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LM317 AS A BATTERY CHARGER

Summer Internship Project Report


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech)

By

July 2010

SHRI BALWANT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Approved by AICTE, Min of HRD, Govt of India & DTE, Govt of
Haryana
Affiliated to MD University, Rohtak
Meerut Road (Pallri), Near DPS, Sonepat-131001, Haryana
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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project titled LM317 AS A BATTERY CHARGER and
submitted by Divya chawla having Roll No ECE/08/113 for the partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology/Engineering (B.Tech/
B.E.), embodies the bonafide work done by her under my supervision.

__________________________

Signature of the Supervisor


Place: New Delhi

Date: ____________________
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Acknowledgement

This report gives the details of the project work done at the end of IV
semester during the summer vacation for partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology/Engineering
(B.Tech/ B.E.), under the Supervision of.

I am very grateful to my supervisor Sanjay Nakhasi his help and able


guidance for the project. I am very thankful to my Institute, for
providing me resources and facilities to help in the project.

____________________
Signature of the Student

Name: ______________

Date: ______________
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Table of Contents

Introduction.........................................................................................................................5
Company profile.................................................................................................................5
3. Requirement Specification..............................................................................................8
Specifications...............................................................................................................12
4. Conclusion...................................................................................................................15
Here we have used lm317 as a battery charger.a very simple circuit is used for
illustrating the use of lm317 in charging circuits...............................................................15
Here LM317 battery charger is used to charge the battery of 12 v...................................15
To make it work on ac we have attached a capacitor and a rectifier using 4 diodes bridge
wave rectifier for supplying the ac voltage of 230 volts directly.....................................15
Therefore LM317 can be use to charge the circuits by its voltage regulating property.it
can work on A.C and D.C. both provided in case of A.C. some additional components are
added .................................................................................................................................15
In simple words it is a very cheap and easy circuit for charging batteries upto 12v.......15
Hence the project is completed and pcb is working properly....................................15
Apart from project I have gone through other circuits .and various circuit elemnts
like relays,diffrences between online and offline UPS,IC55 timer,PCBs of stablizers ,UPS
etc.which are not the part of project.But would be very valuable for me in the future.....15
..........................................................................................................................................16
1 Checklist.........................................................................................................................16
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Introduction

We are delighted to hereby present our project report that was undertaken
during June 2010, microtek india pvt. ltd, where aims at giving training to student
for advancement in power supplys.

The project undertaken was “LM317 as a Battery Charger”

In the project to follow, we should emphasis the kind the quality and
standards being maintained at industries. It would include the main objectives
and project details. Stress is also laid on main features of LM317.

And finally a word of thanks to microtek staff which had been painstaking
helping us to complete this project.

Company profile

MICROTEK - A MASTER IN ITS CHOSEN FIELD

MICROTEK INTERNATIONAL PVT. LTD., is the country's Largest Power Products


manufacturer

having products like Line Interactive UPS, ONLINE UPS, DIGITAL & SINEWAVE
INVERTERS/

EXPORTED WORLDWIDE

MICROTEK products have received worldwide acceptance because of its quality &
reliability and are exported to many countries. No wonder the products carry many
quality approvals.

OUR PRODUCTS

Microtek has Complete Range of Digital and Sinewave Inverters, UPS EB and UPS
E²from 400VA to 1550VA, which are designed and developed using world's latest
technologies by Microtek's highly professional and experienced in-house R&D
team, in technical association with Motorola approved design house in Taiwan and
Microchip, USA. Constant & Continuous Regulated Charging technique /
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Intellicharge Pulse Technology and Dura Retain Technology are the main
technologies pioneered in Microtek Inverters /UPS EB/UPS E².

Microtek Hi-End Range of Sinewave Inverters from 2KVA to 20KVA, includes


models 5.5KVA, 8KVA, 10KVA and 20KVA, specially designed for providing
backups to even air-onditioners. These inverters provide pure sinewave form, which
is absolutely safe for the appliances connected. The applications include BACKUP
for, Airconditioners, Washing Machines, Water Motor, LCD TV, Petrol Pumps, small
offices, shopping malls etc.

Microtek has Line Interactive UPS models range from 600VA to 1000VA. It also has
External Battery models, which have been specially designed for various backup
time and multi PC requirements of customers.

Microtek has World class Range of ONLINE UPS from 1KVA to 30KVA.

• Digital Inverters
• Sine Wave Inverters
• UPS EB / UPS E²
• High-End Inverters
• Range of Line Interactive UPS
• External Battery Line Interactive UPS
• Digital Online UPS from 1KVA to 30KVA.
• Inverter UPS Specialist Batteries
• Sealed Maintenance Free (VRLA) Batteries

About the department in which we worked

.
R&D Department
A WORLD CLASS R&D TEAM
MICROTEK has In-House R&D, managed by highly motivated, professionally
qualified and experienced world class team of professionals, headed by IITians,
and is strongly dedicated to provide technologically advanced and high quality
products. Microtek's R&D is fully equipped with State-Of-The-Art World Class
sophisticated testing equipments. The R&D is continuously working on products
development as per changing products usage criteria and for users benefit by
making the products more and more efficient.


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3. Requirement Specification
LM317 : LM317 is the standard part number for an integrated three-terminal
adjustable linear voltage regulator. LM317 is a positive voltage regulator supporting
input voltage of 3V to 40V and output voltage between 1.25V and 37V. A typical current
rating is 1.5A although several lower and higher current models are available. Variable
output voltage is achieved by using a potentiometer or a variable voltage from another
source to apply a control voltage to the control terminal. LM317 also has a built-
in current limiter to prevent the output current from exceeding the rated current, and
LM317 will automatically reduce its output current if an overheat condition occurs under
load. LM317 is manufactured by many companies, including National
Semiconductor, Fairchild Semiconductor, and STMicroelectronics.

Although LM317 is an adjustable regulator, it is sometimes preferred for high-precision


fixed voltage applications instead of the similar LM78xx devices because the LM317 is
designed with superior output tolerances. For a fixed voltage application, the control pin
will typically be biased with a fixed resistor network, a Zener diode network, or a fixed
control voltage from another source. Manufacturer datasheets provide standard
configurations for achieving various design applications, including constant current
sources and the use of a pass transistor to achieve regulated output currents in excess of
what the LM317 alone can provide.
LM317 is available in a wide range of package forms for different applications including
heatsink mounting and surface-mount applications. Common form factors for high-
current applications include TO-220 with part number LM317T and TO-3 with part
number LM317K. LM317 is capable of dissipating a large amount of heat at medium to
high current loads and the use of a heatsink is recommended to maximize the lifespan and
power-handling capability

DIODE: electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that


conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to
a semiconductor diode, the most common type today. This is a crystalline piece
of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals.[1] A vacuum tube
diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with
twoelectrodes; a plate and a cathode.
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The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one
direction (called the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite
direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic
version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used
to convert alternating current to direct current, and to extract modulation from radio
signals in radio receivers.

However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action, due
to their complex non-linear electrical characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the
construction of theirP-N junction. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that
perform many different functions. For example, specialized diodes are used to regulate
voltage (Zener diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes), to
generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes), and to produce light (light emitting
diodes).

Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of


crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The
first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes were made of crystals of minerals
such as galena. Today most diodes are made ofsilicon, but other semiconductors such
as germanium are sometimes used

PCB: A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically
connectelectronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal
traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also
referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with
electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed
circuit board assembly (PCBA).
PCBs are inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort
and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits, but
are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. Much of the electronics
industry's PCB design, assembly, and quality control needs are set by standards that are
published by theIPC organization
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4. Design specification

S.no Product Quantity

1. Lm317 1

2. 0 pcb(printed circuit board) 1

3. Electrolytic capacitor 1

4. Resistances(0.2k,240,2.4k) 3

5. Transformer.(18V 5A) 1

6. Soldering iron(25 w) 1

7. Variable resistance 1

8. Diode.(IN007) 4
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About LM317

LM317 is the standard part number for an integrated three-terminal


adjustable linear voltage regulator. LM317 is a positive voltage
regulator supporting input voltage of 3V to 40V and output voltage between
1.25V and 37V. A typical current rating is 1.5A although several lower and higher
current models are available. Variable output voltage is achieved by using
a potentiometer or a variable voltage from another source to apply a control
voltage to the control terminal. LM317 also has a built-in current limiter to prevent
the output current from exceeding the rated current, and LM317 will automatically
reduce its output current if an overheat condition occurs under load. LM317 is
manufactured by many companies, including National Semiconductor, Fairchild
Semiconductor, and STMicroelectronics.

Although LM317 is an adjustable regulator, it is sometimes preferred for high-


precision fixed voltage applications instead of the similar LM78xx devices
because the LM317 is designed with superior output tolerances. For a fixed
voltage application, the control pin will typically be biased with a fixed resistor
network, a Zener diode network, or a fixed control voltage from another source.
Manufacturer datasheets provide standard configurations for achieving various
design applications, including constant current sources and the use of a
pass transistor to achieve regulated output currents in excess of what the LM317
alone can provide.

LM317 is available in a wide range of package forms for different applications


including heatsink mounting and surface-mount applications. Common form
factors for high-current applications include TO-220 with part number LM317T
and TO-3 with part number LM317K. LM317 is capable of dissipating a large
amount of heat at medium to high current loads and the use of a heatsink is
recommended to maximize the lifespan and power-handling capability.

LM337 is the negative voltage complement to LM317 and the specifications and
function are essentially identical, except that the regulator must receive a control
voltage and act on an input voltage that are below the ground reference
point instead of above it.
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Specifications

Vout range 1.25V - 37V

Vin - Vout difference 3V - 40V

Operation ambient temperature 0 - 125°C

Output Imax <1.5A

Minimum Load Currentmax 10mA

LM317 as a voltage regulator


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The current limiting characterstics of lm317

CIRCUIT DESIGN

The main circuit design of the 12 v battery charger using LM317 is presented
here.this circuit is used to charge a 12v battery when the Vin pin of lm317 is
given a D.C.supply of 20 v.
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This circuit can be made to work on A.C. by attaching components like


transformer .a bridge wave rectifier and capacitor for the filtering action to work
on 230v a.c. The LM317 is a monolitic integrated circuit. It's a 3 terminal positive
voltage.
The LM317 is a monolitic integrated circuit. It's a 3 terminal positive voltage
regulator designed to supply more than 1.5A of load current with an output
voltage adjustable over a 1.2 to 37V. It employs internal current liniting, thermal
shut-down and safe area compensation. The LM317 is cheap,
able.This circuit is simply constructed by first mounting the components on a 0
pcb and then it is simply soldered weth the help of a soldering iron and a
soldering wire.in this circuit the diffrence between the Vin and Vout cannnot be
more than 40.Thats why this circuit is used for charging.There are two important
things to keep in mind when working with an LM317T:

First, the internal circuitry of the LM317T can only handle 1.5 A of current as
an absolute maximum.

Secondly, and this is important, the LM317T is a linear regulator. This means
that it dissipates the excess voltage as heat, with more heat produced as the
voltage is set lower and lower. You MUST have a heatsink mounted on the
regulator that is capable of dissipating the heat produced.
The circuit takes its input from transformer connected to bridge wave rectifier and
capacitor which performs the filtering action after that it is connected to Vin
.Bridge rectifier converts A.C. into D.C. and the capacitor performs the filtering
action.which aftrwards supply it into the circuit.its output is taken across R1 & R2
where it is connected to the terminals of battery for charging.
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4. Conclusion
Here we have used lm317 as a battery charger.a very simple circuit is used
for illustrating the use of lm317 in charging circuits.

Here LM317 battery charger is used to charge the battery of 12 v.

To make it work on ac we have attached a capacitor and a rectifier using 4


diodes bridge wave rectifier for supplying the ac voltage of 230 volts directly.

Therefore LM317 can be use to charge the circuits by its voltage regulating
property.it can work on A.C and D.C. both provided in case of A.C. some
additional components are added .

In simple words it is a very cheap and easy circuit for charging batteries upto
12v.

Hence the project is completed and pcb is working properly

Apart from project I have gone through other circuits .and various circuit
elemnts like relays,diffrences between online and offline UPS,IC55
timer,PCBs of stablizers ,UPS etc.which are not the part of project.But would
be very valuable for me in the future.
16

1 Checklist
This checklist is to be attached as the last page of the report.

This checklist is to be duly completed by the student and verified by the Supervisor,
Project Coordinator and HOD

1. Is the report properly hard bound? Yes / No


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2. Is the Cover page (on hard bound cover) in proper format? Yes / No

3. Is the Title page (Inner cover page) in proper format? Yes / No

4. (a) Is the Certificate from the Supervisor in proper format? Yes / No

(b) Has it been signed by the Supervisor? Yes / No

5. (a) Is the Acknowledgement from the Student in proper Yes / No


format?

(b) Has it been signed by the Student?

7. Does the Table of Contents include page numbers? Yes / No

(i). Are the Pages numbered properly? Yes / No

(ii). Are the Figures numbered properly? Yes / No

(iii). Are the Tables numbered properly? Yes / No

(iv). Are the Captions for the Figures and Tables proper? Yes / No

(v). Are the Appendices numbered properly? Yes / No

8. Is the conclusion of the Report based on discussion of the Yes / No


work?

9. Are References or Bibliography given in the Report? Yes / No

Have the References been cited inside the text of the Report? Yes / No

Is the citation of References in proper format? Yes / No

10. A Compact Disk (CD) containing the softcopy of the Final Yes / No
Report (preferably in PDF format) and a Final Project
Presentation in MS power point only (made to the Supervisor /
Examiner has been placed in a protective jacket securely
fastened to the inner back cover of the Final Report. Write the
name and Roll No on the CD.

Declaration by Student
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I certify that I have properly verified all the items in the checklist and
ensure that the report is in proper format as specified in the course
handout.

Name:
Place:
Date:
Signature of the Student:

Verification by Supervisor

I have duly verified all the items in the checklist and ensured that the report
is in proper format.

Name:
Place:
Date:
Signature of the Supervisor: