PREFACE As everybody knows, the textile industry is one of the best trades in the world.

Especially the business of manufacturing and exporting knitted garments is very much interesting. The knit garments can be made in light weight, at the same time, with more thickness fabrics for winter seasons. For the summer seasons, they can be made in lighter weight with less thickness fabrics. Also there is a huge number of fabric varieties can be made in knits. The speciality of knit garments is the elasticity. Because of these special and comfort qualities, the requirement for knit garments is huge and forever. Hence manufacturing and exporting knit garments is definitely a life long profitable business. At the same time, there is a huge competition among the exporters around the world. Nowadays, most of the overseas buyers and importers prefer to do business with the suppliers - who are having their own manufacturing factories with huge production capacity, - who are quality conscious, - who are able to make prompt shipment in right time with right quality, - who are adopting local labour laws and code of conduct, - who are having thorough knowledge about the business, - who are reliable, - who are having sound financial strength and - who are able to supply the garments on competitive prices. As the quota restrictions will be removed from January 2005 and due to globalisation, we expect a huge competition in all the businesses among the sellers and buyers worldwide. In these years, we have been competing within our country or region. But hereafter we will have to compete with the other countries. It is going to be very tough. At the same time, it is not an impossible thing. We can achieve success, if we pay more attention in knowing about the trade thoroughly. Actually, I wanted to share my knowledge and experience with my younger brothers who are also in this same trade. And I wanted to give them the important hints for their easy understanding and reference. But while I was writing, I decided to write this also for others who are in this trade and who is interested to know about this trade. Then I decided to write this elaborately covering all the stages of this trade in detail. Also I have explained the details in very simple and easy language so that every one who reads this book can understand easily. In this book, I have given the costs and costing in Indian Rupees as it is easy for me. The readers, other than Indians, will have to convert the costs and costing in their desired currencies. I believe that the readers will bear with me for this inconvenience. I am very happy to bring out my knowledge about this trade through this book and I have real happiness as I am sharing the details with you. Hope all the information in this book

2 will be useful to you all and hope you will be satisfied. I wish you all success in your business or career! INDEX Subject Heading GARMENTS GSM YARN Grey yarn & prices Melange yarn & prices Dyed yarn & prices Mercerised yarn & prices Grindle yarn & prices KNITTING OR FABRICATION Machine gauge Texture Diameter Knitting charges Knitting with Elastan (Spandex) PRE-PROCESSING Procedures to avoid shading PROCESSING Azo Free dyestuffs Bleaching (Chlorine & Peroxide) Fabric dyeing – Reactive, pigment & discharge dyeing Lab dips Winch dyeing & charges Soft flow dyeing & charges Fabric mercerising & charges Fabric washing & charges FINISHING & COMPACTING Calendering & charges Compacting & charges Stentering & charges Heat setting & charges Fabric raising & charges PRINTING All over prints Pigment print (by rotary machines) & charges 2 Page No. 7 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26

3 Procedures Advantages Risk factors Print in open width form Water base print Organic dyeing & printing Printing charges Reactive print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Printing charges Discharge print (by rotary machines) & charges Procedures Advantages Risk factors Some tips Printing charges Chest prints (advantages) Printng charges SPECIAL PROCESSES Tie & Dye Procedures Advantages Risk factors Tie & dye charges Batiks Garment dyeing Procedures Advantages Risk factors Garment dyeing charges EMBROIDERY Applique Acoba Embroidery charges 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37

ACCESSORIES Cost of buttons 3

37 37

2 – Men’s all over printed Polo shirts Trial costing No.4 Cost of zippers Cost of twill tapes & ropes Cost of elastics Cost of labels Cost of hangtags Cost of inner boards Cost of tissue papers Cost of safety pins & threads Cost of polybags Cost of master polybags Cost of hangers & sizers Cost of cartons CMT CHARGES SHIPPING Delivery terms Sea freight Air freight Calculation of the charges GARMENT COSTING Fabric consumption Trial costing No.5 – Men’s Pique polo shirts Trial costing No.1 – Men’s Basic T shirts Fabric consumption of open width fabrics (synthetic) Gross weight & net weight Fabric cost per kg Fabric cost per garment Other charges Cost of trims CMT charges Cost of accessories Cost of garment Price of garment Shipping charges Profit Cost of quota Commission Garment costing Trial costing No.7 – Boys Yarn stripes T shirts (engineering) PAYMENT TERMS L/C terms 4 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 47 48 48 49 50 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 71 71 .4 – Men’s long pyjamas Trial costing No.3 – Ladies Night dress Trial costing No.6 – Ladies Yarn stripes T shirts (feeder) Trial costing No.

5 L/C amendments Importance of B/L & Airway bill Documentation At Sight L/C 30days. 60days. 90days L/C Revolving L/C D/P terms D/A terms MARKETING Self study Code of conduct Child labour Safety Workers’ rights Factory conditions Housing conditions Environment Policies and approaches Product study Market study Customer study Work study Costing & pricing Communication Documentation Purchase Shipping Payment MERCHANDISING Internal & external communication Sampling Development samples or enquiry samples Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production 5 73 73 75 76 77 78 78 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 87 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 .

6 Advising quality department about quality level Coordination regarding shipping Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections Following shipment PRODUCTION Production planning Work study Standard Minute Value Line balancing Man planning Cost Per Minute Patterning Fabric inspection Line system Cutting Inspection of cut bits Sewing Trimming Quality checking Packing Sampling QUALITY CONTROL Quality system Lab tests Washing instructions & symbols Quality procedures Workmanship & general appearance Presentation Inspections Coordination 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 112 113 116 118 119 120 121 6 .

Polar fleece and Jacquards. we will have only the garments to find GSM. sarees. reed & picks (warp & weft). power looms and mill made. Shirts. finishing. Loop knit. colours.cms. As 7 . round cutters are used. T shirts. as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. If we have fabrics. GSM GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. Flat back rib. By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100. This round bit is to be weighed in an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. prints. undergarments.000 sq. pyjamas and socks are Knits. Pique. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers. Another is Knitted garments. Fleece. width should be considered with more care. etc. We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit. bed spreads. towels and made ups are Woven. This system is used worldwide. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments. style. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10. One is Woven garments. accurate GSM can not be achieved. Hence nowadays. the fabric will be cut into a small bit. Interlock. Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. French Rib. With the help of this round cutter.7 GARMENTS There are 2 types of garments. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM. trousers. But yarn counts. So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16. According to the structure of fabrics. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM. But most of the times. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms. GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. embroidery. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey. Making woven fabrics is simple. blankets. Rib. sweatshirts. And we will have to keep the garment for style. By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit. fabric quality. It can be found out by any one of the below ways. making and other references. Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM. they are called by different names.

availability. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. 60’s. Because of the same longer length of fibers. higher the counts. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency. the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. 10’s. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. 30’s.25 inches to 2. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 100’s. a special process is being done.5 inches. 16’s. the fibers with more length are considered to be better. evenness. YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. etc. etc. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments. the lesser the thickness. raw material.8 this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. For this purpose. we can understand that there is only one raw material which is. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0. the higher the counts. strength. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. Yarn prices based on the thickness. the thickness becomes lesser. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. We must know. the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. 20’s. Hence after knitting or weaving. 8 . 4’s. the fabric will have very even look. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s. 80’s. the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. 40’s. hand feel. the Yarn. Combed is superior quality. 24’s. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. This process is called ‘Combing’. We can see. According to the technical parameters. 36’s. 34’s. the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. So when the yarn counts are increasing. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. 38’s. 25’s. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this. higher the prices. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM. Because of this extra process. We can consider like this. There are 2 qualities of yarn. the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. Combed and Carded.

Approximate grey yarn prices per kg in Rs: 20’s 24’s 30’s 34’s Combed 100 120 130 140 Carded 95 110 120 130 40’s 145 140 Melange yarn: Melange means mixture. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. which is very important. Let us see below the approximate prices for various qualities of 100%Cotton yarns. For example. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose. In colour mélange yarn also. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality. higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. They are Grey mélange. the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. Colour mélange. the cotton portion will be in light shade. also the shrinkage can not be controlled. colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. But as we use 100% Cotton. For light colour mélange yarn. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. due to higher shrinkage. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. To avoid this shrinkage problem. But for dark colour mélange yarns. the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality. the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. bleached mélange. the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage. But we must think of shrinkage. we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. Flax mélange. Hence. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level. There are different mélange yarns. the dyeing absorbency will be very less. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality.9 The processing (dyeing. Grey Melange. 9 . bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. etc. In these yarns. Bleached Melange are used widely. According to the required percentage and colour shades. it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. Ecru Melange. Ecru mélange. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers.

It is called Count Strength Product (CSP). Cost wise. the dyed yarn price of 30’s Medium colour will be around Rs. only combed yarns are used. 80/2. Let us see some important things about these special yarns. As the finer cottons are used. Rs.40 to 50 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. These yarns are made with selective fibers with longer lengths by thoroughly removing the lifeless.70 to 100 to be added (according to the depth of colours) with above prices of Combed yarns. Dark colours: Rs. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength.30 to 40 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. giving more resistance and silky feel. For Colour Melange in Cotton / Viscose blend: Light colours: Rs. There is a huge difference between the mercerised yarns and normal type of cotton yarns. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades.250 per kg. Mercerised Yarn: This is a very special quality yarn. dull and dead cottons. yarn strength and better quality. These yarns are made exclusively of long fibers. 100/2. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. Approximate Melange yarn prices per kg in Rs: For Ecru Melange & Grey Melange yarns. It means 2 yarns of same counts have to be twisted together. the yarn contains more cotton. Medium colours: Rs. like 60/2. So minimum mercerised yarn can be 50/2. the dyed yarns are used. The prices of dyed yarn are based on the counts and colour shades. For Colour Melange in 100% Cotton: Approximately Rs.20 to 30 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. 10 . as the combing process removes shorter fibers.10 Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem.10 to 15 to be added with above prices of Combed yarns. For easy reference. The prices of other counts are based on the price differences of grey (kora) yarns. For yarn dyeing. The minimum counts which can be doubled are 50s. we can not expect the consistency of shades. Dyed yarn: For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics. The prices for other colours will be differed according to the shades. Mercerised yarns are always in 2 ply. In manual yarn dyeing.

the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. these yarns are used for knitwear. 3. Very less shrinkage of yarn / fabric / garments. Due to its high resistance properties. this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. 11 . The garments made with mercerised yarns can be washed an infinite number of times without losing luster. But this shiny look will not be permanent and will be inferior comparing with the fabric used with Gassed Mercerised yarns. Gassed yarns can be used instead of Mercerised yarns. The special features of Gassed Mercerised yarns are 1. fabrics have to be mercerised again. In this method. By this process. these dyed yarns are used. Used for making very expensive special garments. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. If two yarns of 60’s counts are gassed. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). Longer life of garments. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). to minimise the cost. 4. one in yarn stage and another in fabric stage. As mercerising is done two times. Due to more heat. then we get 2/60’s gassed yarn. Further. the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. We will get the shiny look on the fabric. Complete evenness throughout the yarn / fabric / garments. as the yarn is not mercerised and as only the fabric is mercerised. the yarn is called 2/60’s mercerised yarn. This process is called Mercerising. As the prices of Mercerised yarns are higher than Gassed yarns. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. These yarns do not create allergies to body. This will give more life to the garments. the fabric has to be mercerised before fabric dyeing. Also Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarns are available. 2. They have exceptional ability to absorb and disperse body perspiration. underwear and hosiery. it is called ‘Single Mercerising’. So these mercerised yarns are very special due to its special qualities. Luster and shininess of yarn / fabric / garments. they have 10 – 15% more resistance than single ply yarns. 5. After combing and twisting. For yarn striped and jacquard design fabrics. the yarn will be singed (gassed). After mercerising. this is called ‘Double Mercerising’. In any case. Also the garments will not be deformed regarding shape. Then after mercerizing. After making the fabrics with these Gassed Mercerised yarns.11 As these yarns are made in multi-ply (2 ply). the fabric has to be mercerised again with caustic soda to get the permanent shiny look. After making the fabrics with Gassed yarns. Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension.

12 Approximate Gassed (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.310 2/74’s: Rs.360 2/80’s: Rs.400 Approximate Gassed Mercerised (Grey) yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Rs.380 2/74’s: Rs.440 2/80’s: Rs.490 Approximate Gassed Mercerised Dyed yarn prices per kg in Rs: 2/60’s: Light colours: Rs.480 Medium colours: Rs.520 Dark colours: Rs.550 2/74’s: Rs.60 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. 2/80’s: Rs.100 to be added with the above prices of 2/60’s dyed yarn. Grindle Yarns: These yarns are also called ‘Twisted Yarns’. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. The prices of grindle yarns depend on the colours, counts, etc. The above prices can be referred to get approximate idea.


13 KNITTING OR FABRICATION There are 2 types of knitting. One is Circular knitting (Tubular knit). Another is Flat knitting. Circular knit is used to knit body fabrics. Flat knit is used to knit Collars & Cuffs. There is another type of flat knit machines which are used to make Sweaters (Tricot garments). With these machines, the body fabrics, sleeves and necks are being made. And they are joining together with the help of linking machines. We have to note that the attachments of these parts are done with the main yarns. No separate sewing threads are used for joining. Buyers use to call these garments as Knitted garments or Tricot garments or Sweaters. Mostly acrylic and wool yarns are used. Lower counts like 2’s, 4’s, 6’s, etc are used. T shirts, polo shirts are also called knitted garments. As the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, some buyers use to call these garments as ‘Cut & Sewn Garments’. When we discuss about Knit garments, there are many things to be taken care of. Yarn counts, suitable knitting machines, machine gauge, machine diameter, numbers of feeders, grey fabric GSM, loop length, grey fabric diameter, etc should be well considered before start knitting. The fabric before processing is called Greige fabric. It is also called Grey fabric (kora fabric). Machine Gauge: There are different types of fabric structure like Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French rib (loop knit), Flat back rib, Fleece, Herring bone, etc. Knitting machines are available in different gauges. 2GG, 3GG, 4GG, 5GG, 7GG machines are used for sweater knitting (Tricot knit). Fabrics like Jersey, Pique, Rib and Interlock are knitted on 14GG, 16GG, 18GG, 20GG, 24GG, 26GG, 28GG, 30GG suitably. The fabric is knitted according to the cam design. If we need any different type of knitting, the cams in cylinder and dial should be adjusted accordingly. Gauge is meant by the number of needles per inch. For example, 24GG machine will have 24 needles per inch; 30GG machine will have 30 needles per inch. If we need more needles per inch, we have to go for higher gauge machine. As the higher Gauge machines are having more needles per inch, the fabric will be knitted tightly. And the fabric will have lesser shrinkage and better feeling. According to the machine gauge, the yarn counts to be selected and used. If the Gauge is higher, the thinner yarn can be used. If the Gauge is lesser, the thicker yarn can be used. 13

14 When making knitting program, our aim must be to make tight knitting with better fabric feeling and less shrinkage. Accordingly we must plan to use the higher yarn counts and higher gauge knitting machines. So the yarn count selection is more important according to the selected Gauge machine. Also the machine Gauge to be selected according to the selected yarn count. For example, for Jersey fabric, we can achieve 140GSM either by using 34’s yarn & 26GG machine or by using 30’s yarn & 24GG machine. To get better quality fabric, it is preferable to use 34’s yarn & 26GG machine. Texture: As warp and weft are making woven fabrics, there are 2 things making the knit fabric. They are Wales and Course. Wales is the vertical yarn. Course is the horizontal yarn. Wales lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed. Coarse lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. By adjusting this texture, the required fabric GSM (Grey or kora) can be achieved. Diameter: As the knit fabrics are made in tubular form, the patterns for making garments are being made according to tubular fabrics. Hence the diameter of fabric is very important. When we talk about Diameter, we must take care of various diameters. They are diameter of the machine, diameter of the grey fabric, diameter of the processed fabric and diameter of the finished fabric. These diameters will not be the same. Our ultimate aim is to get the required diameter of the finished fabric according to the patterns. So we have to check these diameters carefully at every stage. Diameter of the machine will not be changed. But after knitting, each type of fabric will be in different diameters. For example, if Jersey fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be plus or minus 1”. That is, between 29” and 31”. But if Pique fabric is knitted in 30” diameter machine, the grey fabric diameter will be 37”. Likewise, each type of grey fabric will be in different diameter according to the knitting method and nature of the fabric design. During processing, the fabrics will be soaked in dyes for more than 5 hours. So the fabric will shrink both in widthwise and lengthwise depends on fabric texture. And the diameter will be changed accordingly. If the fabric is knitted with lower texture, the fabric will grow in widthwise during processing. Hence the diameter will be increased enormously. If the fabric is knitted tightly by using higher yarn counts, higher gauge machines and with higher texture, we can minimise this difference. After processing also, each type of fabric will be in different diameter. For example, if the grey fabric diameter of Jersey is 30”, then the diameter after processing will be 29”. But if the grey diameter of Pique is 37”, then the diameter after processing will be 34”.


: Jersey 8 Pique 15 Interlock 18 1x1 rib 15 Jersey with Lycra 25 Pique with Lycra 25 Rib with Lycra 30 Feeder stripes Jersey 12 Feeder stripes Pique 18 Feeder stripes Interlock 20 Feeder stripes rib 15 Engg stripes Jersey 40-60 Engg stripes Pique 50-70 Engg stripes Interlock 40-60 Engg stripes Rib 110-130 Regarding yarn stripes. As poly cotton yarns are blended in fiber stage itself. we get the single yarn with blends. If this diameter is larger than the pattern. then there will be more fabric wastage. The knitting charges for these engineering stripes are very higher. it is called ‘Feeder stripes’. If this diameter is smaller than the pattern. grey diameter is based on machine diameter. These engineering stripes can be knitted with special kind of machines. we have to pay more attention to fix the yarn counts. When we knit the fabrics with different quality of yarns together. We have to note that a maximum of 3. Colour yarns should be feed in according to the stripes. If there are 1 or 2 inches difference.5cms. it can be knitted in normal machines. Also as we have seen earlier. then it is called ‘Engineering stripes’ or ‘Auto stripes’. we have to be careful of their counts. polyamide (nylon). it can be corrected during compacting or other finishing process. Hence knitting of these blended yarns is also easy. if the repeat width of stripes is below 3. texture and grey GSM. Hence the selection of machine diameter is very important to get required finished fabric diameter. machine diameter is based on the fabric nature.15 Diameter of the finished fabric should be suitable for patterns and for cutting. machine gauge. Approximate knitting charges per kg in Rs. and 15 . As the stripes are adjusted by the yarn feeders.5cms. then we can not cut the fabric as per our program. If the repeat width is more than 3. Finished diameter is based on processed diameter. KNITTING WITH ELASTAN (SPANDEX): Knitting of 100%Cotton yarn is easy. processed diameter is based on grey diameter.5cms of repeat width of stripes is possible to knit with the ordinary machines. So the fixing of finished fabric diameter is based on pattern requirements. Generally the synthetic yarns like polyester. viscose.

Also. we must be sure of using the suitable denier yarn. But the cotton yarns are measured in Counts. Then only the knitting will be even. So. we can use following conversion formula. then we have to use same 38’s counts of Lycra yarn. If we use 38’s counts of cotton yarn. This is the same procedure for the other synthetic yarns too. We need the thickness of both yarns to be the same. We see that 140 Denier is equal to 38’s counts. Counts Denier = 5315 Denier = 5315 Counts Let us see an example of knitting Cotton/Lycra (Elastan) fabric. during knitting. To select suitable denier. 140 denier Lycra yarn is to be used for this fabric. In order to select the suitable denier. So when we knit cotton yarns with these synthetic yarns. the number of feeders of Lycra yarn is to be decided according to the required percentage of Lycra.16 elastan (spandex) are measured in Denier. 16 . we use the above formula.

compacting method & temperature. should be dyed or processed in one lot only. collar and cuffs in one garment. processing methods.GSM – during knitting.Diameter (as per Pattern) . we will get different results. we will not get the same result every time. before processing. fastness as per approval) .Shrinkage – before compacting and after compacting. these variations can be limited. .GSM (as per Purchase Order) . sleeves. rope. twill tape should be knitted with same mill yarn from the same yarn lot.Diameter – machine diameter. 17 . same knitting machine. If we take more care during processing. even if we use the same mill yarn but with different yarn lots. sleeves and grey collars.. cuffs. Due to the above reasons. before finishing or compacting.Fabric feeling – should be controlled during knitting. before finishing or compacting. processing water quality. we have to check following things before knitting. collar.Colour – shade and fastness before and after finishing. rib. Likewise we will get different results due to knitting machine make. after compacting (on cutting table). At the same time. cuffs. Even though the buyer knows that the lot to lot shade variations can not be avoided 100%. . we always expect different results every time and every time we must be prepared for avoiding the differences or deviations.Fabric feeling (as per requirement) To fulfill all these important things. we must be aware that there should not be shade variation between body. sleeves. processing and compacting. wishing to get the finished fabric with following qualities. sleeves. But we can not avoid shade variations between lots 100%. after processing. etc. after processing. before processing. We must be aware the fact that even if we use the same mill yarn. 2. same dyeing factory and same finishing process. they will expect at least no shading between garments packed in one carton. there will be shade variations between lots. To avoid shade variations. . . To avoid shading between body. Fabric for body. . cuffs. This is very important. etc. rope. So it is not possible to define the entire system with 100% conformity. Hence regarding knitted fabrics. For example. twill tape: 1. after processing.17 PRE-PROCESSING We are making the fabric.Shrinkage (as per the tolerance – normally below 5%) . we have to follow the following procedures. after compacting (on cutting table). Also there should not be shade variation between garments of different sizes which are packed in one carton. gauge. collar. Grey fabrics for body. processing timing. rib.Colour (shade. . qualities of dyes & chemicals.

All the parts of one garment (body. Numberings should be followed till the full garment is made.18 3. the same shade to be followed for the second and further lots too. Body and sleeves should be cut in the same fabric roll. etc should be added in to the above fabric lot. 4. 3. 5. they should be dyed or processed as one lot only). Collars. 4. When we have to use yarn from different lots. We must study the packing methods clearly. pockets. (If this is not possible or not suitable due to more wastage or any other reason and if the body and sleeve fabrics are in different diameters. 3. As it is not possible in traditional manual winch dyeing. ribs. This cutting swatch to be sent along with the other grey fabrics lots when they are sent for processing. To avoid shading between fabric lots: 1. only this lot cutting to be referred and followed for further lots. Water temperature. First lot cutting swatch to be followed for further lots. If the packing is ‘assorted sizes’ in one carton. Weight of the fabric of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. If the packing is Solid size in one carton. cuffs. before sending the fabrics for processing. ropes. Mixing of lots should be avoided. processing time. Fabrics from the second lot should be sent separately. each lot to be made according to assorted sizes. cuffs. PROCESSING 18 . Once 1st lot is approved. Fabric program should be made accordingly. sleeves. 6. before sending the fabrics for processing each lot to be made with the Size wise fabrics. Number of assortments of one lot is to be decided according to the dyeing vessel capacity. This is very important. Approved lab dips should be followed for the 1st fabric lot ONLY. so that all necessary fabrics and accessories are being dyed at one time. 2. we should dye the fabrics only with latest soft flow dyeing machines. quantity of water and quality of dyestuffs are the defining factors of dyeing. 2. etc) should be numbered during cutting. When the colour shade in the first fabric lot is approved. twill tapes. collars. ribs. Same mill yarn from the same yarn lot to be used. Lab dips should not be referred. To avoid shading between different sizes of garments in one carton: 1. patches. These should be consistent to get even dyeing and consistency in shades. the grey fabrics from one yarn lot should be sent for processing separately.

4. bedding. it is safer to get the confirmation from the dyestuff manufacturer. 3. In April 1996. hats. belts.3’-Dimethyl-4. 2. wallets. 3. towels. hairpieces.5-Trimethylaniline.4-Toluylendiamine.19 AZO DYESTUFFS: When we discuss about processing.4-Diaminoanisole. chair covers and toys. p-Aminoazobenzene.3’-Dimethylbenzidine. 2-Amino-4-nitorotoluene.6-Xylidine.4’-Thiodianiline. 3. 19 .4’-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline). Nowadays other developed countries are also following the ban of azo dyestuffs.3’-Dimethozybenzidine. 4. 2. 4. watch straps. O-Anisidine. even if the buyer has not specifically mentioned about this.4-Xylidine. They are clothing. 2. German Government had banned import of consumer products using one or more of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textile and leather articles which have the possibility of direct contacts with the human skin. the buyer has the right to reject the goods or even to sue a case against the supplier for not following the regulations. p-Cresidine. p-Chloroaniline.4’-Oxydianiline. Hence. diapers and other sanitary items. we must be aware of Azo dyestuffs. purses. It is important to note that different dyestuffs with the same colour index number can produce different results due to differences in the purity of the raw materials and contamination by impurities. 3. o-Toluidine. footwear. o-aminoazotoluene.3’-dichlorobenzidine.4’-diaminobiphenylmethane. wigs. 4-Chloro-o-toluidine. Benzidine. we have to use Azo Free dyestuffs only. 4. Since the dyeing factory can not determine whether the dyestuff is azo or azo-free. 4-Aminobiphenyl. 2. briefcases. Following are the 24 banned azo dyestuffs. If the garment supplied by a supplier. is tested and proved that it contains any of these banned dyestuffs.4’-Diaminobihenylmethane. 2. gloves. 4. 2-Naphthylamine.

we can get consistent Whiteness throughout the entire lots. Some bleaching factories will say that they will use Peroxide bleach in winches. So it is better to bleach the fabrics either by soft flow machines or by continuous bleaching machines. the whiteness will vanish after washes and will become pale white or Offwhite. The brightness will be forever even after many washes of garments.10 – 12 / kg. before certifying to buyers. If we smell the fabric deeply. The lab test charges for azo dyestuffs are very high. In this case. Peroxide Bleach: So the other option is Peroxide bleach. Another is Peroxide Bleach. Some buyers will ask their suppliers to submit lab test reports for azo free dyestuffs for each colour of the garments they are producing for them. it is safer for the supplier to get the certificate from their dyeing factories and their dyestuff suppliers. If a garment is made of Chlorine bleached fabric. Chlorine Bleach: Chlorine bleach is cost wise cheaper and lesser in quality. FABRIC DYEING: 20 . BLEACHING: There are 2 qualities of bleaching. Peroxide bleaching can be done in 3 methods. They are by using open winches. the result will show that it contains azo dyestuffs. Peroxide White charge if made by continuous bleaching machines: Approx Rs. Chlorine bleaching charge: By open winch or open tub: Rs. By using Continuous bleaching machine.000 per colour. If this fabric tested for azo contents. It is approximately Rs. One is Chlorine Bleach. Peroxide bleach can be made only with hot water.7. It will have lesser whiteness.20 Some buyers will ask their suppliers to certify that they are not using azo dyestuffs. soft flow machines and continuous bleaching machines. The fabric will have Chlorine smell. Hence we have to be sure that the bleaching factory is having boiler and whether they are using boiling water for our job. Also it will give irritation to body. it is banned in most of the countries. Peroxide White charge if made by winches: Approx Rs. Above all. There will not be any smell. Snow white can be achieved by Peroxide bleach. as Chlorine contains azo dyestuffs.30–35/kg. But this is not acceptable. But they will use Chlorine bleach and will do Peroxide coating to minimise their cost. Also after ironed and packed the garments into a polybag and kept for some time. Any bright shades like Milk white. Also it will not give irritation to body. we can smell Chlorine immediately after removing and smelling the garments from the polybag.22 – 24 / kg depending on shade. we can smell Chlorine. Winch bleach is the traditional method.

should not be used. As we discussed above. etc. the lab dips should be made in the same fabric which we want to dye the particular colour. the fabrics will be washed in special soft flow machines for getting special effects like stone wash. Pigment dyeing: In this type of dyeing. Some dyes are having the quality of discharge. Generally this pigment dyeing is made in Jigger machines. 1. 2. the lab dips should be done in the same Jersey fabric bits. the fabrics will roll on winches. 21 . the Lab dips are made in the laboratory. as if the fabric is pigment printed on both sides 100%. Fabric rolls will be joined together by knotting them. Discharge dyeing is required only when the fabric is to be Discharge printed. We will discuss about this later when we discuss about ‘Discharge printing’. 2 to 4 lab dips are made similar to the required shade. We will have more discussions on this. it means Reactive dyeing only. For example. the Pigment dyes are to be used. According to the approved lab dip. There are 2 types of dyeing. After checking whether the required shade is attained. This combination is called Recipe. bulk dyeing will be done. One is Winch dyeing. there are advanced soft flow machines with simplified methods from which we get better results. Pigment dyeing and Discharge dyeing. When lab dips are made. Then only we will get required results. fabrics will be removed from the winches. The same combination is used in bulk dyeing proportionately. After this. Pigment dyes are mainly used for printing. the fabrics will be rolled by dipping in diluted dyes. By using these dyes in dyeing. Nowadays. Reactive dyeing: When we call dyeing.21 There are 3 qualities of dyeing. Another is Soft flow dyeing. if we want to dye Jersey fabric for bulk. which is made with different yarn. The dyes are diluted with hot boiled water and kept in the bottom of the vessel. 3. The dyes used for dyeing are called Reactive Dyes. LAB DIPS: Before proceeding dyeing. the fabric will be very stiff. As each yarn will have different dyeing absorbency and as each fabric type will have different dyeing absorbency. Discharge dyeing: For this type of dyeing. WINCH DYEING: Winch dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing. only Azo Free dyes should be used. enzyme wash. the combination of dyes & chemicals are noted well in the books. This is the normal dyeing. in the chapter ‘Garment Dyeing’. Pigment dyeing is used when the fabric is to be stone washed or acid washed or enzyme washed (like Jeans). They are Reactive dyeing. During dyeing. When the winch is rotated by a motor. Discharge dyes are to be used. other Jersey fabric. Even. acid wash.

the fabric wastages can be reduced considerably. timing. The dyeing charges by open winches: Light colours: 20 – 25 Medium colours: 30 – 40 Dark colours: 45 – 50 Darkest colours: 55.60 Royal: 70 – 80 SOFT FLOW DYEING: It is also called Jet dyeing or Closed Winch dyeing. dyes of some 2 or 3 colours are to be mixed proportionately to get the required shades. the particular colour will not have the total required shade and colour fastness. It is difficult to give exact definition for light colours or dark colours by their names. There will not be any colour patches. These are called ‘Combination colours’. Temperature. Lt Yellow.22 The dyeing process will take different timings for different colours. Orange. Anyhow let us have a rough idea about colours. etc are Light colours. Blue. the fabric rolls are joined by tying the ends. Light Grey. Dark Blue. the dyes are available in suitable shades. Dark Navy. Also as the fabric rolled in folded form on winches. (It is too expensive. dyes & water capacity. Blue. So after dyeing. etc are the darkest colours. Lt Pink. Grey. Hence the absorbency of colour will not be even. the temperature is consistent. etc are Medium colours. It is a closed winch. These types of machines are used in recent years. Due to this. Yellow. this is the best way to get required shade exactly with better colour fastness. In open winch dyeing. Each dye will have different solubility and reactivity. Offwhite. In these cases. Hence the fabric absorbs the dyes evenly. the temperature of water will not be consistent. The costliest colour is Royal. etc are Dark colours. Though soft flow dyeing is more expensive than winch dyeing. Also the colour fastness will be better. As the winch is kept opened. everything is computerised. Brown. Military Green. Green. For the regular shades. Light Red. fabric capacity. Olive Green. the fabric wastage will be more due to the rejection of these roll ends. For some shades. Navy. Temperature in the 4th or 5th hour will not be the same in the 1st hour. But in soft flow dyeing. These dyes are called ‘direct dyes’. Shades and charges: There are too many shades in each colour. Some dark colours will take approximately 8 hours. When 2 or 3 different dyes are mixed together. Red. the colour patches will be occurred on the fabrics. Also the fabric wastage will be lesser than open winch dyeing. They have to be cut and rejected. the direct dyes will not be available. fabric may not absorb some colours properly. as the fabric rolls are joined with over lock stitches. Black. as the direct dyes for Royal to be used to get the brightness. Medium Green. Sometimes if the shade is lighter and if the customer cooperates to 22 . It will be much lesser. Lt Green. Lt Orange. Due to this. Lt Blue.

Red. But after knitting. By these colours. The collars. FABRIC WASHING: We make some fabrics with dyed yarn or mélange yarn. Due to this. these fabrics have to be washed with soft cold water to remove the smell and dusts of yarn. After this mercerising process the fabric will become tight and the diameter of the fabric will be much reduced. The fabric will be treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. If the mercerising is not been done properly. The dyeing charges by soft flow machines: Light colours: 30 – 40 Medium colours: 40 . 23 . Any normal fabric also can be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to improve luster. Hence it is always safer to do the mercerising and dyeing in the same processing mill under same roof. but it will have poor colour fastness.45 to 50 per kg. if mercerising and dyeing is done in the same processing mill. the fabric gets not only very good strength and improved luster. Due to this mercerising.80 Royal: 90 – 100 FABRIC MERCERISING: This is a special process. We can get some reduction from the mill. these fabrics are to be washed. Also to avoid the handling stains. Though we have to bear with the mercerising charges. if we do both mercerising and dyeing together with them. the dyeing cost will be reduced by 15 to 20% from the normal dyeing charges. So it is advisable to use direct dyes only). smell and to get softer hand feel. ropes made with dyed yarns or mélange yarns also to be washed to avoid stains. etc. Black. Approximate fabric mercerising charge is Rs. The dyeing quality will vary depending on mercerising quality. but also improved colour absorbency. Hence the consumption of dyestuffs and processing time are reduced. we can get similar shade.23 reduce the cost. the dyeing quality will be inferior.50 Dark colours: 60 – 70 Darkest colours: 70 . Due to this and due to more processing time. Not only the fabrics. the shade can be achieved with the combination of Blue. the fabric is not needed to be made by gassed or mercerised yarns. For the darker shades more dye stuffs are to be used. twill tapes. ribs. The fabrics made by gassed yarns or gassed mercerised yarns have to be mercerised to strengthen the fabric and to get permanent shiny look and brightness. the dyeing charges for darker shades are higher than the lighter shades. To do the fabric mercerising. So it is advisable to knit the fabrics with the knitting machine not less than 26” diameter. we can get 15 to 20% reduction in dyeing charges.

we can adjust following things. Generally these Stenter machines are used for compacting woven fabrics. Charges for Open width compacting: Rs. the fabric is to be ironed to enable easy cutting. To get required GSM and finishing diameter. Charges for Open width Stendering: Rs.15 – 20 per kg. Also this will help the fabric to maintain its diameter. we will have to compact the fabric in open width form. 1. Shrinkage. we have to compact the fabrics with the latest compacting machines.50 to 2. glossy finish of fabric. We must be aware of this important fact. If we failed to take preliminary steps for GSM and diameter. If we try to achieve these 3 things together. When we calender the fabrics. With these compacting machines. nothing can be done.6 per kg. the fabrics will have wrinkles and creases. GSM. We can adjust either diameter or GSM or shrinkage. But all these 3 things can not be adjusted simultaneously. we can get the same good result for knit fabrics also. Some times. 3. These open width fabrics can be compacted by Open Width compacting machines or Stenter machines. As the shrinkage and GSM are important things. Charges for Tubular compacting: Rs.5 per kg. To remove these wrinkles. it will only remove wrinkles and will maintain the diameter. COMPACTING: Nowadays it is not enough to calender the fabrics. 2. Diameter. We can get better result from these compacting machines. HEAT SETTING: 24 .12 – 15 per kg. if we use this machine for only controlling shrinkage. we must take more and more care during yarn selection and knitting. From these machines.1. But it will not control the shrinkage or fabric weight (GSM). FINISHING & COMPACTING CALENDERING: After bleaching or dyeing or washing and after drying. Technically we call this ironing method as Calendering. There are no facilities in calendering machines. we will be in trouble in the end while finishing the fabrics. STENTERING: The compacting machines are used to compact the knit fabrics in tubular form.24 The washing charge is normally Rs. This is done with steam pressure to get smooth. Steam calendering charge: Rs.50 / kg.

the fabric is to be raised by a suitable machine. it is better to do heat set in open width form. Acrylic. If the stroke of the printer differs. Especially.25 The 100% Cotton fabrics are normally very soft. So generally the blended fabrics and synthetic fabrics are finished in open width form only. Charges for one side raising: Rs. fleece. 3.10 per kg. these blended fabrics has to be Heat Set. Charges for Heat set: Rs. as cotton is the natural fiber. These fabrics can not be used with these stiffness and hardness. Printing is done one colour by one colour. 25 . Fabrics are spread on long tables and printed manually with screens. require to be raised to get softer hand feel or to get rich look. Polyamide (Nylon). Up to 10 colour designs can be printed simultaneously. Loop knit (French rib). Viscose. Heat set can be done both in open width and tubular form. the fabric will be very stiff and hard. They are as follows. Quick and time saving.25 – 30 per kg. The raising is to be done to the same direction of the fabric. 1. Consistent printing colours and quality. But if the fabric is made or blended with synthetic or artificial fibers like Polyester. the heat set process is a must. We can print the second colour. it will take more time for multi colour printing. the heavy fabrics made for winter seasons. Though it is little expensive than manual table printing. Hence nowadays Rotary machines are used for all over printing. Hence to get softer hand feel and flexibility. Elastan (Spandex). PRINTING There are two different prints. They are all over prints and chest prints. we have many advantages in rotary printing. the raising effect will not be good and it will damage the fabric structure. ALL OVER PRINTS: All over prints can be made both manually (table prints) and by machines. If the fabric is raised in the opposite direction of fabric. 4. only after drying the 1st colour. etc. But for the blended fabrics. As the fabric has to dry after printing of each colour. 2. As 100% Cotton fabrics don’t need this heat set process. FABRIC RAISING OR BRUSHING: Some fabrics need to be raised on one side or both sides. the print quality will differ. After dyeing and after drying. they can be used for cutting in tubular form itself. Perfect registration (placement). But to get better result. The print quality depends on the printer’s stroke. and flat back rib fabrics are usually raised. Hence the application of colours will not be even and consistent. Also the registration (placement) of all colours will not be perfect.

seating and registration. Softener should not be added in dyeing. There are some machines available to print with 90cms screen width.26 5. After printing. when we print on rotary printing in tubular form. 3. it means the fabric does not have softener. if the fabric absorbs the water.1cms. These machines are very rare in use. Pigment dyes (inks) are used. the first side printing will be in lighter shades. The films and screens are to be made with great care to get perfect accuracy. Required printing colours are mixed with the turpentine base which is a petroleum product. Less wastage. Pigment prints. Hence the repeat of print will be 64. If the softener is added.1cms. more care to be taken while making films. Rotary screens are in tubular form. Grey fabric to be bleached or light colour dyed. The diameter of the screen is 64. BLD (Bright Light Duplicating) and engraving screens. 2. tubular screens are to be made for each colour. screens are also to be made accurately with more attention not showing the repeat joints in screens. Though the films are made with computer. Also before printing. Even though it will cost more. This will create major problem in garmenting. If the fabric does not absorb the water. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. the fabric will get completely dried. Due to this. Hence the fabric is to be completely dried before printing. So there will be difference between both sides in shades and registration. For this. we have to be sure that the fabric is dried completely. For printing in Rotary machines. 6. it means the fabric has softener. Due to the higher cost and scarcity of turpentine. Some times. This can be printed either in tubular form or in open width form. it should be removed from the fabric by washing the fabric again. Extra care to be taken for geometric designs like multi checks with inner designs. When we drop one or two drops of water on fabric. the print will be better than on the first side. 26 . kerosene is used as an alternate. we will have to make the films with the help of computers. So when we print the same fabric on the second side. We have to be sure that softener should not be added during dyeing or bleaching. Procedure to print in tubular form: 1. If the fabric is even slightly wet. as the continuous process. the fabric will have shiny look (like waxing). Then the printing will look blurred. we can achieve perfection in printing. Immediate drying. PIGMENT PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is the regular print. Reactive prints and Discharge prints can be printed with Rotary machines. 4. If the fabric has softener. the fixing of printing on fabric will be affected. To avoid visibility of the repeat joint after printing.

7. 4. Procedures are the same for tubular print and open width print. Advantages: 1. Hence it is preferable to print in open width form to avoid shade variation between sides. 6. 2. As the petroleum product (turpentine or kerosene) is used as the base. Also due to the double job. water 27 . Can be printed in tubular form and open width form. Less process after printing. This wash will help for better fixation of colours. Fabric is printed according to the designs and colours of each screen.27 5. 3. If the print has more than 20% print coverage or printed with dark colours. But some print designs may lose its shape after compacting. If we need softer hand feel after printing. the printed fabric can be enzyme washed. Hence after printing on both sides. we will get shade variation of printing colours between both sides. Will have lesser colour fastness especially in rubbing and sun light. the fabric should be cured to remove the smell from the fabric. Cheaper cost. The fabric washing will help to avoid these problems and to retain the print designs. As the continuous process. after the print. Also the printed fabric will have slightly rough hand feel. Selection or mixing colours are easier. 7. Then. 5. 8. Rough hand feel. Print shades can be checked and corrected during printing. the charges will be little higher than open width printing. 6. a square design may change into a rectangle. Print smell. the fabric will have the smell of this base fluid. etc. Printing colours will be the same before and after printing. As an alternative for this. 9. better shrinkage and better colour fastness. Risk factors: 1. a round design may change into an oval shape. Then the printed fabric will come out in thoroughly dried form. to minimise the fabric wastage and to minimise the printing charges. the fabric is to be washed after curing. avoid smell. Water base prints: As turpentine or kerosene is used as the base fluid. the fabric will smell after printing. the fabric is to be compacted to control shrinkage and to remove wrinkles and creases. So totally at least 4” width of fabric will be wasted. For example. Any shade is possible. 3. 2. the printed fabric will go through the drier machine. Print in open width form: If we print the fabric in tubular form. Also at least 1” fabric on each edge of each printed side will be wasted due to the merging of printing inks. as the normal procedure. Then the fabric is to be rolled on the other side and the other side is to be printed.

But this is very expensive and very rarely used. One bit of this printed fabric is to be tested with hot silicate to see the final shades. Accordingly the dyes can be fixed or altered for bulk printing. but after printing we will get entirely new shade. it is better to print in open width form only. it is better to wash the fabric in rivers. Water base colours are to be used as printing inks. For this. 6. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Then the fabric is to be washed and rinsed in running water. Printing charges are almost the same as pigment prints. It is called Third page image. But this kind of water print is very rarely used. Before bulk printing. 2. Shade masters will prepare one shade. All over prints (Pigment print) charges per kg in Rs. As the print dyes will penetrate into the fabric. 28 . there is another way of using natural substances for dyeing and printing. the print dusts will stick to the fabric again. 8.: Table printing (manual printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 25 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 45 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 20 – 30 30 to 50% print coverage: 30 – 50 50 to 70% print coverage: 50 – 60 70 to 80% print coverage: 60 – 70 80 to 95% print coverage: 70 – 80 Printed fabric washing with slight enzyme: 8 – 10 Printed fabric washing with heavy enzyme: 10 – 12 REACTIVE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is a special kind of print. It is called River Wash.28 is used in place of turpentine or kerosene. small length of fabric is to be printed for checking the shades. because of dull look and blurred print effect. Hence the fabric has to be washed in running water. Reactive dyes to be used. To avoid this. Organic dyeing & printing: As the dyes and chemicals are synthetic. 3. This is called water base prints. To remove the print dusts. 5. 4. there may be print impression on third page of fabric. Grey fabric is to be bleached or light colour dyed. (We have to remember that Reactive dyes are used for fabric dyeing also). They are called organic dyes. If the fabric is washed in winches or tubs. Hence it needs very good knowledge and experience for getting the required shades. this wash is essential. The preparation of printing colours is not easier. They are made mainly from the vegetables. 7. Printed fabric is to be kept under silicate storage for 10 – 12 hours. As the water should not be recycled. Procedures: 1.

29 . Prints will be so rough when touching the printed area. 2. Advantages: 1. Brightness of colours even after many washes. Risk factors: 1. Softener should not be added in dyeing. Best colour fastness. as Gadi contains azo dyestuffs. Longer life for prints.: Rotary printing: 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 70 to 80% print coverage: 90 – 100 80 to 95% print coverage: 100 – 120 DISCHARGE PRINTING (BY ROTARY MACHINE): This is also a special kind of print. It is better to avoid this). 2. Fabric is dyed with discharge dyes ONLY. we can use pigment printing. Very difficult to get all the required shades exactly. We have to remember that not all the dyes have discharging qualities. if the printing colours are darker than the base colour. we can’t find difference between the printed and unprinted areas. Print will vanish even by rubbing or washing. we can easily use Pigment printing. 4. it is not used widely. But this will not have better fastness. Hence it is essentially important that the fabric is to be dyed with Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes). if we have to print White colour or very light colour on dark base. 4. Discharge dyes (Remazol dyes) are to be used. Very soft hand feel. Procedures: 1. By touch. Gadi is added with the printing colour to stick on the fabric.29 9. 2. Too many important processes to be followed. It means. If we have to print dark colours on White or Light colour back ground. Then fabric is to be dried. 3. 5. (In some cases. All over prints (Reactive print) charges per kg in Rs. But if we have to print light colours on Dark colour base. in pigment printing. Very expensive. Importantly. we have to use Discharge printing. For this. Only discharge dyes are having discharging qualities. Too much care to be taken in every process.

Expensive print cost. the fabric is to be slit opened compulsorily before printing. the fabric is to be stored in silicate storage for 10 -12 hours for fixation of colours. it is better to dye and print in one factory itself. Printing to be done with discharge dyes. Only possible best way to print on dark colour base. the same procedure to be followed to get the White colour. It is called Third page image. To avoid this. Better colour fastness. If White is one of the printing colours. That is. the printing shades will not be visible (like Reactive printing). 4.30 3. 5. Then after discharge printing. Offwhite colour will be visible as printed. Long lasting print quality. No river wash is needed. Fabrics must be absolutely dry before printing. 3. As the print dyes will discharge the dyed portions and penetrate into the fabric. These costs 30 . the base colour White will be visible as printed. after the removal of dyeing colour. 4. Accordingly let us see the printing cost including dyeing cost. Then they will let the required colours to be fixed in the same places. Some tips: If the printing colour is only White. These two things will take place at one time simultaneously due to the special quality of discharge dyes. 5. This is very important as during printing. the printing dyes will first remove the dyed portions where the print is needed. there will be print impression on third page of fabric. the fabric is to be half bleached before dyeing. All over prints (Discharge dyeing + Discharge print) charges per kg in Rs. After printing is completed. 6. So much care to be taken before printing in selecting suitable colours. 7. 3. Therefore. and Navy. the fabric to be printed only in open width form. All colour shades can not be achieved. Can get better print quality only on some base colours like Black. Green. If the printing colour is only Offwhite. 5. Advantages: 1. 8. the fabric is to be washed – Normal washing. When printing. After printing. Red. Can be printed manually too.: As we see. Then after discharge printing. after the removal of dyeing colour. Better soft hand feel. the printing dyes to be checked whether the required colour shades are achieved. All the pre-processes and post-processes to be done with much care. 2. the fabric is to be peroxide bleached before dyeing. 4. Before bulk printing. 2. Risk factors: 1. the fabric is to be discharge dyed.

4. But nowadays the Semi-automatic machines are used widely. we can get better quality prints at cheaper cost. Perfect placement and registration. The printing cost is generally based on the number of colours. Sticker prints. 7.1 lakh). Manual printing (table printing) charges: Only pigment prints should be printed by manually. There are different quality chest prints namely Pigment prints. 31 .31 will differ according to the dyeing shades. Non-PVC prints. Less wastage. Table printing (winch dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 60 – 70 30 to 50% print coverage: 70 – 80 50 to 70% print coverage: 80 – 90 Rotary printing (dyeing + printing): 20 to 30% print coverage: 90 – 100 30 to 50% print coverage: 100 – 120 50 to 70% print coverage: 120 – 140 70 to 80% print coverage: 140 – 160 CHEST PRINTS: Chest prints can be printed both manually and with machines. Hence the printing cost will also be higher. 1. They are as follows. 9. print area and coverage. Nowadays only the machine prints are used. Hence the below costs are to give you a rough idea only. No stain in unprinted areas. 2. Glitter prints. Better smoothness and sharpness.40 lakhs). Motif prints. 3. Quick production. Foam prints. Chest printing charges: Chest prints can be printed both in garment form and bit form depending on the print design and area. Water prints. Octopus machine will print automatically. Longer life for prints. But prints will have the best quality. Like all over printing on rotary machines. Other one is Semi-automatic machine. Perfect colours and shades. Multi colour facilities (10 colours at a time). 5. This machine is very costly (about Rs. 6. Flock prints. 8. Reflective prints. Perfume prints. Foil prints. Transfer prints. There are 2 types of machines. printing spot prints on chest printing machines too have many advantages. These machines are made locally at cheaper prices (about Rs. number of colours. One is called Octopus automatic machine (MHM). Better colour fastness. etc. Embossed prints. No smell. Plastisol prints. Sugar prints. etc. With these machines.

foam. After the manual printing. The cost of curing is approximately Rs. etc. Procedures: 1. After plastisol print. etc. SPECIAL PROCESSES There are some other special processes like Tie & Dye. Here we will see the print cost for normal print namely Plastisol print. 10% of cost per colour is to be added with the above costs. Garment Dyeing (Garment wash). It does not matter. 8 to 10 colours can be printed with machines. Reactive dyes or Discharge dyes can be used. TIE & DYE: This process can be done manually only. flock.32 Up to 2 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 2 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 4 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 6 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 8 per pc For more than 2 colours. Up to 3 colours: up to 5cm x 5cm: 3 per pc up to 10cm x 10cm: 5 per pc up to 15cm x 15cm: 7 per pc up to 20cm x 20cm: 10 per pc For above 3 colours. the fabric or garment is not needed to be cured. the printed fabric or garment is to be cured to remove the print smell. It is better to use Discharge dyes. whether the garment or the fabric bits are having softener or not. 32 .5 per kg. 10% of charge per colour can be added with above charges. The garment or fabric bits can be with softener finish. Only 100%Cotton fabrics can be tie & dyed manually (in India). foil. Machine printing (Plastisol inks) charges: The printing cost also depends on the print quality like plastisol. it is better to check with the printers. glitters. It can be done in garment form or bit form according to the design and style. But the printed part is to be fused to have better fixing and colour fastness. as there will be no print smell. Batiks. This tie & dye process will give special dyeing effect. Print quality will not be affected and will be the same. To get the cost of other special quality prints. Fusing cost is included in the above costs. It is advisable to print maximum 4 colours by manually. sugar.

And so on. the steam lines are to be carefully found out. the garment to be made in bleached fabric. by taking note of all the details. It will take few minutes only. The fabric is to be Peroxide bleached for better result. as the designs will be slightly confusing due to symmetrical effect. If the fixing agent is added during these above processes. Then the garments or bits to be tied again for the next colour(s) and to be dipped in the next colour(s) and to be dried under shades. the garments or bits to be fixed with fixing agent. If the embroidery colour is not DTM. the fixing agent is not added with the colour dyes. 9. 17. After the completion of dipping of all required colours and after the garments or bits dried after the final colours. the result will not be good). now the garments or bits can be dried with machines too. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk tie &dye. It may be stripes or any other design. 8. 13. Fabrics for body. the garment or bit to be dyed to the required base colour. it is better to dry them in shadows). they will not get dyed. 20. We have to remember that so far. Before cutting the bits for garments. Then the ties are removed and the garments or bits to be dried under shades. only 100%Cotton threads to be used for stitching. 19. the fabric bit is to be cut with shrinkage allowance and cutting allowance in lengthwise and widthwise. Then only the embroidery threads will be dyed suitably. Important thing is that the garment to be stitched with 100%Cotton Grey thread only. As Polyester thread will not get dyed. When we cut the fabrics either for making garment or for bit form. sleeves. 15. Garments or bits are tightly tied with ropes according to the required design. And to be dried under shades naturally. If we do tie & dye in garment form. If we do tie & dye in bit form. Then the tied portions or untied portions will be dipped into the required colour dyes. shrinkage and shape of garment. (If it is Chlorine bleached. As the garment will shrink during tie & dye. the embroidery can be made with normal embroidery threads. this has to be followed compulsorily for Tie & Dye. 14. 10. 33 . As the fixing agent is fixed now. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. After the tie & dye process. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. the colours are fixed in the garments and fabric bits. If we use normal embroidery threads. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. 16. 6. But to get better result. 7. (In case of emergency. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. the bleached fabric is to be compacted well before making the garment.33 2. Then the garments or bits are to be dried under shadows. 18. 3. essentially for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after tie & dye. shrinkage and shape. 5. This is the dyeing process. The dipping will be done manually. neck rib and other accessories to be dyed simultaneously according to the requirement. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). 11. nothing can be done about measurements. 4. 12. If there is any other base colour except White. the other colours will not fix properly.

cutting. the charge may be Rs.. As all the processes are done manually. The procedures are the same as for tie & dye.34 Advantages: 1. This is also called Wax printing. the charges will be based on number of colours. 4. For larger quantities. As it is done manually. Hence after removing the waxes. Better colour fastness. The print designs made by wax are stuck to the fabrics and over dyed.. churidars. length and width of the bits. 4.70 to 80 per Kg either fabric form or garment form. 70cm length x 60cm width (tubular) bit. depending on the design. Enormous designs can be made. More and more care to be taken at all stages – starting from knitting. The charge of making wax designs will cost more. due to different dyes. 5. will be made by wax. processing. GARMENT DYEING: This is one of the expensive and special processes. The fabric beneath the wax designs will not get dyed. methods. bed spreads and lungies. we will get different qualities and results. curtain cloths. can be made at affordable prices. 2. garmenting. Risk factors: 1. Approximate Tie & dye charges per kg in Rs. many dyeing factories to be engaged accordingly. Very attractive and suitable for high fashions. etc. for 2 colours. No alternative can be made in rainy seasons. GSM. etc. The prices for batiks are almost same as Tie & Dye charges. This is like printing. During and after the process.: If it is to be tie & dyed in bit form. 2. 3. Approximate charge for 2 colours may be around Rs. Approximately. mainly it is used for Woven fabrics. The printing designs like stars. 34 . BATIKS: This is also done manually. Much time consuming process – especially due to natural drying. the fabrics can be dried only naturally. This is almost like tie & dye. Though it is being done for woven and knitted fabrics. flowers. Mostly used for sarees. 3. By this. there will be less consistency of designs and quality. Drying by machines is not possible.18 to 20. the fabric will look like the designs are printed. Shipments may be delayed if we don’t plan properly expecting the natural problems. etc.

nothing can be done with the garments for measurements. Hence the garments should be washed very carefully according to the required effect. Stone wash. 12. this has to be followed compulsorily for garment dye. After the garment dyeing. 4. garment dyeing method is followed. shoulder seam. even though we have taken more care. For example. They have to be followed carefully to avoid problems in measurements. the substances are to be used. there may be shade variations between these parts. Though this is the regular procedure for all garments. 8. cuff. placket box. they will be cut as per the patterns to make the garments. side slits and pockets. 2. sleeves. 11. 3. 5. There will be 35 . When we cut the fabrics for making garment. collar. Acid wash 3. the embroidery should be done with 100%Cotton thread only. cuffs. essentially for for keeping better dimensional stability of garments after garment dye. Then body. the stitched areas will get the washed or the faded effect.mainly at neck seam around collar. The garments. Washing methods and timings to be noted well and to be followed carefully. 2. This effect will be more in some places where many fabrics are attached together . 1. Fabric for body. 9. Garments should be stitched with 100%Cotton threads only. If there is embroidery to be made in DTM colours (Dye To Match). Since many parts are attached. cuffs. the fabric is to be cut in Wales (vertical) direction perfectly. If the garment is processed more than enough. Faded wash. shrinkage and shape. the washing method and washing effect are to be checked and confirmed. 7. The garments to be made from these scoured fabrics. To avoid this and to have special washed effects on the garments. 10. Procedures: 1. Each vessel (soft flow dyeing machine) will have different capacities. All these fabrics and accessories to be scoured (half bleached) together. are called Lot. sleeve. rope. By these sample garments dyeing (pre-bulk dyeing). the garment will get damaged in some areas mainly at neck seam around collar. 6. The garments are dyed in soft flow machines with Pigment dyes. by taking note of all the details. dyed from one machine at one time. shoulder seam. Also the garment may have more shrinkage to washing. side slits and pockets. Hence some sample garments to be tested before bulk garment dyeing. (Depending on the required effect. placket box. Enzyme wash 4. 14. shrinkage and shape. neck rib. for stone washed effect.35 We had seen that the fabrics are dyed by winches and closed winches (soft flow machines). Denim (Jeans) wash. cuffs are attached together. collars. etc. As the garments are dyed in vessels. 13. Recipes of approved lab dips to be followed exactly. to be made from the same mill yarn and from the same yarn lot. etc.. Buttons and button holes are to be made with the same 100%Cotton threads only. 5. After the fabrics are dyed. some special pebbles are used during washing to get stone washed effect). By this garment dyeing following special effects can be achieved.

3. knit fabrics will get more damages and holes by acoba embroidery. Hence average cost of garments will be increased. cuffs. Some piece of same fabric or contrast fabric is to be attached with the garment and embroidery to be made on or around this fabric cutting.: Scouring: 30 Light and medium shades dyeing: 80 – 100 Dark shades dyeing: 100 – 130 EMBROIDERY Embroidery can be made by manually and by computerised machines. Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery): With the above said embroidery machines. In these special acoba embroidery machines. Because of its own quality nature. the best results can be achieved in woven fabrics. size of the embroidered area is restricted to some extent. Applique: This is made as decorative embroidery. rejections of garments will be high. there will not be any shrinkage further. Much more care to be taken in all stages to avoid rejections and problems. Different qualities of washes are possible. collar. it is expensive. Due to the special effects and quality. all over embroidery can be made. As all the machines are fully computerised with most advanced technologies. Risk factors: 1. (Like the fabric is printed in rotary printing machines). Washed look can be achieved. nowadays embroidery is being done with the best finishing and consistent quality. 2. 4. As the shrinkage is controlled completely. This will vary from machines to machines. This is important to avoid shade and effect variation between garments in one carton. Though acoba embroidery can be made on woven and knitted fabrics. Other types of embroidery are Applique and Acoba embroidery (all over embroidery). 5. It is not possible to get the exact shades 100%. Shade variation between lots can not be avoided fully. etc. sleeves. 36 . some other special machines to be used. 4. Approximate garment dyeing charges per kg in Rs. 3.36 difference in shades and washing effect between lots. Hence quantity of garments to be divided into lots according to the packing method. There will not be any shade variation between body. With these machines it is possible to make any complicated design even in 9 colours. Advantages: 1. But to make the embroidery all over the fabric. Due to the damages in garments. 2.

The prices of accessories are based on the quantity and quality. etc. It is better to check the current prices with the suppliers. Embroidery charges: Embroidery cost based on the number of stitches. though the number of stitches is lesser. etc in addition to the number of stitches. Elastics. etc. Hence let us see approximate prices of them as below. Tissue papers.50 to 70 per gross. Applique embroidery cost is based on the fabric cutting cost. Cost of Zippers: No5 (5mm width) Nylon 7” length: Rs. Metal buttons. Hang tags. qualities. specifications. quantity. wooden buttons – Varies as per design.5 zippers are used. But the minimum cost is around 2. Lock quality is to be checked. Due to competition. nowadays the embroidery cost has come down as around Re. Mostly the auto lock zippers are used.3 zippers are used. No. ACCESSORIES Buttons.8 to 10 per gross (12 dozens). Packing pins. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 7” length: Rs. number of colours and sizes of embroidery. Ropes. for making costing.15 to 40 per gross.40 to 60 per gross. Cost of No. (Imitation) Horn buttons: Rs. Anyhow.1.22 – 24 per zip. fixing cost. Twill tapes. In these auto lock zippers.24 per zip. It can 37 . Even if the tapes are pulled.10 to 15 per gross. Special designs of shirt buttons: Rs. curtain cloths. designer’s fabrics. Labels. number of colours and sizes of embroidery.37 Acoba embroidery is commonly made in sarees.7 per zip. if we leave the puller when the zipper is halfway opened. Polybags. So it is difficult to discuss here about their prices in details. Also each accessory has many dimensions. No5 Nylon 24” length: Rs. decorative fabrics. For children garments. blouses.5 zippers. Inner cartons and Outer cartons are called accessories. Zippers. Inner boards. Cost of Buttons: Ordinary design of shirt buttons (chalk): Rs.5 – 7 per zip.00 per 1000 stitches.3 zippers is lesser than No. For adult garments. etc. Shirt buttons with embossed letters (inside design): Rs. No. we must have a basic knowledge about the costs. Badges. the zipper will be locked by the auto lock. No5 Metal (brass or antique brass) 24” length: Rs.50 per garment. the zipper can not be opened. Shirt buttons with engraved letters (inside design): Rs.

3. Cost of Elastics: Elastics are made with Nylon and Polyester yarns. Hence polyester elastics are used mostly.5cm to 2cm width: Around Rs. There are 2 types of woven labels. 10mm. 2cm.5cm to 3cm width: Around Rs. From 4mm to 6mm width: Around Rs. Cost of Badges: Badges attached to the garments either by stitching or fixing with paste. 3cm and 4cm elastics are used for waist of undergarments and outer garments.1. size labels. From 8mm to 10mm width: Around Rs.30 to 40 per kg. quality and quantity. Prices of named elastics are more expensive than plain elastics.00 per metre. Nylon elastics are costlier than Polyester elastics. Badges are in many types. Elastics with the width of 4mm. It depends on the design. As these badges are very special. The above prices are for the zippers with normal pullers. These labels are made in woven or polyester printed. From 3. It is approximately Rs. This is single 38 . width.38 be further opened or closed only by pulling the pullers. etc. Woven labels are made in computerised automatic looms to get better quality and clarity. wash care labels.50 per metre.5mm to 4cm width: Around Rs. etc are used for legs of undergarments. From 1. It may be a big woven label or printed woven cloth or engraved leather or plastic or PVC sticker or reflective plastic. In these labels. 6mm. Hence here we will see only the weaving charge for twill tapes & ropes. flag labels and badge labels or patch labels. Most of the badges are attached by stitches only.50 per metre. Elastics with 1cm. Cost of Labels: There are main labels. There are plain elastics and named elastics. Yarn price to be added with this charge. Cost of Twill tapes & ropes: Though readymade twill tapes are available in the markets. Hence the labels made with these machines are costlier. For the special pullers. 8mm. From 2.5cm. 2. One is Taffeta and the other is Damask. The prices are based on quality. it is better to check the prices with the suppliers.75 per metre.50 per metre. number of colours.0. you can see the unevenness of yarns on the backside. it is better to make the twill tapes and ropes with the same yarn which is used for the body fabrics to avoid shade variations after dyeing. These auto lock zippers are used because they are very safe.1. the prices will be different.2. thickness. 12mm. Taffeta labels are woven on single side of labels.

the price may be Rs. Single colour and multi colours are printed on polyester or satin tapes.60 to Rs.0.0. But it is always better and safer to print in automatic offset printing machines and to cut in diecutting machines to get better finish and high look. Damask labels are woven on both sides. prices. The woven labels are to be checked with hot water for colour fastness. etc.10 Wash care label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. composition.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. single side or both sides printing.0. Cost of Hang tags: To mention brands.15 per label. If the tag is in normal size with normal print without die cut. cutting and presentation of these hangtags are to be importantly better. printing design. Damask labels are costlier than Taffeta.0. if printing and cutting are made manually. 39 . Woven labels: Main label (2.0. For undergarments these printed labels are used for mentioning size.0.40 Main label (4cm width x 10cm length): Rs. This is double weave. If there is anything special. This is an important thing. care instructions.0. you can see the evenly woven yarns on the back side also.00 to Rs.39 weave. Single colour (1. Hence before using the printed labels.10 Flag label (3cm width x 4cm length): Rs.0. colours. colour fastness of printing inks to be checked with hot water. it is safer to check them too. style.0. The printing inks may have poor colour fastness. There are non-computerised looms are also available. Though it is not generally necessary for woven labels.10 per label.25” width x 10cm length): Rs. tags are used and attached with the garments.50 per tag. composition.30 to Rs. design. sizes. If the yarn colour bleeds.80 per tag. number of colours.80 Size label (1cm width x 3cm length): Rs. the price may be Rs.12 Printed labels are used for wash care labels.1. Mostly these machines are used to make woven wash care labels. size labels and main labels with cheaper quality at cheaper prices.0. 2 or 3 colours (1” width x 10cm length): Rs.40 Badge (patch) label (1cm width x 4cm length): Rs.30 to Rs.0. Hence the quality. Printed labels: Single colour (1” width x 10cm length): Rs. Though these tags are removed from the garments by the end users. it is used for attraction and for giving special appearance for the packed garments. In these labels.08 per label. colours. measurement.40 to Rs. etc. The tags can be made at cheaper prices.0. With these machines also woven labels are made.1. die-cut design and quantity. Satin tapes are little costlier than polyester tapes. it may spread and spoil the look of labels and garments after washing.0. The price depends on quality & thickness of the board.0.

etc. Cost of Inner board: Price depends on sizes. Cost of Tissue paper: If it is plain tissue paper: Rs. the cost of tape will be added to the above prices at the rate of Rs. If it is a printed tissue paper: Rs. Price depends on thickness (Gauge).30 to Rs.50 to Rs. The prices can be fixed either on weight (kg) or quantity.0.50 each paper. each paper. quality.30 to Rs.0.0.65. Due to this. PP bags have bright look.40 per bag. quantity. it may not be recyclable. The cost of pin + thread may be around Rs. Cost of Polybags: Normally 2 qualities of polybags are used. special quality with die cut: Rs. the tape cost will be Rs.0. normal quality: Rs.00.0. prints.02 for one inch length. PE polybags look dull and will not have shiny look. the price may be around Rs. For special sizes. 40 .0.60 to Rs. most of the customers insisting to use PE only.0.55.10 to Rs. Price of each polybag is fixed with the number of polybags per kilogram. If the polybag is very thin.0. As PE polybags are recyclable.4.0.30 to Rs.25 to Rs. depends on paper quality.00 per tag.00 per board. For normal size.0. Hence the thickness (gauge) is to be checked and confirmed according to the specifications prescribed by the customers and Government statutory bodies. If the polybag is required with heat sealed tape. If the width of polybag is 12”. Another is PE (Polyethylene).50 depending on the quality of pin & thread. PE Polybags: The prices of PE bags are approximately 10% higher than the prices of PP bags. With size printed on front and care instructions printed on back (normal measurement): Rs. PE polybags are little costlier than PP bags. measurements.0.00 to Rs. nowadays. We have to remember that we may need to insert more than one tissue paper per garment. the rejection of polybags will be more. PP polybags: Approximate cost of polybag per kg: Rs.80 per bag. The PE polybags will have less strength in sealing (side joints) comparing with PP bags.1. The cost of a normal polybag without print may be Rs. depends on quality of paper & print.40 If any photo is to be scanned & printed and if the quantity is lesser than 1000 nos. Cost of safety pins and threads: Some times the hang tags are to be attached to labels with safety pins. One is PP (Polypropylene).0.50 per board.24 per bag. die cut (scoring) and quantity.

1.25 will be the master bag cost per garment.5. depends on the packing size & volume of the packed garments. satin padded hangers and coated aluminium hangers. 120GSM or 150GSM papers are used. One master bag cost may be approximately Rs. These sizers are available in different styles according to the hanger designs. Also the cartons must be strong enough for the safety of garments packed inside.0. etc. Inner Cartons: The inner cartons can be in lesser ply and in lesser GSM paper. sizes suitable for different garment styles.00 depends on the measurements and gauges. etc. sizes. plastic hangers. Hence approximately Rs. Normally 7 ply or 9 ply cartons with 100GSM. Cost of Hangers & Sizers: There are many qualities of hangers like wooden hangers. Approximately 12 or 24 garments can be packed in one master bag. The sizers are to be attached with the hangers to show the sizes of the garments.15.00 per inner carton (for 12 garments). Hence the cost of inner carton will be approximately Rs. Approximate cost of a carton is around Rs.1. styles. design.00 to Rs.20. Also the hooks are in different types.25. The price of one plastic hanger of 17” with one sizer will be Rs.4. The strength of cartons based on number of plies and paper thickness (GSM). Also the outer cartons must be sea worthy to avoid the damages due to salty wind during transit by sea.00 to Rs. The hangers are in different types. Outer Cartons: It is important that the outer cartons to be made in Virgin paper which means the paper should be used for the first time. Some buyers use the hangers with their brand name engraved or embossed or printed or stuck on the hangers. Some buyers will nominate their hanger suppliers and these buyers will ask us to buy the hangers only from these suppliers.00 approximately.60 per garment. Thus cost per garment will be around Rs.00 to Rs.40.1.00 to pack 24 to 50garments. So the cost of inner cartons will be lesser. 41 . But generally the buyers ask their suppliers to use the plastic hangers only. For 3 ply cartons to pack 12 garments.25. Cost of Cartons: Cartons are used as Inner carton and Outer carton.3. Recycled papers should not be used.5. quantity.41 Cost of master polybag (blister): The master polybags should have more thickness so that many garments can be packed inside. the cost will be Rs.25 to Rs. The prices of hangers and sizers are based on the style.00 to Rs.

it is inclusive of the cost of sewing thread.18 per pc. Due to this and due to higher wages for the operators. The operators of these machines should have more experience and knowledge.Over lock machines. nowadays. only the power driven machines are used. Lock stitches are used for making plackets. Men’s Basic T shirts – long sleeves: Rs. Here let us see the CMT charges as if the garmenting is done in the exporting factory itself. Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – short sleeves: Rs. When comparing with the other machines (over lock & flat lock).12 per pc. The export factories will supply the required fabrics. 42 .42 CMT CHARGES (Cutting. number of jobs with over lock. the charges for these jobs are very much higher. V neck covering. and attaching collars & labels. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the edges and for covering the stitches around armholes and shoulders.12 per pc. . local transport. Making and Trimming charges. productivity.20 per pc. The productivity with these over lock machines is very high. Hence the charges for these jobs are considerably lesser. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – long sleeves: Rs.Lockstitch machines. Men’s Basic T shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Though CMT is Cutting. quality standards. Making.20 per pc.14 per pc. time consumption. the productivity from these lock stitch machines are very lesser. For making knitted garments following machines are mainly used. Some factories will do only CMT jobs. etc. Here let us see approximate CMT charges for the basic garments. . Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. There are manual and power driven machines are used. Due to the higher cost of these machines and due to the higher wages for the operators and due to the lesser productivity. Trimming) This is the main job in garmenting.10 per pc.Flat lock machines. charges of button attachment & button holes and other attachments. CMT charge depends on the style of garment. the charges for these jobs are higher. pockets. packing methods and other works. trims and accessories to these Job workers. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – long sleeves: Rs. flat lock & lock stitch machines. . These factories will add about 25% of the actual charges as their profit. Because of the better perfection and faster production comparing with manual machines. Men’s Solid Polo shirts – short sleeves: Rs. Men’s T shirts – Printed or Yarn striped – short sleeves: Rs.

If there are any extra works.10 per pc. Ladies Basic Tops with collar – short sleeves: Rs. Shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. It is the same as FOB. the delivery terms are to be confirmed. rail transport. EXW (Ex Works): It is the same as Ex-Factory.13 per pc.12 per pc. FCA. etc. etc. Ladies Basic Tops without collar – short sleeves: Rs. Boxer shorts with 2 side pockets: Rs. it will be claimed by the buyer. FOB: It is the abbreviation of Free On Board. Long pyjamas with 2 side pockets: Rs. Insurance and Freight. CPT. It means freight will be paid by the buyer. CIF: It is Cost. It means the price is inclusive of the cost and the freight. CFR. FAS. These above charges are approximate.43 Men’s Polo shirts – Printed or Yarn stripes – long sleeves: Rs.22 per pc. If it is C&F By sea. Ex-Factory: This term is used only for domestic (inland) business. It means the price is inclusive of the cost. insurance premium and the freight. C&F. SHIPPING Shipping means the transportation of goods. it means the price is inclusive of the cost and sea freight. FAS (Free Alongside Ship): 43 . it means the price is inclusive of the cost and air freight. C&F: It is the short form of Cost and Freight. EXW. the charges to be added accordingly. If it is C&F By may be road or rail transport.10 per pc. Delivery terms: There are many delivery terms like FOB.15 per pc. CIF. FCA (Free Carrier): It is the same as FOB. The goods to be insured to 110% (generally) of the value of the goods and if any damage or theft or loss. While we confirm the orders from the customers. Ladies Basic Night dresses – short sleeves: Rs. air transport.10 to Rs.12 to Rs. Ex-factory. It includes local road transport.12 per pc. It means the buyer will pay the freight . sea transport.8 per pc. CIP. Boxer shorts without pockets: Rs.

Charges of stuffing the goods into container. 40’ container: 46 cubic metres. CIF terms are used. the charges of road or rail transport to be added with the cost of garment. There are 20’. The goods are stuffed in to containers and stowed in to the ships. it is called FCL. we have to remember that it is the total expenses of following. If the volume is suitable to fit into one full container (20’ or 40’ or Hi-cube). If we have doubt about the terms. Hi-cube container: 60 cubic metres. 6. 44 . Charges of freight. In case of local supply on C&F or CIF terms. There are 2 types of loading. the size of container is to be decided.44 It is the same as FOB. Some buyers will use different names for the terms. 1. etc. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to): It is the same as CIF. the local transport and sea freight or air freight are to be added with the cost of the garment. In case of export to other countries. availability. 4. CPT (Carriage Paid To): It includes the Cost and Sea freight & Road transport up to the buyer’s final destination place. routing. Their approximate capacity is as follows. 40’ and Hi-cube containers available with different capacities. Customs charges – Documentation. We have to confirm any one of these delivery terms with the buyers when we quote prices. Service charges of clearing and forwarding agent. C&F. According to the volume of goods. 20’ container: 23 cubic metres. Local transport to the port. Port expenses – Loading. 3. inspection. CFR (Cost and Freight): It is the same as C&F. it is better to clarify with the buyer while discussing the prices. One is FCL (Full Container Load) and the other is LCL (Loose Container Load). Local transport either by road or rail to the customer’s destination can be checked locally according to the distance. SEA FREIGHT: When we talk about the freight charges. etc. unloading and overtime charges (if needed in case of urgency). 5. Mostly FOB. 2.

but with more weight – Like steel. The ship which carries the containers to the final destination port is called Mother Vessel. the containers are shifted (transshipped) to mother vessel. Transshipment: Some ports will not have more sea depth. Shipping lines: 45 . The sea freight is varied based on volume or weight. The transit time between Tuticorin port and Colombo port is only 8 hours. most of the mother vessels are routing through Colombo port. Hence the Mother Vessels can not enter into these ports. These small ships are called Feeder Vessels. For example. In this case. The balance volume of the container will be filled with other’s goods. It will differ according to the distance between destinations and to the sea route. But some goods (not garments) will have lesser volume. Routing & transit time: Transit time is the traveling time of the ship. This ship will be very big in size with larger loading capacity. This system is called transshipment. Volume or weight: Generally freight is considered by volumes. routing & transit time. distance between destinations. Though some ports have more sea depth. the small ships are used to take the containers to the nearest bigger Port where the big mother vessels are available. shipping lines and conference lines.may be stuffed in one full container. As this port is in the main sea route. Sometimes. etc. the mother vessels do not come to this port. And in Colombo port. This is also called transshipment. then the goods can be stuffed in to a container as a part load. Hence the feeder vessels are taking containers to Colombo port daily. Freight charges are based on these transshipment expenses too. The nearest port is Colombo.45 If the volume is lesser than the capacity of 20’ container. Colombo port is very big. Also the mother vessels may not be able to reach some destination ports. the Mother Vessel will not enter into these ports due to lesser port activities or taking more time to reach these ports. granite stones. as Tuticorin port is small. different goods from different suppliers – but for the same buyer . Thus the containers are being taken to Colombo port by feeder vessel. transshipment. It is called Loose Container Load. Hence the containers may be transshipped to some other vessel from any other port in between. Distance between destinations: It is the distance from the loading port to the discharge port (destination port). This is called Consolidation of Goods. To solve this problem. etc. the freight will be based on weight too.

000) (This charge is suitable only if the Colombo is the final destination port).94. etc.1. As we discussed above. Kuwait. their partner company will use their vessel.17. Hong Kong. The receipt of sea transport is called Bill of Lading – in short B/L. we will have more advantages like tracking the ships. safety. It means from the port of loading to the port of destination.54.1. if there are more than one shipping line involved in one shipment or if the shipping line does not have their office in our port.500) 40’ container: USD 2600 – 2700 (Approx: Rs.000 – Rs.36.99. then the Bill of Lading will be issued by the Shipping agent or Liner’s agent.58.76. Hence some buyers will insist to use conference lines only.500) 40’ container: USD 2200 (Approx: Rs. (We will discuss about this in detail later). AIR FREIGHT: It is the freight charges if the goods are shipped by air.500) 40’ container: USD 2100 (Approx: Rs.500) To Middle East ports like Dubai. If they don’t have their own vessel in a particular port area. These shipping companies operate their ships in the major ports around the world.90.500) To American ports: 20’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. Depending on the destination and on the flight services.90.63.46 The companies own the ships are called Shipping lines.000) 40’ container: USD 2000 (Approx: Rs. Bill of Lading (receipt) will be generally issued by the shipping lines.500) 40’ container: USD 800 (Approx: Rs.1.22.000) To Colombo port from Tuticorin port: 20’ container: USD 500 (Approx: Rs.000) To African ports: 20’ container: USD 1400 (Approx: Rs.000) 40’ container: USD 3200 (Approx: Rs.72.44. Some companies tie up their business with other shipping companies in some areas. the 46 . Japan. By using these Conference Lines. It means these companies will use only their own ships – for transshipments. The advantage of sending the goods by air is to save time. better connection in transshipments.000 – Rs. the goods will sail on one company’s ships.000) To European ports: 20’ container: USD 1600 – 1700 (Approx: Rs. China.21. Approximate sea freight from Indian ports inclusive of all charges: To Far East ports like Singapore. according to their capacities. Conference Lines: Some big shipping lines are called Conference Lines. This is a regular practice. etc: 20’ container: USD 1200 (Approx: Rs. Bangkok: 20’ container: USD 1300 (Approx: Rs. Taiwan.

47 goods can reach the buyer’s place within 2 to 5 days. If we have enough time and if we don’t have problem of this delay. loading & unloading. documentation charges. Bills of Lading and Airway bills will be issued accordingly. Only in case of the shipment is delayed or of urgent needs. mostly all the air shipments will have transshipment. then only the shipment will go by a single flight. the goods have to be sent by air. customs clearing charges. most of the shipments will go by sea only. At the same time. Some times.110 per kg. We can negotiate the charges with these smaller airlines. Hence the shipment will be delayed. (We will discuss about airway bill and air shipment in detail later). The air charges of the leading airlines are higher than small airlines. Multimodal transport: It is the combined transport of different modes of transport. In these cases. Master airway bill is issued by the Airlines. there is a chance of delaying due to poor connections of their flights. they will be prompt in their connections and timings. House airway bill is issued by the Airlines agent. Air shipment procedures are almost same like sea shipment. the Air freight charges are many times higher than sea freight. we have to bear the local transport to the port. There are Master Airway bill and House Airway bill. Some times by Sea + Air + Road. volume of goods. As the leading airlines will use only their flights. etc.2. The charges are calculated by the weight and volume. As the small airlines use the flights of other airlines. etc. If the goods to be air shipped from a major airport to a major airport where there are direct cargo flights available. we have to send the consignment by Sea + Air. 47 . Calculation of the charges: FOB terms: Though the delivery term is FOB. we can use smaller airlines. It will come about Rs. As like sea shipments. (It will take 15 to 30 days by sea depending on the destination).140 per kg. Approximate air charges from Indian air ports (inclusive of all charges): To European airports: Rs. So we can be sure of the prompt delivery.100 to Rs. stuffing charges. the forwarding agent will arrange all the connections and entire transports.80 to Rs.00 to Rs. The goods will be loaded into the planes in box form.1. But the air charges are lesser than leading airlines. As the freight charges are very high. The receipt is Airway Bill. To American and Canadian airports: Rs.00 per garment depending on the distance to the port.

processing. to be taken into consideration. Costing is the deciding factor of the prices and the important thing to be followed in all important stages like purchase. But here we will discuss about the procedures of making costing thoroughly.4. etc. etc. this charge is very nominal. distance between ports. GARMENT COSTING Now we have reached the very important stage which is ‘the costing’. methods and quality systems. While we do the garment costing. Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories. advantages and risk factors. finishing. The insurance premium is calculated at 0. etc. the charges will come about Rs. charges of knitting. shipping. Very good knowledge and experience is very much essential for doing successful marketing and sales. transport and conveyance.02% of the total value of goods.00 per garment depending on the volume of goods. Hence we must have update knowledge about the latest prices and charges. is essential to make perfect costing. production.6.00 to Rs. etc. procedures. Also we manufacture the garments not only for one customer. We do not manufacture only one quality of garments. transportation (road. marketing. We manufacture different garments to different customers who expect different qualities of garments at different price levels. CIF terms: The insurance charges are to be added with the above C&F charges. knitting fabrics. the customer’s price level. Each product will have different price according to its quality. processing and finishing of fabrics. We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories. sea. here it is not possible to clearly define the exact costing. routing. Also he must know how to solve the problems when occurred and to take suitable alternate decision immediately in time. When we consider the value of goods. sales. banking charges and commissions. latest procedures. But we should not forget to make the insurance cover. We must remember that the quality depends on price. sewing and packing of garments. charges of transport and conveyance. Due to the above practical reasons. 48 .48 C&F terms: Based on the above details regarding C&F terms. Hence CIF charges are almost the same as C&F charges. over heads. price depends on quality. quality & quantity and payment terms. air) and freight charges. To do perfect garment costing. one must know about all these activities thoroughly about their costs. Hence we can not follow the same costing for all the customers. sewing and packing. market prices and availability. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments.

1. Body Length and Sleeve Length. The garments are to be made in many sizes to fit for everybody. The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratios. Fabric cost per kg. 7.49 The method of making costing will vary from style to style. Ladies yarn striped T shirts (Feeder stripes) Boys yarn striped T shirts (Engineering stripes) Based on these methods. To work on the prices exactly. twill tapes. 4. Here we are going to see the garments which are made in 100% Cotton fabrics in tubular form. 4. But compulsorily. Large (L). etc. Extra Large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). Cost of accessories (hangers. FABRIC CONSUMPTION: Garment prices are mainly based on the fabric consumption. Price of a garment. 3. cartons. To make the garment costing. 2. Medium (M). Cost of a garment. the fabrics will be in tubular form only. we have to find out following things. Fabric cost per garment. 2. As there are many different styles in garments. etc) 9. 5. we must have the measurements of Chest. Let us analyse here how to make this calculation. we must have full measurements of the garment. 10. it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. Men’s Pyjamas. embroidery. inner boards. Let us see them in detail now. buttons. CMT charges 8. Hence we must pay more attention to find out the fabric consumption more accurately or closely. 1. S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 1 S : M : L : XL : XXL :: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 49 .) 6. badges. tags. etc. Gross weight of other components of garment.) 7. Men’s Printed Polo shirts. Hence let us take some following styles as examples which are in regular use. polybags. Men’s Solid Pique Polo shirts. As the knitted fabrics are knitted by the circular knitting machines. 3. Men’s Basic T shirts. costings can be made for other styles too. It needs sound knowledge and good practical experience to find out the fabric consumption. Ladies Night dress. 5. Cost of trims (labels. bows. Other charges (print. 6. Generally they are in the Sizes Small (S). Fabric consumption.

S – XXL. To find the fabric consumption. Canada. if the area of the fabric is 10. GSM is Grams per Square Metre. Hang tag: Only Brand name printed tag. the consumption will be lesser. That is. Medium & Dark colours in equal ratio – Label: Woven main label mentioning brand name and size to be stitched at centre neck. Canada and Australia are bigger than European measurements. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 10cm above hem.1 MEN’S BASIC T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. Even in Europe. if the garment measurements are in Inches. In other words. If the GSM is higher. Generally the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes. we have to follow the below procedure step by step. 6 master bags (8 x 6 = 48 pcs) in an export carton.50 As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments. Hence to find out the fabric weight of the required dimension. the consumption will also be relatively higher. 50 . Australia are measuring in Inches. (No style number or no size is needed to print). The garment measurements for USA. Some buyers may ask for sizes S – XL. USA. Asian and European countries are measuring in Centimeters.000 square centimetres). we must take the centre size Large (L) for our average calculation. TRIAL COSTING NO. The consumption of fabric is also based on GSM. we have to calculate based on the measurements of the centre size. As we discussed earlier. We have to remember that some countries are measuring the garments in Inches and some other countries measure in Centimeters.cms. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.: 3333 Style Ref: AAAA Description: Men’s Basic T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – Solid dyed – Light. the garment quality is mainly based on the fabric weight (GSM). In any case. Export carton: 7 ply 120GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. If the GSM is lesser. Sizes: S. M. the German measurements are slightly bigger than other European countries’ measurements. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour packing: 8 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in a master bag. M – XL or M – XXL in different quantity ratio.000 sq. As we have seen earlier. weight of the fabric of 1 square meter (which is the same as 10.54Centimeters. L. they have to be converted into Centimeters. 1 Inch = 2. then the weight of the fabric is 1 GSM. Polybag: Each garment to be packed in to an individual polybag. XL.

Length = 78 cms. we are multiplying the fabric Area into 2. this full width of fabric is to be taken for our calculation. Due to unavailability of suitable diameter machines or due to some other practical reasons. Hem = 3 cms. For example. Sleeve Length = 24 cms.51 Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps. the finished fabric may have more width than required. Measurements in Centimeters: Size: L Chest = 60 cms. if we are unable to control this. This allowance of 2 to 3cm is to be added with the chest measurement. Pique & Interlock. Hence Body length and sleeve length will have allowances for the hem and shoulder sewing. Neck rib width = 3 cms. Bottom hem and sleeve hem are normally 3cm. Hence due to either way. 63 or 64cms. we can find out the fabric consumption with the following formula. In case. Hence 4 to 5cm to be added with body length and 4 to 5 cm to be added with sleeve length. We must know that these are the measurements of a finished garment. As the fabric is in tubular. we may not get fabric exactly with 61cms. 2 to 3cms to be added for seam allowance. Consumption = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (70 + 24 + 12) X (60 + 3) X 2 X 140 10000 51 . Thus. Generally. (22. Even if we assume that we can get the finished fabric with exact required width. 2 to 3cm to be added with the chest measurement. That is.000 pcs). for solid fabrics and normal fabrics like Jersey. For shaping and for allowance of neck seam and shoulder seam another 2 to 3 cm to be added with body length & sleeve length separately. That is. Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. Quantity: 1 x 20’ container. (Body length + Sleeve length + 12 cm) We knit the fabrics in tubular form only. 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length. It may have 2 or 3cm extra width. if we need 61cms finished diameter fabric as per the patterns.

to avoid shade variation. Sleeve open circumference = 40 cms. Let us assume that according to the patterns. then we have to find out by which fabric width. they have to be slit opened to do heat setting. we will have lesser wastage and lesser fabric consumption. Gross weight : 197 grams. Let us see how to find the consumption of open width fabric. Chest = 60 cms. Neck rib : 10 grams. Hence the fabric consumption is always to be calculated in weights – no matter the finished fabrics are in tubular form or open width form. In other words. (0. the garments are based on weights. At the same time. we should remember that the front body. we can find the fabric consumption by using following formula. Let us assume that the front and back body is to be cut side by side and the sleeves are to be cut below the bodies. Length = 78 cms. If they are possible. Let us calculate for 50” width fabric. FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF OPEN WIDTH FABRICS (SYNTHETIC): As we had seen earlier (regarding Heat setting). So the patterns have to be made according to the open width fabrics. And the consumption of these blended fabrics is to be calculated based on their possible width. We have to remember that the measurements are to be converted into centimeters.52 = (106) X (63) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & sleeves: 187 grams. The fabric width is 50” = 127cms. Armhole circumference = 56 cms. Consumption = (Body length + sleeve length + allowance) X (Fabric width) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 24 + 12) X (127) X 140 52 .197 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams. Let us assume following are the measurements. Sleeve Length = 24 cms. Let us take the GSM is 140. the fabric is required to have either 50” or 62” width. back body and sleeves of one garment are to be cut as close as possible. though the synthetic fabrics and blended fabrics are made by circular machines. We have to see whether these two widths are possible to achieve. In this case. All knitted garments made by either natural fabrics (cotton) or synthetic fabrics are based on GSM.

Let us assume that front body and back body are cut one by one on left side and the sleeves are cut on sides on right side. we have to select the suitable width. When we cut the fabric in open width form (lay cutting). This is the same procedure for the natural fabrics (cotton) if they are in open width form. So we can prefer for 62” than 50” width. If the sleeves or other parts are not cut on wales direction. only if they are all over printed on open width form. It means. we have to be sure of cutting in wales direction perfectly. Thus. GROSS WEIGHT & NET WEIGHT: The above weight is the Gross Weight of Fabric. 53 + (56 + 40 + 3) X (24 + 4) X 140 10000 + (99) X (28) X 140 10000 . If we want to know the fabric requirement of one garment in terms of length.14 mtrs of 50” width. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. among the possible widths. the natural fabrics are needed to be slit opened. we can see that it will be 1. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. As we had seen earlier.53 10000 = (114) X 127 X 140 10000 = 203 grams. Let us calculate the same for 62”. the garment will have spiral effect which is not acceptable. Here we see that 62” fabric width will have lesser consumption and less wastage. Consumption of a garment = Body fabric consumption + sleeve fabric consumption = (Body length + allowance) X 2 X (Chest + allowance) X GSM 10000 + (full armhole + full sleeve open + allowance) X (sleeve length + allowance) X GSM 10000 = (78 + 8) X 2 X (60 + 3) X 140 10000 = (86) X 2 X (63) X 140 10000 = 152 + 39 = 191 grams. Then we will have to calculate as below. according to the patterns of that particular style of garment. the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called Gross weight.

00 OTHER CHARGES (Print.25 Light colours Fabric cost per garment = Rs.70 Dark colours 135. badges.00 10.00 8.00 184. embroidery. 38.20 X 197 1000 = 38.54 The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called Net Weight of Fabric.00 45.00 194.00 6.44.70 224.20 Fabric cost per Kg = 193. For Medium colours For Medium colours For Dark colours For Dark colours = 203. So there are no charges. labels.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00) Likewise. COST OF TRIMS (zippers. bows: The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): Light colours 34’s combed yarn = 135.40. elastic.00 214.70 203. tags.70 X 197 1000 = 40.00 Dyeing charge = 35.00 Compacting charge = 6.70 X 197 1000 = 44.00 8.38.25) Medium colours 40. twill tapes.00 Dark colours 44.13 (Round off: Rs. buttons.00 Knitting charge = 8. there is no need of print or embroidery.00) = 224. let us work for Medium & Dark colours.27 (Round off: Rs.00 65.20 Medium colours 135. ropes.70 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams For Light colours For Light colours = 193.06 (Round off: Rs. 54 .00 6.00 9. etc): For this style (Basic T shirt).

20 = Rs.50 = Rs. profit.35 per garment.0. polybags.0.85 10. we have to add the shipping expenses (road transport. Labels – Woven main label & Polyester printed label.35 Polyester printed wash care label: single colour print: Rs. Let us see the cost of these things.0.) Cost of trims (labels.00 -0. So the total cost of accessories is Rs. PRICE OF GARMENT To get the price of garment.30 per garment. cartons.00 = -= Rs.85 per garment. We require following things. 55 .25 per garment.00 = Rs.35 56.40 per carton to contain 48 garments. Now let us see these things in detail. Fabric cost per garment Other charges (print. We must note that this is only the cost – Not the price.35 52.35 = Rs.70 58.10 Hang tag: Rs. as example.0. etc.0.50. COST OF ACCESSORIES (hangers. sea freight / air freight). : Rs. per master polybag to contain 8 garments. Polybag .00 per garment.40 So the total cost of trims is Rs. 1. Labels: Woven main label: Small size (2.15 We have found out the cost of garment. 2. 1.0.55 Now we have taken Men’s Basic T shirts.45 1.10. Hang tag – Normal (not a special one).1. 0. Let us see what are the trims required for this style.85 = Rs. CMT CHARGES: As we see earlier.80 per garment. etc): For this Basic T shirt. quota cost and commissions with the above cost of garment. tags. etc) Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Light cols = Rs.20 1.51. the CMT charge for Men’s Basic T shirt is Rs. etc) CMT charges Cost of accessories (polybags. Export carton – Normal: Rs. : Rs.00 1. COST OF GARMENT Now let us sum up all the above costs and charges together as follows to find out the cost of garment. 0.75 Dark cols 44. 3. 2.5cm width x 7cm length): Rs. Master polybag – Normal: Rs.85 10. 1.25 -0.Normal (not a special one): Rs. cartons. let us see the costs of the required accessories.70 Medium cols 40. inner boards.00 1.55 53.

00 59. then the cost of quota is to be added with this price. COMMISSION: For some orders. 1. 1. If the terms are C&F or CIF.60 Now we have to convert these prices in to USD or Euro. This profit includes the over heads (maintenance. 1.35 52. We have to add this commission.56 SHIPPING CHARGES: For our example of Men’s Basic T shirt.51. COST OF QUOTA: If the style is under Quota.95 -----62.05 . office salary.3333.95 Dark cols 44.38. machineries.85 CMT charges = Rs. etc.35 56. But we have to add the local transport with the cost of garment.55 53.1 per garment. etc) = Rs.85 10.45 1.90 68.70 Now we add the local transport = Rs. Now we have to find out the freight charges for the Men’s Basic T shirt which we have taken for example.70 Profit @ 15% = Rs.50 Cost of garment = Rs.15 8. So we don’t have to add sea freight.20 1.50. the delivery terms have been mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry as ‘FOB’. standards. But the Quota Category and Harmonised Code Numbers will be the same as we use now. etc) and profit margin. Let us recall our earlier costing. the agreed commission to be paid on FOB value only. Anyhow.85 10.20 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.90 = Rs. 7.00 Cost of accessories (polybags.70 58.60 As there is no commission to be paid = ------Prices of garment = Rs. depreciation of machineries. let us work on 15% profit margin. For our calculation.00 1.00 Other charges (print.00 = Rs. etc) = Rs. tags. It may be approximately Re. electricity.00 -0. we will have to give commission to the agent or the mediator.60. cartons.60. incentives.25 -0.15 1.00 1.20 62.) = -Cost of trims (labels. PROFIT: Now we have to add our profit margin with the above costs of garments. interest for investments. bonus. the quota system will be removed from January 2005. It will vary from company to company depends on their size. 56 Medium cols 40.75 8.52. 0. Light cols Fabric cost per garment = Rs. etc.00 54. with the above costs of garments. GARMENT COSTING: Now let us come back to the buyer’s enquiry No.10. if any.75 1.35 = Rs.05 ------68. It may be 1% to 5% of FOB value.

.95 divided by 45. the approximate price can be remembered as follows.Delivery terms to be mentioned. regular packing and ratio. Hence we have to find out the average price for the above prices.Complete description (as per our calculation) to be mentioned. Medium. Enquiry Style No. it has to be mentioned. Medium and Dark colours are equal. we can mention the validity for our prices.000 pcs.40 Pls note the above prices are FOB. For 150GSM – USD 1.50 FOB. Then we will get following prices. .00 = 1 USD. . L. quantity and specifications. it will be clear for him.00 = USD 1. According to the measurements.40 FOB. FOB / C&F / CIF. For Light colours : Rs.40 per pc.40 For Dark colours : Rs. as it is mentioned in the buyer’s enquiry 3333. 3333 AAAA Description Men’s Basic T shirt – Short Sleeves – 100% Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – 1x1 rib at neck – solid dyed – Light. Quantity: 20. we have to inform like this.If we made any change in buyer’s details. ratio. XXL. it has to be mentioned.00 = USD 1.If we expect any price hike in near future. Dark colours in equal ratio – Sizes: S.80 FOB. It is USD 1.60 FOB. . Also it will be clear for our reference. it is better to mention as C&F / CIF By Sea. Quota Category: 4 Price / pc USD 1. for the Men’s Basic T shirts of medium colours. For 180GSM – USD 1.68.Quota category to be mentioned. the prices will differ. XL. If we give the prices to the buyer in the above format. 57 . Some Tips: For easy reference.62.51 We understand that the quantities of Light. M. . For 140GSM – USD 1.05 divided by 45. packing methods. For 160GSM – USD 1.60 divided by 45.35 For Medium colours: Rs.60. Informing Prices: When quoting our prices to our buyer.If the commission is added. If the terms are C&F and CIF. .00 = USD 1. we can quote the price to buyer as follows.45. These are approximate prices only.57 Let us convert this into USD as per the current exchange rate which is Rs. Now for the buyer’s enquiry 3333.

5 = 48 = 48 = 21. the full measurements are given here.75 = 2. M. Polyester printed wash care label to be stitched at inside left bottom 4” above hem. RN no. 2. 3.. Fabric consumption. Measurements in Inches: Size: L Back length Chest Circumference Sweep Across shoulder Armhole circumference Sleeve length from centre back Cuff circumference Cuff opening Collar neckline circumference Collar height Collar point Collar spread Placket length Placket width = 30.12 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. Fabric cost per kg. 4. To be attached with second button with a silk rope. XXL Ratio: 1 : 3 : 4 : 3 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. Size.: 4444 Style Ref: BBBB Description: Men’s Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 190GSM Single Jersey – All over printed on Offwhite base – 50% to 60% print coverage .5 =7 = 1. Colour to be printed on back side.5 = 2. 58 . safety instructions printed.. Polybag: Hanger polybag with Style No. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer. Let us recall the steps once again.Pigment print with soft hand feel – Flat knit collar with raised tipping – 3 buttoned placket – Half moon patch – Side slits – self fabric neck tape . To be attached with second button with hang tag.25 = 17. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be attached to inside half moon patch. Export carton: 7 ply 100GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. L. Style No.25 = 14. Fabric cost per garment. Quantity: 48. Hanger: Plastic hanger with logo embossed + size marker.5 = 16. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.2 MEN’S ALL OVER PRINTED POLO SHIRTS (FOR CANADA): Enquiry No. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton. Sizes: S.Hanger pack.5 For your reference. 1. (Pls find the attached details). Size. Gross weight of all parts of garment.000 pcs.58 TRIAL COSTING NO. XL.5 = 23 = 21.75 = 4.

So it will be 24 inches. 59 . inner boards. buttons. That is. So the chest for calculation will be 61 + 5 + 2 = 68cm. That is.5” – ½ (21. Cost of a garment.75” = 10. there will be some extra length is needed to straight the print design. embroidery. etc. the measurements in inches to be converted into Centimetres.5 cm. That is 77. Sleeve length from shoulder point = CB Sleeve length – ½ shoulder length. etc. 61cms. cartons.5”. Placket : 15 grams.5cm. CMT charges 8.5 inches Chest circumference is 48 inches.5”) = 21. Cost of trims (labels.5” – 10.50 + 4 = 81. badges. twill tapes. then the print wastage on sides will be about 2 inches (5cm) average. It should be divided into 2 to get ½ Chest. If we deduct ½ shoulder length from centre back sleeve length. 4 cm is to be added with body length.5 + 27. Cost of accessories (hangers. Other charges (print. bows. Now let us do the calculation. Body Length is 30. Collar : 40 grams.3 cm The allowance for cutting and sewing for both body length & sleeve length can be 12cm.5 inches Sleeve length (from centre back) = 21. So the body length for calculation will be 77. polybags. Sleeve length from centre back is 21. = 21.) 6.3 + 12) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 = (120. tags.59 5.8) X (68) X 2 X 190 10000 Body & Sleeves: 312 grams. Half moon patch: 15 grams.) 7. Also the allowance for cutting and stitching is to be added which is about 2 cm. For our calculation. 10.5inches. Chest (circumference) = 48 inches Body length = 30. Price of a garment. we need the sleeve length from the shoulder point. Remember.75” = 27. As this is all over print program. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (81. As this is all over print program. we will get sleeve length from shoulder point. etc) 9.

00 Cost of accessories – Hanger + sizer = Rs.50 CMT charges = Rs. tags. 2. 3.00 Dyeing charge = 30.00 Knitting charge = 8.45 per pc.382 kg) Even though the collar is not printed.95 Cost of garment = Rs. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 – Carton. 98. 98.131.155. 20.258. it can be considered as printed.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 23.60 Gross weight : 382 grams. As the collar is to be dyed into dark colour.75 Other charges (print. etc. 3.) = -Cost of trims (labels.00 = Rs.00 Printing charge = 50. So the fabric consumption per garment is 382 grams. embroidery. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 24’s combed yarn = 120.30 Price of garment = Rs. 2. rope. 2.135.20 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs.50 X 382 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 18.00 – Hanger polybag = Rs.50 That is the FOB price is USD3.00 235. (0.25 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. the cost will be approximately the same as printed.00 Fabric enzyme wash = 15.00 Open width compact = 12. packing materials = Rs.3 LADIES NIGHT DRESS (FOR EUROPE): 60 .50 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 258.75 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. for calculation. 5. etc) = Rs.50 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.

Measurements in Cms: Size: L Chest = 52 Waist = 60 Bottom sweep = 75 Body length = 110 Sleeve Length = 20 Let us do this directly as an exercise. Label: Woven Brand label + size label to be sewn at centre neck.316 kg) So the fabric consumption per garment is 316 grams. (0. Polyester printed wash care label at inside left bottom 10cm above hem. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.61 Enquiry No.24 pcs in assorted sizes to be packed in an export carton. M. Quantity: 16. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no. Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour. XL. size and warning instructions printed. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (110 + 20 + 12) X (75 + 2) X 2 X 140 10000 = (142) X (77) X 2 X 140 10000 Body & Sleeves: 306 grams. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s combed yarn = 135.: 5555 Style Ref: CCCC Description: Ladies Night Dress – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 140GSM Single Jersey – Solid dyed – Pastel colours – Plastisol print in chest – Round neck – binding with the self fabric. L. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.000 pcs. Neck piping : 10 grams. Sizes: S. Terms: C&F Rotterdam port.. To be attached with the main label. Gross weight : 316 grams.00 61 .

66.00 = Rs.209. tags. 3. Polybag: Each pc in to an individual polybag with style no.100%Cotton 240GSM Interlock – Elastic waist band with DTM rope – with side pockets – without fly – Brand patch label to be stitched at front centre outside waist . To be sewn at front waist. 2. Polyester printed wash care label to be inserted near main label.00 Other charges – chest printing = Rs.00 Cost of trims (labels. Label: Woven Brand label with size indication to be inserted at inside centre back waist.00 50. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. When giving this price to buyer. 97.00 6. size and warning instructions printed.00 Local freight + sea freight + expenses = Rs. XL. 6. Navy and Grey Melange – Equal quantity ratio.00 Cost of garment = Rs. it is better to mention as ‘Price USD2.00 Price of garment = Rs.Solid dyed – Black.1x1 rib at bottom legs . M. etc) = Rs. XXL. Sizes: S.00 = = = FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 209.00 X 316 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. L. 12. 94.00 Cost of polybags.00 CMT charges = Rs.: 6666 Style Ref: DDDD Description: Men’s Long Pyjamas .00 = 10.112..4 MEN’S LONG PYJAMAS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No.00 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 62 . TRIAL COSTING NO. the C&F price is USD2.62 Knitting charge Dyeing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg 8. 15.00 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. 3. 5.00 =Rs. 66.50 C&F Rotterdam By Sea’.00 That is.00 199. packing materials = Rs. carton.50 per pc.00 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.

we can find consumption by using following formula. 1 assortment x 3 colours per carton.63 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Assorted Colours + assorted sizes. 9 pcs x 3 = 27 pcs per carton. 63 . = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams If we don’t have ½ seat and outer length measurement.500 pcs. we must know the measurements of thigh. If we have the measurements of ½ seat and outer length. Consumption = (1/2 seat + allowance) X (outer length + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (58 + 4) X (88 – rib height + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (88 – 5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = 62 X 91 X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams. back rise & inseam. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy. For using this formula. There are 2 ways. Quantity: 13. let us see how to find the fabric consumption. it is easier by using following formula. Terms: FOB Measurements in Cms: Size: L Waist relaxed Waist extended Waist band width Outer length incl waist band ½ Thigh ½ Seat Front rise incl waist band Back rise incl waist band Inseam Leg rib height = = = = = = = = = = 50 58 4 88 27 58 24 31 62 5 Before making the costing. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.

00 Dyeing charge (average) = 60. By this way. We must remember that this ‘S’ cutting is possible only for Solid programs and not possible for all over print programs. For some flower design prints or mixed design prints for which maintaining direction is not needed. By doing like this. Consumption = (full thigh circumference + 4cm + allowance) X (backrise + inseam – 5cm due to curve – leg rib height + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (54 + 4 + 4) X (31 + 62 – 5 . the seat is the largest measurement. If we use ‘S’ cutting for all over print programs. This cutting style is called ‘S’ cutting. if we cut the fabrics in regular method. we can minimise the wastage. the wastage will be more. we can use ‘S’ cutting. we can quote prices more accurately.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 10.70 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs. In this case. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.224. We know only thigh measurement. Width wise. Let us continue the costing. But we don’t know the seat measurement. we have to add 4 cm with the full thigh measurement to get approximate seat measurement.00 Knitting charge = 18. So by multiplying ½ thigh measurement into 2.00 214. we can cut the fabrics by marking one leg in the up direction and the other leg in the opposite down direction and by keeping them as close as possible. reasonably and competitively. Hence if the program is Solid program.5 + 8) X 2 X 240 10000 = (62) X (91) X 2 X 240 10000 Consumption 2 Pockets Leg rib Total = 270 grams = 70 grams = 20 grams = 360 grams ‘S’ program and ‘S’ cutting: For the long pants and shorts.64 We have to work prices with the largest measurements.70 64 .00 Compacting = 6. This is not acceptable. the print direction will be opposite and contrast between legs. we get one full thigh circumference measurement.

etc) = Rs. 20%Black. Woven Size + wash care label is to be attached at neck near main label. tags. 4 assortments x 9 pcs = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.65 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 224. Sizes: S.50 That is.75 Price of garment = Rs. 4.: 7777 Style Ref: EEEE Description: Men’s Pique Polo shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton 220GSM Pique – Half moon patch – Flat knit collar & cuffs – Small logo embroidery at chest – 3 horn buttoned placket – Side slits with DTM twill tape – DTM twill tape at neck. 80. Solid dyed – 60%White. M. 80. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.60 Cost of trims (labels.70 X 360 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. XXL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: Solid colour.00 Woven patch label = Rs.111. Size..00 Waist rope = Rs. 3. Shipping Marks: To be printed on both length side of carton.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Colour to be printed on back side. To be attached with main label. Label: Woven Brand label to be attached at centre of neck. 15. Price tag: Will be supplied by buyer.00 Local freight + expenses = Rs. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. L.75 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. XL. packing materials = Rs.25 Cost of garment = Rs. carton. Export carton: 7 ply 150GSM Virgin corrugated – sea worthy.00 = Rs. To be attached with main label. and warning instructions printed. 1.128.00 Cost of polybags. 3. 0. 65 . Size.90 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 2.108. the FOB price is USD2. 2. 16. Style No.90 Elastic 4cm = Rs.85 per pc. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 CMT charges = Rs.5 MEN’S PIQUE POLO SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 20%Grey Melange.

80 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 205.66 Quantity: 72.205. 40 grams. 400 grams. 82.00 196. 15 grams. 15 grams.80 X 400 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 40 grams.30 66 . (0.00 Dyeing charge (average) = 45. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest Back length Sleeve length including cuff = 58 = 75 = 24 Sleeve length for calculation will be 24 – 3 = 21cm.30 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.00 Fabric wastage @ 5% = 9.00 Compacting = 6.000 pcs.80 Fabric cost per Kg =Rs.00 Knitting charge = 15. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (75 + 21 + 12) X (58 + 3) X 2 X 220 10000 = (108) X (61) X 2 X 220 10000 Body & Sleeves : Half moon patch: Placket : Collar : Cuffs : Gross weight : 290 grams. 82.400 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s combed yarn = 130.

18.6 LADIES YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 2. 3.4 colour combinations. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag.. 2. TRIAL COSTING NO. Sizes: S. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. tags. Label: Woven Brand label at neck. 1.67 Embroidery Cost of trims (labels. That is 15cm.00 = Rs. Measurements in Cms: Size: L ½ Chest = 55 Back length = 67 Sleeve length = 18 As this is yarn stripes style. carton. Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (67 + 18 + 15) X (55 + 5) X 2 X 230 10000 = (100) X (60) X 2 X 230 67 . Polyester printed care label.30 = Rs.00 = Rs.60 Description: Ladies T shirt – Short sleeves – 95%Cotton / 5%Elastan (Lycra) 1x1 Rib 230GSM – Yarn dyed Feeder stripes (3cm repeat width) – Self fabric binding neck.00 = Rs.113.90 per pc.: 8888 Style Ref: FFFF = Rs.00 = Rs. the FOB price is USD2. 2.130. the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more. 17.30 = Rs.110. Quantity: 7. L. packing materials Local freight charges + shipping expenses Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) Cost of garment Profit & overheads @ 15% Price of garment That is. etc) Twill tape CMT charges Polybag. XL Ratio: 1 : 2 : 2 : 1 Packing: 4 combinations x 6 pcs assortment = 24 pcs to be packed in an export carton.00 = Rs. M. 3. Size and warning instructions printed.00 = Rs.60 = Rs.00 = Rs.200 pcs per combination.

131.00 Knitting charge = 30.00 Compacting = 6. Neck piping : 10 grams.106.151.68 10000 Body & Sleeves: 276 grams.35 X 286 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. carton.00 338.50 Cost of trims (labels. 2.50 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 33. 3. 106.00 = Rs.00 Washing charge = 5.: 9999 Style Ref: GGGG 68 .35 per pc. etc) = Rs.85 Fabric cost per Kg = 372. packing materials = Rs.50 COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 372.50 Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs.127. 2. Gross weight : 286 grams.7 BOYS YARN STRIPED T SHIRTS (FOR EUROPE): Enquiry No. 15.286 kg) FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 30’s dyed yarn – 250 x 95% = 237.00 That is. 19. the FOB price is USD3.00 Polybag.30 Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. 2.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 5% = 60. TRIAL COSTING NO.00 CMT charges = Rs. (0. tags.00 Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs.80 Cost of garment = Rs.70 Price of garment = Rs.

116. Sizes: 92..200 pcs total. That is 20cm. Likewise. Polybag: Individual polybag with Style No. Hang tag: Brand name printed tag. Measurements in Cms: Size: 110 ½ Chest = 37 Back length = 48 Sleeve length = 15 Here we have to note that this is engineering stripes style. FABRIC COST PER KG (In Rs): 34’s dyed yarn = 250. Quantity: 2400 pcs per combination x 3 = 7.00 311.00 69 . (For adult garments. the allowance for chest should be 6cm. this would be 25cm). 104. 98.50 Elastan (Lycra) – 1200 x 3% = 36. Label: Woven Brand label at neck.3 colour combinations. Size and warning instructions printed.10 Fabric cost per Kg = 342.00 Compacting = 6.69 Description: Boys T shirt – Short sleeves – 100%Cotton Jersey 150GSM – Yarn dyed Engineering stripes – 1x1 rib neck with Elastan (Lycra) . Consumption: = (Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) X (Chest + allowance) X 2 X GSM 10000 = (48 + 15 + 20) X (37 + 6) X 2 X 150 10000 = (83) X (43) X 2 X 150 10000 Body & Sleeves: 107 grams.00 Knitting charge = 50.00 Washing charge = 5. 110. As the stripes should set on sides and sleeves to be matched. Hence the cutting allowance for body length and sleeve length will be more.10 COST OF LYCRA RIB: 34’s dyed yarn – 250 x 97% = 242.00 Fabric wastage @ 10% = 31. Polyester printed care label. Hanger: Basic plastic hanger with metal hook. the consumption will be more than feeder stripes. 122 Ratio: 1 : 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 : 1 Packing: 3 combinations x 12 pcs assortment = 36 pcs to be packed in an export carton.

70 Knitting charge Washing charge Compacting Fabric wastage @ 5% Fabric cost per Kg = = = 30.00 5.00 6.00 319.50 = 16.00 = 335.50

Gross weight of Lycra rib per garment: 7 grams. So the cost of Lycra rib per garment : Rs.2.35 FABRIC COST PER GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = (Fabric cost per Kg) X (Gross weight of fabric in grams) 1000 grams = 342.10 X 107 1000 Fabric cost per garment = Rs. 36.60 36.60 2.35 2.00 12.00 6.00 2.00 60.95 1.85 62.80 9.40 72.20

COST & PRICE OF GARMENT (In Rs): Fabric cost per garment = Rs. Lycra rib = Rs. Cost of trims (labels, tags, etc) = Rs. CMT charges = Rs. Hanger, polybag, carton, packing materials = Rs. Local freight charges + shipping expenses = Rs. = Rs. Rejection of garments (commonly 3%) = Rs. Cost of garment = Rs. Profit & overheads @ 15% = Rs. Price of garment = Rs. That is, the FOB price is USD1.60 per pc.

NOTE: The descriptions, measurements and specifications given in the above trial costings are only for the reference of working procedures and methods of calculations.

PAYMENT TERMS For every business, payment is the very important thing. To do safer business, we have to be sure of getting prompt payment. We are producing the goods by spending money, time, labour, efforts, etc. After manufacturing and exporting the goods, we have to get the 70

71 money from the buyer in time. If there is any problem in getting payment from the buyer, we will be in great trouble. Hence we must be very careful in payment terms. There are different terms followed in export business. They are L/C, D/P and D/A terms. L/C (Letter of Credit): As this is the safest payment terms especially for the sellers, every seller prefers this L/C terms. After confirming the garment style, price, quantity, delivery terms, etc, the seller (exporter) is to send the Sales Contract to the buyer. Or the buyer (importer) is to send the Purchase Order to the seller. After signing these documents, the buyer will open the L/C through their banker. Buyer’s bank will send the L/C to the seller’s bank by telex or swift. Here we have to remember that the buyer’s bank will proceed for L/C opening, only according to the financial strength, business performance and the securities of the buyer with their bank. In the L/C many conditions will be mentioned by the buyer. Let us see the important conditions and the L/C format below. 1. Opening bank address: Buyer’s bank is called the opening bank or issuing bank. 2. Form of Documentary Credit (Letter of Credit): It has to be mentioned as ‘Irrevocable Transferable’. Irrevocable means can not be cancelled. It means, after opening the L/C, it can not be cancelled without the consent of both seller and buyer. 3. DC No.: Issued by the opening bank. 4. Date of (L/C) opening: --------------5. Expiry Date and place: It is generally 12 or 15 days from the date of shipment. This period of 12 or 15 days is given for submitting the required documents. If the place is mentioned as the Country of Applicant (buyer), it means the documents should reach the buyer’s bank before the mentioned expiry date. Even if we send the documents in time, the documents may reach buyer’s bank with a delay, that is, after this expiry date. Hence it is always safer for seller to get it mentioned the place as the ‘Country of Beneficiary or India’. 6. Applicant (Address of buyer): 7. Beneficiary (Address of seller): 8. DC amount: It should be in the foreign currency such as USD, Euro, etc. according to the sales contract or purchase order. 9. Percent or Amount tolerance: Normally Plus or Minus 5% is allowed in amount & quantity. As it is not possible to ship the exact quantity, this tolerance is to be mentioned. 10. Available with / by: It has to be mentioned as ‘(with) Any bank in country of beneficiary’ / (by) Negotiation. It means, after submitting the documents to the seller’s bank, the Invoice amount can be negotiated and can be credited into seller’s account (based on the seller’s financial credit limit with the bank). If it is mentioned as ‘Opening bank’, then the documents can not be negotiated. 71

72 11. Drafts At: To be mentioned as ‘Sight for the full value’. 12. Drawee: It will be mentioned as the opening bank. 13. Partial shipments: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 14. Transhipment: It is safer for the seller to be mentioned as ‘Allowed’. 15. Loading/Dispatch at/from: India or Any Indian port. 16. For Transportation to: Buyer’s country port (Final destination port). 17. Latest date of shipment: 18. Description of Goods: Style of garments, quota, price per garment (unit price), quantity to be mentioned clearly. (Some times buyer will ask us to issue the Proforma Invoice in which we have to mention all these details. In this case, in this clause, it will be mentioned as ‘As per the Proforma Invoice No…& date…). 19. Trade terms: FOB or C&F or CIF and whether By Sea or By Air to be mentioned. 20. Documents required: Very important clause. Following documents will be generally required. a. Commercial Invoice - Original and 2 copies. b. Full set (or 3/3) clean on board marine Bills of Lading plus 2 Nonnegotiable copies (in case of sea shipment). Original clean airway bill or House airway bill consigned to the consignee (buyer) made out to the order of issuing bank. (When we make the air shipment, we must me careful about this clause. The airway bill has to be mentioned as ‘to the order of issuing bank’. Then only the buyer’s bank will hold responsibility for our documents. Otherwise, if the buyer’s bank is not mentioned in the airway bill, the buyer may take delivery of documents from his bank without giving any guarantee for the payment). c. Packing List – Original and 2 copies. d. Beneficiary’s letter – stating that one set of copy documents sent by courier to the applicant within 3 days (or 5 days) after the shipment. With this copy of documents, the originals of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa to be sent to buyer by courier. (These documents will vary from country to country and from quota to non-quota. Buyer will need these original export documents soon after the shipment is made which enable him to get the import license from the buyer’s country authorities. Without the import license, the buyer can not clear the goods from the port. To avoid the demurrage charges at the buyer’s port, it is essential to apply and to get the import license well in advance before the vessel reaches the buyer’s port). e. Copies of Export Certificate, Certificate of Origin, GSP Form A, Visa, etc. f. Original Insurance policy – in terms of CIF. (The insurance to be made for the account of buyer generally for the value of 105% or 110% of the value of goods. It means if there is any damage or theft or loss, the buyer can claim by himself for himself). g. Inspection Certificate (if any) - issued by the buyer’s agent or buying office nominated by the buyer or by any third party testing organization. 21. Additional conditions: General conditions like discrepancy charges, documents dispatch instructions, transferring conditions, etc., will be mentioned here. These conditions to be followed promptly to avoid the discrepancy charges and deduction of payment. 72

L/C amendments: After receiving the L/C. This is called L/C amendment. B/L is issued by shipping company or shipping agent or forwarding agent. 26. changes or differences in address. let us see the importance and procedures of them. validity extension. it is always better to get the L/C application copy from the buyer. Only the originals have got value. (It means we have to submit the complete documents to our bank as per this L/C conditions before the expiry date of this L/C). Though we call it in singular as Bill of Lading (B/L). Accordingly the buyer will ask his bank to issue the amendment.B/L Copies (Non-negotiable documents) – 4 or 6 or more Nos. Hence they are very important. . To avoid these amendment charges. the amendments are made several times. 25. Information to presenting bank: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about making the payment. shipment date. Confirmation instructions: As the L/Cs are transmitted by telex or swift. 24. In this case. Some times. price.73 22. 23. documents clauses or anything else which are against our earlier acceptance. There may be some mistakes. Period of presentation: Within 15 or 21 days after the date of shipment but within the validity of the credit. . Importance of B/L and Airway Bill: We have to remember that the buyer can clear the goods from his port or airport. So this clause will always be mentioned as ‘Without’. This amount would be deducted when they make the payment for the bills. before opening L/C.B/L Originals (Negotiable documents) – 3 Nos. So the B/L and Airway bill are very valuable documents. This amendment should be considered as the integral part of the L/C. 73 . They are only the copies. he can not clear the goods from his customs. the exporter should inform these differences clearly to the buyer and should ask him to change them in the L/C. We have to remember that the buyer’s bank will charge the exporter for each amendment. amount. Without these documents. Details of charges: It is generally mentioned as ‘All charges outside country of issue for account of beneficiary / exporter’. only with B/L or Airway bill. our bank does not have to wait for any other confirmation of this L/C. it is a set of following originals and copies. description. Our bank will receive the L/C amendment by telex or swift. after receiving this L/C. B/L: As we see above. Non-negotiable documents are having no value. Each buyer will follow different L/C conditions and documentation according to their working systems and convenience. As we have to be careful of these important documents. the exporter should read all the L/C conditions thoroughly word by word. Hence we have to be careful in accepting their conditions before commencing their orders. Bank to bank info: It is the information given by the opening bank to our bank about the transfer of L/C.

the airlines or airlines agent will issue Master Airway bill or House Airway bill. the buyer will take delivery of the goods by showing the one original B/L which we sent by courier. etc. We must be aware that buyer can take delivery of goods with only one original B/L. Consignment copy. After the air shipment. quality. With these original B/Ls only. We have to remember the fact that the goods will reach buyer’s airport within 2 or 3 days or maximum within a week. stress and tension. If we agree to this and if we send 2 original B/Ls through bank and 1 original B/L through courier. Consignor’s copy (exporter’s copy) 2. Some buyer may mention in the L/C to submit 2/3 B/L and the balance 1/3 B/L to send by courier. documentation. as we sent one original B/L by courier. Consignor’s copy can be kept with the exporter. To avoid all these things. Hence we must be sure of sending ‘Full set of B/L’ only through the bank.. Hence there is no need for him to make payment to get the bank documents. These 3 original B/Ls are called ‘FULL SET OF B/L’ or ‘3/3 B/L’. Though we were careful in production. Consignee’s copy (importer’s copy) 3.’ OR ‘3/3 CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING……………………. The buyer has to clear the goods from the airport within 3 days from the date of arrival. There will be 3 airway bills (AWBs). Now the question is for sending Consignee’s copy to the buyer. To make sure of the shipment and to make arrangement for taking delivery. This one original B/L is enough for him to clear the goods. But it is a long process which will take more time. In this case. the airport will charge for demurrage. we can approach International Arbitrary Committee for the settlement of the payment. It is called Negotiable documents. money. we don’t get the payment. In ‘Documents required’ clause. They are 1.. exporter should ask the buyer to make the amendment immediately without fail. buyer can clear the goods. Already he could have all the other copies of documents. buyers usually ask the exporter to fax the original AWB to him. pricing. Consignee’s copy is to be sent to the buyer.74 There will be 3 Original B/Ls (Bills of Lading). we must be sure of this clause in L/C. It is advised not to do business with buyers who refuse to accept this condition. So he will not need our other documents which we sent through the bank. It will be heavy amount. Airway Bill: For the air shipment the terms are different.’ If is mentioned other than this. Consignment copy will travel along with the consignment (goods). To 74 . it has to be mentioned as ‘FULL SET CLEAN ON BOARD MARINE BILLS OF LADING…………. After 3 days.

whether the buyer clears the documents from the bank or not. only due to the urgency. the goods are air shipped by spending huge amount as air freight. It means in the airway bill both buyer’s bank address and buyer’s address will be mentioned. the buyer’s bank is responsible for the payment. the exporter should take much care to prepare the documents without even a small mistake. As the documents are still with them. Documentation: Some buyers may purposely find out some small deviation or small mistake in our documents. we have to send the original AWB through bank and it will take more time to reach buyer’s bank. But as per L/C condition. By verifying the fax copy or photo copy of AWB (which the exporter faxed earlier after the shipment) with the original Consignment copy (which has travelled with the goods). in order to get the claim or discount. buyer does not need other documents from the bank. the customs authorities will release the goods to the buyer. We have to fulfill all the L/C conditions and to submit all these documents exactly as per the requirements to our bank. showing master airway bill number and dispatch date. buyer has to produce the original AWB to take delivery of goods. buyer has to clear the goods within 3 days from the date of arrival. as we had seen in sea shipment above. etc are to be taken care. this document credit number and NOTIFY THE APPLICANT (buyer)’. the exporter should make sure that in the L/C. even commas. Then after checking and scrutinizing them. Hence if he does not want to make payment to the exporter. it is mentioned as follows. we have to approach International Arbitrary Committee. Then. Once the airway bill is endorsed by the buyer’s bank. ‘Original clean airway bill or house airway bill MADE OUT TO THE ORDER OF ISSUING BANK (buyer’s bank). So there is no meaning in keeping the goods at the buyer’s airport. To be specified exactly. After taking delivery of goods from the airport. 75 . Here comes the problem for exporter. our bank will send the documents to buyer’s bank by courier – as per the instruction given in the L/C. the buyer will get the cooperation from the airport customs authorities. it is not safe for the supplier. the airport authority will not release the goods to buyer without his bank’s confirmation or endorsement on airway bill. We have to remember. if the bank’s name is not mentioned in the airway bill. In spite of all these reasons. Then the buyer will be in trouble to pay the demurrage.75 avoid this demurrage charges. Besides. If the buyer’s bank’s name is mentioned in the airway bill. he will not clear the document from his bank and he will not make payment to the exporter. To avoid this serious problem and to be on safer side. full stops. Hence to be on the safer side. To avoid this practical problem. buyer’s bank will not take responsible for the payment.

If everything is OK. Even in this term. As soon as we receive the discrepancy letter. if the buyer instructs his bank to make the payment immediately on sight of the documents at his bank. If the buyer wants to make the payment with a delay. the buyer’s bank will inform the buyer about their receipt of the documents. he can do it. But the vessel will reach the buyer’s destination port around 20 to 30 days from the date of shipment. 120 days L/C. In other words. there are different systems like At Sight L/C. We must note that the documents will reach the buyer’s bank within 7 days from the date of shipment. At Sight L/C: As per this term. And the American bank will make the payment to our bank. they are making the payment at the sight of documents. in order to hold the documents for some days. it will take more time for our bank to get the payment. After getting the buyer’s confirmation. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the European bank (according to their counter banks) and the European bank will make the payment to our bank. we must know from the buyer whether he is willing to pay and wants to hold the documents for a 76 . 60 days L/C. Different terms of L/C: Even in L/C terms. then the buyer’s bank will send the payment to the American bank. if the buyer wants to delay the payment for any reason. In this case. Some genuine buyers use to instruct their bank to release the payment as soon as their banks receive the documents and if they are acceptable as per the L/C conditions. Payment terms are to be discussed and to be confirmed between the seller and the buyer during confirming the export orders and before opening L/C. 90 days L/C. etc. the buyer’s bank will check and scrutinize whether all the documents are according to the L/C conditions. As the buyers will need the documents only to clear the goods from the port. 30 days L/C. Due to all the above procedures and formalities. If the currency is Euro and if the buyer’s bank in not in European Union. some buyers will ask their banks to hold the documents till the vessel arrives in their port. our bank will get the payment usually in 15 days from the date of dispatching the documents from our bank. the buyer’s bank will inform our bank that there are some discrepancies in our documents and due to this they are holding the documents and waiting for buyer’s confirmation. Even though the buyer’s bank makes the payment to our bank. even though the discrepancies are not true. Hence it is called At Sight L/C. It is the same procedure for other currencies also. If the currency is US Dollars and if the buyer’s bank is not in United States. We have to note that this is the usual period. the buyer’s bank will hand over the documents to the buyer and will make the payment to our bank.76 On receipt of these documents. We will get shock on seeing the discrepancy letter from the buyer’s bank. the buyer / buyer’s bank has to make the payment as soon as they receive the documents from our bank. it will reach our bank through another bank according to the currency of this L/C. Some buyers will not make the payment immediately on receipt – even though the L/C is At Sight.

All the importers and exporters who are doing business on L/Cs are to follow the directions and rules made under UCP 500. After that he will not make the payment. If the seller is having good relationship and understanding with buyer. It is allowed a maximum of 10% of the bill amount. some dishonest buyers will not make the payment immediately on sight. These dishonest buyers know these things clearly and would make the exporters to accept discounts or claims. if the claim is to be settled after making the payment by the buyer. If he only wants to hold the documents for a while. 77 . But these buyers will say different stories with the intention of not making the payment or to get some discounts or claims from the exporters. If the bank did not or failed to intimate any discrepancy to exporter’s bank within these 7 working days. This percentage is subject to be changed according to the amendment of Reserve Bank of India. The discrepancies should be intimated to the exporter’s bank within 7 working days from the date of receipt of documents. if the buyer wants to hold the documents for some time. 60 days. They ask the exporters to get their goods back. And it is allowed a maximum of 15% of the bill amount. Even if the buyer does not want to make the payment. Here comes the important thing. All the L/Cs are subject to the terms and conditions of UCP 500 (Uniform Customs and Practices of Documentary Credits 1993 issued by International Chamber of Commerce). Some reasonable and genuine buyers will clear the goods after making the payment. then we can assume that he is waiting for the arrival of the vessel to his port. fax or email to make the payment. the buyer’s bank can not send discrepancy letter. As the exporters will face many problems with their bank if the payment for their bills is not received and as there are so much of procedures and formalities to import their goods back and as they will lose huge money and reputation. Some times. the buyer will accept to adjust this claim amount in the future orders. in the ‘Drafts By’ clause.77 while or he does not want to pay our bills. It can also be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of Bill of Lading’. the exporters always need to get the payment with some discounts or claims. he should ask his bank to hold the documents by informing some discrepancies to the exporter’s bank. they will ask for some discounts or claims. the bank has to release the payment to the exporter’s bank. Here we have to remember the rules of Reserve Bank of India regarding discount or claim. This clause is made to the safety and advantage of the exporters by International Chamber of Commerce. they will accept a reasonable discount or claim from the exporters. Accordingly. it will be mentioned as ‘30 days or 60 days or 90 days or 120 days from the date of receipt of documents’. Only difference is. They use to send the discrepancy letter first. 90 days. 120 days L/Cs: The L/C conditions and procedures are the same as At Sight L/C. Here we have to see a very important thing. the bank should honour the exporter’s bill what ever it may be. But when they notice some real defects or deviations or quality complaints in the goods. The exporter should ask him again and again by phone. 30 days. As these buyers are genuine. if the claim is to be settled before making the payment by the buyer. After 7 working days. They even say that they don’t want the goods.

buyer can claim any discount before making the payment. as soon as they receive from the seller’s bank. Then without paying the money to the bank. As we have seen. the buyer’s bank will release the documents to the buyer. At Sight L/C is much safer to the seller. D/P (Delivery against Payment or Documents against Payment): Some buyers prefer this D/P terms because of some reasons. at least to get the payment without any claim. In some backward countries. are treated and followed. he will not have the facility to open L/C. the seller can prefer these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs. few partial shipments are allowed. he will have time to check the quality of the goods. Revolving L/C: Generally the L/C’s are opened for only one shipment. In some countries. This kind of L/Cs will be automatically re-extended after its first use. Then the bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of receipt of documents. the buyer’s bank will release the payment to seller’s bank after 30 days from the date of B/L. the other L/Cs for 60 days. There is another type of L/C which is called Revolving L/C. 1. If the buyer does not agree to open At Sight L/C. a lot of tough procedures imposed in their banks. By this kind of L/C. In the same way. the buyer will get the documents and will take delivery of goods. the seller can give preference for these 30 days or 60 days or 90 days L/Cs next to At Sight L/C. But the overall maximum amount. etc. Even though the seller is getting the payment with a delay. 90 days. In this case.78 If the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of receipt of documents’. validity. As no 78 . Hence seller has to be double-careful about the quality and other things. only if he has financial strength. etc. Also one L/C can be opened for different goods to be shipped in different shipment dates. as the buyer’s bank takes responsibility for the payment. good business performance and provision of securities with the bank. In these terms. If there is any quality problem. If he does not have them. the buyer can get the L/C opened. of this L/C is to be discussed and confirmed by buyer and seller according to their business. number of renewals. As we have seen earlier. the buyer will take delivery of goods before making the payment. the banks will ask the buyer to deposit at least 300% of the L/C value to the bank to get the L/C opened. The terms of L/C will be the same for ever. These are all normal L/Cs. Normally they will not open L/Cs. 2. Let us see what they are. there is no need for buyer to open several fresh L/Cs many times. It the L/C is ‘30 days from the date of B/L’. If there is a steady business with buyer and seller and if they have agreed for the supply of goods continuously for a longer period. 120 days. they will work on this Revolving L/Cs. Hence after taking delivery.

he will use any of the following dialogues to the seller. the seller has to proceed with his production. some buyers will prefer to do business on D/P terms. As nothing can be done. He would avoid the seller completely. buyer will make the payment for the bills and will get the documents from his bank. the seller will continuously communicate by phone. At the same time. etc. He will have to wait for the buyer’s action. Due to any of these above reasons. Buyers will place the orders to the sellers. the buyer has no commitment to the seller or the bank. he will say that he can not sell the goods or he is not interested in the goods or his customer refuses the goods or the poor quality of shipment samples or he will blame off season or sudden crisis in local market. seller will not have any problem of getting payment. fax and email. He would affect the seller psychologically. If the buyer is not genuine. then seller will face some problems in getting payment. So he has to double-check about the buyer’s genuineness. Even if the seller calls buyer’s office. But in D/P terms. Though the buyer gets L/C opened from his bank. In these days. 79 . After the shipment. the buyer would not answer his call. On receipt of the documents in their bank. The buyer has to pay a good amount to these agencies as their commission and service charges. with the buyer to persuade him to clear the goods. Totally it is fully seller’s risk to make the business without problem. seller will send all the required documents including B/L to buyer’s bank through his bank. After 2 or 3 weeks. then he has his commitment on that particular business and also the seller gets confidence of that particular business and getting payment. the seller does not have any hold. the buyer will not communicate with the seller. If the buyer is genuine. He will drag the days purposely to put the seller in trouble. Then the seller’s problem started. But the other procedures are the same as L/C. these buyers will not open L/C. honesty and reputation before accepting these terms.79 buyer will be ready to keep their huge money (300% of L/C amount) blocked in the bank for 4 to 5 months. Seller can not expect any favour or rights for the payment. In these terms. In this case. If the buyer is dishonest and if he wants to play with the seller. the buyer has to open L/C from other countries through some financial agencies. On the other hand. buyer will save his money on banking charges and other things. 3. 4. If the buyer opens L/C. he will not show any interest in the goods. the seller has to be double-careful in making the goods in the required quality and shipping the goods in time without any delay. But as this buyer is not genuine. By these terms. he has to pay the bank charges for opening L/C and proceedings. the seller does not get confidence on business and payment. After the shipment of goods and after the dispatch of documents from his bank to buyer’s bank. Seller has to depend on the buyer completely for accepting the goods and making the payment. Without getting 100% confirmation. there is no need for the buyer to open L/C.

either buyer’s bank or the seller 80 . 75days. I am sorry. I don’t like to put you into big loss. In the D/P terms. Thus the seller will get frustrated and disappointed by the buyer. Some tips: To avoid this. seller can discuss with buyer with another payment option. Hence I said to him that this is not possible. Believe me. Take care that these samples should not have any mistakes. I know this is not fair. Due to his commitments on this payment. the seller will get ready to get the payment with a discount or claim. So in this term. Some times he may lose his business too. etc. I can not let you down because you are my friend. Then he would inform the buyer his willingness for discount or claim. I will send your documents back. I can do this help for you. I will send your documents back to you. That is giving some commission to the buyer for opening At Sight L/C. I understand your problems and I will help you to solve this problem. I tried with our customers. Thus both the buyer and the seller will be happy. No body is interested to take the goods. But it will take at least 2 to 3 months. I have tried my best to sell the consignment to the original customer and the other customers too. 3. the buyer’s bank will release (the seller’s) documents to the buyer on getting the payment from him. He will not do anything with the samples). (This is only a drama. 2. If you agree for this. his bank will release the documents to him without asking for his payment. D/A terms: These terms are called Documents against Acceptance or Delivery against Acceptance. friend. 45days. Pls think it over and let me know. if the buyer does not want to make the payment. If you want. the seller will have more risks of payment. the buyer’s bank will remind the buyer for the payment only after 60 days from the date of receipt of documents. But he is ready to accept the goods at 50% price. He strictly says that he doesn’t need the goods. I can not convince my customer as he is not ready to take the goods. With this commission. This is almost like D/P terms. Or he would agree for D/A terms. I will try to sell this consignment to some other customer. They will have different payment periods like 30days. If the terms are mentioned as ‘60 days D/A’. if the seller agrees to pay 2 to 3% of FOB value as L/C commission.80 1. 60days. the buyer can cover his expenses of L/C opening charges. So pls send me another set of shipment samples quickly. And pls change the documents as ‘90 days D/A’ (we are going to discuss about this D/A as the next subject) and send them back to me immediately. 120days. But I have convinced my customer somehow. Some buyers will agree to open At Sight L/C. 90days. other banking charges and bank interest. Even after this period. I can try to sell the goods by myself. So I advise you to pls arrange to get back your goods. In order to help you. But in D/A terms.

The person who is in charge for this valuable Marketing Department is called Marketing Manager or Chief Marketing Executive. CEO (Chief Executive Officer) himself will take care of Marketing. etc. Marketing Managers should have thorough update knowledge in Self Study. labour laws. etc. we must know about the capacity.. machineries. the overseas buyers have created their own Code of Conduct which is mainly about Child Labour.81 can not do anything. etc. market situation and general policy of our company. etc. Benefits to workers. Hence the person who is doing marketing must have thorough knowledge in these things. Code of Conduct: Nowadays. of our company. Merchandising. Attendance. MARKETING For every product. Also the marketing department controls Production. safety & environment of factory. 81 . So this term can be used only based on the good understanding between the buyers and the sellers. Purchase. overheads. Thus we can understand that the marketing covers almost all the important things. Sampling and Quality. I prefer to explain in a ‘how to do’ basis. staff and workers. Customer Study. There will be assistants for him like Deputy / Junior Marketing Managers or Marketing Executives. terms of payment. SELF STUDY: Before making any decision on marketing. Costing & Pricing. Pollution. Documentation. pollution. He can delay the payment further by convincing his bank by informing some reasons like poor quality of goods. Instead of giving details about them. Work Study. Market Study. it is very essential for the Marketing Manager to have his own technical knowledge and experience about all the important things of knitted garments manufacturing and exporting. Besides we must have knowledge about our working conditions. salary and wages. Safety measures. benefits to workers. Maternity leave for women workers. Product Study. strengths. Communication. Working conditions of workers. Though there are various assistants in various divisions / departments to assist or to help the Marketing Managers. Also we must know about our customers. preference. financial strength. It is also called as Sales. Shipping and Payment. bribe. Also the buyers have formed Code of Ethics which is about corruption. We will see these departments and activities in the coming chapters elaborately. Some times. Then only he can do the marketing in a successful way. Marketing is very most important. weaknesses. Hours of working. commitment to customers.

.An evacuation plan should be displayed in the factory. 82 . . or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical. And these buyers expect their suppliers should follow these things strictly.First aid equipment must be available in each factory. a person is a child until the age of 18. These procedures are called Code of Conduct. such as emergency exits. Limits for working hours and overtime for this age group should be set with special consideration to the workers’ low age.Exits should not be blocked by cartons. and at least one person in each department should have training in basic first aid. .82 indirect approach.All exit doors should open outwards. . Hence the employees in the age group 15 – 18 years are to be treated accordingly. fire extinguishers.Workers’ safety should be a priority at all times. the keys should be placed behind breakable glass next to the doors.No hazardous equipment or unsafe buildings are accepted. Safety Building and Fire Safety . or suffers mental or bodily harm.All workers should be aware of the safety arrangements in the factory. the fire alarm should be tested regularly and evacuation drills to be made regularly. . Accordingly they want to make sure that nobody whose work is contributing to their business is deprived of their human rights. etc. Child Labour A person younger than 15 years of age is called Child. fabric rolls or debris and should be well lighted. moral or social development. Also we must be sure of ourselves that these things are followed in our company. and thus be available to all staff at all times. Most of the big buyers believe their responsibility towards all the thousands of people taking part in the production of their garments. We must be aware the buyers strategy. etc. .The factory should have clearly marked exits and preferably emergency exits on all floors. The rights of every child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education. first aid equipment. indecent behaviour. First Aid . mental. Because of the competition in their sales. we must have sufficient knowledge in these things.If emergency exits are locked. the buyers use to declare their commitment in their country market that their company is working with the factories which are following below procedures. . spiritual. As we are the persons who are interacting with the buyers. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

and for the quality of the garments.83 .Dismissal of pregnant female workers is not acceptable. and the ventilation should be adequate.Under no circumstances the factories use corporal punishment or other forms of mental or physical disciplinary actions. All commissions and other fees to the recruitment agency in connection with their employment should be covered by the employer. level. and they should have the right to bargain collectively. . . . Factories should not take any disciplinary actions against workers who choose to peacefully and lawfully organise or join an association. following an injury during work in the factory. and overtime work should always be voluntary and properly compensated.Bonded workers.The workers should be granted their stipulated annual leave and sick leave without any form of a remote or indirect consequence of some action. Wages and Working Hours . prisoners or illegal workers should not be engaged in the factories.If foreign workers are employed on contract basis. it is recommended the factories to provide the workers with at least one free meal daily. on time and be fair in respect of work performance.The legal minimum wages should be a minimum.The lighting in each workplace should be sufficient for the work performed. .All workers should be entitled to an employment contract. Workers’ Rights Basic Rights . and the workers should have access without unreasonable restrictions. The number of facilities should be adequate for the number of 83 .Sanitary facilities should be clean.The employer should pay any costs (not covered by the social security) which a worker may incur for medical care.In developing countries. . that the factory environment is clean and free from pollution of different kinds. in case of an accident in the factory. . .No worker should be discriminated against because of race. they should never be required to remain employed for any period of time against their own will. Also after returning back to work. or engage in sexual harassment. . Maternity leave is to be given for 84 working days from the date of delivery.The temperature in the factory should be tolerable as a working environment. . .Wages should be paid regularly. gender.All workers should be entitled to his or her basic rights. . Factory Conditions . . but not a recommended.All workers with the same experience and qualifications should receive equal pay for equal work. she must be allowed 2 hours daily (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) for milk feeding to the child up to one year of child’s age. Fans should be provided when needed. . Working hours per day should be only 8 hours.A doctor or nurse should be available at short notice. at all times of day.It is important for the workers' well-being. .Weekly working time must not exceed the legal limit. religion or ethnic background.Female workers should be given their stipulated maternity leave in case of pregnancy. . .All workers should be free to join associations of their own choosing. .

. and preferably separated for men and women. . Then it would be very difficult for the buyer to retain his reputation. And the buyer’s sales and business would be affected tremendously.If a factory provides housing facilities for its staff. Also the company policies must be known to every worker. and the living space per worker must meet the minimum legal requirement. There should be ‘open door’ policy. So it is our duty to study our organisation well. from the buyers’ countries. unsafe factories. Housing Conditions . . they will publish in the newspapers and will telecast in televisions in their countries.The environment is of increasing concern globally and the factories should act responsibly in this respect. So the buyers don’t like to take any risk. will visit and inspect the factories without any prior intimation. contact person’s name. low wages. . toilets and showers should be provided for men and women. some Social Organisations or Media Persons. etc. Due to this. the requirements regarding safety and factory conditions above regulations should be covered for the housing area too.There should be no restriction on the workers' right to leave the dormitory during off hours. This will help us always to take the right 84 .Factories should not use prohibited chemical substances or hazardous chemicals in the production. Also they are against to the bonded labour system.Fire alarms. the buyers give more preference for the Code of Conduct than for pricing. cruelty of labour. Policies & approaches: A successful organisation must believe in working with a set of values rather than manuals. We must thoroughly know about our company’s internal and external policies. quality. child labour. they will protest against the buyer’s way of business. fast pace of working and constant improvement. contact numbers and also the factory address & contact numbers. Sanitary facilities should be available on each floor. Environment . The developed countries are very strict in workers’ policies. With these details. fire extinguishers. the big buyers are voluntarily declaring to their countries that they are not working with the factories which are not following the above regulations. If they found that the factory is not following even any one of the regulations. That is why they are very strict in selecting the factories to work with. granting all employees the right and possibility to discuss any work related issue directly with the management.84 workers in the factory. .Separate dormitories. Factories must comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations in the country. Also these buyers are openly declaring their suppliers’ full address. some times. unobstructed emergency exits and evacuation drills in dormitory areas to be followed importantly.All workers must be provided with their own individual bed. etc. capacity. As the publics of developed countries have very good social awareness. Basic values include believing in people. Nowadays. teamwork.

85 decisions in right time. So he will have real close relation with colleagues. All the Heads should remember one thing always. and even drivers to help him by sharing his jobs. securities. juniors. The Head should realise the fact that he is responsible for all the activities in his Organisation / Department / Division / Factory / Section / Wing / etc. He will not get any improvement by giving abuses or by giving punishments or by demoting or transferring to other jobs. expectations. he can 85 . when one subordinate did some mistakes in his duties. when we are doing marketing. The Head should always remember the fact that without getting all these persons help. If the Marketing Manager keeps distance and forms unnecessary formalities and restrictions in meeting him. who is helping us. according to our policies. we will not get angry with him. he should not get angry with him. On the other hand. Section Head. The Head should realise that it is not possible for him to do all kind of works / jobs by himself. but should think that they are HELPING him. grudges and grievances very well. Managing Director. Department Head. Marketing Manager. He will have easy approach. There should be a cordial relation among all the department staff. So whenever needed. He will have a pleasing personality. if the head considers that the subordinates are helping him. it is very essential for us. Then only he can take appropriate. Factory Manager. he would see how to correct the mistakes and how to teach the subordinates to avoid the mistakes in future. CEO. the Head should not think that the subordinates are working for him. Administration Manager. whenever needed. the Head is having his employees. or even Security Head. So he will know about all the activities going on in all the departments. That is the reason. Then only he will be able to understand the employees and their rights. workers. subordinates and other departments. the head may get personal satisfaction. He must develop this kind of relation with the employees and workers. telephone operators. subordinates. When a person. then he will not get the clear picture of other departments’ activities. smooth and necessary action balancing the management and the workers. the Marketing Manager should be the person who can be reached easily by all the persons from all the departments at any time. So he will have clear idea of what is going on in his company or organisation. Likewise. because the subordinates are helping the Head. Also the replaced new person will make some other mistakes as this job will be new for him. When a Head realise this fact. assistants. has done a mistake. In simple words. Supervisors. But it will give room for adversity among the colleagues. honestly. The punished person would be psychologically affected and he would do more mistakes in his new job. Production Manager. openly without hiding or exaggerating things. That too. Let us see the definition of a Human Resources Manager or Personnel Manager. The Head may be the Chairman. then he will not feel proud of himself or superior feeling. In the same way. office boys. By doing like this. So everyone will discuss with him freely. he can not do anything by himself alone. He should be the person who can be reached easily by each and every employee or worker at any time on any occasion.

fabric quality. etc. production. immediately on seeing a garment. He must be able to analyse whether that particular garment can be produced by his company. To keep their positions. For that we must have self interest. quality & blends of new fabrics. possibilities and impossibilities. It is the indirect indication of lack of self confidence. they would learn further and would get promoted to further higher position. It will be very dangerous for his self improvement. Also he can learn many things and he can update his knowledge in all the areas. finding and solving problems in production. quality. If a man feels that he knows everything. We must be aware of the changes in style & fit. complete pictures of pricing. then he will not show any interest in learning further. new styles. If they have self confidence. he can not sell even a small pen. This is called Product Judgement. decorative works. He must be able to judge a garment on seeing and verifying quickly and clearly. but it is not an impossible thing. There is no end for learning. We have to learn continuously. involvement. prints. We must develop our knowledge to judge a garment immediately. methods of production. The more thoroughness will bring him the more success. The product may be a small pen or a ship or a garment. measurements. Especially in garments trade. colours. utility. He must know about raw materials and other materials. we can expect rapid changes for every season. appearance.86 take right decision in right time which will help for the improvement of his company or organisation. speciality of garments. Generally we produce garments according to the styles and 86 . concentration. It may be difficult. and they should be their Chief for ever. It is very narrow thinking and we should not follow this or encourage this behaviour. Without knowing or without expressing his knowing. MARKET STUDY: In the modern world. PRODUCT STUDY: For every marketing person. We must develop our update knowledge in new designs. Simply saying. advantages and disadvantages. So it is very essential for a person who is in marketing to have thorough knowledge about the garments. new patterns. dedication and quest for knowledge & information. We can see changes everywhere at every time. changes are inevitable. they will play tricks cunningly to get a good name from their superiors. They wish their subordinates to be their subordinates for ever. etc. etc of the garment should come in to his mind. it is a must to know about the product what he is going to sell or market. yarn composition. etc. Some Heads won’t let his subordinates to grow. So it is within us to grow ourselves and improve the company higher and higher and higher. Also they will spoil the lives of their subordinates and also the improvement of their companies or organisations. It is the same for garment also.

Goods must be shipped from our port by Jan / Feb 2005 As we usually need 3 months time for production. So it is the stores’ responsibility to display the garments in their stores on or before this announced date. They announce even the date of display of garments in their stores. etc. This will help us not only to discuss with the buyers. It is not an easy thing. the buyer’s or importer’s business may be affected. new working systems. CUSTOMER STUDY: As our business closely connected with the buyers. Enquiries to be received from buyer in July / August 2004. new regulations. before confirming the styles. We have to remember that people in the developed countries have more awareness and more time sense than the people in developing countries. Thus. local market. We must show interest to enhance our knowledge on forecasts of designs. etc. Also we must develop our knowledge in latest machineries. fabric quality to be decided by buyer at least in May / June 2004. measurements. new products. colours.87 specifications given by buyers. We must be aware of their way of working and their problems too. it takes around one full year for the buyer to work for every order. fabrics. national market. due to sudden changes in styles or colours or fabrics. foreign exchange. The customers who are interested in these garments would be in the stores expecting to buy the advertised garments. L/C to be received in Sep / Oct 2004. We must know about the way of working of buyers and importers. let us take the summer garments. new methods. before April / May 2005. For example. buyer has to take full clear decision about the garments at least one year in advance before his sales takes place. styles. it is essential for us to study about the buyers’ business too. fashion forecast. If the stores could not display the garments on this date as they announced. colour forecast. etc. So. analysis and experiment of all these things. Even after the deep study. Summer season starts from April to May varies from country to country. In other words. the ordered garments may not get expected sales. international market. design forecast. colours. Style & fit. Salesmen samples and counter samples to be approved in August / Sep 2004. Garments should be displayed in their stores before the season starts. colours. the consumers would be 87 . financial changes. That is. Due to this. Goods should reach buyers ports in Feb / March 2005. Usually the stores would advertise through media about the style of garments. etc. world economy. but also to be prepared for sourcing for the future. updating banking regulations. They publish the photos and specifications of garments in local magazines and newspapers. Buyer has to work on pricing. due to our delayed shipment or any other reasons.

they will place more orders with more styles with more quantities. some stores will announce a discount for their customers towards their unfulfilled promise and as a matter of making their customers happy. Only because of this reason. Then the stores would buy same style with increased quantity. we may feel the food in some restaurants is good. They will not mind increasing prices too. and the importer will rethink of working with the exporter who could not make the prompt shipment. Also the sales of stores will be affected by poor quality of garments. the store sales would also be good. We are having our food at our home and out of home too. Some times. the home made food tastes more than outside food. if reasonable. if the goods are really good in all aspects.. Hence the buyer or importer would be happy to place us the repeat orders. Hence we should not think that our responsibility ends with the shipment and with the receipt of payment. This may be called as kindness or love or affection. you will get the same answer like ‘my home food’. Why and how? It is simple. the stores have to replace the garments or to pay compensation. Thus they will consider us as their reliable supplier. We should remember that the success of our business is based on the success of buyers’ business. the Intention. unsuitable measurements. if the stores have imported the goods by themselves. At the same time. the stores will rethink of working with that importer. If the stores receive complaints from their end customers about the shrinkage. Every one of us should have the intention to produce the garments in such a way that they would be sold immediately in the stores without any problem. The cook must have made the food by thinking of the 88 . Every one of us should think about the satisfaction of the end users of our products. it is being prepared by keeping the health of the family members in mind. they will rethink of working with the exporter who has made the delayed shipment. of satisfying our family members. Or else. On the other hand. Which food will taste more? If you ask anybody. The stores will have to pay more compensation to the customers. Also their sales and reliability among their customers would be affected. etc. everyone in our factory and office should think that the success of our company is in our every hands. Also as they are happy with our performance. Sometimes. we will lose our reputation and business with those buyers. Hence if we ship the poor or defected quality garments to buyers. Normally the compensation will be much higher than the price of defected garments. fit. So while executing the buyers’ orders. The reason for this also is the same – The Intention. But above all. is the main factor which gives more taste to food. As a result. When the food is made at home. poor colour fastness. if the stores have ordered the goods through an importer.88 disappointed and some customers might sue against the stores in the consumer courts. it is prepared with the sincere intention of satisfying the family members.

89 satisfaction of their unknown customers. If the food in a restaurant satisfies their customers, it will pull more customers. By the same way, when we produce the garments, we have to produce them by keeping the satisfaction of our end customers in our mind. Every one of us, who are all directly and indirectly involved in various stages of production, should understand this wonderful philosophy and should follow this sincerely whole heartedly, to reach the success and constant improvement. In this competitive world, every businessman is keen on keeping his customers with him. Nobody will be happy by losing their customers. It is very easier to lose a customer. But it is very difficult to get a good customer. Some times, it may take years together to get a good customer. We will have to spend more time, money, efforts, etc. It is evidently important not to lose the buyers. No buyer will give us ‘the second chance’. If the buyer is disappointed with our goods, then it will be very difficult to convince the buyer to get a second chance. Most of the times, it will become impossible. Hence it is in our hands to satisfy our buyers. It is possible, if every one in a company feels and works in the same way. It is not enough to speak the importance of quality, but to implement them in a suitable way is very important. WORK STUDY: Work Study is part of management systems which means techniques designed to help management to make the best use of all available resources. Work Study Officers are concerned with detailed study and improvement of how work is done and the provision of data to help management in its planning, staffing and control functions. There are two main aspects of Work Study. They are Method Study and Work Measurement. Method Study: The analysis of why and how work is carried out, whether on the work place or in the office, with the aim of devising and installing improvements, in terms of productivity and work satisfaction. Work Measurement: It is using specific techniques to measure the time necessary to complete any particular job. It is usually carried out by direct observation of the work and frequently involves stop-watch measurements. Work measurement plays an important part in setting rates of pay where the content and value of the job has to be assessed. Work Study may also involve designing or introducing labour and time-saving devices, and having ideas for such devices. Staff doing this may work closely with systems analysts in the development of computer projects. The person who is doing Work Study should have following personal qualities. - Tactful and able to accept criticism - Self confident - Numeracy skills 89

90 Ability to analyst problems Able to communicate clearly in speech and in writing.

Though this work study department doing its job, it is important for the person who is doing marketing should know about the activities and importance of this department. (We will see Work Study more in detail in the chapter Production). COSTING & PRICING: We had seen the costing elaborately in the previous chapters. Now we could understand how many things are involved in making costing and how important to have thorough knowledge in them. At the same time, we must be aware that we can not give the same price for all the buyers. It may be same style with same specifications. Also when we receive the enquiries, we don’t get full information. It will not be fair to ask the buyer about some details. So we will have to assume or to judge some details with our experience and based on the buyer’s quality. Our judgement can not be the same for every buyer. So when we quote price, we have to make the costing based on following things. Quantity (huge, medium or small) Colours (many or limited) Packing (normal or special) Quality requirements (high, medium or low). Tolerance level (strict or liberal). Lab test results (expensive, normal or nothing). Price level (high, medium or low). Pricing (reasonable, liberal, tight, competitive or squeezing). Buyer (importer or distributor or own stores). Reliability (good or doubtful). Payment (prompt, delay or doubtful). Payment terms (L/C, D/P or D/A). Delivery terms (FOB, C&F or CIF).

We must remember that when we quote prices to buyer, it is our commitment to buyer. If the buyer accepts our prices, then we must be in a position to execute that orders. After getting buyer’s confirmation, we should not refuse the orders. This is not only against to business ethics; but also will become the question of our reliability, immaturity, poor knowledge, etc. So when we make costing and quoting prices, we must be sure of everything. COMMUNICATION: Communication is the mean of expressing ourselves, our thinking, sharing opinions, comments, acceptance, disagreement, questions, answers, explanations, etc. Our way of communication is so important because it creates an image about our company or organisation. Even without meeting the buyers in person, we can do business without any problem, if our communication is good and impressive. No false information or exaggerated information to be communicated, expecting to impress the buyer. 90

91 At the same time, our way of communication should be in a friendly way. It should not disturb or irritate the buyers. Even if the buyer has made some mistakes or even if we have rights to argue, our communication should be very polite. When we communicate by email or fax, our message should be very brief, precise, clear and sharp, mainly prompt. It should be easily understandable when it is read for the first time. The buyer will get irritated and annoyed if he has to read it for second time to understand what we are coming to say. When we speak to buyer over phone, our discussion should be clear and sharp. Our call should not disturb him. It is advisable to make a note of the subjects and to be prepared for the questions, answers and explanations, before making a call. When we talk to him over phone, our speech will be so natural, if we bring his face and his mannerisms to our mind imaginarily. For every business, the first meeting with our buyer is very important. The meeting may be at our place or buyer’s place. Any first meeting will take hardly 20 minutes only. But these 20 minutes of meeting is very important to do any volume business. So it is with us how we are making this meeting – whether a successful one or not. We will have to explain about us, our company, our management, our infrastructures, our special features, our products, our production & quality systems, our pricing, our reliability, etc, and we will have to win the buyer’s heart within these 20 minutes. First impression is the best impression. Here the buyer should have the satisfied impression about working with us. There is no other choice. If we fail to impress him, we can not do business with him. Then we will have to try very hard to get him satisfied. So it is our responsibility to make the meeting as a success. When we speak to the buyers, it is advised to speak by looking directly at his face. It will give a good image to buyers. Some times, it will be difficult for us to understand the buyers’ speech because of their different pronunciation. If we listen to their speech by directly watching their lips and their face movements, we can understand their speech more clearly. Our language and way of expression should be very natural and casual. Dramatic language or amateur look should be avoided. Buyers don’t expect any formalities. They know that they are on business. Likewise, we should give more importance to business than giving preference to the formalities. During the meeting, it is always appreciable to speak only the truths. It is always better to be as we are. If we lie to anything, in order to give a good impression, these lies themselves may create a wrong impression about us. It may give a chance for buyer to doubt about our reliability. Nobody in the world can blame anybody for not having any particular thing or for not knowing any particular thing. So we don’t have to be ashamed of not having everything or not knowing everything. But we would have to be ashamed if the buyer comes to know that we had lied to him by giving false information. So it is very important that the 91

packing list. If there is any L/C amendment. then try to find a solution and then will help us. Honest people like simplicity. After shipping the documents. So the documents should reach the port customs well in advance to enable the planned stuffing. risk factors. Without these documents the shipping can not be done. If there are some small mistakes. For any terms. DOCUMENTATION: It may be a clerical job. We must be honest to ourselves and others. 92 . Hence it is always better to use simple words in our correspondences. some buyers may make use of our mistakes in documents. They may delay the payment pointing out these mistakes. cordial and mutual understanding business relationship with the buyers. we must discuss with the buyer honestly. etc are the shipping documents. But as this job deals with the valuable documents. so that they will understand clearly without any confusion. Most of the European buyers or their colleagues may not be well versed in English. Export Certificate. Lab test reports and other required documents as per L/C conditions. AEPC endorsed invoice. etc. may be poor in English. They are Invoice. then appreciate. So it should be handled at most care. Certificate of Origin. Some documents are needed when shipping the goods. Sea shipment or air shipment may get affected due to delay in submitting the documents in the customs. Packing list. Earlier when we discussed about payment terms. Inspection certificate. GR form (Exchange control). this is also an important department. develop and strengthen the relationship with buyers.92 information which we give to the buyer should be very much true. we had seen the importance of L/C. But when we have a friendly. This much friendly relationship should be maintained with the buyer. Hence it is always advised to prepare the documents with thoroughness. Our purpose is to make clear message. GSP Form A. The payment terms can be L/C or D/P or D/A. there will not be any problem of payment. There are mainly two types of documents. Visa. the revised conditions to be checked while preparing the documents. These documents are called bank documents. some documents are to be submitted to the bank. It is advised to take better care to avoid spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes. Also when we come across any unexpected problem or mistake – which is not purposely or knowingly done – in our production or in our official details. they should be prepared with more care and without any mistake. The buyer will understand. not to show our strength in language. documentation. various payment terms. Only our communication can establish. They must be very good in business. As we are aware that the documents should be strictly as per L/C conditions. Tough guys dress easy. these bank documents are to be submitted to our bank. They are shipping documents and bank documents. Bill of Lading or Airway bill.

they will produce the documents as per the old information. it is very essential to do the purchase strictly as per the costing. PURCHASE: Purchase department is a very valuable department which is always connected with accounts department. And this distribution system will be perfect. 93 . we will be safe too. are to be purchased according to the costing and pricing. ETA buyer’s port (Expected Time of Arrival). each department will take care of each job. trims. etc. These changes must be intimated to the documentation department as soon as they are agreed. this kind of systems can not be expected. If this vessel or flight details are not suitable for him. quality and delivery of the purchased items. CMT. it is responsible for the price. So. He will also check these details with his clearing agents. So it is always better to get the shipping confirmation from the buyer before booking the vessel or flight. Also it is advised that documentation department should get the confirmation from the marketing department for the shipping and bank documents before the submission. To make the expected quality production and to execute the orders with the expected profit. Also the charges of processing. SHIPPING: We had seen the importance of displaying the goods in buyers’ stores in time. complete details of ETD our port (Expected Time of Departure). etc. quantities. shipment date.. are to be confirmed and executed according to the costing and pricing. before stuffing the goods in to container. has been agreed between our marketing department and the buyer. But in small and medium companies. So the marketing department is closely related to purchase department. name of the line or airline. To make this possible. then the buyer can not comment anything on delayed arrival or something else. Hence the documentation department should be informed about the changes then and there. accessories. it is very important for us to confirm the suitable vessel or flight to reach the buyers’ port in stipulated time. In big companies. Before confirming or booking the vessel or flight. If the documentation department does not aware of these changes. So the raw materials. shipping. connection details. It is better to discuss with the marketing department for clear understanding to avoid problems. he may suggest any other option. whether the company is big or medium or small. Marketing department has confirmed the prices of export orders. finishing. So there will not be any problem of getting payment. etc. then he will confirm. As we ship the goods according to his confirmation.93 Some times. there may be some changes in prices. other job works. By this way. everything to be informed to the buyer to get his confirmation. Any decision can be taken. This department involves not only with money.

Sampling. So it is a very valuable department. Lab dips. Preparing internal order sheets. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. though there are individual departments to take care of purchase. Helping documentation department.94 PAYMENT: It is the final and important stage of Marketing. Other departments don’t know the buyer’s instructions. documentation. we can get these problems solved amicably. Preparing purchase orders. they have very high value. Mediating production and quality departments. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. internal communication is also very much valuable. When we have this kind of understanding relation. At the same time. the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. the goods must be made as per the specifications with required quality standards. We have to remember that above all the terms of conditions of payment. Also if we come across any unexpected problem in unexpected circumstances. 94 . it is very essential for the marketing person to know the day to day status and the current position of these departments. Some times. As we discussed earlier. communication. Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. production. Also the documents must be prepared perfectly without any mistake or deviation and to be submitted to bank in time. Accessories & trims. it is very important to develop a healthy. Internal & external communication. By the same way. they know only the merchandising department’s instructions. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer’s orders clearly. In any case. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. and smooth relation with buyers. The goods must be shipped in stipulated time so that the buyer gets them on time. then there will not be any problem of getting payment. Taking responsibility for inspections and Following shipment. Internal & external communication Earlier. friendly. shipping and payment. All these things are to be followed perfectly to get the prompt payment. Advising and assisting production. Advising quality department about quality level.

this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. then also we will have to send these samples. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements.Pre-production samples . Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship.95 Even a small omission.Photo samples .Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples . then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each 95 .Fashion show samples .Proto samples or fit samples . Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often.Salesmen samples or promotional samples . they will bring orders to us. product range. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously.Shipment samples Let us see about these samples. they may not be correctable. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. quality standards and price level. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. buyer may need samples. Sometimes. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. They are . if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. We may have to spend too much on these samples. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. For one enquiry. Whenever they have enquiries. Sampling There may be a separate sampling department in a company. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Prevention is better than cure. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. Some times. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. We have to send many samples to buyers.Wash test samples .Production samples .

improper measurements. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. by showing these samples. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. style and fit.96 style. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. we may get orders for all 5 styles. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. If the order is for 3 colours. we can not blame the buyer. Chain stores buyers will not ask for salesmen or promotional samples. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements. unmatched prints or embroidery. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. But as we don’t get orders. unsuitable colours. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Wash test samples Some buyers need these samples to test the shrinkage. measurements. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. due to poor quality. 3 styles or 1 style. So these samples are very important. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. we may not get order for even a single style. the approved samples should be followed in production. Some times. He too can not help us in this regard. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. measurements. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. dimension stability and spirality of garments after washing. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. Some times. some times. but in the actual measurements and specifications. time. Based on these samples. After getting the approval. Of course these samples will help us for our business. etc for making these samples. colour fastness. buyer may comment on fabric. To avoid this embarrassing situation. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. Any way. All the buyers don’t need these samples. style and fit. 96 . Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. etc of salesmen samples. Expected sales may not be possible. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. buyers may do some changes in measurements. We might have spent more money. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. So they can be made in available similar fabrics. for the styles which we don’t get orders. making. etc.

They will accumulate the sales quantities. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. But each order will get small quantity only. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. But we can get higher prices for these orders). then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. they may do wash test also. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. The buyers will pay the cost of these samples. hang tag. we can correct them in production. Some times. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. etc. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. sizes and important measurements of garments including photos. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. for some styles. In any case. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Fashion show samples Some chain stores buyers will need these samples. We should not get any remark or comment. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. In this case. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. These samples can be sent from production. we may get many repeat orders continuously years together. They will need these samples in all colours covering all sizes. These buyers need these samples for taking photographs. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. packing box. Sometimes. these samples may be considered as ‘shipment samples’. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. colours. they will place orders repeatedly. If they don’t get samples on time. Photo samples Some buyers use to sell their garments by creating a catalogue furnishing all details like style. 97 . Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Usually they need 2 or 3 samples in each size in each colour.97 If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. (These buyers are called Catalogue buyers.

98 Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips. 98 . They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation.Tube light matching. There are different matching systems followed in Labs. . we may think they are not suitable. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this. if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light. the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system. it will differ in sun light. (Some times. at least 1 week time will be wasted.Ultra Violet matching. And even if we get some comments from buyers. just a tip). If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. Each of these above matching will give different results. If we see the same in the evening or the next day. courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. This is not cheating. Before sending the lab dips to buyer. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). By this way. They are .Sun light matching. he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately. For example. . This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. he has to take some extra care. To adjust this wasted time. Hence before proceeding lab dips. hence there might be some mistakes. the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. Different buyers follow different matching. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. Our reliability will get questioned here). . Lab dips It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer. If we see lab dips in the morning. he will have to make them again. tags. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. etc. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips. If we expect any comments in these samples. When sending the lab dips to buyer. Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. we may think they are closer.Sodium light matching (show room).

the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. etc to buyer for approval. Preparing internal order sheets The merchandising department has to prepare internal order sheets based on the buyer’s order sheets. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. delivery date. The clear information will help everybody to understand the requirements clearly. The merchandiser should be aware of the value of his job. packing and shipping to be clearly informed to the concerned departments. It is better to send in 2 or 3 types or qualities for getting approval. But the other information like description. This will help to avoid confusion when processing. So while preparing internal order sheets. This will save a good time. accessories. delivery target and payment terms of the required raw materials. then it will be difficult for the bar code scanner to read in the buyers’ stores. Also as usual. merchandiser and buyer. the other departments will get all the instructions and specifications. polybags. accessories and trims should be clearly mentioned in the purchase orders. weight. inner boards. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. quantity. They should be advised to the purchase department. The fabric order sheets should contain the full details of fabric quality. Also the merchandiser has to discuss with the production department and patterning department for the requirement of fabrics. He may omit some information to other departments. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. Accordingly he has to prepare fabric order sheets too. colours. the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. measurements. When sending lab dips to buyer. Accessories & trims The merchandiser has to send the accessories and trims like buttons. price or price target. 99 . etc. The description. trims. It is advised to get the production samples of these accessories and trims from the suppliers to make sure of the quality. export price. zippers. Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser has to prepare purchase orders. quality standards. From the merchandising department only. If the bar codes are not clear. like buyer’s address. specifications. The other departments may not need these information. the counter samples of each of these accessories & trims to be kept in our files for better follow ups.99 While making lab dips. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill. The bar codes in the hang tags or stickers are to be checked thoroughly. labels. he should order them for bulk. he should prepare them by taking care of each and every detail. hang tags. diameter and width of required fabrics. After getting the buyer’s approvals. This should be followed for all the accessories and trims.

the buyer may ask any third party (like SGS) to do the inspections. HS code. quality. ETD. description. mid final and final.100 Advising and assisting production As the merchandiser is the person who knows better about buyer’s approvals. quantity. comments and instruction. initial. but also it is the merchandiser’s duty to coordinate with these departments for smooth shipping and to follow them closely. port discharge. for the better flawless production. it is preferable for the merchandiser to check the important things like the prices. Taking responsibility for inspections If we work with buying offices or buying agents or buyer’s liaison offices. It is not only enough to give the instructions to them. online. He has to give the shipping instructions clearly to the production. Following shipment Finally the merchandiser has to make sure the vessel details. he will have to advise and assist production. the merchandiser should know about day to day affairs. Though the production and quality departments are taking responsibility of quality. delivery terms. status and problems of each stage of production. the number of inspections will be limited. So he has to involve in production by advising and assisting the production staff closely. If we work with the buyers directly. 100 . Helping documentation department Though the documentation department takes care of all documents. purchase order number. It is better for the merchandiser to take responsibility for these inspections too. consignee’s & consignor’s addresses. there will be many inspections like pilot batch. Category. ETA. it is the merchandiser and the marketing manager who decide whether the quality is up to the acceptable level or not. Coordination regarding shipping It is one of the responsibilities of merchandiser to follow the shipping. though there is a separate production departments. So the merchandiser should advise and instruct the production and quality departments about the quality and tolerance levels of garment. documents and shipping departments. etc. Advising production and quality department about quality level Each garment will have different acceptable quality level according to the buyer’s specification and tolerance level. shipping lines. The buyer may like to see the inspection in the middle production or final inspection. Also he should always anticipate problems in all stages and also he should be prepared for suitable alternates too. As he has to guarantee the quality to the buyer. payment terms. freight & other charges are in accordance with the buyer’s instructions and our suitability. vessel connections. Some times. B/L instructions. documents.

This is called Work Study method. But there is another important cost. nowadays. in the garment industry it denotes the garment production. It includes the wages. Upholstery. This production cost plays a crucial role in garment factories worldwide. latest technical procedures and standards are followed. garment styles. This GSD is the accepted international standard for methods and time measurement for the needle industry. As we see in the earlier chapters. Work Study Officers were following about 250 codes for defining the jobs. we will see garment production in detail. planning is important.101 PRODUCTION This is an important. but also involves the fabric production. the production department looks after not only the garment production. For helping to reduce the production cost. Production planning is to be well made according to the available machines. It is the responsibility of the production department to minimise the production cost and to keep them under control. electricity and maintenance of production floors. accessories and trims. time and cost. and falling sales prices in the garment industry. Since 1996. increasing competition. These three things are to be fulfilled compulsorily. quantity. responsible and sensitive process. Now let us see this in detail. GSD (General Sewing Data) systems are being followed worldwide especially in needle trade production like Apparel. We have already seen the fabric productions in the earlier chapters. which is called production cost. At the same time. accessories and trims with the required quality and on time. 101 . Though the name ‘production’ stands for many meanings in other trades. So now. proper planning is essentially needed. This may be a single sentence. It is the responsibility of the production department to produce the garments strictly according to the specifications with the required quality level and to ship them on stipulated time. It mainly based on the arrangement of fabrics. Accordingly for the better production of garments. production lead time and targeted shipment date. overheads. We have to plan the production in accordance with expected quality. Furniture and Shoes. Time study were done with stop clocks and Motion Time Measurement (MTM) are fixed and followed. the merchandising and purchase departments will take care of the costs of fabrics. But the garment production is not that much simple. WORK STUDY: In the early 90’s. In these times of rising costs. it is of particular importance that productivity is maximised at the highest degree of economic efficiency. valuable. PRODUCTION PLANNING: For doing every job.

506 Lower Critical Limit = 0. this effect is negligible.5 = 0. we define Upper Critical Limit by adding 10% of BPT and Lower Critical Limit by reducing 10% of BPT. quality control and packing. sewing. This is not true. This GSD helps us to analyse and plan every single operation in the sewing of a garment. We have to find out the Basic Pitch Time (BPT) which is the average pitch time for each machine. Upper Critical Limit = 0. Operation break down is calculated for each operation. This is called Line Balancing. We can understand that in an average operation in garment production.46 + 10% = 0. In GSD systems. When comparing with the higher prices for more RPM machines. It means for this particular garment takes 11.5 minutes for production from cutting.102 Even ultra modernised plants by themselves offer no guarantee for continuing competitiveness. Each line has to be arranged according to the style of garments. There exists a belief in the industry that production costs can be effectively reduced by using faster and faster sewing machines. let us take the SMV for a Men’s polo shirt as 11. while 70% to 80% is handling time. production and finishing are found out separately and added together to get the total SMV of the garment.46 – 10% = 0. the SMV (Standard Minute Value) is calculated. flat lock and single needle. But when we use these advanced GSD systems. Standard Minute Value (SMV): According to these codes. The SMV of cutting. By this latest system.46 25 As we use different kinds of machines for different operations by different operators. Actual time consumption for all the operations and jobs required for each garment is calculated.5. For example. we can save a good amount of wages or we can reduce the production cost or we can increase the production capacity by at least 5%. It helps us to cost our products.414 102 . whether it is a machine or a manual operation. each job or operation is classified in different codes with the Minute value of that particular operation. Basic Pitch Time = SMV Number of machines = 11. only 20% to 30% of the time is the actual sewing machine time. pressing. unless the necessary production costs are thoroughly analysed. this BPT will vary from machine to machine. Line balancing: Each floor will have many lines of machineries. In order to balance this. with a high level of accuracy. Let us work this for say 25 number of various machines like over lock. evaluated and reduced to an absolute minimum. the job codes are simplified with only 36 codes to follow. prior to the start of the production process. So the increasing of machine speeds will have very less effect.

So the total available hours in a month for 250 operators = 241 x 250 = 60. Hence the productivity output will be more. sewing. 30. So the monthly production capacity with 250 operators is 1. Let us see the working hours of each operator per month. That is. 103 . We can find out the production capacity by working as below. We do this. Man planning: Man planning is needed for all operations like cutting.103 Over lock machine operations will take lesser time. pressing.174 garments.57. let us take 50% of this total hours. For example.5 = 1.5 hours per day x 22 days = 209 hours. the number of each machine is to be balanced for each production line. because some operators can be used for multi operations when needed.174 garments. Say 60%. the number of operators for each operation to be balanced accordingly.125 hours can be the effective hours. In order to keep even feeding for all operations like cutting. As it is not possible to perform these available hours fully. we have to assume the number of operators as 29 which is 10 to 15% higher than the number of machines. = Effective hours x 60 minutes SMV = 30. Flat lock machine operations will take medium time which result medium productivity output. quality checking and packing. It is to be decided according to the number of workers. Working hours on Saturdays = 8 hours per day x 4 days = 32 hours. Say 110%.125 x 60 11. relatively the productivity output will be lesser. When we plan for 25 machines. Working hours on week days = 9. let us see the man planning for 250 operators. Say 90%. Total working hours per month = 241 hours. According to the above productivity output and to the SMV of each machine. Single needle machine operations will take more time. sewing and finishing.57.250 hours.

Patterns are to be made in different types according to the form of finished fabrics. yarn stripes. dyed yarns) and hand feel. we need to find the Cost Per Minute which can be arrived as below.104 Cost Per Minute (CPM): To fix the wages and rates.31 This is how we can find out the CMT charges per garment. 104 . etc. prints. Cost Per Minute = Over heads per month Effective Minutes Let us assume the total over heads of one factory of 250 operators is Rs. GSM. diameter or width. open width form. The fabrics may be in tubular form.125 x 60 = Rs. colour shades (dyeing.94 = Rs. As they are comfortable with their own regular traditional systems of production. seaming and hemming are to be given sufficiently.00. the patterns are to be made accordingly. marketing department.5 x 1. If the cutting is done by lay-cutting. the advantages of these new systems are to be explained to them in convincing manners. all over printed. the finished fabrics have to be checked to make sure that the fabrics are as per our required specifications in all aspects like shrinkage.000 per month. colour fastness. PATTERNING: Patterns are made to help cutting. It is not easy to convince the production department to implement these work study systems.35.22. Also if the cutting is made manually. It can be reduced by increasing the work performance of operators. management and the production lines.00. they will not cooperate with work study department. all the patterns are to be made suitably to avoid the fabric wastage. But with so much patience.1. solid. It is in the hands of work study officers to get this implemented smoothly.000 30. FABRIC INSPECTION: Before proceed cutting. It is important that these same workings and same values are to be followed by the work study engineers.94 So CMT charge per garment = SMV x CPM = 11. costing department. It is essential to get the fullest cooperation from every one in the production departments. Cost Per Minute Cost Per Minute = 35. Allowances for cutting.

Especially. diameter.105 If shrinkage. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). to try and implement this system to improve more productivity and to minimise the practical problems. Weight loss and fabric wastage in processing are to be checked thoroughly. During World War II. This is called line system. plackets and other patches. oil stains and other mistakes. by using line system in their production. Once they are being cut. Also the fabrics are to be checked thoroughly for the damages. If the fabrics are not having required colour fastness. some markers may not care about this wales direction. nothing can be done with the cut bits. But this should not be acceptable. width or GSM is not in accordance with our requirement. it is important to cut the 105 . the German army had built one ship in only 4 days. Also the total weight of the finished fabrics is to be checked whether we have received the fabrics according to the fabric program. when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics. then it would be difficult to get the estimated fabric consumption. in order to minimise the fabric wastage. pockets. The fabrics have to be reprocessed to get them fulfilled. Anything can be done to the fabrics – to certain extent – when they are in fabric stage. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches. There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. Then our whole calculation will be changed. colour shade and hand feel. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. LINE SYSTEM: All the production operations like cutting. Feeding between these operations should be even. knitting mistakes. They may mark them in any vacant places. They made this possible. CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and also it eases sewing. The bits which are cut in one day should be made as garments and they should be packed on the same day itself. So all the tests and checking to be done well before commencing cutting. the cutting can not be commenced. quality checking and packing should be done simultaneously. If this not been followed. It is advised to the factories which are not following this system. sewing. the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. Nowadays most of the factories are using this line system. printing mistakes. yarn mistakes. dyeing mistakes.

we will have to reject the full garment. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. The numberings of these bits should remain till the final checking. the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. This is very important. Also we will face problem in carton packing due to the shortage of garments. each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. we can reject the bit simply. SEWING: In the making of knitted garments. efficiency & time and to avoid problem in packing. the cut bits can not be used for sewing.106 hems along the lines. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. the Number of fabric lot also to be marked in each numbering. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. it is better to check the cut bits before numbering and bundling them. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics. Inspection of cut bits: Though the fabrics are being checked. the body. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. 106 . Though they are in the same lot. flat lock machines and single needle machines. Markings. more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. At the same time. Because of this carelessness. When cutting manually and by lay. So it is essential to check all cut bits thoroughly to save money. numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. But if we don’t check them in bit form and if we find the mistake after making the garment. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. we will have to lose the full cost of one garment. When the bits are numbered. the mostly used machines are over lock machines. the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. So when cutting the fabrics. As we had seen earlier. This will help to avoid shading in packing. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. In case of ‘S’ cutting. If the curve edges are not being cut properly. in order to avoid shade variation. each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments. If we find any bit having a mistake.

Overhauling and lubrication are to be done regularly. They even know whether there is any jump stitch or loose stitch or other mistakes in their sewing. patches and badges. The stitches made by manual machines are not consistent and even. But most of the operators don’t do this. Tensions and pressures are to be checked before starting sewing. It is the operators’ responsibility to keep the machines neat and clean. Hence nowadays. Single needle stitches should have minimum 14 stitches per inch. Over lock machines are available with 3 threads. Flat lock machines are used for hemming the bottoms. attaching collars & pockets. only the power driven machines are used for these operations. they are not the persons who are going to make the garments. attaching labels. trimming and packing. 5 threads and 6 threads. supervisors and line supervisors know well about the specifications and quality standards of the garments. Though they know better. But this is not enough. the tailors or operators will know the quality of sewing. attaching V neck & half moon patch with cover stitch. We can be confident that they will do in a better way if they are aware of their 107 . Stitches should have required strength. Speedy sewing is appreciable. Impression marks due to excess pressure on garments should be avoided. The sides of bodies and side of sleeves are to be seamed only with 4 threads over lock. Also there will be more oil stains when sewing with manual machines. This will result unnecessary problems in quality checking and assortment packing. making cover stitches along the armholes and shoulders. making. In order to get better production result. Oil levels and oil leakages are to be checked very often. Single needle machines are used for making plackets. 4 threads. the sewing methods. Tension and pressure adjustments are to be checked regularly. Wrinkles between stitches are to be avoided. In order to show their productivity speed or due to carelessness or by trying to escape or by passing the bug to some other operators. sewing quality standards and the buyer’s tolerance level are to be well explained to all the workers and operators involved in cutting. If they correct these mistakes then and there. there will not be a big problem. Both manual and power driven machines are available. But it is more important to make perfect sewing. The beauty of the garments is only in the hands of the operators. Jump stitches or loose stitches should be avoided. The production managers. these operators don’t correct the mistakes immediately. The operators or helpers or line supervisors or floor supervisors are not to be allowed to do any adjustments to machines. When making sewing. The machines are always to be well maintained to keep them in good condition.107 Over lock machines are used for joining two or more fabrics. because this has safety thread stitch. Each stitch requires specific number of stitches per inch. So it is more important to follow these stitching regulations strictly. Over lock and flat lock stitches should have minimum 11 stitches per inch. The machines are to be serviced or adjusted by the qualified and authorised mechanics only.

only if the garment is passed by the quality checkers. So the quality checkers should check for the wash care labels. Hence it is suggested to have meetings among the workers and operators prior to the commencement of production. When they trim the threads of buttons. If ‘M’ size label is attached to the ‘L’ size garment mistakenly or purposely. The numberings are to be removed from the garment. This is very important. TRIMMING: After sewing. It is advised to teach them by showing the garments and by advising about the things to be checked in the particular garment. So it is mandatory that each garment should have the wash care label with clear instructions. So the size labels to be attached to the garments strictly in accordance to the measurements. This is an important thing to be followed. button holes and embroidery. There are more chances for missing of these wash care labels. Nowadays most of the factories are using broken needle detector to remove the broken needles. These checkers are not properly directed to find out the other important mistakes. stitching quality. garments will get cut which will result huge garment rejection. The end user will wash the garments. The garments should be kept free from any insects or their stains. 108 . shade variations and overall finishing of garments. print or embroidery mistakes. if they have to be attached at inside of side seams. Also the broken needles are also to be checked. The end customers buy the garments on verifying the size labels only. They must handle the trimmers with care when cutting the threads. according to the washing instructions mentioned in the wash care labels. general appearance. labeling. They are using them mostly to check the stitches. Also the checkers must be allowed to know the tolerance level of the measurements. The checkers should check the garments on both inside and outside. the thread ends and unwanted fabric edges are getting trimmed by trimming department. QUALITY CHECKING: Most of the factories are not utilising these quality checkers properly. If they handle carelessly. This will definitely help to improve their involvement in production. damages. The checkers should be taught clearly to check the measurements. oil stains.108 importance of their jobs and if they feel that their jobs are respected properly. then the fate of the garment becomes ‘M’ size. So it is important for the quality checkers to make sure that the size labels are attached properly according to the measurements. Also they should be encouraged to give suggestion for the production improvement. they should cut with extra care. to find out the oil stains and other mistakes and to mark them. garment shapes.

hang tags.Samples have to be approved if they are sent for approval. operators and finishers to have the awareness of the importance of sampling and to work with immense involvement in their jobs. bar codes. So a special team is needed for making samples. SAMPLING: As we have seen earlier. before using them. documentation. If we don’t follow them properly. These general qualities can be controlled by practices. pattern maker. our methods. our way of working. We can see that the sampling department is always busy in making one or the other samples. our reaction. .109 PACKING: Buyer’s packing instructions to be followed strictly. we should pack them according to the fabric lot number. it is essential for the fabric coordinator. .Samples are to be made exactly in conformity of the specifications and measurements. The buyers usually give carton measurements according to the length & width of the racks in their warehouse. printed polybags and price tags are to be checked. Before purchasing cartons. So it is always better to get the buyer’s confirmation before using them. then the buyer will face problems in delivering them to his customers. Hence individual packing. communication. etc. marketing. 109 . training and by our systems. Also they restrict the weight of cartons according to the local labour laws. our policies. finishing. Sampling department has more responsibilities as follows. the measurements of cartons are to be get confirmed by the buyers. As samples are important for the improvement of business and important part of executing orders. The buyers are instructing us the packing instruction in a convenient way to deliver the garments to their customers. Labels. This is very important to segregate the shades according to the fabric lots. if the weight is above their local standard weight.Fabrics. etc. The garments packed in a carton should be from the same fabric lot. whether they are in accordance with the buyer’s instruction. production. . QUALITY CONTROL QUALITY SYSTEM: Quality exists everywhere . our our language. way of expression. blister packing and carton packing are to be made exactly as per the buyer’s instruction. accessories and trims are to be arranged as per specifications. Whether the packing is solid size packing or assortment packing.Samples are to be sent strictly on time. In a company the quality is expected in management. . Buyers may face problems from the workers. we have to make various types of samples. our dress code.

labour management. inspections. They will not listen to the practical problems. It is very important for the production dept to maintain as per the production planning. intimation to buyers. So they will monitor the production department closely to achieve their targets. But the production department has to take responsibilities for many things like production planning. cutting. Their ultimate aim is to control quality in all stages to get better quality garments. maintenance of machineries. pressing and up to packing. shipment. Though these meetings will affect production and shipment. Most of the times. etc. Quality Audit Dept. processing. patterning.110 But when we talk about quality control of garments. 110 . nobody can be blamed. But practically. quality. rejections. yarn. the production dept has to discuss with the merchandising dept for further action. knitting. By this way. Let us see what is happening practically in most of the factories. etc. the shipment will be affected. If there is any deviation at any stage of their planning. Their only aim is to control the quality of garments and to make sure that they are up to acceptable quality level. but the corrective measures. Nowadays factories are having various departments for controlling quality namely Quality Control Dept. When there are major quality problems. As the quality departments’ only duty is to check the quality. inspections and mainly the shipment date. production sufferings or loss. several meetings are to be conducted to discuss and to find solution for the problems. Generally these departments will work independently with the freedom of finding and pointing out the mistakes. future orders. the merchandising department or the management has to take decisions which may be against to the quality department’s remarks. sewing. etc. because every one is doing his duties well. These departments will not worry too much about the costs. profit or loss. This will not be healthier for a company or organisation. they will have to follow the instructions and advices of merchandising department. production cost. fabrics. So we can understand that there will not be cordial relation between the quality departments. finishing. accessories & trims and mainly shipment on stipulated date. they should be appreciated for doing their duties in a right way. costs. the merchandising department has more valuable responsibilities like sampling. quality of garments. In this system. Or they will not care about the solution for the problems. delay in shipment. productivity. This will create ego and supremacy among the departments. there are many things to be strictly followed in each and every stage of garmenting – starting from sampling. Quality Assurance Dept. After getting the quality remarks from the QC dept. they can not be avoided when there are serious problems. they will see each and everything to find out mistakes. production departments and merchandising departments. the quality department will not be appreciated. As the production department is directly controlled by the merchandising department. So what they will do is to create reports over reports and to pass their reports to all the departments. But overall cooperation between the departments will be missing. At the same time. production. The merchandising department has to consider not only the quality.

The pity is that these quality reports will have comments even in the pre-final and final quality checking. It is suggested that the quality department should realise that their duty is not only to point out mistakes. production department & quality controllers to find solution for the problems. loose thread ends. Their responsibilities can be different. If the reports are made in the initial stage of production. these reports will definitely have at least 2 or 3 quality complaints and comments. Each merchandiser can have any number of quality controllers under him. This is what happening in most of the factories. So what to do now? If you ask this question to the quality department. These two departments have different responsibilities and different views on the same garments. They will say that their duty was only to point out the mistakes to concerned departments. so the problems are getting solved or 111 . marketing and merchandising departments trust the quality departments to control the quality. The real greatness is lying in finding the solution for rectifying. the quality controllers will check the garments and will prepare the quality reports. As we know the merchandising department has more responsibilities than the quality department. As the routine of their jobs. We can not see any report without commenting any mistake. restricting or preventing mistakes. As an unwritten rule. etc. It indirectly says that the garments produced are still having complaints even after the completion of production. So it is their responsibility to work sincerely and with knowledge on rectifying the mistakes. they will not have answer. But some quality controllers will comment on these problems in almost all of their reports. But their views and intention must be the same. as everybody join their hands and heads together. it is very easy for him to find mistakes. the merchandiser understands the problem. Any person even with little knowledge about the garments can find out mistakes in any garments. They will say that they had repeatedly instructed the production departments to take necessary steps to avoid the problems. So there is nothing great in finding mistakes. It has to work under the merchandising department. they find suitable solution quickly. the comments can be corrected without any major production damage. So in my opinion. There will not be any use of these reports. But the QCs should report only to the merchandiser.111 To solve this embarrassing atmosphere. For example. we could even see some quality controllers will misbehave to production departments by not approving anything or by stopping production as the indirect threats. In worse cases. They will use their bunch of reports only to safe guard themselves. When a person knows better about the garments. lesser number of stitches. the quality department should not be allowed to work independently. Now. I suggest making some changes in this system. In garment production there are some problems which can not be solved completely. loose threads on buttons & labels. but also to correct them. Even buyers know about these things. improper trimming. This is the cause of all the problems. If you ask them why they didn’t take any prior steps to correct these mistakes initially. the quality controllers report the merchandiser. they will show their quality reports of initial checking. The management. he discusses with the merchandising team.

. etc. .Composition of blends.To dry heat / hot pressing.To normal water. . Let us see the important tests below. .Single yarn strength.Yarn counts. .To washing. .112 rectified or corrected immediately. . . LAB TESTS: A lot of tests are to be made in respect of fabrics and garments. . easily. .To dry cleaning. Moreover there will be a friendly and do-you-need-my-help atmosphere among the departments which will help the improvement of productivity with improved quality. The important tests are to test colour fastness . .Fibre content and .To bleaching. colour fastness. . wear resistance. .Bursting strength. azo test. . sea water & chlorinated water. .To perspiration (like sweat. . safety. 112 . (The earlier chapter Azo dyestuffs can be referred for more details). etc).To light. Also the stitch density like wales and course lines are to be tested. Then there will be no ego clashes or difference of opinions between these departments.Yarn shrinkage.Yarn friction. amicably and permanently.Non-chlorine bleach Azo tests: The garments are tested for finding whether the fabrics are having any banned azo dyestuff content. Colour fastness tests: There are various colour fastness tests. Fabrics are tested normally for yarn quality.Yarn diameter.Yarn twist. Fabric weight (GSM) tests: Both pre-processed and processed fabrics are to be tested for finding the fabric weight.Evenness & hairiness. fabric handling. fabric weight (GSM).Acid / alkaline / water spotting .To rubbing / crocking – wet & dry. saliva. water resistant. dimensional stability (shrinkage). etc. Yarn tests: The fabric is tested for finding .

Water resistance .Steaming.Water proofness . we had seen the importance of washing methods. Straighten the seams and collar and the shape will be better retained and the shirt easier to iron. Let us see the meaning of the different symbols on the washing label.Wrinkle recovery . the woven garments retain their shape better if they are dried hanging on clothes hangers.Abrasion resistance . But knitted garments retain their shape better if they are dried flat. washing instructions and wash care labels.Washing and tumble dry . Streaks and spots on garments can then be avoided.Washing and flat dry .Pilling resistance .Rust proof .113 Dimensional stability tests: Shrinkage. . Fabric performance tests: The garments are to be tested for . They can become discoloured and sun-bleached. In the earlier chapters. appearance and spirality of fabrics to be tested by .Stretch & recovery . dimensional stability.Acidity (pH) Fabric handling tests: The fabrics are tested for . Coloured garments last longer if they are washed inside out.Dry cleaning . 113 .Free formaldehyde content .Soil release performance .Relaxation .Water repellency . WASHING INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOLS: In general. The washing instructions will vary from fabric to fabric.Moisture content .Random tumble pilling .Crease recovery. The coloured garments should not be dried outdoors in sunlight.Drape coefficient .Snagging resistance .Wrinkle recovery .Bow & skew.

max 40C". Never sprinkle or pour washing powder directly onto the garment or allow coloured garments to soak. Wash in a filled machine at the indicated water temperature. For example. do not ring out. Max 40 degree Celcius. Dry heavy knitted garments. This can result in discolouration. The machine should only be half filled. linen. do not rub or ring out. Washing of wool and silk Garments of untreated wool or silk. The line under the bowl indicates that extra care should be taken. Spin for one minute only. The line under the bowl indicates any limitations to the normal washing process. to give it a "fuller" feel. 200C. Do not rub. A short spin removes excess water best. Within the symbol there is/are one or more dots to indicate the ironing temperature. there is a figure indicating the temperature. High temperature. Max. demand special care. Hand washing Always make sure that the washing powder is completely dissolved in the water before putting the garment into it. Ironing: The iron symbol means that the garment can be normally ironed or a rotary iron used. Rinse thoroughly. Hand wash only. with washing instructions "hand wash. Shake out the garment once it is half dry. 114 . cotton. Avoid leaving garments to soak. Gently squeeze the garment in the washing water. Normal spin. for example. Do not soak. in number of degrees Celsius that should be used to wash the garment. Do not wash in water. Wash in a machine at the indicated water temperature.114 Washing in water: The bowl symbol indicates that the garment can be washed in water in a washing machine or by hand. In a separate spin dryer. half a minute only. Wash directly in water of the correct temperature with the washing powder well dissolved in the water. Use a washing powder that is specifically intended for 40C washing in water. Within the bowl.

Perchloroethane is the most common dry cleaning fluid used. acrylic. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than perchloroethane. Drying: The rectangle is a symbol for drying. Will not stand a stronger dry cleaning fluid than naphtha. Do not dry clean. Do not iron or rotary iron. The letters CL. Many garments can also be tumble dried. the mechanical process used and/or the drying temperature. The letter inside the circle indicates the type of dry cleaning fluid to be used. wool. The line refers to the water added.115 Medium temperature. Max 110C. Dry cleaning fluid such as perchloroethane. for a maximum of one minute. natural silk. Must not be bleached. For example. Max 150C. avoid tumble drying 115 . For example. On the other hand. polyamide (nylon). Water must be removed from the garments before drying. Virtually all garments can be given a short spin. Dry Cleaning: The circle indicates that the garment can be dry cleaned. the chemical symbol for chlorine can be seen inside the triangle Can be bleached with chlorine. Low temperature. Chlorine bleaching: The triangle indicates that the garment can be bleached using chlorine.

materials. Flat dry. materials. High heat in the tumble drier. Tumble dry normal. but also to the production processes. These washing symbols and instructions to be used in wash care labels. Quality standard relates not only to the fabrics. The most important thing is to follow the symbol that indicates whether or not the garment should be tumble dried. product variations. finish. size. durability. We have to take extra care to make sure that the symbols are properly used according to the fabrics of the garments. fit. QUALITY PROCEDURES: Each factory or organisation or company will have different procedures and practices on quality according to their conveniences and principles. Hang dry. component parts and garments. Do not tumble dry. Quality parameters include finish.116 garments that you particularly cherish. Tumble dry. Also the quality department is to prepare their work procedures mainly to 116 . as tumble drying weak the garment. So let us discuss about the quality system in general. damages and imperfections. as per the instructions of buyers. colour. Tumble dry low. The following symbols occur for ‘air drying’.

Or some times we may feel the garments may need some alterations in measurements for better appearance and fitting. using the appropriate measuring instruments and units. Also they should take responsible for the maintenance of own work quality and contributing to the quality improvement of team or section output. patterns. colour. order forms and other reference materials • sequence operations • clarify and check task related information • Work systematically without the damage to goods. They are to be measured. In these cases.assessing operational capability of machineries used. . trims. An understanding is to be demonstrated about the received fabrics & trims. Some times there may be some measurements given by the buyers have to be altered. . work standards and patterns. housekeeping and quality practices are strictly followed as specified by machine manufacturers. • carry out relevant physical measurements • maintain accurate work records • carry out work in accordance with company policies and procedures • meet work specifications • communicate effectively within workplaces • read. specifications. When the measurements are being checked. as required. . where necessary.117 • carry out relevant visual inspections of fabrics. equipment or personnel. . environmental. accessories.checking and measuring the relevant quality parameters. All the received fabrics & trims and the finished garments are to be continuously checked for size.taking required action where standards of fabrics. QCs are to make sure that the standard practices in work places are followed systematically. Quality department should have knowledge and skills in .applying safety precautions relevant to the task. . 117 .identifying improvements. trims. garments or work processes are found to be unacceptable. The quality controllers have to check the measurements of the garments thoroughly in the pilot batch or initial production.maintaining accurate records. the overall shape and appearance of garments are also to be verified. quality. quantity and finish. specifications.interpreting work instructions. interpret and follow information on job instructions. accessories and garments. it is better to explain to the buyer clearly to get their confirmation before commencing bulk production. fabric weight. standard operating procedures. . They have to make sure that safety. sewing & other activities and the final appearance of the garments. Or some measurements may not be achieved. regulatory authorities and the company. tickets.

decoration. The faults and identified problems are to be recorded and reported to the concerned supervisors. . So the ultimate aim for everybody is to satisfy the end users. Causes of deviations from specified quality standards are to be investigated and reported to concerned departments.waste and pollution management.job procedures and work instructions.the action taken promptly. fabric qualities. making and measurements. accidents and incidents reported in accordance with statutory requirements and factory systems. Special care is to be taken for critical measurements. It is the quality controllers’ responsibility to make sure that all the finished garments are having the specified measurements within tolerance levels. Faulty pieces or final products are to be identified and isolated. . including modes of behaviour and interactions among staff and others in accordance with company policies. physical measurements and checks against patterns. Suitable preventative action is to be advised to the concerned operations. Wholesaler’s or retailer’s or chain stores’ responsibility is to satisfy the end users by offering them quality garments in suitable colours.recognising and adapting appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace. Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is to be recorded. Now let us think about the expectations of end users. it has to be immediately informed to the concerned departments like pattern making. colours. garment styles. It is advisable for the quality department to take additional care for .118 If there is any change in the measurements. It is not easy to satisfy all the customers in all policies. Each end user will have different taste of colours. Reasons for the faults are to be found out and corrective action to be taken. sampling and to be sure that the new measurements are implemented and followed in production. Also to be sure that the corrective action is being done. WORKMANSHIP & GENERAL APPEARANCE: Seller’s general responsibility is to manufacture and supply garments to buyers according to their specifications. fabric qualities and garment styles which are mostly suitable for most of their customers. Also each of them will have different body fits. The completed work is to be checked continuously in the factories. Buyer’s or the importer’s general responsibility is to deliver the garments to their wholesalers or retailers or chain stores. sewing. Quality checks include visual inspection. So the buyers have some standards on measurements. etc. . . 118 .

they would buy them even if there is a slight deviation in the measurements. checkers. Even if there is any complaint on measurement deviation in a garment. it must be only due to the operator’s mistake. It is the one of QCs responsibilities to check the quality of sewing. QCs must be blamed by themselves of their inability. they would argue about the measurement deviations.mainly the workmanship of the garments should be neat and perfect. style and fit than to measurements. We can understand that for the displayed garments the workmanship. They won’t talk much about the workmanship and general appearance. What they expect is the garments should be in suitable fabrics according to the seasons. 119 . The cut bits were inspected and approved before sewing. if the workmanship and general appearance are good. Hence I suggest the quality controllers. So when a garment is having measurement problem. The end users don’t know based on which specifications these garments were made. we can see that they had spent more time on measuring the garments than checking the other things. they don’t care much about the measurements. colours. We are fully responsible for them. So the quality controllers should give more importance to the general appearance. But the workmanship and the general appearance of garments are only in our hands. The patterns were checked and approved before bulk cutting.119 We can note that these specifications are made by the buyers only – not by the end users. if there is any measurement problem. styles are most important than the measurements. The colours. colours. attractive colours and suitable styles . I am just explaining the fact that the end users will give more importance to the above said general things than the measurements. So logically. From their reports. the garment is to be rejected even if it has the perfect measurements. After making their quality reports. workmanship. fabrics. most of the quality controllers and the quality inspectors give more preference to the measurements only. PRESENTATION: As the workmanship and general appearance are important for finished garments. The reason is this. The operator(s) should be advised how to correct his working method to avoid the measurement problem in the other garments. I don’t degrade the importance of measurements. As they don’t know the buyer’s original measurements. inspectors and quality managers to spend their more valuable time to improve the workmanship and general appearance of the garments instead of wasting time on checking only the measurements. the garment can be accepted. By saying like this. If they like the garments and if the prices are OK. fabric quality. They don’t even bother to know about them. fabrics and styles are buyers’ decision. We can not do anything on them. One may wonder why I am explaining like this in the quality chapter. the presentation is also important for packed garments. In most of the factories. But if the workmanship and general appearance are not good in a garment.

they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. the look and finish of the garments get disturbed. only some garments can be checked selectively. collar bones. So after rechecking. the garments will become worse than before rechecking. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. online. pre-final and final inspections. middle. Also by these inspections. But if the presentation of packing is not good. tissue papers. utmost importance is to be given for the presentation. they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. the handling stains can not be avoided fully. On the other hand. 120 . There are different quality levels and different inspection methods. Then the final inspection will be very easy. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. So we must pay more attention for using these things properly for the best presentation. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. the garment can not be sold. When we do the inspections. inner boards. These things will not be of any use to the end users. pilot batch. if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0. as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment. both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. So when a garment is to be sold in packed condition. If they are not satisfied with the quality.5 are used in garment inspections. The more number of online inspections. Usually the levels 4. there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. At the same time. This is also called Assured Quality Level. This is unsafe for the factory. The garment may have best workmanship and perfect measurements. the more quality can be improved. Even then. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. price tags. the buyers are giving so much importance for these things. When they do only final inspections. They are initial. All these things will be removed and thrown to dust bins by the end users immediately after opening the packing. INSPECTIONS: There are many inspections are being made. sometimes. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. packing clips & pins and packing boxes are used only to give attraction to the garment packing. without doing initial or online inspections. bands.120 The things like hang tags.0 and 2. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. Why because to attract their customers and the end users. special branded tags. it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards.065 to 15.

At the same time.121 COORDINATION: Every company or organisation will have their own working systems and procedures. there are always vacancies for the higher posts in all the trades. On the other hand. That is coordination. the perfect coordination between the departments is compulsorily wanted for the improvement of the company or organisation. But there is one thing is commonly needed. But it is the fact that very few of us are trying for these higher posts. sincerity and hard working. it is not an impossible thing. honesty. In order to reach these higher levels. It is not easy. self confidence. To say exactly this is a team work of teams. For the employees: Majority of people in the world are trying for the lower or medium level jobs only. Though they are different in their duties and responsibilities. we should develop ourselves with the thorough practical knowledge. Wishing you all success! ---------------- 121 . Huge crowd of us are aiming only for these jobs. businesses and organisations in all parts of the world. Everyone in the company should have the honest motivation. We can well understand that the manufacturing and exporting of knitted garments depend on the involvement of several departments. That is the reason there is always stiff competition for these lower and medium level jobs. We should remember that this is a team work. Nothing is impossible – if we work sincerely and honestly. sincere intention and determination for the growth of their company. I wish everybody to try for the higher posts.

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