Red Mud, & other industrial waste products

strength. shape.Industrial wastes ± Group I Properties ± soundness. abrasion resistance and gradation Blast furnace slag Bottom ash Flyash Boiler slag Anthracite coal residue Scrap iron Scrap aluminium Stone waste Felspar waste China Clay waste Burnt tile waste Phospho gypsum Fluorogypsum Borogypsum .

Industrial wastes ± Group II Require some processing Steel Slag Bituminous coal waste Phosphate slag Slate mining waste Laterite waste Foundry waste sand Incinerator residue Waste glass Zinc smelter slag Building rubble Alumina red mud Acetylene lime sludge Lime sludge from fertilizer .

Sugar lime sludge Paper lime sludge Tannery lime sludge Gold ore tailing Copper ore tailing Zinc ore tailing Iron ore tailing Fluorspar tailing Marble dressing waste .Industrial wastes ± Group III No standard specifications yet for their proposed uses.

 They produce dust.  Thus need very careful handling.Occupational Hazards in Handling waste  Wastes and by products are many times categorized hazardous. heat. asbestosis and pneumoconiosis. up gradation and detoxification  An industrial or mining waste only in perfectly upgraded form becomes a low cost but high value material . and have pollutants  They cause silicosis.

Major wastes produced in India Waste Annual Production (MT) 25 Uses Materials saved Metal Scraps Blast furnace slag In metal products PSC. oil well. in calcium Silicate brick Cement. clay Byproducts gypsum 6. concrete. clay. Concrete blocks PPC. Cement masonry.5 Natural gypsum . SSC. Sand. Concrete additive. clay stone aggregate. Calcium silicate Brick & cellular concrete Fine aggregate. Coal & water Flyash PFA 12 Mine tailings 95 Sand. Masonry block. plaster boards Limestone. shale stone aggregate & coal Limestone. Cement aggregate.

8 . ruit pack trays. Gypsum mine imestone aste aper aste Quarry City garbage 1.5 17.Other Wastes Waste Cinder So rce Thermal o er plants Q a tity 1 T/yr se ime Cinder orttar. asphaltic corrugated roo ing sheets. bricks rom black cotton soil Gypsum building plaster. Conc blocks. pulp moulded packaging materials. ready made plaster ith lime asonry cement. activated lime pozzonlana mixture itch ibre pipes.

BPC  Flyash with CaO>10% .Bricks.Characterization of the Wastes  Mining and mineral waste must be fully characterized for potential application  Granulated blast furnace slag must be free of MnO2 like oxides.  FLyash with CaO<5% . plaster . mortar.

which eventually can be smelted and give aluminum. bauxite.  It is a mixture of compounds originally present in the parent mineral.Red Mud  Red Mud is produced during the Bayer process for alumina production  We can extract the aluminum (oxy)hydroxides from bauxites and get alumina. . and of compounds formed or introduced during the Bayer cycle.

Red Mud .Disposal  Production ± 4 MT/yr. pH in the range of 13 and high ionic strength. .  It is disposed as a slurry having a solid concentration in the range of 10-30%.

Ni. iron. Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 Na2O CaO TiO2 30-60wt% 10-20wt% 3-50wt% 2-10wt% 2-8wt% trace-25wt% . Ba.Composition  A chemical analysis would reveal that RM contains silica. calcium.Red Mud . Mn. titanium. Cr. Cu. Pb. V. namely: Na. aluminum. K. Zn etc. as well as an array of minor constituents.

Red Mud uses  Conventionally ±  construction of clay-lined dams or dykes. Paint.  sea disposal New UsesBuilding Bricks and Tiles Lightweight structural blocks Roofing sheets Additive to Concrete. wood Substitute. Glass Ceramic Flyash/ Redmud Polymer Door Shutter .

flooring and panelling work.5% cellulose and 11. 82.3% lignin from its jute component (jute is 15% of the total volume of the shutter). Furniture.Uses of Red Mud  Red Mud Jute Fibre Polymer Composite (RFPC) ±  conserves energy by roomtemperature processing. electrical switch boxed and insulating sheets  ferric oxide. alumina and titanium oxide from redmud.  product uses zero energy aided raw materials .  Suitable for Door Shutters.

.Phospho Gypsum Source  by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertiliser industry  interaction of ground phosphate rock with sulphuric acid produces 10-40% free moisture along with phosphogypsym  For every ton of phosphoric acid made. . some four to five tons of phosphogypsum are created.

Phospho Gypsum  4.  Over 10 million tonnes has accumulated at plant sites.5 million tonnes is generated per year in India.  The fluoride content of phosphogypsum causes land and water pollution .

boards. fibre boards.  As a hydraulic binder.Uses of Phospho Gypsum  Gypsum plaster.  Simultaneous manufacture of cement and sulphuric acid.  Non-shrinking cement.  As mineraliser. tiles. super sulphated/anhydride cement. .  As set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement.  Artificial marble.

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