7. 5. Other charges (print. etc. polybags. Body Length and Sleeve Length. Cost of a garment. 4. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. we must have the measurements of Chest. The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. 4.) 6. CMT charges 8. Men’s Basic T shirts. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. Cost of accessories (hangers. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. 5. cartons. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 49 . To make the garment costing. 3. But compulsorily. Large (L). 2. embroidery. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. badges. inner boards. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. 1.
The garment measurements for USA. Even in Europe. 50 . weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10.50 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. they have to be converted into Centimeters. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. That is. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. If the GSM is higher. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. To find the fabric consumption. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. if the area of the fabric is 10. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. 1 Inch = 2. Canada.54Centimeters. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton. USA. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. In other words.cms. the consumption will be lesser. In any case. Sizes: S. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. (No style number or no size is needed to print). Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM.000 sq. Australia are measuring in Inches. L. if the garment measurements are in Inches.000 square centimetres). As we discussed earlier. we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. S – XXL. Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. If the GSM is lesser. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio. M. the consumption will also be relatively higher. TRIAL COSTING NO. As we have seen earlier. XL. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size.
for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. Hem = 3 cms. That is. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. Thus. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. For example. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. the finished fabric may have more width than required. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. 63 or 64cms. Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 51 . Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. As the fabric is in tubular. Pique & Interlock.51 Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. That is. Length = 78 cms. In case. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. Hence due to either way. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment.000 pcs). if we are unable to control this. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Generally. Neck rib width = 3 cms. (22.
Gross weight : 197 grams. to avoid shade variation. If they are possible. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. Let us assume that according to the patterns. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). Chest = 60 cms. then we have to find out by which fabric width. We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms.52 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. In other words. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. At the same time. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Let us assume following are the measurements. (0. Let us take the GSM is 140. So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. the garments are based on weights. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. In this case. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 52 . Length = 78 cms. Neck rib : 10 grams. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. we should remember that the front body.197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies.
When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage.14 mtrs of 50” width. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. Let us calculate the same for 62”. only if they are all over printed on open width form. Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side.53 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. among the possible widths. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. As we had seen earlier. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. Then we will have to calculate as below. Thus. we have to select the suitable width. If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length. we can see that it will be 1. It means. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 .
13 (Round off: Rs.38.27 (Round off: Rs.00) Likewise.25) Medium colours 40. badges. COST OF TRIMS (zippers.00 Compacting charge = 6.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 6. So there are no charges. there is no need of print or embroidery.70 Dark colours 135.44. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt). FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.06 (Round off: Rs. labels.00 10. tags.00 65. For Medium colours For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours = 203.00 8. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.00 Dark colours 44.00 Dyeing charge = 35. twill tapes.00 184.00 194. 54 .20 Medium colours 135.00 9.00 45.70 203. embroidery.54 The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric. ropes.25 Light colours Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. buttons.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193.00 OTHER CHARGES (Print. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.70 X 197 1000 = 44.00 6. 38.70 224.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours For Light colours = 193.00 214.00) = 224.00 8. elastic.20 X 197 1000 = 38.70 X 197 1000 = 40.40.
55 Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts.38.35 per garment. 55 .35 52. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs. Polybag . as example. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment. 1.00 -0. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment. tags.25 -0.00 1. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one). 1. cartons.85 10. Let us see the cost of these things. 2.0. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Light cols = Rs.50.45 1.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs. cartons.Normal (not a special one): Rs.25 per garment. profit. Export carton – Normal: Rs. We require following things.35 56.85 10.40 per carton to contain 48 garments.00 per garment.00 1. 1. So the total cost of accessories is Rs.0.10 Hang tag: Rs.0.20 = Rs.1.70 58. etc. sea freight / air freight). Master polybag – Normal: Rs. 3.) Cost of trims (labels.51. 0. 1.0.50 = Rs. : Rs. inner boards.85 = Rs.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs.70 Medium cols 40. Now let us see these things in detail. Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label.15 We have found out the cost of garment. 2.80 per garment. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags.85 per garment.10.0. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.20 1.10.75 Dark cols 44.00 = Rs. etc): For this Basic T shirt. 0. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price.30 per garment. Let us see what are the trims required for this style. let us see the costs of the required accessories.00 = -= Rs.35 = Rs.2 per master polybag to contain 8 garments. polybags. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport.55 53.0. : Rs.
COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota.10.00 1.50. etc) = Rs.20 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. It will vary from company to company depends on their size. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment. office salary. For our calculation. the quota system will be removed from January 2005.51.85 CMT charges = Rs. tags. cartons.00 1.60 As there is no commission to be paid = ------Prices of garment = Rs. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance.35 = Rs. standards.38. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No. bonus.56 SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.85 10. 0. 7.3333.90 = Rs. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example.20 62. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’.70 58. COMMISSION: For some orders.00 -0. 1. etc) and profit margin. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. We have to add this commission. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. Light cols Fabric cost per garment = Rs.20 1. 1.60.15 1.70 Profit @ 15% = Rs. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. electricity. So we don’t have to add sea freight. etc. incentives.90 68.95 -----62. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value.) = -Cost of trims (labels.45 1.50 Cost of garment = Rs. depreciation of machineries. etc) = Rs.25 -0.60 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro.55 53.85 10. 56 Medium cols 40. 1. machineries.00 Cost of accessories (polybags. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.05 ------68. let us work on 15% profit margin.35 56.75 8.00 54.00 59. etc.15 8.05 .60.00 = Rs. If the terms are C&F or CIF.00 Other charges (print. It may be approximately Re. Let us recall our earlier costing.1 per garment.52. Anyhow. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. with the above costs of garments.75 1.70 Now we add the local transport = Rs. if any. interest for investments.35 52.95 Dark cols 44.
000 pcs.00 = 1 USD.50 FOB. . regular packing and ratio.51 We understand that the quantities of Light.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned.If the commission is added. it has to be mentioned. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format.60 divided by 45.68. . quantity and specifications. XXL. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light. Then we will get following prices.00 = USD 1. 57 . .Quota category to be mentioned. the prices will differ.40 Pls note the above prices are FOB. For 180GSM – USD 1. Also it will be clear for our reference. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea. .Delivery terms to be mentioned. Quota Category: 4 Price / pc USD 1. Some Tips: For easy reference. Enquiry Style No. For Light colours : Rs. For 140GSM – USD 1. ratio.00 = USD 1. XL. According to the measurements. M.80 FOB.95 divided by 45. we can mention the validity for our prices. Medium.40 For Dark colours : Rs.If we expect any price hike in near future. Quantity: 20. it will be clear for him.57 Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer. . For 160GSM – USD 1. For 150GSM – USD 1.45.40 FOB. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices.60 FOB.05 divided by 45. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333. If the terms are C&F and CIF. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333.62. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours.40 per pc. L. packing methods. FOB / C&F / CIF.If we made any change in buyer’s details.60. It is USD 1. Medium and Dark colours are equal.00 = USD 1. . we have to inform like this. These are approximate prices only.35 For Medium colours: Rs. we can quote the price to buyer as follows. it has to be mentioned. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.
25 = 17.000 pcs. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker. Fabric cost per kg. the full measurements are given here. Fabric consumption. RN no.5 = 48 = 48 = 21. Style No.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton.5 = 2. 3. Size. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage . Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. XL.. Size. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Quantity: 48. Let us recall the steps once again. Colour to be printed on back side.Hanger pack.5 For your reference.75 = 2. safety instructions printed. To be attached with second button with hang tag. L. 4. To be attached with second button with a silk rope.75 = 4. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . 2. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.5 =7 = 1. M. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. 58 . Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Sizes: S. Fabric cost per garment. (Pls find the attached details).25 = 14. 1.5 = 16. Gross weight of all parts of garment..58 TRIAL COSTING NO. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch.5 = 23 = 21. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30.
the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres.5” – 10.59 5. That is. That is 77.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. Now let us do the calculation.5 + 27.5”) = 21. polybags. 61cms. twill tapes.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: 312 grams.5 cm. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. Cost of accessories (hangers. bows. Cost of trims (labels. As this is all over print program. cartons.5”. 59 . = 21. 10.75” = 10. That is.5inches. Price of a garment. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. Half moon patch: 15 grams. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm.75” = 27.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 = (120. So the body length for calculation will be 77. Body Length is 30.5” – ½ (21. So it will be 24 inches.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches. Remember. embroidery. etc. Collar : 40 grams. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point.) 7. As this is all over print program. Sleeve length from centre back is 21. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30.) 6. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. 4 cm is to be added with body length. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. tags. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. etc. For our calculation. Placket : 15 grams. CMT charges 8. etc) 9. Cost of a garment. Other charges (print. buttons. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. inner boards. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81.5cm. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. badges.50 + 4 = 81.
(0.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed. etc) = Rs. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour. 3.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.135. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120. packing materials = Rs.00 235.00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.45 per pc. 3. etc. 20.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): 60 . 18.00 Open width compact = 12. 2.20 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 2. 98.50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258.60 Gross weight : 382 grams. tags. embroidery.00 Dyeing charge = 30. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15. 98. it can be considered as printed.95 Cost of garment = Rs. the cost will be approximately the same as printed.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.50 CMT charges = Rs.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. for calculation. 5.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs.) = -Cost of trims (labels. 2.30 Price of garment = Rs.131.00 = Rs. rope.75 Other charges (print.50 That is the FOB price is USD3.155.00 Knitting charge = 8.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23.00 Printing charge = 50.258.00 – Carton.
(0. M. Sizes: S.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. size and warning instructions printed. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. L. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port..61 Enquiry No. Gross weight : 316 grams. To be attached with the main label. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams. Quantity: 16.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Neck piping : 10 grams. Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. XL.000 pcs.00 61 . Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.
00 =Rs.00 6. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. 5. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. M. 15. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio. 3. carton.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 97.Solid dyed – Black. Sizes: S.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.00 Cost of trims (labels. To be sewn at front waist. 3.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 = Rs. the C&F price is USD2.112.00 Price of garment = Rs. 6.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. etc) = Rs. packing materials = Rs.62 Knitting charge Dyeing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 8. L. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label. 62 .: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas . 2.00 Cost of polybags. 66.. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist. 12. size and warning instructions printed.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at front centre outside waist .50 per pc.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’. When giving this price to buyer.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs.1x1 rib at bottom legs .00 50. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 = = = FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209. 66.4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 Cost of garment = Rs.00 CMT charges = Rs.209. 94. XL.00 That is. XXL.00 199.00 = 10. tags.
= 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement. it is easier by using following formula. For using this formula. we must know the measurements of thigh. Quantity: 13. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. There are 2 ways. back rise & inseam. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. we can find consumption by using following formula. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. 63 .500 pcs.63 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing.
the seat is the largest measurement. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. Hence if the program is Solid program.00 Compacting = 6. By this way. This is not acceptable. we can use ‘S’ cutting.70 64 . We know only thigh measurement.70 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Knitting charge = 18. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. we can minimise the wastage. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2. reasonably and competitively. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130. the wastage will be more. we get one full thigh circumference measurement. In this case. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. we can quote prices more accurately.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10.64 We have to work prices with the largest measurements.00 214. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. But we don’t know the seat measurement. Let us continue the costing.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. By doing like this. Width wise. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 .00 Dyeing charge (average) = 60.224. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. if we cut the fabrics in regular method.
00 Cost of polybags.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. L.111. 80.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs. packing materials = Rs.00 Waist rope = Rs. the FOB price is USD2.00 = Rs. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. To be attached with main label. M. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. 15.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 80.75 Price of garment = Rs. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.128. 65 . 4. carton. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. etc) = Rs. 20%Black. 3. Sizes: S.. Colour to be printed on back side. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck.00 Woven patch label = Rs. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. TRIAL COSTING NO. 3. 2. XL. Size.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.60 Cost of trims (labels.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Size. 16.00 CMT charges = Rs. Style No. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.85 per pc. 1. To be attached with main label. Solid dyed – 60%White.65 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. tags. 20%Grey Melange.108.50 That is. 0. 2. and warning instructions printed.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.25 Cost of garment = Rs.
66 Quantity: 72.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.00 Compacting = 6. 40 grams.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45.80 X 400 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205. 15 grams.30 66 .205.000 pcs. 400 grams.00 Knitting charge = 15. 82.00 196. 40 grams.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9. 82.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm. 15 grams. (0.
00 = Rs. 2. the FOB price is USD2. 1. 17.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 = Rs.130. 3. 3.00 = Rs.67 Embroidery Cost of trims (labels. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. 18.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF = Rs. tags.. carton. Size and warning instructions printed. etc) Twill tape CMT charges Polybag. 2.60 = Rs.00 = Rs. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.00 = Rs. That is 15cm. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 67 . Quantity: 7. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton.110.30 = Rs. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. Polyester printed care label.00 = Rs. 2. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Sizes: S.200 pcs per combination. TRIAL COSTING NO.30 = Rs. packing materials Local freight charges + shipping expenses Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is.00 = Rs. L. M.4 colour combinations.113.90 per pc.60 Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck.
15.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.00 Compacting = 6. 106.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 2. 2. (0.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs.151.00 338. TRIAL COSTING NO.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237. 3. 19.127.00 Washing charge = 5.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33. 2. tags. Gross weight : 286 grams.00 = Rs. etc) = Rs.106.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 That is.80 Cost of garment = Rs.00 Polybag.68 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams. Neck piping : 10 grams.35 per pc.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG 68 . carton. the FOB price is USD3.00 Knitting charge = 30.131.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. packing materials = Rs.50 Cost of trims (labels.70 Price of garment = Rs.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.00 CMT charges = Rs.
116. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% = 36.10 COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% = 242. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. 104. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched.00 Washing charge = 5. this would be 25cm).00 Knitting charge = 50. Size and warning instructions printed. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. Sizes: 92.00 311. 98. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. That is 20cm.10 Fabric cost per Kg = 342. (For adult garments. Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. 110.69 Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) .00 Compacting = 6.00 69 .200 pcs total.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 31. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton. Likewise.3 colour combinations. Polyester printed care label.. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No.
70 Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = = = 30.00 5.00 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50
Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60 36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20
COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.
NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.
PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the 70
71 money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 71
72 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 21. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges, documents dispatch instructions, transferring conditions, etc., will be mentioned here. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. 72
73 22. he can not clear the goods from his customs. Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. amount. There may be some mistakes. price. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. They are only the copies. before opening L/C. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. validity extension. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C. description. shipment date. the amendments are made several times. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. changes or differences in address. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. . As we have to be careful of these important documents.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. 26. after receiving this L/C. Hence they are very important. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. Only the originals have got value. B/L: As we see above. only with B/L or Airway bill. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. 25. To avoid these amendment charges. 23. Some times. In this case. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). Without these documents. . Non-negotiable documents are having no value. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. 24. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment. it is a set of following originals and copies. This is called L/C amendment. 73 . let us see the importance and procedures of them. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents.
Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3. it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. as we sent one original B/L by courier. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. we must be sure of this clause in L/C. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). documentation. Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. After 3 days. It will be heavy amount. we don’t get the payment. the airport will charge for demurrage.. In this case. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. etc. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. Though we were careful in production. After the air shipment. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. stress and tension. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. buyer can clear the goods.. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. With these original B/Ls only. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different. Consignment copy. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. pricing. the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a week. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. To 74 . Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer. But it is a long process which will take more time. They are 1. In ‘Documents required’ clause. To avoid all these things. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. quality. money.74 There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). It is called Negotiable documents.’ If is mentioned other than this. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier.
To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. 75 . If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. Here comes the problem for exporter. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. Besides. full stops. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment.75 avoid this demurrage charges. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. Hence to be on the safer side. As the documents are still with them. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. only due to the urgency. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. in order to get the claim or discount. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. We have to remember. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. even commas. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). But as per L/C condition. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. In spite of all these reasons. Then. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. as we had seen in sea shipment above. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. To be specified exactly. it is mentioned as follows. To avoid this practical problem. etc are to be taken care. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. it is not safe for the supplier. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods.
we must know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a 76 . Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. in order to hold the documents for some days. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight. 30 days L/C. even though the discrepancies are not true. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. If everything is OK.76 On receipt of these documents. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. We have to note that this is the usual period. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. he can do it. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. 60 days L/C. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. 90 days L/C. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. In this case. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. At Sight L/C: As per this term. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. etc. In other words. Even in this term. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. 120 days L/C.
Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. After 7 working days. After that he will not make the payment. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of receipt of documents’. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. They ask the exporters to get their goods back.77 while or he does not want to pay our bills. Only difference is. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. 77 . if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. fax or email to make the payment. Accordingly. they will ask for some discounts or claims. Here we have to see a very important thing. But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. Some times. 30 days. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. 60 days. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. They even say that they don’t want the goods. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. 90 days. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. Here comes the important thing. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. As these buyers are genuine.
Normally they will not open L/Cs. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. If he does not have them. If there is any quality problem. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use.78 If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. These are all normal L/Cs. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. 2. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. he will not have the facility to open L/C. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. etc. only if he has financial strength. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. Then without paying the money to the bank. the other L/Cs for 60 days. etc. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. the buyer can get the L/C opened. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. 1. number of renewals. In the same way. Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. are treated and followed. In this case. 90 days. 120 days. the banks will ask the buyer to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. As we have seen. In some countries. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. validity. few partial shipments are allowed. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. In some backward countries. But the overall maximum amount. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. at least to get the payment without any claim. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. As no 78 . The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. In these terms. As we have seen earlier. buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. By this kind of L/C. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. Let us see what they are. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. Hence after taking delivery.
But the other procedures are the same as L/C. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. these buyers will not open L/C. But as this buyer is not genuine. If the buyer opens L/C. If the buyer is not genuine. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. By these terms. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness.79 buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. On the other hand. the seller has to proceed with his production. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. Without getting 100% confirmation. As nothing can be done. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. etc. In these days. After the shipment. He would avoid the seller completely. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. 3. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. At the same time. If the buyer is genuine. After 2 or 3 weeks. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. In this case. the buyer would not answer his call. the seller does not have any hold. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. 79 . After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. Due to any of these above reasons. fax and email. But in D/P terms. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. he will not show any interest in the goods. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. 4. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. He would affect the seller psychologically. Then the seller’s problem started. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. In these terms. On receipt of the documents in their bank. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges.
I don’t like to put you into big loss. 120days. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. But I have convinced my customer somehow. Pls think it over and let me know. No body is interested to take the goods. If you want. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. either buyer’s bank or the seller 80 . I tried with our customers. I know this is not fair. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. If you agree for this. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission. 3. In the D/P terms. 2. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. Due to his commitments on this payment. With this commission. 90days. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. Or he would agree for D/A terms. Even after this period. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. 75days. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. I will send your documents back to you. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. I am sorry. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. Believe me. (This is only a drama. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. This is almost like D/P terms. Some tips: To avoid this. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. 60days.80 1. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. I can do this help for you. He will not do anything with the samples). D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. So in this term. etc. They will have different payment periods like 30days. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. other banking charges and bank interest. the seller will have more risks of payment. I can not let you down because you are my friend. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. But in D/A terms. I can try to sell the goods by myself. Some times he may lose his business too. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. 45days. I will send your documents back. In order to help you. friend.
Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions.81 can not do anything. salary and wages. overheads. So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. MARKETING For every product. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. Maternity leave for women workers. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. staff and workers. Benefits to workers. 81 . Working conditions of workers. market situation and general policy of our company. preference. we must know about the capacity. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. commitment to customers. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. It is also called as Sales. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. Safety measures. Also the marketing department controls Production. Customer Study. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. Purchase. pollution. Sampling and Quality. weaknesses. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. etc. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. Merchandising. etc.. The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. Also we must know about our customers. etc. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. Product Study. Work Study. Hours of working. Communication. benefits to workers. Marketing is very most important. Documentation. Some times. labour laws. Costing & Pricing. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. of our company. Market Study. machineries. Shipping and Payment. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. Attendance. terms of payment. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. bribe. Pollution. strengths. safety & environment of factory. etc. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour. financial strength. Instead of giving details about them.
and thus be available to all staff at all times. . . first aid equipment.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times.The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. Safety Building and Fire Safety . the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory. fire extinguishers. Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. etc. or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. or suffers mental or bodily harm. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. We must be aware the buyers strategy. .An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. 82 . .If emergency exits are locked. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education.Exits should not be blocked by cartons. . .First aid equipment must be available in each factory. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly. etc. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. Because of the competition in their sales. mental. a person is a child until the age of 18. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child.All exit doors should open outwards. First Aid . moral or social development. indecent behaviour. such as emergency exits. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things.82 indirect approach. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. . spiritual. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid.
If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. . . level. that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. .Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit.83 . it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. and they should have the right to bargain collectively. but not a recommended. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 . Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . at all times of day. . . .All workers should be entitled to an employment contract.The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. Working hours per day should be only 8 hours. gender.All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. on time and be fair in respect of work performance.All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. Wages and Working Hours . Also after returning back to work. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer. . . . .The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed.Bonded workers.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. . and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. or engage in sexual harassment.No worker should be discriminated against because of race.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. .Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. following an injury during work in the factory. Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. . .Wages should be paid regularly. . Fans should be provided when needed.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care. prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories. religion or ethnic background.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions.Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. Factory Conditions .In developing countries. and the ventilation should be adequate.Sanitary facilities should be clean. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated.It is important for the workers' well-being. . and for the quality of the garments. in case of an accident in the factory. .
All workers must be provided with their own individual bed.Separate dormitories. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. quality. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. . and preferably separated for men and women. child labour. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. contact person’s name. unsafe factories.84 workers in the factory. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. etc. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too. Nowadays. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. There should be ‘open door’ policy. Housing Conditions . We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. teamwork. fire extinguishers. . That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. Basic values include believing in people. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management. some times. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. capacity.Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. cruelty of labour. low wages. This will help us always to take the right 84 . . Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. etc. some Social Organisations or Media Persons.Fire alarms. Also the company policies must be known to every worker.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. from the buyers’ countries. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. fast pace of working and constant improvement. Environment . Due to this. they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries. With these details. The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. . unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. . Also they are against to the bonded labour system. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously.
the head may get personal satisfaction. Section Head. when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. He will have easy approach. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. but should think that they are HELPING him. telephone operators. juniors. He will have a pleasing personality. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. has done a mistake. he can 85 . The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. Factory Manager. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. grudges and grievances very well. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. When a Head realise this fact. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. we will not get angry with him. That too. All the Heads should remember one thing always. the Head is having his employees. because the subordinates are helping the Head. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. it is very essential for us. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. In the same way. he can not do anything by himself alone. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. Supervisors. That is the reason. subordinates. securities. Then only he can take appropriate. CEO. Production Manager. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. honestly. workers. Administration Manager. or even Security Head. By doing like this. office boys. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. who is helping us. Likewise. expectations. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs.85 decisions in right time. Department Head. when we are doing marketing. In simple words. On the other hand. whenever needed. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. subordinates and other departments. When a person. assistants. he should not get angry with him. So whenever needed. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. Marketing Manager. The Head may be the Chairman. according to our policies. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. Managing Director. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. So everyone will discuss with him freely.
it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. quality. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. quality & blends of new fabrics. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. then he will not show any interest in learning further. involvement. If a man feels that he knows everything. If they have self confidence. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. etc. yarn composition. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. possibilities and impossibilities. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. This is called Product Judgement. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. but it is not an impossible thing. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. complete pictures of pricing. methods of production. and they should be their Chief for ever. For that we must have self interest. It may be difficult. immediately on seeing a garment. concentration. production. prints. appearance. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. speciality of garments. measurements. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. etc. finding and solving problems in production. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. fabric quality. utility. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. Especially in garments trade. We have to learn continuously. Simply saying. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. new styles. There is no end for learning. we can expect rapid changes for every season. new patterns. advantages and disadvantages. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. We can see changes everywhere at every time. he can not sell even a small pen. He must know about raw materials and other materials. colours. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. It is the same for garment also. To keep their positions. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. etc. changes are inevitable. decorative works.
fashion forecast. national market. local market. etc. new methods. new working systems. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. updating banking regulations. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. Even after the deep study. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. before April / May 2005. colours. It is not an easy thing. financial changes. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. In other words. new regulations. analysis and experiment of all these things. colours. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. measurements. So. design forecast. new products. international market.87 specifications given by buyers. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. before confirming the styles. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. That is. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. For example. let us take the summer garments. colour forecast. the consumers would be 87 . CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. fabrics. foreign exchange. Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. styles. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. Buyer has to work on pricing. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. etc. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. Thus. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons. etc. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. etc. Style & fit. colours. world economy. Due to this. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts.
etc. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. Some times. if reasonable. fit. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. of satisfying our family members. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. Only because of this reason. the store sales would also be good. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. They will not mind increasing prices too. unsuitable measurements.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. At the same time. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. As a result. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. Or else. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. Also as they are happy with our performance. On the other hand. Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. But above all. the home made food tastes more than outside food. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members. Why and how? It is simple. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. poor colour fastness. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. When the food is made at home. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. So while executing the buyers’ orders. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. if the goods are really good in all aspects. they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer. the Intention. Sometimes. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage..
89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89
90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.
Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).
We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90
91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91
cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. These documents are called bank documents. Bill of Lading or Airway bill. then try to find a solution and then will help us. this is also an important department. then appreciate. Certificate of Origin. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. may be poor in English. But when we have a friendly. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. risk factors. If there is any L/C amendment. etc. GSP Form A. AEPC endorsed invoice. Packing list. Tough guys dress easy. 92 . Inspection certificate. we had seen the importance of L/C. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. They are Invoice. After shipping the documents. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. not to show our strength in language. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers. If there are some small mistakes. etc are the shipping documents. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. documentation. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. They must be very good in business. There are mainly two types of documents. Honest people like simplicity. Our purpose is to make clear message. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Visa. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. Only our communication can establish. there will not be any problem of payment. packing list. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. The buyer will understand. We must be honest to ourselves and others. GR form (Exchange control). some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. They are shipping documents and bank documents. For any terms. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. Export Certificate. Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. various payment terms. So it should be handled at most care. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake.
he may suggest any other option. 93 . So there will not be any problem of getting payment. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). To make this possible. quality and delivery of the purchased items. we will be safe too. shipping. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). then he will confirm. This department involves not only with money. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. etc. And this distribution system will be perfect. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. connection details. shipment date. trims. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. finishing. etc. But in small and medium companies. each department will take care of each job. Any decision can be taken. So the raw materials. Also the charges of processing. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing.93 Some times. name of the line or airline. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation. quantities. other job works. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. In big companies. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. So. etc. they will produce the documents as per the old information. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. this kind of systems can not be expected. before stuffing the goods in to container. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. CMT. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. whether the company is big or medium or small. By this way. there may be some changes in prices. He will also check these details with his clearing agents.. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. it is responsible for the price. accessories.
they have very high value. we can get these problems solved amicably. shipping and payment. Some times. friendly. Advising and assisting production. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. Internal & external communication Earlier. Lab dips. it is very important to develop a healthy. Helping documentation department. So it is a very valuable department. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. At the same time. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. 94 . Mediating production and quality departments. When we have this kind of understanding relation. it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. internal communication is also very much valuable. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. By the same way. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. production. Preparing internal order sheets. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. and smooth relation with buyers. communication. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. documentation. Internal & external communication. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. As we discussed earlier. Preparing purchase orders. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. Accessories & trims. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Advising quality department about quality level. In any case. Sampling. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions.
Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . quality standards and price level. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. They are . they may not be correctable. We have to send many samples to buyers. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business.Proto samples or fit samples .Shipment samples Let us see about these samples.95 Even a small omission. then also we will have to send these samples. they will bring orders to us.Production samples . then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 . product range. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments.Pre-production samples . Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers.Photo samples . These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. For one enquiry.Wash test samples . this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. Prevention is better than cure. Sometimes. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. Some times. We may have to spend too much on these samples. Whenever they have enquiries. buyer may need samples.Fashion show samples . merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries.
buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. for the styles which we don’t get orders. measurements. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. by showing these samples. 96 . Based on these samples. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. So these samples are very important. but in the actual measurements and specifications. the approved samples should be followed in production. we may get orders for all 5 styles. All the buyers don’t need these samples. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. due to poor quality. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. We might have spent more money. style and fit. After getting the approval. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. Any way. colour fastness. These samples are needed to check the measurements. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. To avoid this embarrassing situation. buyer may comment on fabric. time. Of course these samples will help us for our business. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. He too can not help us in this regard. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. Some times. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. If the order is for 3 colours. some times. etc of salesmen samples. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. making. But as we don’t get orders. unmatched prints or embroidery. buyers may do some changes in measurements. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. 3 styles or 1 style. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. we may not get order for even a single style.96 style. improper measurements. unsuitable colours. we can not blame the buyer. style and fit. etc for making these samples. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. Some times. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. etc. measurements. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. Expected sales may not be possible. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost.
In any case. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour. packing box. We should not get any remark or comment. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. they may do wash test also. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. Some times. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. These samples can be sent from production. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. hang tag. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. But each order will get small quantity only. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. colours. 97 . They will accumulate the sales quantities. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. In this case. they will place orders repeatedly. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. etc. we can correct them in production. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. for some styles. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. If they don’t get samples on time. But we can get higher prices for these orders). Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. Sometimes.
They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. If we expect any comments in these samples. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. They are . Before sending the lab dips to buyer. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. (Some times. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. Our reliability will get questioned here). Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. etc. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. hence there might be some mistakes. To adjust this wasted time. we may think they are closer. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. . Different buyers follow different matching.Sodium light matching (show room). There are different matching systems followed in Labs. When sending the lab dips to buyer.Tube light matching. we may think they are not suitable. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. If we see lab dips in the morning. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. . 98 . Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. This is not cheating. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. And even if we get some comments from buyers.Ultra Violet matching. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades.98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment.Sun light matching. Hence before proceeding lab dips. at least 1 week time will be wasted. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. tags. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. Each of these above matching will give different results. For example. it will differ in sun light. he has to take some extra care. By this way. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. . he will have to make them again. just a tip).
It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. etc. quantity. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. When sending lab dips to buyer. After getting the buyer’s approvals. hang tags. he should order them for bulk. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. From the merchandising department only. merchandiser and buyer. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. export price. Also as usual. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups. quality standards. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. etc to buyer for approval. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. But the other information like description. The description. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. specifications. The other departments may not need these information. This will save a good time. So while preparing internal order sheets. zippers. polybags. 99 . They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. like buyer’s address.99 While making lab dips. If the bar codes are not clear. delivery date. accessories. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. They should be advised to the purchase department. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. diameter and width of required fabrics. weight. labels. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. He may omit some information to other departments. measurements. colours. trims. price or price target. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. inner boards. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders.
vessel connections. the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. comments and instruction. for the better flawless production. Some times. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. B/L instructions. etc. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. ETD. status and problems of each stage of production. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. If we work with the buyers directly. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. documents and shipping departments. quality. purchase order number. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. port discharge. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. the number of inspections will be limited. quantity. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. description. ETA. HS code. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. he will have to advise and assist production. initial. 100 . So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. online. though there is a separate production departments. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. payment terms. documents. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. shipping lines. Category. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. delivery terms. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. mid final and final.
responsible and sensitive process. valuable. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. quantity. At the same time. accessories and trims. electricity and maintenance of production floors. 101 . time and cost. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. For helping to reduce the production cost. overheads. This may be a single sentence. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. So now. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job. the production department looks after not only the garment production. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. planning is important. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. garment styles. production lead time and targeted shipment date. But the garment production is not that much simple. which is called production cost. Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. Accordingly for the better production of garments. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. nowadays. proper planning is essentially needed. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. It includes the wages. In these times of rising costs. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. Furniture and Shoes. Now let us see this in detail. increasing competition. As we see in the earlier chapters. we will see garment production in detail. Upholstery. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. Since 1996. This is called Work Study method. But there is another important cost. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. but also involves the fabric production.
only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. By this latest system. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect. this effect is negligible. prior to the start of the production process.506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. This is called Line Balancing. quality control and packing. In order to balance this. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. while 70% to 80% is handling time. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. pressing. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment.5 minutes for production from cutting. It means for this particular garment takes 11.5.46 – 10% = 0. sewing. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. flat lock and single needle. This is not true. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT.5 = 0. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. Upper Critical Limit = 0. For example. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. It helps us to cost our products.414 102 . evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. whether it is a machine or a manual operation. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. with a high level of accuracy.46 + 10% = 0. In GSD systems. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. The SMV of cutting. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment.
We can find out the production capacity by working as below. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1.57. pressing. 103 .57. Single needle machine operations will take more time.125 x 60 11.5 = 1.250 hours.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. Say 60%. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. 30. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. Say 110%. That is. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine.174 garments. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30.174 garments. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. sewing and finishing. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. For example.125 hours can be the effective hours. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. When we plan for 25 machines. Hence the productivity output will be more. quality checking and packing. So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line. We do this. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting. Say 90%. Working hours on week days = 9. sewing. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly. let us take 50% of this total hours.
marketing department. yarn stripes. colour fastness. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. management and the production lines. open width form.1. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. Cost Per Minute Cost Per Minute = 35. they will not cooperate with work study department. all over printed.00.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. solid. 104 . diameter or width.94 So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers. Allowances for cutting. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage.94 = Rs. The fabrics may be in tubular form.000 per month. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. etc. prints. But with so much patience. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly.125 x 60 = Rs. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage. the patterns are to be made accordingly. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. Also if the cutting is made manually. dyed yarns) and hand feel.000 30. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently. colour shades (dyeing.35. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below. Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics. costing department. GSM.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates.22. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting.00.5 x 1.
plackets and other patches. Then our whole calculation will be changed. Once they are being cut. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. They made this possible. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. But this should not be acceptable. Feeding between these operations should be even. This is called line system. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. oil stains and other mistakes. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. it is important to cut the 105 . The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. Especially. If this not been followed. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. dyeing mistakes. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. diameter. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption.105 If shrinkage. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. yarn mistakes. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. sewing. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. some markers may not care about this wales direction. They may mark them in any vacant places. nothing can be done with the cut bits. the cutting can not be commenced. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. colour shade and hand feel. printing mistakes. by using line system in their production. the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. During World War II. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. pockets. knitting mistakes.
we will have to reject the full garment. flat lock machines and single needle machines. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. At the same time. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. the cut bits can not be used for sewing. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. Though they are in the same lot. This will help to avoid shading in packing. If the curve edges are not being cut properly.106 hems along the lines. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. the body. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. This is very important. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. Because of this carelessness. So when cutting the fabrics. As we had seen earlier. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. If we find any bit having a mistake. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. we can reject the bit simply. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. In case of ‘S’ cutting. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. in order to avoid shade variation. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. 106 . the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. Markings. When the bits are numbered. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. When cutting manually and by lay. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing.
We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. Both manual and power driven machines are available. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. because this has safety thread stitch. patches and badges. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. Though they know better.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. Stitches should have required strength. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. In order to get better production result. the sewing methods. attaching collars & pockets. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. there will not be a big problem. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. attaching labels. But this is not enough. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. Speedy sewing is appreciable. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. When making sewing. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. But most of the operators don’t do this. Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. The production managers. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. trimming and packing. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. If they correct these mistakes then and there. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. 5 threads and 6 threads. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. Hence nowadays. 4 threads. making. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting.
shade variations and overall finishing of garments. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. damages. 108 . the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. When they trim the threads of buttons. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. garment shapes. The end user will wash the garments. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. general appearance. print or embroidery mistakes. only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. labeling. they should cut with extra care. oil stains.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. If they handle carelessly. This is an important thing to be followed. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. TRIMMING: After sewing. stitching quality. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. button holes and embroidery. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. This is very important. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels.
Buyers may face problems from the workers. way of expression.in our language. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows.Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. So a special team is needed for making samples. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. our policies. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. we have to make various types of samples. marketing.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . 109 . These general qualities can be controlled by practices. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. pattern maker. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. our dress code. . production. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. before using them. our approach. our methods. . finishing. If we don’t follow them properly. Before purchasing cartons. Hence individual packing. training and by our systems. communication. our way of working. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. In a company the quality is expected in management. if the weight is above their local standard weight. etc. documentation. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. . accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. etc. bar codes. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. . Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing. hang tags. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. Labels. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers.Fabrics. our reaction.109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly.
costs. productivity. production departments and merchandising departments. shipment. but the corrective measures. They will not listen to the practical problems. patterning. the quality department will not be appreciated. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. delay in shipment. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. future orders. quality. Quality Assurance Dept. rejections. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. yarn. pressing and up to packing. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. At the same time. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. production sufferings or loss. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. processing. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. sewing. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. intimation to buyers. Quality Audit Dept. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. because every one is doing his duties well. inspections and mainly the shipment date. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. etc. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. By this way. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. quality of garments. the shipment will be affected. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. In this system. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. fabrics. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. production. production cost. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. maintenance of machineries. Most of the times. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. cutting. nobody can be blamed. When there are major quality problems. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. etc. But practically. knitting. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. profit or loss. etc. inspections. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. 110 . labour management. finishing.
So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. For example. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. improper trimming. they will not have answer. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. The management. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. But their views and intention must be the same. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. This is what happening in most of the factories. they find suitable solution quickly. There will not be any use of these reports. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. Now. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. Even buyers know about these things. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. When a person knows better about the garments. loose thread ends. loose threads on buttons & labels. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser. he discusses with the merchandising team. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. Their responsibilities can be different. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. but also to correct them. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. lesser number of stitches.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. restricting or preventing mistakes. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. As an unwritten rule. So in my opinion. I suggest making some changes in this system. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. This is the cause of all the problems. It has to work under the merchandising department. marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. As the routine of their jobs. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. as everybody join their hands and heads together. In worse cases. etc. the merchandiser understands the problem.
. . Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality. . . .Bursting strength.Yarn diameter. Let us see the important tests below.Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details).To perspiration (like sweat. dimensional stability (shrinkage). amicably and permanently.Fibre content and . easily.Yarn counts. colour fastness. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments. etc.Composition of blends.Yarn friction. .Yarn shrinkage. etc. water resistant. . . etc). saliva. wear resistance. Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. The important tests are to test colour fastness . . sea water & chlorinated water.To dry cleaning.Acid / alkaline / water spotting . azo test.To washing. . . Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight. .Evenness & hairiness. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality. fabric weight (GSM).To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. .To bleaching. fabric handling.To light. .To dry heat / hot pressing.Single yarn strength. .To normal water.Yarn twist. 112 . LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested.112 rectified or corrected immediately. . Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding . safety.
Free formaldehyde content . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Water resistance .Wrinkle recovery .Dry cleaning . appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by .Washing and tumble dry .Abrasion resistance . washing instructions and wash care labels.Washing and flat dry . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general.Crease recovery.Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for .Water repellency . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers.Soil release performance .Steaming.Stretch & recovery .Drape coefficient . Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label. The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight. They can become discoloured and sun-bleached. 113 . In the earlier chapters.Pilling resistance . Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron.Wrinkle recovery .Snagging resistance .Moisture content .Relaxation . Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for . dimensional stability.Rust proof .Bow & skew. But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat. . we had seen the importance of washing methods. The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Water proofness .Random tumble pilling . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage.
Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. half a minute only. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. do not ring out. Spin for one minute only. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. Do not rub. 200C. Do not wash in water. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. High temperature. Hand wash only. for example. Max. cotton. demand special care. Do not soak. The machine should only be half filled. A short spin removes excess water best. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. For example. Max 40 degree Celcius. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. Dry heavy knitted garments. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. do not rub or ring out. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. linen. This can result in discolouration. Rinse thoroughly. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature. Normal spin. to give it a "fuller" feel. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. with washing instructions "hand wash. Avoid leaving garments to soak. there is a figure indicating the temperature. Within the bowl. max 40C". In a separate spin dryer. 114 .
Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. wool. For example. Low temperature. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. polyamide (nylon). avoid tumble drying 115 . Max 110C. Do not dry clean. On the other hand. Do not iron or rotary iron. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. The letters CL. The line refers to the water added.115 Medium temperature. natural silk. Water must be removed from the garments before drying. Many garments can also be tumble dried. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. Must not be bleached. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. acrylic. for a maximum of one minute. Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. For example. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Max 150C.
We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles.116 garments that you particularly cherish. as per the instructions of buyers. product variations. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’. Do not tumble dry. Tumble dry low. materials. finish. Tumble dry normal. as tumble drying weak the garment. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. fit. Flat dry. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. damages and imperfections. Tumble dry. component parts and garments. but also to the production processes. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . colour. materials. Hang dry. Quality parameters include finish. size. High heat in the tumble drier. durability.
trims. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. environmental. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. They are to be measured. interpret and follow information on job instructions. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. specifications. equipment or personnel. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. specifications. accessories. where necessary.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. quality.identifying improvements. quantity and finish. . They have to make sure that safety.assessing operational capability of machineries used. accessories and garments. fabric weight. standard operating procedures. When the measurements are being checked.applying safety precautions relevant to the task. . as required. . colour. regulatory authorities and the company. . . All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size. work standards and patterns. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods.interpreting work instructions. Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in . Or some measurements may not be achieved. trims. . In these cases. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. 117 . garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. tickets.taking required action where standards of fabrics. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output.maintaining accurate records. patterns.
decoration.job procedures and work instructions. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Each end user will have different taste of colours. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours. fabric qualities. colours.118 If there is any change in the measurements. 118 . garment styles. . Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. etc. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. . So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments. .the action taken promptly. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels.safety policies. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. Also each of them will have different body fits. Quality checks include visual inspection. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for . Now let us think about the expectations of end users.waste and pollution management. sewing. . making and measurements. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all aspects.
PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. checkers. colours. The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. So when a garment is having measurement problem. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. In most of the factories. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. The colours. the presentation is also important for packed garments. they don’t care much about the measurements. The reason is this. attractive colours and suitable styles . they would argue about the measurement deviations. styles are most important than the measurements. We can not do anything on them. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. 119 . the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. fabrics. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. workmanship. They don’t even bother to know about them. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. We are fully responsible for them. the garment can be accepted. So logically. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. fabric quality. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. After making their quality reports.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. if there is any measurement problem. By saying like this. style and fit than to measurements. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. From their reports. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. colours. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment.
Then the final inspection will be very easy. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. These things will not be of any use to the end users. online. collar bones.0 and 2. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. only some garments can be checked selectively. special branded tags. the more quality can be improved. they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. The more number of online inspections. middle. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. inner boards.065 to 15. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. This is also called Assured Quality Level. At the same time. 120 . bands. Also by these inspections. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation.120 The things like hang tags. They are initial. But if the presentation of packing is not good. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. When they do only final inspections. On the other hand. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards. the garment can not be sold. without doing initial or online inspections. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. pre-final and final inspections.5 are used in garment inspections. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. When we do the inspections. sometimes. tissue papers. pilot batch. So after rechecking. If they are not satisfied with the quality. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. Even then. price tags. This is unsafe for the factory. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. Usually the levels 4.
sincerity and hard working. It is not easy. At the same time. honesty. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. On the other hand. self confidence. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. That is coordination. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts. In order to reach these higher levels. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. it is not an impossible thing. But there is one thing is commonly needed. We should remember that this is a team work. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades.