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Lathe Design

Lathe Design

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Turn of the century design of the metal lathe
Turn of the century design of the metal lathe

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Published by: Optimist8 on Sep 11, 2010
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HISTORY OF THE LATHE UP TO THE INTRODUCTION OF SCREW THREADS

Tracing early history. The lathe was the first machine tool. The

origin

of the lathe. An old definition of

turning. The first record of turn-

ing operations. Another old-time definition of

turning. English

classification of lathes. The earliest form of the lathe

proper, or the

old "Tree Lathe." The Asiatic wood turner. The "

Springpole

"

lathe. The "

Fiddle-bow "

lathe. The essential features of a lathe.

The balance-wheel

applied to a lathe. The

crank, connecting rod and

treadle

applied to a lathe.

Origin of the term "Pitman." Afoot

lathe built

by the Author. Its detailed construction. A foot lathe
with the balance-wheel located over-head. The friction clutch for

foot-power machines.

THE

subject of the

present work

being the lathe and its

work,

and more

particularly its

design, construction, and

develop-

ment in our own

country and in recent

years, and as

briefly com-

prised in our title of Modern American Lathe

Practice, our

efforts will be

directed, first, to a brief notice of its

origin and

early

development and use as a

simple hand lathe

; second, to its more

modem development as one of the most

important machine tools

in the

equipment of machine

shops; and, third, to the various

modifications of

it, following its

development through all its vari-

ous forms and for the

diversity of

manufacturing purposes to which

it has been

adapted up to its

present degree of

efficiency.

In

considering a

subject of the vast

importance of the modem

lathe and its

far-reaching influence

upon the mechanical world

of

to-day, it cannot but be

interesting to

go back to its

early his-

tory and to trace its

progress and

development from as far back

as we have

any authentic

knowledge, and

step by step to note the

changes in its form and usefulness as the mind of the

early mechanic

developed, new

requirements manifested

themselves, and

improve-

ments in

design, construction, tools, and attachments were devised

to meet the

growing needs.

21

22

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

It is conceded that of all the machines

employed by the me-

chanic to aid him in his work the lathe holds the honor of

having

been the

first machine tool. From it, in one

way or

another, all

other machine tools have been developed; as

they are, practically

considered, but modifications of

it, or

special tools for

doing quicker

and better, the several

operations which

may be, and

formerly were,

performed upon the

lathe, as we shall later on have occasion to

describe and illustrate.

At

present we will look into the

origin of the lathe and then

trace its

gradual evolution and

development up to

comparatively

recent

years, say an hundred

years or so

ago, as their

development

into

anything like mechanical

importance has been confined to

the last

century which has been so remarkable in this

respect.

Upon referring to the older records on the

subject of lathes

and their uses we find this statement: "

Turning is the art of

shaping wood, metal, ivory, or other hard substances into forms

having a curved

(generally circular or

oval) transverse

section,

and also of

engraving figures composed of curved lines

upon a

smooth surface, by means of a machine called a

turning-lathe.

This art is of

great importance and extensive

application in me-

chanics, the most delicate articles of

luxury and ornament, equally

with the most

ponderous machinery, being produced by it. The

art of

turning dates from a

very early period, and Theodorus of

Samos, about 560 B.C., is named by Pliny as its

inventor; but

long

before this

period, the

potter's wheel, the earliest and

simplest form

of

turning-machine, was in

general use, as is evidenced

by numer-

ous references in

Holy Writ."

Again we read in an old-time definition of what

turning really

consists of: "The immense variety of work

performed by turning-

machines necessitates

great variations in their

construction; but

mode of

operation is

always the

same, and consists

essentially in

fixing the work in

position by two pivots, or

otherwise, causing

it to revolve

freely around an axis of

revolution, of which the

two

pivots are the

poles, and

holding a chisel or other

cutting-tool

so as to meet it

during its

revolution, taking care that the

cutting-

tool be held firmly and

steadily, and moved about to different

parts

of the work till the

required shape is obtained."

In

England the various methods of

driving a lathe

gives a

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

23

classification to them somewhat different from that in this

country.

Hence the

following:

"

Lathes are

divided, with

respect to the

mode of

setting them in

motion, into

pole lathes, foot lathes, hand-

wheel

lathes, and

power lathes; and with

respect to the

species of

work they have to

perform, into center

lathes, which form the

outside surface, and

spindle, mandrel, or chuck

lathes, which

per-

form hollow or inside

work, though this distinction is for the most

part useless, as all lathes of

good construction are now fitted for

both kinds of work." Another

peculiarly English idea in refer-

ence to lathes is this: "Bed lathes are those used

by turners in

wood, and bar lathes for the best sort of metal work; and the small

metal center lathe

employed by watchmakers is known as a ton-

bench."

The earliest form of a lathe

proper, that

is, "a machine for

shaping wood into forms

having a

curved, and

generally a circular

transverse

section, by the

action of a chisel or other

cutting tool

upon the

piece,

which is rotated for the

pur-

pose," is shown in the en-

graving Fig. 1, and

consists,

as will be

seen, of two

pointed

pieces A, A of wood

serving

as centers and each bound to

a

tree, and

supporting the

ends of the

piece C to be

turned, while on the

opposite

side of the tree is fixed in

the same manner a

straight

piece of wood B, which acts

as a rest for the chisel or

other tool with which the

turning or

cutting is to be done. The

power for

rotating the

piece C to be turned is obtained

by attaching a cord D to a flexi-

ble limb of the

tree, passing it one or more turns around the

piece

and

forming in its lower end a

loop for the foot of the

operator,

who rotates the

piece towards himself

by depressing the

foot,

bending down the limb

by the

movement, which, when he raises

FIG. 1.

The Old Tree Lathe

24

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

his

foot, returns to its

original position, rotating the

piece back-

wards in readiness for another

pressure or downward stroke of

the foot. The work was slow and laborious, yet from old

samples

of the

pieces thus

produced we may see that an

extraordinary

good quality of work could be

done, particularly considering the

primitive methods used.
We read that:
"

Wood-turners in some of the Asiatic countries

go into the

deep forests with

axes, and with a few rude

turning tools and

hair

ropes build their lathes and turn out

objects of

beauty and

grace, says the Wood Worker. Two trees are selected which stand

the

proper distance

apart near a

springy sapling. With his ax

the turner cuts out his centers and drives them

opposite each

other into the

trees, which serve as standards. From one tree

to the other he

places a stick of wood for a tool-rest. With his

ax he trims the branches from the

sapling, fastens his hair

rope

to the little

tree, gives the

rope a turn around one end of the

block of wood he desires to turn into

shape, and fastens the free

end of the

rope to a stick which he uses as a foot treadle. When

he

presses down on the treadle the wood he is

turning revolves,

and the

spring of the

sapling lifts the treadle so that it can be

used

again."

The next form of lathe to which these crude efforts seem to

have led was one in which the flexible

limb, though in another

form, was used, but the device became very nearly a self-contained

machine. A piece of wood formed a bed for the lathe and to this

was fixed the blocks

forming the

centers, which have since become

the head and tail stocks of the lathe. The machine

appears to

have been used in

doors, as the flexible limb of the tree had been

replaced by a flexible

strip or

pole,

"

fastened overhead" and called

a

"lath," from which circumstance some writers think that the
name "lathe" was derived. The driving cord was still wound

around the

piece to be turned. No mention is made of the method

of

supporting the

tool, but it is

probable that a

strip of wood was

fastened to the "bed" for that

purpose.

The next

improvement in

developing the lathe

brings its form

within the

memory of the older mechanics and is shown in

Fig. 2.

In this case there is a rude form of head-stock B, and tail-stock

E,

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

25

both constructed at first of

wood, and the tail-stock

continuing

to be so constructed for

many years. In this form of lathe the

head

spindle is first

found, having in the earlier

examples a

plain

"

spool" around which the

driving cord D was wound, and later

on a cone

pulley constructed as shown in

Fig. 3, by which a faster

speed was

possible with the same movement of the foot. The

lower end of the

driving cord was fastened to a

strip of wood F,

the farther end of which was

pivoted to the rear

leg, in the later

examples of the "

spring-pole lathe," as it was then called, the

bed

having been mounted

upon legs as shown.

The bed

A, was formed of two

pieces of timber set on

edge and

FIG. 2. The "

Spring-Pole

"

Lathe.

a short distance

apart, properly secured at the ends. This afforded

a

space down

through which

passed a

long tennon formed

upon a

wooden block

answering for a tail-stock E. This was held in

any

desired

position by a wooden key, passing through it under the bed.

What was the

early form of rests for this lathe does not seem to

be

known, but somewhat later the rest was constructed of cast iron

and

very much as in an

ordinary hand lathe of the

pattern-maker

or wood-turner of the

present day, and as shown in

Fig. 2.

This lathe was used for both wood and metal, the tools

being

held in the hand as the slide rest had not

yet been invented, as

will be seen later on in this

chapter.

In the use of the

spring pole and cord in connection with the

26

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

cone

pulley, as shown in

Fig. 3, some workman

discovered, prob-

ably by turning a

heavy piece, that its forward motion would con-

tinue when the foot was raised, provided the tool was withdrawn

from contact with the work. It was but natural to make the cone

pulley of heavier material, as of cast

iron, or to

weight it with

pieces of iron or with lead

plugs cast into

it, and thus make it serve

the office of a balance-wheel and so

keep up the forward revolution

of the work as

long as it was

given the

proper impetus by the down-

ward strokes of the foot.

Another

style of lathe that was used

mostly for small

work,

generally metal work, was called a "fiddle-bow

lathe," on account

of the method of

driving it. In this

lathe, which is shown in

Fig. 4,

FIG. 4. The "Fiddle-Bow" Lathe.

the same idea of

propulsion is used as in the former

examples, that

of a cord

passing around either the

piece to be turned or a

rotating

part of the mechanism by which the

piece was revolved. In this

case, however, instead of the resistance of the flexible limb of a

tree or of a "

spring pole" acting to

keep the

driving cord taut,

it is held in that condition

by the flexible bow F, which is bent to

the form shown by the

driving cord D. The engraving is an exact

reproduction of a

lathe, the bed A of which was about twelve

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

27

inches

long and it had a

capacity of about two inches

swing, that

was made by an older brother for the use of the author when he

was nine

years old, and in the use of which he became quite a

boyish expert in

turning wood and metals. The head-stock B,

and rest

C, were formed of bent

pieces of

wrought iron, and the

"spur center" was formed

upon the main

spindle, the

point being

used as a center for metal work.

Lathes driven in this manner are still in use

by watchmakers

and

jewelers and a

great deal of

very fine hand work is

performed

with them.

The main features in all these lathes

were, first, to

suspend

the work to be done, or the

piece to be

operated upon, between

two fixed

pivots or

centers; second, to revolve it

by means of a

cord

wrapped around it, or some

part of the machine fixed to

it,

and

kept tightly strained

by means of some kind of a

spring, as

an elastic

piece of

wood; and third, to reduce the

piece to be

oper-

ated

upon by means of a tool

having a

cutting edge which was

held

tightly against the material to be

operated upon, thus reduc-

ing it to the circular form

required; fourth, that to

accomplish

this it was necessary to revolve the

piece to be

operated upon,

first towards the

cutting tool for a certain number of

revolutions,

then

by a reverse motion of the taut cord to reverse the circular

motion, at the same time

withdrawing the

cutting-tool for an

equal number of revolutions.

By this method one half the time

was lost, as no

cutting could be done while the work was

running

backward.

It was later found that if the flexible

pole or "lath" was rather

weak and the

piece of work to be

operated upon was

quite heavy,

acting as a

balance-wheel, its forward revolution was not

wholly

arrested, but

only checked as the foot was raised, provided the

cutting-tool was withdrawn from contact with the work a moment

before the

upward motion of the foot

began.

By this it was seen that

great advantages might be

gained if

the lathe could be made to not

only revolve

continuously in the

direction of the

tool, but also with the same force, whereby the

tool

might be

kept in constant contact with the work.

Already the

pulley, as

applied to the

spindle of the lathe, was

known. The cord

wrapped around it and used to rotate it was

28

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

known. Doubtless an assistant had furnished the

power to drive

the lathe while the mechanic handled the tools. What would be

more natural than the

arrangement of a

large wheel, journaled to

a suitable

support at the front or rear of the

lathe, and

having the

cord connected with it as a driver. And with this device and the

problem of

revolving it

by hand, a handle set between its center

and circumference would be natural

also, and thus came the crank.
We do know that somewhat later than this machines were driven

in

exactly this

manner, the

large wheel

being constructed with

a

heavy rim and

acting as a balance-wheel.

At this

stage of

development the

large driving-wheel was rather

an attachment than a

part of the machine

itself, and doubtless so

remained for a considerable time. The next

change was to locate

it beneath the lathe

bed, directly under the

head-stock, and in-

stead of the use of the handle

forming practically a crank of

long

leverage it was constructed as it is in the

sewing-machines of the

present day; that

is, the wheel

journaled upon a fixed stud and

the

previous long handle reduced to a

wrist-pin for the attach-

ment of a

connecting rod, or in the older

phrase a "

pitman," which

term was

given to one of the men handling the vertical saw used

in

sawing up logs into timber and

planks in the olden times (and

even now in oriental

countries), wherein the

log was

supported

over a trench or

pit, the

upper end of the saw

being handled by

the

"topman" and the lower end by the "

pitman" or man in the

pit. When these saws were later on mounted in a

rectangular

frame or

"gate" having a

vertical, reciprocating movement and

operated from a crank-shaft

by a

connecting rod from the one to

the

other, this rod took the name of the former man who performed

this

office, hence the term

"pitman."

The location of this

pitman or

connecting rod, as has been said,

was

directly under the head-stock and well within the convenient

reach of the

operator when attached to a suitable "treadle" whose

rearendwas

pivoted to the back of the machine andwhose front end

formed a

resting-place for the

operator's foot. This

arrangement

answered

very well and was useful when the work of the lathe was

near the

head-stock, butwas not

adapted to

longwork, to

accomplish

which the

operator would need to stand near the tail-stock or even

midway between that and the head-stock. To remedy this defect

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

29

a strip of wood was

hinged to the front

leg of the lathe at the tail-

stock end and its

opposite end to the front end of the treadle. This

was of considerable use, its

principal drawback being that while

at the treadle end its vertical movement was the same as the

latter,

this movement was

gradually lessened until at the tail-stock end

of the lathe it was

nothing. Hence, much more

power was

required

to drive the lathe at its center than at the

head-stock, and this was

rapidly increased as the work was nearer the tail-stock end of the

lathe.

To remedy this defect the

large driving-wheel was mounted

upon and fixed to a

revolving shaft

upon which was formed two

cranks, one near the wheel and the other at the tail-stock end of

the lathe. This shaft was

properly journaled in boxes formed

upon or attached to cross-bars fixed to the

legs at each end of the

lathe. From these cranks

hung two

connecting rods whose lower

ends were

pivoted to two levers

pivoted to the rear side of the

lathe, and whose front ends were connected

by a wooden strip or

"

foot-board." The

length of these levers was such that the move-

ment of the foot-board was about twice the "

throw" of the

cranks,

so that with a foot movement of twelve inches the two cranks

were about three

inches, center of shaft to center of

connecting

rod

bearing.

This was then and for

many years the

prevailing form of foot

lathes and was

quite extensively used, not

only for

turning wood

but for

iron, steel, and other metals as well.

There were

many of the older mechanics who would work the

entire

day through. At that time a

day's work was not

eight, nine,

or ten

hours, but "from sun to

sun," or from

daylight till

sunset,

day after

day, treading one of these foot lathes and

turning out

a much

larger quantity of work than these crude facilities would

seem to render

possible.

In

Fig. 5 is shown this form of foot lathe that was in use for

many years for

turning both wood and metals. The illustration

is a

drawing of a lathe built

by the author when he was between

fifteen and sixteen

years of

age. The bed A, legs B, the cross-bars

C, C, the back brace

D, and treadle

parts E, F, were built of

wood,

as was also the tail-block

G, which was of the form shown in

Fig. 4,

except that beneath the screw

forming the tail center was a wooden

30

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

key g, for

keeping this screw

always tight, as there was a

tendency,

from strain and

vibration, for the screw to work loose.

The tool-rest was of the usual

form, except that instead of a

wedge, in connection with the binder

H, to hold it in

position, or

the use of a wrench on the

holding-down bolt, an eccentric of hard

wood with a handle formed

upon it, as shown at

J, was used. This

was the first occasion where the author saw an eccentric used for

a similar

purpose. It worked so well that he fitted similar eccentrics

to the

stops of the three windows in his little

workshop to hold

the sashes in

any desired

position when they were

raised, and

by

FIG. 5.

Foot Lathe for

Turning Wood or Metals.

a turn in the

opposite direction to secure them when they were

closed.

The

large wheel was of cast

iron, rescued from a

scrap heap,

and had

only the

grooves for the two faster

speeds K, L, the

part
M being made of wood and fastened to the arms of the wheel. A

friendly blacksmith

forged the cranks in the shaft

N, and the

eyes

in the lower ends and hooks in the

upper ends of the

connecting

rods

P, P. These were first made of wood similar to the connect-

ing rods on a

sewing-machine with a closed

bearing at the

top, but

the

tendency to

pinch one's toes under the treadle when they

happened to be

accidentally placed in this

dangerous position soon

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

31

led to the iron

connecting rods with the hooked ends

whereby the

worst that could

happen was the

connecting rods

becoming un-

hooked. The shaft N rested in wooden boxes, the lower half

being

formed in the cross-bars

C, C, and a wooden

cap held down by two

wood screws

forming the

top half. The

bearings of the shaft and

the cranks were filed as

nearly round as

they could be made by

hand with the means and ability available.

The pattern for the head-stock was made as shown in side ele-

vation in

Fig. 5, with the

housings for the

spindle boxes as shown

in

Fig. 6. The boxes were made in

halves, of babbitt metal and

cast in

place in the head-stock in this manner.

The head

spindle was located in

place and held

by a thin

piece of wood clamped on the inside

and outside of the

housing and

having semicir-

cular notches in their

upper edges and a

slight

recess on their inner sides so as to

provide for

making the box

slightly thicker than the hous-

mp.

FIG. 6.

Spindle-

The lower halves of the

boxes, having been

cast

slightly higher than the center of the

spindle bearings, were

removed and filed down to the

proper level and then

replaced, the

spindle again laid

in, the

strips of wood

clamped on in an inverted

position and the

top half of the box cast. This

part projected

slightly above the

top of the iron

casting and was held down by

an iron

cap having two holes drilled in it which fitted on the

threaded studs

R, R, which had been cast into the head-stock

for this

purpose. The

spindle had been turned

up in an

old-style

chain-feed

lathe, of which more will be said later on. The cone

pulley S was of

cherry, simply driven on

tightly and turned

up to

the form shown.

The front end of the

spindles was threaded but not bored out.

Upon this thread was cast a babbitt metal

bushing T, having a

square hole in its front

end, which was formed as follows: With

the

spindle in its

place a wooden mold of

proper form was

placed

around it

and, while it fitted the collar on the

spindle at one end,

was

open at its front end. A

tapering, square piece of iron of

proper dimensions to form the

square hole was

placed with its

small end

against the nose of the

spindle and held in that

position

32

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

by the tail screw. The

opening around it was closed

by a

piece

of wood of

proper form and the

job was "

poured," and the

bushing

afterwards turned

up with a hand tool. Into this

square hole

could be fitted

proper centers for

turning wood or

metal, and

by

removing the babbitt metal collar a

face-plate could be

put on for

face-plate work.

It will be noticed that the lathe had been

arranged for two

speeds proper for

turning wood and the softer

metals, and one

speed

considerably slower for iron. A piece of bel

ting \was

provided

which could be

easily removed to shorten the belt the

proper

amount for this

purpose.

The lathe would

swing eight inches and take in between centers

four feet. It was found that the round belt did not

give sufficient

driving power and a new spindle cone of

only two

steps was

put

on, the iron balance-wheel

lagged up for a flat

belt, and the

pulley

M turned down for the same

purpose. This

permitted the use

of a belt an inch and

three-quarters wide, and as no

regular belting

was available when the

job was done an old trace from a harness

suffering from

general debility was

ripped open and a

single thick-

ness of the leather soaked

up in

water, dried

out, treated with

neat's-foot oil and used with such

good results that it was never

replaced.

To this lathe was fitted a small circular saw

provided with an

adjustable, tilting table

upon which not

only wood but sheet brass

could be cut. Another attachment was a small

jig-saw that would

cut off wood up to half an inch thick.

One of the

disadvantages of the usual form of

foot-power

lathe was the short

connecting rod or

pitman which

thereby formed

too

great an

angle to the center line from the wheel center to the

point of attachment to the treadle, thereby increasing the friction

and

decreasing the useful effect of the

foot-power. It was

appar-

ently to avoid this condition that a somewhat

peculiar form of

lathe was devised and built in the railroad

shops at

Plattsburgh,

N. Y., about

1860, and which is shown in end elevation in

Fig. 7.

This was an

engine lathe of about fourteen-inch

swing, built with

cast iron bed A, legs B, and all the

parts of metal that are now so

constructed. Instead of

placing the

large driving or balance wheel

beneath the lathe bed as

formerly, the lathe was belted from a

HISTORY OF THE LATHE

33

cone

pulley of three

steps on an overhead countershaft

C, provided

with the usual

hangers D. This countershaft was of a

length equal

to the

length of the lathe and had fixed at the end over the head

of the lathe a

heavy wheel E, into the hub of which was fixed a

stud or

wrist-pin F, while on the

opposite end of the countershaft

was fixed a -disc for

carrying a similar stud. These formed two

cranks to which were fitted

long connecting rods

G, the lower ends

of which were

pivoted to the treadles

H, whose rear ends were

pivoted to the

legs B, as at J. The treadles

H are located outside of the

legs B, and

connected by the foot-board K. The

weight of the

connecting rods

G, the tread-

les

H, and the foot-board K are balanced

by the

proper counterbalance added to the

fly-wheel E, as shown. The author knows

from

personal observation that this lathe

would run

very steadily and with a

good

deal of

power, and that its

general perform-

ance was much better than foot lathes of

the usual

type. Doubtless the momentum

of the

balance-wheel, cone

pulley, and

countershaft was

very beneficial in main-

taining an

equable speed under

varying

conditions of resistance from the

operation

of

cutting-tools and the

like, while the cast

iron cone

pulley on the main

spindle did

some service in the same direction.

The

only disadvantage in this lathe was

that it

required too

long a time to

get it

up to its

regular speed and

necessarily too

much time was consumed in

stopping it, as

there was no

provision for

disconnecting the

main

spindle from the

driving-cone by a clutch mechanism or

similar

device, as is

frequently the case with

special forms of the

lathes of recent

design.

There has been manufactured for some years a

special

type of friction clutch that is

very useful in

driving foot-power

machinery. It consists

essentially of a drum mounted upon and

FIG. 7.

Foot Lathe,
Driven from a Coun-

tershaft.

34

MODERN LATHE PRACTICE

loosely revolvingaround theshaft to be

driven, and

havinga

friction,

clutch mechanism contained within it and so

operating that the

drum will turn

freely in one direction but the moment it is revolved

in the

opposite direction the friction device comes into

operation,

the drum is

firmly clamped to the

shaft, which is thus caused to

rotate with it. To this drum is attached one end of a flat leather

belt, which is

wrapped around it several times and its free end

attached to the movable end of a

treadle, which is

usually hinged

at the front instead of the back of the machine. In

operation the

pressure of the foot

acting on the drum by means of the belt

rotates it in the forward

direction,which causes its friction mechan-

ism to act and revolve the shaft

through as

many revolutions as

there are convolutions of the flat belt around the drum. The

rotary motion thus set

up is continued

by the momentum of a

balance-wheel, and as the foot is raised the treadle is caused to

follow

it, either

by the action of a

spring similar to a clock

spring

within the

revolving drum, or a

spiral spring acting upon another

strap, also

wrapped around the

drum, but in the

opposite direction

to the one attached to the treadle.

By this device several revolu-

tions of the

driving-shaft could be

produced at each

depression

of the

foot, the treadle

frequently passing through an arc of

thirty

to

forty degrees.

This device was

particularly applicable to the

driving of

light

foot-power machinery which it did

very successfully, and as the

strokes of the foot need not be of the same

length and were not

confined to

any certain cadence it was not

nearly as

fatiguing as

the crank device in which the strokes of the foot were always the

same distance and with the same

speed.

In the above described

device, however, the balance-wheel was

more

necessary and it was also

necessary that it should be so

arranged as to revolve with a much

higher rate of

speed than the

large wheel of the older form of foot lathe. There was one advan-

tage in this

condition, however, that in

consequence of its

higher

speed the balance-wheel could be made of much smaller diameter

and

consequently much lighter in

weight, and therefore occupying

much less

space under the machine.

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