Material Science


MATERIAL SCIENCE Aim: At the end of the course the student will have an understanding of mechanics, physical and chemical properties of materials including metals, ceramics, polymers and composites and the reasons for these properties to exist. Module 1: Introduction (3) Historical perspective of Materials Science. Why study properties of materials? Classification of materials. Advanced Materials, Future materials and modern materials Module 2: Atomic Structure, Interatomic Bonding and Structure of Crystalline Solids (5) Atomic structure. Atomic bonding in solids, Crystal structures, Crystalline and noncrystalline materials. Miller indices. Anisotropic elasticity. Elastic behavior of composites. Structure and properties of polymers. Structure and properties of ceramics. Module 3: Imperfections in Solids (2) Point defects. Theoretical yield point. Line defects and dislocations. Interfacial defects. Bulk or volume defects. Atomic vibrations Module 4: Mechanical Properties of Metals (3) Elastic deformation. Plastic deformation. Interpretation of tensile stress-strain curves Yielding under multiaxial stress. Yield criteria and macroscopic aspects of plastic deformation. Property variability and design factors Module 5: Diffusion (2) Diffusion mechanisms. Steady and non-steady state diffusion. Factors that influence diffusion. Non-equilibrium transformation and microstructure Module 6: Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms (3) Dislocation and plastic deformation. Mechanisms of strengthening in metals. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Strengthening by second phase particles. Optimum distribution of particles. Lattice resistance to dislocation motion Module 7: Phase Diagrams (4) Equilibrium phase diagrams. Particle strengthening by precipitation. Precipitation reactions. Kinetics of nucleation and growth. The iron-carbon system. Phase transformations. Transformation rate effects and TTT diagrams. Microstructure and property changes in iron-carbon system Module 8: Failure (5) Fracture. Ductile and brittle fracture. Fracture mechanics. Impact fracture. Ductile brittle transition. Fatigue. Crack initiation and propagation. Crack propagation rate. Creep. Generalized creep behavior. Stress and temperature effects Module 9: Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys (2) Types of metals and alloys. Fabrication of metals. Thermal processing of metals. Heat treatment. Precipitation hardening.
Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/1

Material Science


Module 10: Applications and Processing of Ceramics (1) Types and applications of ceramics. Fabrication and processing of ceramics. Module 11: Applications and Processing of Polymers (2) Mechanical behavior of polymers. Mechanisms of deformation and strengthening of polymers. Crystallization, melting and glass transition. Polymer types. Polymer synthesis and processing. Module 12: Composites (1) Particle reinforced composites. Fiber reinforced composites. Structural composites Module 13: Corrosion and Degradation of Materials (1) Corrosion of metals. Corrosion of ceramics. Degradation of polymers Module 14: Electrical Properties (1) Electrical conduction. Semi conductivity. Super conductivity. Electrical conduction in ionic ceramics and in polymers. Dielectric behavior. Ferroelectricity. Piezoelectricity Module 15: Thermal Properties (1) Heat capacity. Thermal expansion. Thermal conductivity. Thermal stresses Module 16: Magnetic Properties (1) Diamagnetism and paramagnetism. Ferromagnetism.Antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Influence of temperature on magnetic behavior. Domains and Hysteresis Module 17: Optical Properties (1) Basic concepts. Optical properties of metals. Optical properties of nonmetals. Application of optical phenomena. Module 18: Economic, Environmental and Social Issues of Material Usage (2) Economic considerations. Environmental and societal considerations. Recycling issues. Life cycle analysis and its use in design

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science


Lecture Plan Module 1) Introduction

Learning Units

1. Historic perspective and Materials Science 2. Why study properties of materials. Classification of materials 3. Advanced materials, Future materials and Modern materials 2) Atomic Structure, 4. Atomic Structure and atomic bonding in Interatomic Bonding solids and Structure of 5. Crystal structures, Crystalline and nonCrystalline Solids crystalline materials 6. Miller indices, Anisotropic elasticity and elastic behavior of composites 7. Structure and properties of polymers 8. Structure and properties of Ceramics 3) Imperfections in 9. Pint defects, theoretical yield point, line Solids defects and dislocations 10. Interfacial defects, bulk or volume defects and atomic vibrations 4) Mechanical 11. Elastic deformation and plastic deformation Properties of Metals 12. Interpretation of tensile stress-strain curves 13. Yielding under multiaxial stress, Yield criteria and macroscopic aspects of plastic deformation and property variability and design factors 5) Diffusion 14. Diffusion Mechanisms and steady state and non-steady state diffusion 15. Factors that influence diffusion and nonequilibrium transformation and microstructure 6) Dislocations and 16. Dislocation and plastic deformation and Strengthening mechanisms of strengthening in metals Mechanisms 17. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth 18. Strengthening by second phase particles, optimum distribution of particles and lattice resistance to dislocation motion 7. Phase Diagrams 19. Equilibrium phase diagrams, Particle strengthening by precipitation and precipitation reactions 20. Kinetics of nucleation and growth 21. The iron-carbon system, phase transformations 22. Transformation rate effects and TTT diagrams, Microstructure and property changes in iron-carbon system 8. Failure 23. Fracture, ductile and brittle fracture 24. Fracture mechanics 25. Impact fracture, ductile brittle transition
Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore

Hours Total per topic Hours 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 5


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1 1 1

Material Science


26. Fatigue, crack initiation and propagation, crack propagation rate 27. Creep, generalized creep behavior, stress and temperature effects 9. Applications and 28. Types on metals and alloys, fabrication of Processing of Metals metals, thermal processing of metals and Alloys 29. Heat treatment and precipitation hardening 10. Applications and 30. Types and applications of ceramics, Processing of fabrication and processing of ceramics Ceramics 11. Applications and 31. Mechanical Behavior of polymers, Processing of Mechanisms of deformation and Polymers strengthening of polymers 32. Crystallization, melting and glass transition, polymer types and polymer synthesis and processing 12. Composites 33. Particle reinforced composites, fiber reinforced composites, structural composites 34. Corrosion of metals, Corrosion of ceramics, 13. Corrosion and Degradation of polymers Degradation of Materials 14. Electrical 35. Electrical conduction, Semi conductivity, Properties Super conductivity, Electrical conduction in ionic ceramics and in polymers, Dielectric behavior, Ferroelectricity, Piezoelectricity 15. Thermal 36. Heat capacity, Thermal expansion, Thermal Properties conductivity, Thermal stresses 16. Magnetic 37. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, Properties ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, and ferrimagnetism. Influence of temperature on magnetic behavior, domains and hysteresis 17. Optical 38. Basic concepts, Optical properties of metals, Properties Optical properties of nonmetals, Application of optical phenomena 18. Economic, 39. Economic considerations, Environmental Environmental and and societal considerations, Recycling issues Social Issues of 40. Life Cycle analysis and its use in design Material Usage

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Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Introduction

Learning Material

Historical Perspective Materials are so important in the development of civilization that we associate ages with them. In the origin of human life on earth, the Stone Age, people used only natural materials, like stone, clay, skins, and wood. When people found copper and how to make it harder by alloying, the Bronze Age started about 3000 BC. The use of iron and steel, a stronger material that gave advantage in wars started at about 1200 BC. The next big step was the discovery of a cheap process to make steel around 1850, which enabled the railroads and the building of the modern infrastructure of the industrial world. Materials Science and Engineering Understanding of how materials behave like they do, and why they differ in properties was only possible with the atomistic understanding allowed by quantum mechanics, that first explained atoms and then solids starting in the 1930s. The combination of physics, chemistry, and the focus on the relationship between the properties of a material and its microstructure is the domain of Materials Science. The development of this science allowed designing materials and provided a knowledge base for the engineering applications (Materials Engineering).

Satish V. Kailas/IISc

M1/L1/V1/Aug 2004/1

Material Science/Introduction Why Study Materials Science and Engineering?
• • •

Learning Material

To be able to select a material for a given use based on considerations of cost and performance. To understand the limits of materials and the change of their properties with use. To be able to create a new material that will have some desirable properties.

All engineering disciplines need to know about materials. Even the most "immaterial", like software or system engineering depend on the development of new materials, which in turn alter the economics, like software-hardware trade-offs. Increasing applications of system engineering are in materials manufacturing (industrial engineering) and complex environmental systems. Classification of Materials Like many other things, materials are classified in groups, so that our brain can handle the complexity. One could classify them according to structure, or properties, or use. The one that we will use is according to the way the atoms are bound together: Metals: valence electrons are detached from atoms, and spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions together. Metals are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light (shiny if polished). Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold. Semiconductors: the bonding is covalent (electrons are shared between atoms). Their electrical properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of contaminants. They are opaque to visible light but transparent to the infrared. Examples: Si, Ge, GaAs. Ceramics: atoms behave mostly like either positive or negative ions, and are bound by Coulomb forces between them. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors with oxygen, nitrogen or carbon (oxides, nitrides, and carbides). Examples: glass, porcelain, many minerals. Polymers: are bound by covalent forces and also by weak van der Waals forces, and usually based on H, C and other non-metallic elements. They decompose at moderate temperatures (100 – 400 C), and are lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. Examples: plastics (nylon, teflon, polyester) and rubber. Other categories are not based on bonding. A particular microstructure identifies composites, made of different materials in intimate contact (example: fiberglass, concrete, wood) to achieve specific properties. Biomaterials can be any type of material that is biocompatible and used, for instance, to replace human body parts.

Satish V. Kailas/IISc

M1/L2/V1/Aug 2004/1

Material Science/Introduction

Learning Material

Advanced Materials Materials used in "High-Tec" applications, usually designed for maximum performance, and normally expensive. Examples are titanium alloys for supersonic airplanes, magnetic alloys for computer disks, special ceramics for the heat shield of the space shuttle, etc. Modern Material's Needs
• • • • • •

Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures: requires high temperature structural materials Use of nuclear energy requires solving problem with residues, or advances in nuclear waste processing. Hypersonic flight requires materials that are light, strong and resist high temperatures. Optical communications require optical fibers that absorb light negligibly. Civil construction – materials for unbreakable windows. Structures: materials that are strong like metals and resist corrosion like plastics.

Satish V. Kailas/IISc

M1/L3/V1/Aug 2004/1

Module-1 Introduction Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 1 .

Kailas ME/MS 2 . Historic perspective and Materials Science 2. Classification of materials 3. Future materials and Modern materials’ needs Satish V.Contents 1. Advanced materials. Why study properties of materials.

Bronze age. In respect. no end in sight! Satish V. This is an ongoing process for coming centuries.Historic Perspective Materials are very important in development of human civilization.e. etc. Iron age. With time humans discovered new materials and also techniques to produce known materials. Kailas ME/MS 3 . e. i. their names are associated in history. stone age.g.

which are useful in practice of engineer’s profession.Materials Science It can be defined as science dealing the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. Basic components and their interrelationship: Structure Performance Properties Satish V. Kailas ME/MS Processing 4 .

Kailas ME/MS 5 . Optical. Each material possess a structure. relevant properties. Magnetic. Satish V. Engineering use of a material is reflection of its properties under conditions of use. Electrical. which dependent on processing and determines the performance. and Deteriorative. All important properties can be grouped into six categories: Mechanical.Properties Of Materials All solid engineering materials are characterized for their properties. Thermal.

There are less chances of material possessing optimal or idle combination of properties. There are several criteria on which the final decision is based on.Why Study Properties Of Materials? . A need to trade off between number of factors! Satish V.1 Since there are thousands of materials available it is almost impossible to select a material for a specific task unless otherwise its properties are known. Kailas ME/MS 6 .

Kailas ME/MS 7 . Satish V. A second selection consideration is any deterioration of material properties during service operations.2 The classic example involves strength and ductility: Normally material possessing strength have limited ductility. Finally the overriding consideration is economics.In such cases a reasonable comprise between two or more properties are important.Why Study Properties Of Materials? .

Biomatrials Satish V.Classification Of Materials Three basic groups of solid engineering materials based on atomic bonds and structures: Metals Ceramics Polymers Classification can also be done based on either properties (mechanical. Kailas ME/MS 8 . machines. devices). Semiconductors. optical). According to the present engineering needs: Composites. areas of applications (structures. Further we can subdivide these groups. electrical.

can be polished to high luster. Relatively heavier.Metals Characteristics are owed to non-localized electrons (metallic bond between atoms) i. electrons are not bound to a particular atom.g.: Steel. E. Lead. The opacity and reflectivity of a metal arise from the response of the unbound electrons to electromagnetic vibrations at light frequencies. Aluminium.e. etc. They are opaque. Titanium. yet deformable. Bronze. They are characterized by their high thermal and electrical conductivities. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 9 . strong. Brass.

but brittle in nature. Less dense than most metals and alloys. E. Minerals. silicate glass. etc. pure oxides. non-silicate glasses). Wide range: traditional (clay.: Glass. Typically good insulators to passage of both heat and electricity. and carbides of metals. Kailas ME/MS 10 . Porcelain. Characterized by their higher resistance to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers.g. Satish V. They are harder and stiffer.Ceramics They contain both metallic and nonmetallic elements. They are mostly oxides. cement) to advanced (carbides. nitrides.

g. Rubber. flexibility and use as insulators. They decompose at relatively moderate temperatures (100400 C). Polyester.: Nylon. Consists large molecular structures bonded by covalent and vander Waals forces. E. etc. etc. textiles. noted for their low density. Application: packaging. Satish V. biomedical devices. based on carbon. optical devices. Kailas ME/MS 11 . Teflon.e. Mostly are of organic compounds i.Polymers Commercially called plastics. oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. ceramics household items. toys.

etc. polymer matrix. etc. Available over a very wide range: natural (wood) to synthetic (fiberglass). Fiberglass. tailor made to benefit from combination of best characteristics of each constituent. Classified into many groups: (1) depending on orientation of phases. dispersed phase. ceramic matrix. metal matrix. Satish V. plywood. special purpose refractory bricks. Many are composed of two phases.Composites Consist more than one kind of material. (2) depending on matrix. Kailas ME/MS 12 . such as particle reinforced. E.: Cement concrete. fiber reinforced.g. one is matrix – which is continuous and surrounds the other.

Semiconductors Their electrical properties are intermediate when compared with electrical conductors and electrical insulators. Kailas ME/MS 13 . These electrical characteristics are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute amounts of foreign atoms. In can be said that semiconductors revolutionized the electronic industry for last few decades. Found very many applications in electronic devices over decades through integrated circuits. Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 14 . must not produce toxic substances.g. reproducibility and cost.Biomaterials Those used for replacement of damaged or diseased body parts. Satish V. ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. A classic example: hip joint. low friction and wear. density. Co-28Cr-6Mo. Ti-6Al-4V.: Stainless steel. E. high purity dense Al-oxide. All the above materials can be used depending on the application. Primary requirements: must be biocompatible with body tissues. Important materials factors: ability to support the forces. etc.

Satish V. electronic gadgets. these are relatively expensive. etc. air/space-crafts. multicomponent alloys. LCDs. thermal protection for space shuttle. Typical applications: integrated circuits. etc. inter-metallic compounds. which operates based on relatively intricate and sophisticated principles (e.e. E. etc.: Metallic foams.Advanced Materials Can be defined as materials used in high-tech devices i. Thus. special ceramics and high temperature materials.g. These are either traditional materials with enhanced properties or newly developed materials with highperformance capabilities.). computers. fiber optics. Kailas ME/MS 15 . magnetic alloys. lasers.g.

etc. electric/magnetic fields. mechanical characteristics in response to changes in temperature. and expected to have significant influence on present-day technologies. ME/MS 16 Satish V. Actuators may be called upon to change shape. especially in the fields of medicine. position.Future Materials . moisture. manufacturing and defense. natural frequency.1 Group of new and state-of-the-art materials now being developed. Smart/Intelligent material system consists some type of sensor (detects an input) and an actuator (performs responsive and adaptive function). Kailas . pH.

Kailas ME/MS 17 . Satish V.Future Materials .2 Four types of materials used as actuators: Shape memory alloys Piezoelectric ceramics Magnetostrictive materials Electro-/Magneto-rheologic fluids Materials / Devices used as sensors: Optical fibers Piezoelectric materials Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).etc.

Typical applications: By incorporating sensors. Small microelectronic circuits in machines ranging from computers to photolithography prints. 6. 2. 5. 4. Fibers for bridges. Kailas . Health monitoring detecting the success or failure of a product. researchers are able to stimulate biological humanlike behavior.3 1. 3. buildings. ME/MS 18 Satish V. actuators and chip processors into system. Actuators that control chatter in precision machine tools. and wood utility poles. They also help in fast moving and accurate robot parts.Future Materials . high speed helicopter rotor blades.

Civil construction – materials for unbreakable windows. Optical communications require optical fibers that absorb light negligibly. or advance in nuclear waste processing. strong and resist high temperatures. Structures: materials that are strong like metals and resist corrosion like plastics. Satish V. Use of nuclear energy requires solving problems with residue. Hypersonic flight requires materials that are light. Kailas ME/MS 19 .Modern Materials’ Needs Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures. requires high temperature structural materials.

The Carbon nucleus has Z=6. we get 6 × 1023 atoms/mol × 1.9 × 1022 atoms/cm3. one obtains n = 3.66 × 10-27 kg.25 nm. n = Nav × δ / M where M is the atomic mass in amu (grams per mol). A mole is the amount of matter that has a mass in grams equal to the atomic mass in amu of the atoms. M(H2O) = 18. 1. Electron and protons are negative and positive charges of the same magnitude. the number of atoms per cm3 in a piece of material of density δ (g/cm3). Kailas/IISc M2/L1/V1/Aug 2004/1 . roughly equal to 1 amu. about 39 million. and A the number of neutrons. Note that Nav = 1 gram/1 amu. A neutral atom has the same number of electrons and protons.3 × 1022 H2O/cm3. Most solids have atomic densities around 6 × 1022 atoms/cm3. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Atomic Structure and atomic Bonding in solids Atomic Structure: Atoms are composed of electrons. and A=6. where Z is the number of protons. This is an important number that gives the scale of atomic structures in solids. and neutrons. Neutrons and protons have very similar masses. for graphite (carbon) with a density δ = 1. which form the nucleus of the atom. With a density of 1 g/cm3. The mass of the electron is negligible with respect to those of the proton and the neutron. Satish V. Note that since the water molecule contains 3 atoms. The cube root of that number gives the number of atoms per centimeter. Thus.8 g/cm3 / 12 g/mol) = 9 × 1022 C/cm3. a mole of carbon has a mass of 12 grams. M =12.Material Science/Atomic Structure.023 × 1023. The number of atoms in a mole is called the Avogadro number. Thus. The mean distance between atoms is the inverse of that. this is equivalent to 9. and equals 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom. or 0. one uses the molecular mass. Z. For a molecular solid like ice.6 × 10-19 Coulombs. Nav = 6. Calculating n.8 g/cm3. The unit of mass is an atomic mass unit (amu) = 1. protons.

Polar Molecule-Induced Dipole Bonds A polar molecule like H2O (Hs are partially +. B. electrons are shared between the molecules. An example is NaCl. Ionic bonds are the strongest bonds. O is partially – ).and less around Na. Those electrons form an electron sea. thus producing bonding.Material Science/Atomic Structure. direct Coulomb attraction. Since the electron moves. Secondary Bonding (Van der Waals) Fluctuating Induced Dipole Bonds Since the electrons may be on one side of the atom or the other. will induce a dipole in a nearby atom. In real solids. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Atomic bonding in solids: Primary Interatomic Bonds Ionic Bonding Learning Material This is the bond when one of the atoms is negative (has an extra electron) and another is positive (has lost an electron). Then there is a strong. like the O side of the H2O dipole Satish V. Permanent Dipole Bonds This is the case of the hydrogen bond in ice. The H end of the molecule is positively charged and can bond to the negative side of another dipolar molecule. a dipole is formed: the + nucleus at the center. where the electrons spend more time in between the nuclei than outside. forming Na+. there are more electrons around Cl. The simplest example is the H2 molecule. loosing some electrons from the valence band. This bond is called van der Waals bonding. Metallic Bonding In metals. ionic bonding is usually combined with covalent bonding. and the electron outside. forming Cl. In the molecule. Covalent Bonding In covalent bonding. Atom B then polarizes so that its outer electrons are on the side of the atom closest to the + side (or opposite to the – side) of the dipole in A. to saturate the valency. the dipole fluctuates. which binds the charged nuclei in place. This fluctuation in atom A produces a fluctuating electric field that is felt by the electrons of an adjacent atom. Kailas/IISc M2/L1/V1/Aug 2004/2 . the atoms are ionized. in a similar way that the electrons in between the H atoms in the H2 molecule bind the protons. leading to bonding.

68 0. with well-defined radii. CN. number of atoms per unit cell.74 Satish V. Metallic Crystal Structures Important properties of the unit cells are • • • • • The type of atoms and their radii R. diamond and other precious stones.Material Science/Atomic Structure. which is the number of closest neighbors to which an atom is bonded. 1/m. most plastics To discuss crystalline structures it is useful to consider atoms as being hard spheres. Unit Cell SC BCC FCC HCP n 1 2 4 6 CN 6 8 12 12 a/R 2 4√ 3 2√ 2 APF 0. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Crystal Structures: Atoms self-organize in crystals. which is the fraction of the volume of the cell actually occupied by the hard spheres. the coordination number. For an atom that is shared with m adjacent unit cells. Examples of amorphous solids are glass. it is called amorphous.74 0. In this scheme. the shortest distance between two like atoms is one diameter. Examples of crystalline solids are metals. Cell dimensions (side a in cubic cells.52 0. graphite. APF = Sum of atomic volumes/Volume of cell. amorphous carbon (a-C). ice. When the solid is not crystalline. The crystalline lattice is a periodic array of the atoms. the atomic packing factor. Kailas/IISc M2/L2/V1/Aug 2004/1 . side of base a and height c in HCP) in terms of R. n. amorphous Si. most of the time. we only count a fraction of the atom. APF.

It is called polycrystalline. Non-Crystalline Solids In amorphous solids. Kailas/IISc M2/L2/V1/Aug 2004/2 . not aligned with each other. Where they meet is called a grain boundary. Then it has a regular geometric structure with flat faces. Also. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Crystalline and Non-crystalline materials: Single Crystals Crystals can be single crystals where the whole solid is one crystal. since the distance between atoms cannot be smaller than the size of the hard spheres. the tetragonal order of crystalline SiO2 (quartz) is still apparent in amorphous SiO2 (silica glass. Polycrystalline Materials A solid can be composed of many crystalline grains. there is no long-range order. For instance. But amorphous does not mean random. The grains can be more or less aligned with respect to each other.Material Science/Atomic Structure.) Satish V. in many cases there is some form of short-range order.

Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Miller Indices: Rules for Miller Indices: • • • • Determine the intercepts of the face along the crystallographic axes. -1 by -1 to get 1. If a plane is parallel to an axis. y-. If a plane has negative intercept. its intercept is at infinity and its Miller index is zero. Kailas/IISc M2/L3/V1/Aug 2004/1 . A generic Miller index is denoted by (hkl). 2 Reduce to lowest terms (already there) Thus. 1/1. Never alter negative numbers. -1. 1/3 Clear fractions (multiply by 6): 3. This implies symmetry that the crystal may not have! Satish V. in terms of unit cell dimensions. the Miller indices are calculated as: • • • Take reciprocals: 1/2. Take the reciprocals Clear fractions Reduce to lowest terms For example.1. do not divide -1. and z. For example.1. if the x-. and 3.Material Science/Atomic Structure. 1. the negative number is denoted by a bar above the number.6.2.intercepts are 2. 6. the Miller indices are 3.

light. Elastic Behavior of Composites: The idea is that by combining two or more distinct materials one can engineer a new material with the desired combination of properties (e. Face 111 always steps the same way regardless of crystal system. strong. The smaller a Miller index. regardless of the crystal class of the crystal. Natural composites: wood (polymer-polymer). Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Some General Principles • • • • • If a Miller index is zero. Specifying dimensions in unit cell terms means that the same label can be applied to any face with a similar stacking pattern. the deformation depends on the direction in which a stress is applied. the more nearly perpendicular a plane is to that axis. brittle cementite with soft. ductile ferrite to get a superior material. atoms along the edge FCC crystals are more separated than along the face diagonal. Formulas involving Miller indices are very similar to related formulas from analytical geometry. The idea that a better combination of properties can be achieved is called the principle of combined action.. which combines hard. Multiplying or dividing a Miller index by a constant has no effect on the orientation of the plane Miller indices are almost always small. for instance. A type of composite that has been discussed is perlitic steel. the more nearly parallel the plane is to the axis. Anisotropy Different directions in the crystal have different packing.Material Science/Atomic Structure. bones (polymer-ceramics). The larger a Miller index. This causes anisotropy in the properties of crystals.g. Why Miller Indices? • • • Using reciprocals spares us the complication of infinite intercepts. the plane is parallel to that axis. Kailas/IISc M2/L3/V1/Aug 2004/2 . corrosion resistant). For instance. Usual composites have just two phases: Satish V.

The efficiency of load transfer between matrix and fiber depends on the interfacial bond. orientation) Amount of phase Classification of composites: three main categories: • • • Particle-reinforced (large-particle and dispersion-strengthened) Fiber-reinforced (continuous (aligned) and short fibers (aligned or random) Structural (laminates and sandwich panels) In many applications. The strength depends on the fiber length and its orientation with respect to the stress direction. Kailas/IISc M2/L3/V1/Aug 2004/3 . fibers) Properties of composites depend on • • • Properties of phases Geometry of dispersed phase (particle size. there is a need for high strength per unit weight (specific strength). This can be achieved by composites consisting of a lowdensity (and soft) matrix reinforced with stiff fibers.Material Science/Atomic Structure. Satish V. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material • • matrix (continuous) dispersed phase (particulates. distribution. like in aircraft parts.

leather. The key factor is the very low production cost and useful properties (e. cotton. starches. Polymer molecules are huge. Isomers are molecules that contain the same molecules but in a different arrangement. Their use has grown exponentially. since polymer molecules have different lengths. double. in the form of wood. An example is butane and isobutane. that is. and formed from hydrocarbon molecules. The average molecular weight can be obtained by averaging the masses with the fraction of times they appear (number-average) or with the mass fraction of the molecules (called. silk. the molecule is a copolymer. Among this type are the paraffin compounds. The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules Examples of polymers are polyvinyl chloride (PVC). When all the mers are the same. Molecular Weight The mass of a polymer is not fixed. Hydrocarbon Molecules Most polymers are organic. the number of atoms is maximum (or saturated). Polymers are composed of basic structures called mer units. These molecules can have single. In contrast. Satish V. CnH2n+2 (Table 15. cellulose. these molecules form very long chains. especially after WW2. long elongation).g. macromolecules that have internal covalent bonds. improperly. a weight fraction). zig-zag structure (Fig. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Structure and properties of polymers: Polymers are common in nature. nylon and polystyrene. but is distributed around a mean value. Artificial polymers are made mostly from oil.. For most polymers. or triple carbon bonds. enzymes. the molecule is called a homopolymer.Material Science/Atomic Structure. When there is more than one type of mer present. Chains are represented straight but in practice they have a three-dimensional. wood.1b). often single bonded. A saturated hydrocarbon is one where all bonds are single. polypropylene. A molecule with just one mer is a monomer. poly-tetra-chloro-ethylene (PTFE or Teflon). combination of transparency and flexibility. The backbone is a string of carbon atoms. 15. proteins. Kailas/IISc M2/L4/V1/Aug 2004/1 . non-saturated hydrocarbons contain some double and triple bonds.1). rubber.

) network (similar to highly cross-linked structures). the radical groups alternative sides in the chain. 15. Copolymers Copolymers. If the radicals are linked in the same order. are solid).5). Side groups are atoms or molecules with free bonds. Molecular Configurations The regularity and symmetry of the side-groups can affect strongly the properties of polymers. block. those of very high mass (called high-polymers. flexible. Molecular Structure Typical structures are : • • • • linear (end-to-end. the configuration is called isostatic In a stereoisomer in a syndiotactic configuration. paraffins and resins have intermediate masses. Polymers of low mass are liquid or gases. the radical groups are positioned at random. etc. alternating. 15. methyl. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material The degree of polymerization is the average number of mer units. In the atactic configuration. and is obtained by dividing the average mass of the polymer by the mass of a mer unit.6. like H. bending and rotations can occur around single C-C bonds (double and triple bonds are very rigid) (Fig. polymers with at least two different types of mers can differ in the way the mers are arranged. Molecular Shape Polymers are usually not linear. Kailas/IISc M2/L4/V1/Aug 2004/2 . O. Waxes. Fig. etc. 15.Material Science/Atomic Structure. like in the spaghetti structure shown in Fig. vulcanization. nylon) branched cross-linked (due to radiation.9 shows different arrangements: random. called free-radicals. like PVC. and graft. Random kings and coils lead to entanglement. Polymer Crystallinity Satish V.

random copolymers. or polymers with bulky side groups. the crystallites (micelles) are embedded in an amorphous matrix (Fig. Thus. In the fringed-micelle model. which is common. Polymer single crystals grown are shaped in regular platelets (lamellae) (Fig. kinking and coiling prevent strict ordering required in the crystalline state.Material Science/Atomic Structure.4) are chain-folded crystallites in an amorphous matrix that grow radially in spherical shape “grains”. Satish V.11). Chain disorder or misalignment.10). 15. Crystalline polymers are denser than amorphous polymers. Kailas/IISc M2/L4/V1/Aug 2004/3 . which are not too long form crystalline regions easier than branched. Polymer Crystals Different models have been proposed to describe the arrangement of molecules in semicrytalline polymers. leads to amorphous material since twisting. Polymer molecules are often partially crystalline (semicrystalline). 15. so the degree of crystallinity can be obtained from the measurement of density.12). network. 15. . Spherulites (Fig. with crystalline regions dispersed within amorphous material. linear polymers with small side groups.15. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Crystallinity in polymers is more complex than in metals (fig.

brittle and composed of more than one element (e.g. with Si4+ as the cation and O2. Very ionic crystals usually involve cations which are alkalis or alkaline-earths (first two columns of the periodic table) and oxygen or halogens as anions. Kailas/IISc M2/L5/V1/Aug 2004/1 .286. A lower melting point makes it easy to form glass to make.= the anion. This leads to contact. with a proportion that depends on the particular ceramics. rO. The bond is weekly ionic. clays and sand.. Silicate Ceramics Oxygen and Silicon are the most abundant elements in Earth’s crust. so rC/rA = 0.14 nm. bottles. configurations where anions have the highest number of cation neighbors and viceversa. Covalent bonds involve sharing of valence electrons. soils. Silicates differ on how the tetrahedra are arranged. ionic and covalent. Soda glasses melt at lower temperature than amorphous SiO2 because the addition of Na2O (soda) breaks the tetrahedral network. In silica.g. quartz) or amorphous. The ionic character is given by the difference of electronegativity between the cations (+) and anions (-).04 nm.Material Science/Atomic Structure. every oxygen atom is shared by adjacent tetrahedra. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Structure and properties of ceramics: Ceramics are inorganic and non-metallic materials that are commonly electrical and thermal insulators. Their combination (silicates) occur in rocks. rSi = 0. Carbon Satish V. for instance. two in Al2O3) Ceramic Structures Ceramic bonds are mixed. Silica can be crystalline (e. as in glass.. (SiO2).⇒ (Si O4)4-. The tetrahedron is charged: Si4+ + 4 O2. The building criteria for the crystal structure are two: • • • maintain neutrality charge balance dictates chemical formula achieve closest packing the condition for minimum energy implies maximum attraction and minimum repulsion.

Kailas/IISc M2/L5/V1/Aug 2004/2 . due to the unusual properties that result when fullerenes are doped with other atoms.Material Science/Atomic Structure. and microelectronics. may be thought as a type of ceramic. with high index of refraction semiconductor (can be doped to make electronic devices) metastable (transforms to carbon when heated) Synthetic diamonds are made by application of high temperatures and pressures or by chemical vapor deposition. van der Waals bonding between layers using the fourth electron. A recently (1985) discovered formed of carbon is the C60 molecule. cheaper production method include hard coatings for metal tools. Satish V. diamond. Graphite has a layered structure with very strong hexagonal bonding within the planar layers (using 3 of the 3 bonding electrons) and weak. Ge) covalent C-C bonds highest hardness of any material known very high thermal conductivity (unlike ceramics) transparent in the visible and infrared. Graphite is a good electrical conductor and chemically stable even at high temperatures. Non-stoichiometry refers to a change in composition so that the elements in the ceramic are not in the proportion appropriate for the compound (condition known as stoichiometry). the effect of non-stoichiometry is a redistribution of the atomic charges (Fig. Their formation is strongly affected by the condition of charge neutrality (creation of unbalanced charges requires the expenditure of a large amount of energy. Future applications are as a structural material and possibly in microelectronics. ultra-low friction coatings for space applications. Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Carbon is not really a ceramic. 13. Applications include furnaces. Future applications of this latter. Imperfections in Ceramics Imperfections include point defects and impurities. To minimize energy. also known as fullerene or bucky-ball (after the architect Buckminster Fuller who designed the geodesic structure that C60 resembles. rocket nozzles. but an allotropic form. Diamond has very interesting and even unusual properties: • • • • • • • diamond-cubic structure (like Si. This leads to easy interplanar cleavage and applications as a lubricant and for writing (pencils).1). electrodes in batteries.) Fullerenes and related structures like bucky-onions amd nanotubes are exceptionally strong.

A Frenkel-defect is a vacancy.. bricks in houses. This is the case of electronegative impurities that substitute a lattice anions or electropositive substitutional impurities. along cleavage planes. stone blocks in the pyramids). Inter atomic bonding and structure of crystalline solids and atomic bonding in solids Learning Material Charge neutral defects include the Frenkel and Schottky defects. like common glass deform by viscous flow (like very highdensity liquids). but not in conditions of tensile stress.g. Plastic deformation in crystalline ceramics is by slip.Material Science/Atomic Structure. which is difficult due to the structure and the strong local (electrostatic) potentials. This is more likely for similar ionic radii since this minimizes the energy required for lattice distortion. The compressive strength is typically ten times the tensile strength. Satish V. such as under flexure. It occurs due to the unavoidable presence of microscopic flaws (micro-cracks. This makes ceramics good structural materials under compression (e. The flaws cannot be closely controlled in manufacturing. Brittle Fracture of Ceramics The brittle fracture of ceramics limits applications. Non-crystalline ceramics. and crack propagation (perpendicular to the applied stress) is usually transgranular.interstitial pair of cations (placing large anions in an interstitial position requires a lot of energy in lattice distortion). and atmospheric contaminants) that result during cooling from the melt. A Schottky-defect is the a pair of nearby cation and anion vacancies. Defects will appear if the charge of the impurities is not balanced. internal pores. Kailas/IISc M2/L5/V1/Aug 2004/3 . Viscosity decreases strongly with increases temperature. The flaws need to crack formation. There is very little plastic deformation before fracture. this leads to a large variability (scatter) in the fracture strength of ceramic materials. Introduction of impurity atoms in the lattice is likely in conditions where the charge is maintained.

Module 2 Atomic Structures. Kailas ME/MS 1 . Interatomic Bonding and Structure of Crystalline Solids Satish V.

Anisotropic elasticity and Elastic behavior of Composites 4. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Structure and properties of polymers 5. Atomic Structure and Atomic bonding in solids 2. Crystalline and Non-crystalline materials 3. Miller indices. Crystal structures. Structure and properties of ceramics Satish V.Contents 1.

11x10-31 kg. size of atom.67x10-27 kg.Atomic Structure -1 Every atom consists of a small nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. specific energy levels. valence electrons. Protons and neutrons have approximately the mass. nature of bonding. which is encircled by moving electrons in their orbitals. Kailas ME/MS 3 . Satish V. The top most ortibal electrons. affect most material properties that are of interest to engineer. Neutrons are electrically neutral. 9. 1. Electrons and protons are negative and positive charges of the same magnitude being 1.g. optical/magnetic/electrical properties. E.60x10-19 coulombs.: chemical properties. which is larger than that of an electron.

Atomic mass (A) . A ≅ Z+N. Kailas ME/MS 4 .atoms with same atomic number but different atomic the number of protons per atoms. Isotopes . measured in grams. Satish the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Atomic mass is measured in atomic mass unit (amu) where 1amu=(1\12) the mass of most common isotope of carbon atom. Thus a mole of carbon has a mass of 12 grams. where N is number of neutrons. A mole is the amount of matter that has a mass in grams equal to the atomic mass in amu of the atoms.Atomic Structure -2 Atomic number (Z) .

for graphite (carbon) with a density d = 1. Kailas ME/MS 5 . It gives an idea about scale of atomic structures in solids. n = 6.g. in a piece of material of density d (g/cm3) n = Nav × d / M. Nay. n.023x1023. Most solid materials will have atomic density in the order of 6x1022.25 nm.8 g/cm3 and M =12.8 g/cm3 / 12 g/mol) = 9 × 1022 atoms/cm3. Nay=1gram/1amu = 6. that’s about 39 million atoms per centimeter.Atomic Structure -3 The number of atoms or molecules in a mole of substance is called the Avogadro’s number. Mean distance between atoms is in the range of 0. Satish V.: Calculating the number of atoms per cm3. where M is the atomic mass in amu. Thus.023 × 1023 atoms/mol × 1. E.

Kailas ME/MS 6 . and Metallic bonds.: Ionic. Exists in many substances like water along with primary bonds. Covalent. and Vander Waals forces. Satish V.g.: Hydrogen. E. Exists in almost all solid materials.g. and how they are arranged? Bonds are two kinds – Primary. Secondary bonds – relatively weaker bonds. E.Atomic Bonding In Solids Two questions need to be answered: why the atoms are clustered together?. and Secondary Primary bonds – relatively stronger.

Atomic Bond In Solids Atomic bonding Primary bonding Secondary bonding ionic covalent metallic Fluctuating induced Satish V. Kailas ME/MS Polar induced permanent 7 .

Nature of bond depends on electron arrangement in respective atoms. Satish V. sharing (covalent. and metallic) valence electrons. This leads to formation of bonds.Primary Inter-Atomic Bonds These bonds invariably involves valence electrons. Bond energies are in order of 1000 kJ/mol. Kailas ME/MS 8 . Atoms tend to acquire stable electron arrangement in their valence orbitals by transferring (ionic).

and fewer electrons around Na.Ionic Bond This primary bond exists between two atoms when transfer of electron(s) results in one of the atoms to become negative (has an extra electron) and another positive (has lost an electron).g. E. Basically ionic bonds are non-directional in nature. forming Cl.: NaCl. In the molecule. there are more electrons around Cl. In real solids. ionic bonding is usually exists along with covalent bonding. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 9 . forming Na+. This bond is a direct consequence of strong Coulomb attraction between charged atoms.

E. where an electron from each of the atom shared by the other atom.e. and directional in nature.: H2 molecule. thus acquire stability by saturating the valence configuration.g. each bond is between a specific pair of atoms. covalent bonds are very strong. thus producing the covalent bond. Satish V. Covalent bonds are stereo specific i.Covalent Bond This bond comes into existence if valence electrons are shared between a pair of atoms. Typically. Kailas ME/MS 10 . which share a pair of electrons (of opposite magnetic spins).

electrons are delocalized. metallic bonds are nondirectional. Kailas ME/MS 11 .e.e. arranged positive nucleuses are surrounded by electron pool. i. i. Shared electrons are not specific to a pair of atoms.Metallic Bond This bond comes into existence if valence electrons are shared between number of atoms. Satish V. As shared electrons are delocalized. Very characteristic properties of metals like high thermal and electrical conductivities are result of presence of delocalized electron pool. in contrast to Covalent bond.

Secondary Inter-Atomic Bonds . Bond energies are in order of 10 kJ/mol Satish V.1 These bonds involves atomic or molecular dipoles. Bonds can exists between induced and permanent dipoles (polar molecules). Bond comes into existence because of Columbic attraction between positive end of one dipole and negative end of another dipole. Kailas ME/MS 12 .

Permanent dipole bonds are also called Hydrogen bonds as covalently bonded hydrogen atoms – for example C-H. Kailas ME/MS 13 .2 Existence of these depends on three kinds of dipoles – fluctuating dipoles. Hydrogen bonds is responsible for water t exist in liquid state at room temperature. O-H.Secondary Inter-Atomic Bonds . Polar-molecule dipoles and Permanent dipoles. Satish V. F-H – share single electron becomes positively charged proton that is capable of strong attractive force with the negative end of an adjacent molecule.

Unit cell is smallest repeatable entity that can be used to completely represent a crystal structure. It is the building block of crystal structure. called crystalline solids. Otherwise non-crystalline or amorphous solids. Kailas ME/MS 14 . Groups of atoms/molecules specifically arranged – crystal. Lattice is used to represent a three-dimensional periodic array of points coinciding with atom positions. Satish V.Crystal Structures All solid materials are made of atoms/molecules. which are arranged in specific order in some materials.

Bodycentered cubic and Hexagonal. Satish V. APF Most common unit cells – Face-centered cubic. Kailas ME/MS 15 . R Cell dimensions. a and c (for hexagonal structures) Number of atoms per unit cell.Unit Cell It is characterized by: Type of atom and their radii. n Coordination number (CN)– closest neighbors to an atom Atomic packing factor.

Common Crystal Structures Unit Cell Simple Cubic Body-Centered Cubic Face-Centered Cubic Hexagonal Close Packed Satish V.74 0.52 0.74 16 . Kailas n 1 2 4 6 ME/MS CN 6 8 12 12 a/R 4/Ö 4 4/Ö 3 4/Ö 2 APF 0.68 0.

Schematic Unit Cells Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 17 .

Plane (111) always steps the same way regardless of crystal system Satish V.Miller Indices A system of notation is required to identify particular direction(s) or plane(s) to characterize the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell Formulas involving Miller indices are very similar to related formulas from analytical geometry – simple to use Use of reciprocals avoids the complication of infinite intercepts Specifying dimensions in unit cell terms means that the same label can be applied to any plane with a similar stacking pattern. Kailas ME/MS 18 . regardless of the crystal class of the crystal.

known as indices.Direction A vector of convenient length is placed parallel to the required direction The length of the vector projection on each of three axes are measured in terms of unit cell dimensions These three numbers are made to smallest integer values. by multiplying or dividing by a common factor The three indices are enclosed in square brackets.Miller Indices . Kailas ME/MS 19 . [uvw]. A family of directions is represented by <uvw> Satish V.

there is a need to construct a plane parallel to original plane Take the reciprocals of these intercept numbers Clear fractions Reduce to set of smallest integers The three indices are enclosed in parenthesis. in terms of unit cell dimensions. A family of planes is represented by {hkl} Satish V.Plane Determine the intercepts of the plane along the crystallographic axes.Miller Indices . (hkl). If plane is passing through origin. Kailas ME/MS 20 .

Kailas ME/MS 21 .Miller Indices .Examples Satish V.

10. A plane or direction of family is not necessarily parallel to other planes or directions in the same family The smaller the Miller index. E. its intercept is at infinity and its Miller index will be zero Never alter negative numbers.Miller Indices – Useful Conventions If a plane is parallel to an axis. more nearly parallel the plane to that axis. This implies symmetry that the crystal may not have! Use bar over the number to represent negative numbers. Kailas ME/MS 22 .g. and vice versa Multiplying or dividing a Miller index by constant has no effect on the orientation of the plane When the integers used in the Miller indices contain more than one digit.13) Satish V. the indices must be separated by commas.: (3.

g. Kailas ME/MS . and w = l.Useful Conventions For Cubic Crystals [uvw] is normal to (hkl) if u = h. v = k.: (111) ┴ [111] [uvw] is parallel to (hkl) if hu + kv + lw = 0 Two planes (h1k1l1) and (h2k2l2) are normal if h1h2 + k1k2 + l1l2=0 Two directions (u1v1w1) and (u2v2w2) are normal if u1u2 + v1v2 + w1w2=0 Inter-planar distance between family of planes {hkl} is given by: Angle between two planes is given by: d {hkl } = a h2 + k 2 + l 2 cos θ = h1 h2 + k1 k 2 + l1l 2 2 h12 + k12 + l12 h22 + k 2 + l 22 23 Satish V. E.

Miller-Bravis Indices Miller indices can describe all possible planes/directions in any crystal. and a direction is represented by (hkil) E. extra index is given by t = -(u+v). Prismatic plane – (10ֿ10) Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 24 .: Basal plane – (0001). i = -(h+k) where plane is represented as [uvtw]. fourth axis is perpendicular to basal plane Both for planes/directions. Miller-Bravis indices are used in hexagonal systems as they can reveal hexagonal symmetry more clearly Indices are based on four axes – three are coplanar on basal plane at 120˚ apart.g. However.

Definition Polymers are made of basic units called mers These are usually Hydrocarbons – where major constituent atoms are Hydrogen and Carbon When structure consists of only one mer. it is called polymer Isomers are molecules those contain same number of similar mers but arrangement will be different E. If it contains more than one mer.: Butene and Isobutene When a polumer has ONE kind of mers in its structure.Polymers . it is monomer. Kailas ME/MS 25 .g. it is called homopolymer Polymer made with more than one kind of mers is called copolymer Satish V.

phenol-formaldehyde. nylon. where side-branch chains are connected to main ones. where chains are joined one to another at various positions by covalent bonds.g. Kailas ME/MS 26 .Polymer Structures Linear.: epoxies. E. where mer units are joined together end to end in single chains. E.g. Branching of polymers lowers polymer density because of lower packing efficiency Cross-linked.: PVC. E. trifunctional mer units with 3-D networks comes under this category. Satish V.g.: vulcanization of rubber Network. This cross-linking is usually achieved at elevated temperatures by additive atoms. Branched.

Kailas ME/MS 27 . Satish V.Polymer Structures Schematic presentation of polymer structures. Individual mers are represented by solid circles.

During first heating covalent bonds forms thus extensive cross-linking takes place. and do not soften during next heat cycle. Kailas ME/MS 28 . Usually made of linear and branched structures.g. E.: Vulcanized rubber.g. E. Stronger and harder than thermo-plasts. Vinyls Satish V. The process is reversible. and becomes hard at ambient temperatures. some polyester resins Thermo-plasts: softens at high temperatures. Acrylics. Cellulosics. epoxies.Thermo-Sets – Thermo-Plasts Polymers mechanical response at elevated temperatures strongly depends their chain configuration Based on this response polymers are grouped in to two thermo-sets and thermo-plasts Thermo-sets: become permanently hard when heated.: Polystyrene.

Kailas ME/MS 29 .: PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) Satish V. Each spherulite consists of collection of ribbon like chain folded lamellar crystallites. E.g.Polymer Crystallinity Crystallinity in polymers is more complex than in metals Polymer crystallinity range from almost crystalline to amorphous in nature It depends on cooling path and on chain configuration Crystalline polymers are more denser than amorphous polymers Many semicrystalline polymers form spherulites.

Polymer Properties Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 30 .

nitrides of metals are ceramics E.Ceramics Ceramics are inorganic and non-metallic materials Atomic bonds in ceramics are mixed – covalent + ionic Proportion of bonds is specific for a ceramic Ionic bonds exists between alkalis/alkaline-earth metals and oxygen/halogens.g. Kailas ME/MS 31 . carbides. Marbles Satish V. Mostly oxides.: Sand. Glass. Bricks.

155 – 0.maintain neutrality .00 0 12 32 2 3 ME/MS 4 6 .000 8 > 1.225 – 0.Ceramic Structures Building criteria for ceramic structures: .414 – radius ratio 0.225 0.15 0.closest packing Packing efficiency can be characterized by coordination number which depends on cation-anion radius ratio (rc/ra) Cation-anion < 0. Kailas 0.414 0.732 (rc/ra) 5 Coordination number Satish V.732 – 1.

Ion Arrangement – Coordination Numbers Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 33 .

g. E.g.g. SiC AmXp-type: number of anions and cations are different (m≠p).: NaCl. FeO E. Cesium Chloride structure – CN=8 Zinc Blende structure – CN=4 E.g.: CsCl E. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS E.: BaTiO3 34 .: CaF2.g. They assume different structures of varying coordination number (CN). ThO2 AmBnXp-type: when ceramic contains more then one kind of cations.: ZnS. Rock salt structure – CN=6. Also called perovskite crystal structure. One unit cell is made of eight cubes.Ceramic Crystal Structures AX-type: most common in ceramics.

is weak ionic and very strong covalent in nature. Thus. Bond between Si4+ and O2.1 Most common ceramic in nature – Silicates. as constituent elements – silicon and oxygen – are most abundant in earth’s crust.Silicates . Kailas ME/MS 35 . Satish V. basic unit of silicates is SiO44tetrahedron.

g. E. Si3O96. Si2O76-. Silica can be both crystalline (quartz) and amorphous (glass) Crystalline forms of silica are complicated.2 In Silica (SiO2). corner oxygen is shared by other tetrahedra…. In complicated silicates. Kailas ME/MS 36 . and comparatively open…thus low in density compared with amorphous glasses Addition of network modifiers (Na2O) and intermediates (Al2O3.thus consists SiO44-.Silicates .groups Clays comprises 2-D sheet layered structures made of Si2O52Satish V. TiO2)lowers the melting point…thus it is easy to form.: Bottles. every oxygen atom the corner of the tetrahedron is shared by the adjacent tetrahedron.

high thermal conductivity. Fullerenes and related nanotubes are very strong. but its allotropic form .Diamond is Diamond: C-C covalent bonds.hexagonal bonding within planar layers. Semiconductor.C60 .also called Fullerene / Bucky ball. solid lubricant Another allotropic form . Kailas ME/MS 37 . good electrical conductor.Carbon Carbon is not a ceramic. meta-stable Graphite . ductile could be one of the important future engineering materials Satish V. Structure resembles hallow ball made of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons where no two pentagons share a common edge. highest known hardness.another allotropic form of carbon layered structure .

and impurities.:electronegative impurities that substitute lattice anions or electropositive substitutional impurities Satish V.g. Their formation is strongly affected by charge neutrality Frenkel-defect is a vacancy-interstitial pair of cations Schottky-defect is a pair of nearby cation and anion vacancies Impurities: Introduction of impurity atoms in the lattice is likely in conditions where the charge is maintained.Imperfections In Ceramics Imperfections in ceramics – point defects. E. Kailas ME/MS 38 .

Little plastic strain is accomplished by process of slip. Plastic deformation of crystalline ceramics is limited by strong inter-atomic forces. as ceramics are high with hardness. However. Characteristic parameter of viscous flow – viscosity.Mechanical Response Of Ceramics 1 Engineering applications of ceramics are limited because of presence of microscopic flaws – generated during cooling stage of processing. Viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. However. viscosity of non-crystalline ceramics is very high. ceramics are good structural materials under compressive loads. at room temperature. Satish V. Non-crystalline ceramics deform by viscous flow. Kailas ME/MS 39 .

Kailas ME/MS 40 .9 P2) Porosity is deleterious to the flexural strength for two reasons: . grinding media Hardest materials known are ceramics Ceramics having Knoop hardness about 1000 or greater are used for their abrasive characteristics Creep – Ceramics experience creep deformation as a result of exposure to stresses at elevated temperatures. Modulus of elasticity.act as stress concentrations Satish V.reduces the cross-sectional area across where load is applied .9 P + 0.2 Hardness – one best mechanical property of ceramics which is utilized in many application such as abrasives. E. as a function of volume fraction of porosity. P: E = E0 (1-1.Mechanical Response Of Ceramics .

When QV is given in joules. NV/NA is typically only about 0. k = 8. 3. This means that NV/NA at room temperature is exp(-36) = 2. not in oC or oF).025 eV (room temperature) is much smaller than typical vacancy formation energies. and T the temperature in Kelvin (note.Material Science/Imperfections in Solids Lecture Notes Chapter 3. It may be the same type of atom as the others (self interstitial) or an impurity atom. For instance. k is Boltzmann constant. but they also occur naturally as a result of thermal vibrations. When using eV as the unit of energy. They are characterized by the Burgers vector. an insignificant number.62 × 10-5 eV/atom-K.0001 at the melting point. Thus. The Burgers vector in metals points in a close packed direction. There are other ways of making a vacancy. Imperfections in Solids 3.38 × 10-23 J/atom-K. QV is the energy required to form a vacancy. Note that kT(300 K) = 0. This means that the forces are not balanced in the same way as for other atoms in the solid. QV(Cu) = 0. there is a change in the coordination of atoms around the defect. found by doing a loop around the dislocation line and noticing the extra interatomic spacing needed to close the loop.2 Theoretical yield point: Theoretical yield is the maximum quantity of a product that could be formed in a chemical reaction if all the limiting reactant reacted to form products (distinguished from actual yield). It is created when the solid is formed. The number of vacancies formed by thermal agitation follows the law: NV = NA × exp(-QV/kT) where NA is the total number of atoms in the solid. Bangalore M3/L1/V1/dec2004/1 . Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. 3.1 Point Defects Vacancies and Self-Interstitials A vacancy is a lattice position that is vacant because the atom is missing.3 Dislocations—Linear Defects : Dislocations are abrupt changes in the regular ordering of atoms.9 eV/atom. Even so. An interstitial is an atom that occupies a place outside the normal lattice position. They occur in high density and are very important in mechanical properties of material.3 × 10-16. a high temperature is needed to have a high thermal concentration of vacancies. k = 1. In the case of vacancies and interstitials. which results in lattice distortion around the defect. along a line (dislocation line) in the solid.

Screw dislocations result when displacing planes relative to each other through shear. the Burgers vector is perpendicular to the dislocation line. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. the Burgers vector is parallel to the dislocation line.Material Science/Imperfections in Solids Lecture Notes Edge dislocations occur when an extra plane is inserted. The dislocation line is at the end of the plane. Bangalore M3/L1/V1/dec2004/2 . In an edge dislocation. In this case.

Vibrations displace transiently atoms from their regular lattice site. these atomic vibrations may be thought of as imperfections or defects. Surfaces and interfaces are very reactive and it is usual that impurities segregate there. A common example is snow. The density of atoms in the region including the grain boundary is smaller than the bulk value. since void space occurs in the interface. 3.6 Atomic Vibrations : Atomic vibrations occur. in that the number of neighbors (coordination) decreases. a typical vibrational frequency of atoms is of the order of 10^13 vibrations per second.4 Interfacial Defects : The environment of an atom at a surface differs from that of an atom in the bulk. grains tend to grow in size at the expense of smaller grains to minimize energy. often introduced in the solid during processing. This occurs by diffusion.In a sense. even at zero temperature (a quantum mechanical effect) and increase in amplitude with temperature.3. whereas the amplitude is a few thousandths of a nanometer. 3. which is highly porous ice. This introduces unbalanced forces which result in relaxation (the lattice spacing is decreased) or reconstruction (the crystal structure changes). . which destroys the perfect periodicity . Since energy is required to form a surface.5 Bulk or Volume Defects : Other defects exist in all solid materials that are much larger than those heretofore discussed. A typical volume defect is porosity. At room temperature. which is accelerated at high temperatures.

Kailas ME/MS 1 .Module-3 Imperfections in Solids Satish V.

Contents 1. Bulk or Volume defects and Atomic vibrations Satish V. Interfacial defects. Theoretical yield strength. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Point defects and Line defects or Dislocations 2.

1 Ideal solids are made of atoms arranged in orderly way. Kailas ME/MS 3 .Theoretical Yield Strength . Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS G b τm = 2Π a If b≈a G τm = 2Π 4 .Theoretical Yield Strength – 2 Using a sin function to represent the variation in shear stress 2Π x τ = τ m sin b 2Π x τ ≈τm b Gx τ = Gγ = a (Hooke’s law) G ≈ 20-150 GPa Shear strength ≈ 3-30 GPa (ideal) Real strength values ≈ 0.5-10 MPa Satish V.

i.e. Line defects (1-D) or Dislocations. Kailas ME/MS 5 .3 Theoretical strength of solids shall possess an ideal value in the range of 3-30 GPa. Disordered atomic region is called defect or imperfection. defects are: Point defects (zero-D). Interfacial defects (2D) and Bulk or Volume defects (3-D). Satish V.Theoretical Yield Strength . The assumption of perfectly arranged atoms in a solid may not valid…. Based on geometry. Real values observed in practice are 0.5-10 MPa.. atomic order must have been disturbed.

Kailas ME/MS 6 . atomic disorder is restricted to point-like regions.e. Satish V. Thermodynamically stable compared with other kind of defects.Point Defects .1 Point defects are of zero-dimensional i.

Kailas ME/MS 7 .Point Defects .2 Fraction of vacancy sites can be given as follows: −Q n = e kT N In ionic crystals. Two possibilities are: Satish V. defects can form on the condition of charge neutrality.

A dislocation is the defect responsible for the phenomenon of slip.Line Defects Line defects or Dislocations are abrupt change in atomic order along a line. Kailas ME/MS 8 . They occur if an incomplete plane inserted between perfect planes of atoms or when vacancies are aligned in a line. Dislocations occur in high densities (108-1010 m-2 ). by which most metals deform plastically. Dislocation form during plastic deformation. Satish V. solidification or due to thermal stresses arising from rapid cooling. and are intimately connected to almost all mechanical properties which are in fact structure-sensitive.

It is unique to a dislocation. b. and usually have the direction of close packed lattice direction. Ordinary dislocation is of mixed character of edge and screw type. It represents the magnitude and direction of distortion associated with that particular dislocation.Line Defects – Burger’s Vector A dislocation in characterized by Burger’s vector. Two limiting cases of dislocations. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 9 . It is also the slip direction of a dislocation. edge and screw. are characterized by Burger’s vector perpendicular to the dislocation line (t) and Burger’s vector parallel to the dislocation line respectively.

Line Defects – Edge Dislocation It is also called as Taylor-Orowan dislocation. It will have regions of compressive and tensile stresses on either side of the plane containing dislocation. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 10 .

and vice versa. dislocation line direction is parallel to Burger’s vector. It will have regions of shear stress around the dislocation line For positive screw dislocation. A negative dislocation Satish V.Line Defects – Screw Dislocation It is also called as Burger’s dislocation. Kailas ME/MS 11 .

crossslip and climb – depending on their character. Edge dislocation moves by slip and climb. but in the direction of its burger’s vector. Dislocations can move in three ways – glide/slip.Line Defects – Dislocation Motion Dislocations move under applied stresses. and thus causes plastic deformation in solids. and is diffusion-controlled. Satish V. Screw dislocation moves by slip / cross-slip. Possibility for cross-slip arises as screw dislocation does not have a preferred slip plane as edge dislocation have. Any dislocation can slip. while the climb is nonconservative. Slip is conservative in nature. Kailas ME/MS 12 .

e. Burger’s vector for a dislocation line is invariant i. Burger’s vector is integral multiple of inter-atomic distance while for partial dislocation. For full dislocation.Line Defect – Dislocation Characteristics A dislocation line cannot end at abruptly inside a crystal. It can close-on itself as a loop. Satish V. it is fraction of lattice translation. Kailas ME/MS 13 . tend to stay away from each other. Dislocations are. Thus dislocations. it will have same magnitude and direction all along the dislocation line. two types – full and partial dislocations. at least of same nature. Energy associated with a dislocation because of presence of stresses is proportional to square of Burger’s vector length. thus. either end at a node or surface.

Twin boundaries.Interfacial Defects . Grain boundaries. They usually arise from clustering of line defects into a plane. Region of distortion is about few atomic distances. Kailas ME/MS 14 . Stacking faults. but meta-stable in nature.1 An interfacial defect is a 2-D imperfection in crystalline solids.g. and have different crystallographic orientations on either side of it. Satish V.: External surface. Phase boundaries. E. These imperfections are not thermodynamically stable.

2 Grain boundaries Satish V.Interfacial Defects . Kailas ME/MS 15 .

E. foreign particles are added to strengthen the solid – dispersion hardening. These defects are introduced.g. Satish V. usually. Cracks. Particles added are hindrances to movement of dislocations which have to cut through or bypass the particles thus increasing the strength.: Pores. thus deleterious to mechanical properties of parent solids. during processing and fabrication operations like casting. forming etc. Foreign particles These defects act like stress raisers. In some instances. Kailas ME/MS 16 .Bulk or Volume Defects Volume defects are three-dimensional in nature.

Satish V. Average amplitude of vibration at room temperature is about 10-12m i. but they are expected to vibrate about their positions where the amplitude of vibration increases with the temperature.Atomic Vibrations Atoms are orderly arranged. thousandth of a nanometer. Frequency of vibrations is the range of 1013 Hz. Temperature of a solid body is actually a measure of vibrational activity of atoms and/or molecules. Kailas ME/MS 17 . After reaching certain temperature. vibrations are vigorous enough to rupture the inter-atomic forces casing melting of solids.e.

that is.Material Science/Mechanical Properties of Metals Lecture Notes Chapter 4. 4. By examining these curves we can tell which material has a higher modulus. During deformation. Mechanical Properties of Metals 4. in the shape it may assume by its neighboring Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. mechanical integrity and coherency are maintained along the grain boundaries.2 Plastic deformation: When the stress is removed.e. Deformation is reversible. the grain boundaries is constrained. Due to thermal vibrations the elastic modulus decreases with temperature. the relationship is not linear so that E can be defined alternatively as the local slope: E = dσ/dε Shear stresses produce strains according to: τ=Gγ where G is the shear modulus. E is isotropic. the stress-strain relationship is called Hooke's law: σ=Eε That is. it is anisotropic) for single crystals. Valid for small strains (except the case of rubbers). internuclear distance (Fig. E depends on direction (i. 6. They are related to the second derivative of the interatomic potential. non permanent 4. In some cases. E is the slope of the stress-strain curve. Bangalore M4/L1/V1/dec2004/1 ..4 Yielding under multiaxial stress-strain curves 4.5 Yield criteria and macroscopic aspects of plastic deformation Gross plastic deformation of a polycrystalline specimen corresponds to the comparable distortion of the individual grains by means of slip.6). For randomly oriented policrystals. irreversible deformation. E is Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity. the material does not return to its previous dimension but there is a permanent. Since the interatomic distances depend on direction in the crystal.Elastic moduli measure the stiffness of the material. or the first derivative of the force vs. if the deformation is elastic. E is large for ceramics (stronger ionic bond) and small for polymers (weak covalent bond). In tensile tests. the material returns to the dimension it had before the load was applied. to some degree.1 Elastic deformation: When the stress is removed.

say. then component over design will result. Bangalore M4/L1/V1/dec2004/2 . Selection of N will depend on a number of factors. the grains become elongated along the directions. For this particular deformation.6 Property variability and design factors To take into account variability of properties.0. Thus. This leads to the use of a safety factor N > 1. previous experience. Utilization of design stress is usually preferred since it is based on the anticipated maximum applied stress instead of the yield strength of the material. that is . instead of an average value of. designers use. the accuracy with which mechanical forces and material properties may be determined and most important. including economics. a working value for the tensile strength would be σW = σTS / N. the grains become elongated along the direction in which the specimen was extended. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. or have approximately the same dimension in all directions. Before deformation the grains are equiaxed. the tensile strength. If N is too large.2 and 4. The choice of an appropriate value of N is necessary. 4.Material Science/Mechanical Properties of Metals Lecture Notes grains. For this particular deformation. Values normally range between 1. the consequences of failure in terms of loss of life or property damage. the probability that the yield strength is above the minimum value tolerable. either too much material or an alloy having a higher than necessary strength will be used.

Ability to absorb energy up to fracture. which involves breaking and reforming bonds. The energy per unit volume is the area under the strain-stress curve in the elastic region. Toughness. Hooke's law is not valid beyond the yield point. Capacity to absorb energy elastically. in normal materials. The reason for plastic deformation. since once the it is passed. The ability to deform before braking. and then falls as the material starts to develop a neck and it finally breaks at the fracture point . For structural applications. deforming permanently (plastically). the yield stress is chosen as that causing a permanent strain of 0. When stress continues in the plastic regime.Af)/A0 These are measured after fracture (repositioning the two pieces back together).Material Science/Mechanical Properties of Metals Lecture Notes 4. is not that the atomic bond is stretched beyond repair. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. It is the opposite of brittleness. Bangalore M4/L2/V1/dec2004/1 . Plastic deformation is caused by the motion of dislocations. called the tensile strength (σTS) . The stress at the yield point is called yield stress. Yield stress. If the stress is too large. The energy per unit volume is the total area under the strain-stress curve. It is measured by an impact test . the stress-strain passes through a maximum. Ductility. The point at which this happens is the yield point because there the material yields. Tensile strength. Ductility can be given either as percent maximum elongation εmax or maximum area reduction. the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits.3 Interpretation of tensile stress-strain curves: Tensile Properties Yield point. but the motion of dislocations. and is an important measure of the mechanical properties of materials. In practice. Resilience. %EL = εmax x 100 % %AR = (A0 .002 The yield stress measures the resistance to plastic deformation. the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength. the strain deviates from being proportional to the stress.

is called the engineering stress. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The ratio of the force to the initial area. The material starts necking (the transverse area decreases) but the stress cannot increase beyond σTS. what we normally do. If the ratio is to the actual area (that changes with stress) one obtains the true stress. Bangalore M4/L2/V1/dec2004/2 .Material Science/Mechanical Properties of Metals Lecture Notes True Stress and Strain When one applies a constant tensile force the material will break after reaching the tensile strength.

For this particular deformation.6 Property variability and design factors To take into account variability of properties. Bangalore M4/L3/V1/dec2004/1 . including economics. then component over design will result. say. the grain boundaries is constrained. designers use.2 and 4. For this particular deformation. mechanical integrity and coherency are maintained along the grain boundaries. a working value for the tensile strength would be σW = σTS / N.Material Science/Mechanical Properties of Metals Lecture Notes 4. Values normally range between 1. or have approximately the same dimension in all directions. the probability that the yield strength is above the minimum value tolerable. 4. the consequences of failure in terms of loss of life or property damage. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. in the shape it may assume by its neighboring grains. Before deformation the grains are equiaxed. instead of an average value of. to some degree. Selection of N will depend on a number of factors.0. The choice of an appropriate value of N is necessary. During deformation.5 Yield criteria and macroscopic aspects of plastic deformation Gross plastic deformation of a polycrystalline specimen corresponds to the comparable distortion of the individual grains by means of slip. either too much material or an alloy having a higher than necessary strength will be used. Thus. previous experience. that is. that is . the grains become elongated along the directions. Utilization of design stress is usually preferred since it is based on the anticipated maximum applied stress instead of the yield strength of the material. the tensile strength. the grains become elongated along the direction in which the specimen was extended. If N is too large. the accuracy with which mechanical forces and material properties may be determined and most important. This leads to the use of a safety factor N > 1.4 Yielding under multiaxial stress-strain curves 4.

Module .4 Mechanical Properties Of Metals .

Kailas ME/MS 2 . Macroscopic aspects of plastic deformation and Property variability & Design considerations Satish V. Yielding under multi-axial stress.Contents 1. Interpretation of tensile stress-strain curves 3. Elastic deformation and Plastic deformation 2. Yield criteria.

Kailas ME/MS 3 .Deformation External load Object translation rotation deformation distortion – change in shape dilatation – change in size Satish V.Mechanical Loads .

elastic aftereffect (after removal of load) combination of recoverable and permanent. load).Deformation – Function Of Time? Temporary / recoverable time independent – elastic Permanent time independent – plastic time dependent – anelastic (under time dependent –creep (under load). Kailas ME/MS 4 . but time dependent – visco-elastic Satish V.

Engineering Stress – Engineering Strain
Load applied acts over an area. Parameter that characterizes the load effect is given as load divided by original area over which the load acts. It is called conventional stress or engineering stress or simply stress. It is denoted by s. Corresponding change in length of the object is characterized using parameter – given as per cent change in the length – known as strain. It is denoted by e. L − L0 P s= ,e = A0 L0 As object changes its dimensions under applied load, engineering stress and strain are not be the true representatives.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 5

True Stress – True Strain
True or Natural stress and strain are defined to give true picture of the instantaneous conditions. True strain:

L1 − L0 L2 − L1 L3 − L2 ε =∑ + + + ... L0 L1 L2
True stress: P P A0 σ= = = s (e + 1) A A0 A
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS

dL L ε=∫ = ln L L0 L0



Different Loads – Strains

Satish V. Kailas



Elastic Deformation - 1
A material under goes elastic deformation first followed by plastic deformation. The transition is not sharp in many instances. For most of the engineering materials, complete elastic deformation is characterized by strain proportional to stress. Proportionality constant is called elastic modulus or Young’s modulus, E.

σ ∝ε
Non-linear stress-strain materials. E.g.: rubber.
Satish V. Kailas

σ = Eε
relation is applicable for



Elastic Deformation - 2
For materials without linear stress-strain portion, either tangent or secant modulus is used in design calculations. The tangent modulus is taken as the slope of stress-strain curve at some specified level. Secant module represents the slope of secant drawn from the origin to some given point of the σ-ε curve.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 9

Elastic Deformation - 3
Theoretical basis for elastic deformation – reversible displacements of atoms from their equilibrium positions – stretching of atomic bonds. Elastic moduli measures stiffness of material. It can also be a measure of resistance to separation of adjacent atoms. Elastic modulus = fn (inter-atomic forces) = fn (inter-atomic distance) = fn (crystal structure, orientation) => For single crystal elastic moduli are not isotropic. For a polycrystalline material, it is considered as isotropic. Elastic moduli slightly changes with temperature (decreases with increase in temperature).
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 10

Elastic Deformation - 4
Linear strain is always accompanied by lateral strain, to maintain volume constant. The ratio of lateral to linear strain is called Poisson’s ratio (ν). Shear stresses and strains are related as τ = Gγ, where G is shear modulus or elastic modulus in shear. Bulk modulus or volumetric modulus of elasticity is defined as ratio between mean stress to volumetric strain. K = σm/∆ All moduli are related through Poisson’s ratio.

E G= 2(1 + ν )
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS

E K= = ∆ 3(1 − 2ν )


Microscopically…it involves breaking atomic bonds. Kailas ME/MS 12 . Stress-Strain relation here is complex because of atomic plane movement. Satish V.1 Following the elastic deformation. dislocation movement. and the obstacles they encounter. Crystalline solids deform by processes – slip and twinning in particular directions. Amorphous solids deform by viscous flow mechanism without any directionality. Also characterized by relation between stress and strain at constant strain rate and temperature.Plastic Deformation . moving atoms. material undergoes plastic deformation. then restoration of bonds.

Anelastic strain. theory of plasticity neglects the following effects: . A true stress-strain curve is called flow curve as it gives the stress required to cause the material to flow plastically to certain strain. Satish V. .2 Because of the complexity involved.Bauschinger effect – dependence of yield stress on loading path and direction. .Hysteresis behavior resulting from loading and unloading of material. Kailas ME/MS 13 . which is time dependent recoverable strain. Equations relating stress and strain are called constitutive equations.Plastic Deformation .

Kailas n . m = 0.Plastic Deformation . T . ε . n = 0.4-0. there have been many stress-strain relations proposed.3 Because of the complexity involved.9 Strain from previous work – ε0 Yield strength – σ0 ME/MS 14 σ = K (ε 0 + ε ) n σ = σ o + Kε Satish V. microstruc ture ) σ = Kε n & σ = Kε m Strain hardening exponent.5 Strain-rate sensitivity. & σ = fn (ε .1-0.

Tensile Stress-Strain Curve . Kailas ME/MS 15 .1 A – Starting point E– Tensile strength E’ – Corresponding to E on flow curve F – Fracture point I – Fracture strain Satish V.

2% offset strain Satish V.Tensile Stress-Strain Curve .2 A – Starting point C – Elastic limit G – 0. Kailas ME/MS B – Proportional limit D – Yield limit H – Yield strain 16 .

Represents combination of both strength and ductility. Kailas area AEFI ME/MS (for brittle materials) 17 . two other important parameters can be deduced from the curve are – resilience and toughness.3 Apart from different strains and strength points. Resilience (Ur) – ability to absorb energy under elastic deformation Toughness (Ut) – ability to absorb energy under loading involving plastic deformation. 2 s0 1 1 s0 U r = s 0 e0 = s 0 = 2 2 E 2E area ADH 2 U t ≈ su e f 3 s + su U t ≈ su e f ≈ 0 ef 2 Satish V.Tensile Stress-Strain Curve .

a – smallest radius in the neck region. Correction has been proposed by Bridgman. σ= (1 + 2 R / a)[ln(1 + a / 2 R)] (σ x ) avg where (σx)avg measured stress in the axial direction. Kailas ME/MS 18 . R – radius of the curvature of neck Satish V. Thus flow curve need to be corrected from a point corresponding to tensile strength.Yielding Under Multi-Axial Stress With on-set of necking. uni-axial stress condition turns into tri-axial stress as geometry changes tales place.

and σ2= σ3= 0 1 2 2 (σ 0 + σ 0 ) = k 2 ⇒ σ 0 = 3k 6 1 ⇒σ0 = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 2 [ ] 1 2 k= Satish V. Kailas 1 3 σ 0 = 0.577σ 0 where k – yield stress under shear ME/MS 19 . yield starts once the distortion energy reaches a critical value.Yield Criteria . σ1 = σ0. In other terms. J2 = k 2 J2 = 1 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 6 [ ] Under uni-axial tension.1 Von Mises or Distortion energy criterion: yielding occurs once second invariant of stress deviator (J2) reaches a critical value.

τ max = σ1 − σ 3 2 Under uni-axial tension.Yield Criteria . Kailas ME/MS 20 . σ2 = 0) σ1 − σ 3 1 k= = σ0 2 2 Satish V. and σ2= σ3= 0 τ max = σ1 − σ 3 2 =τ0 = σ0 2 ⇒ σ1 − σ 3 = σ 0 Under pure shear stress conditions (σ1 =.σ3 = k.2 Tresca or Maximum shear stress criterion yielding occurs once the maximum shear stress of the stress system equals shear stress under uni-axial stress. σ1 = σ0.

Macroscopic Aspects – Plastic Deformation . Kailas ME/MS 21 . following observations can be made at macroscopic level: dimensional changes change in grain shape formation of cell structure in a grain Satish V.1 As a result of plastic deformation (Dislocation generation. movement and (re-)arrangement ).

Macroscopic Aspects – Plastic Deformation.2 Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 22 .

etc. Kailas ∑x i =1 i n x . n Property variability measure – Standard ndeviation 1 2 ⎤ ⎡ ( xi − x ) 2 ⎥ ⎢∑ ⎥ s = ⎢ i =1 n −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ ME/MS 23 x= Scatter limits: Satish V.s.Property Variability Scatter in measured properties of engineering materials is inevitable because of number of factors such as: test method specimen fabrication procedure operator bias apparatus calibration. Average value of x over n samples. x +s .

g. Kailas ME/MS 24 . designers need to consider tailored property values.: Yield strength σw = σy / N σd = N’σc where σw – working stress σy – yield strength σd – design stress σc – calculated stress Satish V. Parameters for tailoring: safety factor (N) and design factor (N’). Both parameters take values greater than unity only.Design Consideration .1 To account for property variability and unexpected failure. E.

lesser will the design efficiency i. either too much material or a material having a higher than necessary strength will be used. Selection of N will depend on a number of factors: Economics.e.2 Values for N ranges around: 1.0.Design Consideration . Kailas ME/MS 25 . Higher the value of N. Satish V. Previous experience The accuracy with which mechanical forces Material properties The consequences of failure in terms of loss of life or property damage.2 to 4.

In this case.g. atoms also diffuse but this motion is hard to detect. atoms/m2-second) or in terms of mass flux (e.3 Nonsteady-State Diffusion This is the case when the diffusion flux depends on time. Fick’s first law holds that the flux along direction x is: J = – D dC/dx Where dC/dx is the gradient of the concentration C. Steady state diffusion means that J does not depend on time. the effect of diffusion is readily seen by a change in concentration with time. and D is the diffusion constant. there are more atoms moving in regions where their concentration is higher. 5.1 Diffusion Mechanisms Atom diffusion can occur by the motion of vacancies (vacancy diffusion) or impurities (impurity diffusion). J. The energy barrier is that due to nearby atoms which need to move to let the atoms go by.Material Science/Diffusion Lecture Notes Chapter 5. This is more easily achieved when the atoms vibrate strongly. There is a difference between diffusion and net diffusion. In inhomogeneous materials.g.2 Steady-State Diffusion The flux of diffusing atoms. In this case there is a net diffusion. at high temperatures. is expressed either in number of atoms per unit area and per unit time (e. Bangalore M5/L1/V1/dec2004/1 . kg/m2-second). The minus sign in the equation means that diffusion is down the concentration gradient. although all atoms are moving randomly.. This is because atoms move randomly and there will be an equal number of atoms moving in one direction than in another. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The concentration gradient is often called the driving force in diffusion (but it is not a force in the mechanistic sense). Net diffusion occurs because. 5. Diffusion 5. In a homogeneous material. that is.. which means that a type of atoms accumulates in a region or that it is depleted from a region (which may cause them to accumulate in another region).

and diffusion is faster in open lattices or in open directions.that is. that is sufficient time has been allowed to each new temperature for any necessary adjustment in phase compositions and relative amounts as predicted from iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Thus. Similar to the case of vacancy formation. Bangalore M5/L2/V1/dec2004/1 . The reason for that is that with changes in temperature. the effect of temperature in diffusion is given by a Boltzmann factor: D = D0 × exp(–Qd/kT). and (2) the existence at room temperature of non-equilibrium phases that do not appear on the phase diagram. Also.4 Factors that influence diffusion As stated above.5 Non-equilibrium transformation and microstructure: Non-equilibrium solidification Conditions of equilibrium solidification and the development of microstructures are realized only for extremely slow cooling rates. In most situations these cooling rates are impractically slow and really unnecessary. diffusion in both solid and liquid phases and also across the solid-liquid interface. on many occasions non-equilibrium conditions are desirable. These readjustments are accomplished by diffusional processes. 5. atomic vibrations created by temperature assist diffusion. smaller atoms diffuse more readily than big ones. Two non equilibrium effects of practical importance are (1) the occurrence of phase changes or transformations at temperatures other than those predicted by phase boundary lines on the phase diagram.Material Science/Diffusion Lecture Notes 5. there must be readjustments in the compositions of liquids and solid phases in accordance with the phase diagram. Non-equilibrium cooling During cooling metastable equilibrium have been continuously maintained. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. in fact. there is a barrier to diffusion created by neighboring atoms that need to move to let the diffusing atom pass.

Module 5 Diffusion .

Factors that influence diffusion and non-equilibrium transformation & microstructure Satish V.Contents 1. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Diffusion mechanisms and steady-state & non-steady-state diffusion 2.

or stress gradient. Kailas ME/MS 3 .: Carburizing the steel. etc. Many reactions in solids and liquids are diffusion dependent. E. The gradient can be a compositional gradient. annealing homogenization after solidification. coffee mixing.g. an electric or magnetic gradient. Satish V.Diffusion Phenomenon Definition – Diffusion is the process of mass flow in which atoms change their positions relative to neighbors in a given phase under the influence of thermal and a gradient. Diffusion is very important in many industrial and domestic applications.

Diffusion Mechanisms . Kailas ME/MS 4 . Migration of atoms in metals/alloys can occur in many ways.1 From an atomic perceptive. and thus corresponding diffusion mechanism is defined. diffusion is a step wise migration of atoms from one lattice position to another. Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 5 . in addition to above defects. If Schottky defects dominate.Diffusion Mechanisms . In ionic crystal. ionic crystal may have defects generated by impurities and by deviation from stochiometry. Schottky and Frankel defects assist the diffusion process. the cation vacancy carries the diffusion flux. In thermal equilibrium. the cation interstitial of the Frenkel defect carries the diffusion flux. When Frenkel defects dominate in an ionic crystal.2 Most energetically favorable diffusion mechanism is vacancy mechanism. Satish V. Other important mechanism is interstitial mechanism by which hydrogen/nitrogen/oxygen diffuse into many metals.

Diffusion can occur even in pure metals that is not noticeable. grain boundaries) is small because the effective cross-sectional area over which these are operative is small. which are termed as short-circuit paths. Kailas ME/MS 6 . Diffusion can occur with aid of linear/surface defects.3 Diffusion that occurs over a region is volume diffusion.Diffusion Mechanisms . Satish V. Diffusion that occurs in alloys which is noticeable called net diffusion as there occurs a noticeable concentration gradient.:dislocaions. However. diffusion by short-circuit paths (E.g. These enhances the diffusivity.

If the flux is independent of time. Thus flux has units of atoms/m2. for non-steady-state diffusion process.sec. Satish V.1 Steady-state and Non-steady-state diffusion processes are distinguished by the parameter – diffusion flux.sec or moles/m2. Kailas ME/MS 7 . flux is dependent on time. J. On the other hand. Flux is defined as number of atoms crossing a unit area perpendicular to a given direction per unit time. then the diffusion process is called steady-state diffusion.Diffusion – Time Function? .

2 Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 8 .Diffusion – Time Function? .

Satish V. dc/dx is the gradient of the concentration c. Kailas ME/MS 9 . is called diffusion coefficient or diffusivity.g. t ) where D is the diffusion constant. D.Steady-State Diffusion Steady-state diffusion processes is characterized by Fick’s first law. The proportionality constant. For one-dimensional case.: Hydrogen gas purification using palladium metal sheet. which states that diffusion flux is proportional to concentration gradient. dn/dt is the number atoms crossing per unit time a cross-sectional plane of area A. E. it can be written as dc 1 dn J x =− D = dx A dt J x ≠ f ( x. It has units as m2/sec.

A meaningful solution can be obtained for the above second-order partial equation if proper boundary conditions can be defined. Non-steady-state diffusion is characterized by Fick’s second law. Kailas ME/MS 10 . x.Non-Steady-State Diffusion 1 Most interesting industrial applications are non-steady-state diffusion in nature. Satish V. which can be expressed as dc dJ d ⎛ dc ⎞ =− = ⎜D ⎟ dt dx dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dc d 2c =D 2 dt dx where dc/dt is the time rate of change of concentration at a particular position.

The term erf stands for Gaussian error function. doping of semi-conductors.: Carburization and decarburization of steel. C = C0 at 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞ For t > 0.g. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 11 .Non-Steady-State Diffusion 2 One common set of boundary conditions and the solution is: For t = 0. E. whose values can be obtained from standard mathematical tables. etc. corrosion resistance of duralumin. C = Cs at x=0 C = C0 at x=∞ The solution is C x − C0 ⎛ x = 1 − erf ⎜ ⎜ C s − C0 ⎝ 2 Dt ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ where Cx represents the concentration at depth x after time t.

Again substitution atoms with small difference in atomic radius with parent atoms diffuse with ease than atoms with larger diameter.Influencing Factors For Diffusion 1 Diffusing species: Interstitial atoms diffuse easily than substitution atoms. Q is the activation energy for diffusion. Kailas ME/MS 12 . Temperature: It is the most influencing factor. Their relations can be given by the following Arrhenius equation ⎛ Q ⎞ D = D0 exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ where D0 is a pre-exponential constant. R is gas constant (Boltzmann’s constant) and T is absolute temperature. Satish V.

2 From the temperature dependence of diffusivity. . Many atomic/volume diffusion processes are influenced by point defects like vacancies. greatly enhances the diffusivity.Influencing Factors For Diffusion . Apart from these. i. interstitials. Lattice structure: Diffusivity is high for open lattice structure and in open lattice directions. it is experimentally possible to find the values of Q and D0. dislocations and grain boundaries. short-circuit paths as they famously known. Presence of defects: The other important influencing factor of diffusivity is presence of defects.e.

Non-Equilibrium Transformation & Microstructure 1 Non-equilibrium transformation occurs. during many of the cooling processes like casting process. Equilibrium transformation requires extremely large time which is in most of the cases impractical and not necessary. and time available for it is less. As diffusion is very sluggish in solid. compositional gradients develop in cast components. Alloy solidification process involves diffusion in liquid phase. These are two kinds: coring and segregation. and also across the interface between liquid and solid. usually. solid phase. .

and also in the production of rimming steel. Segregation is also useful in zone refining. Segregation: It is defined as concentration of particular. along places like grain boundaries. . and entrapments. It is exploited in zone-refining technique to produce highpurity metals. usually impurity elements. It is often being removed by subsequent annealing and/or hot-working. Coring is predominantly observed in alloys having a marked difference between liquidus and solidus temperatures.Non-Equilibrium Transformation & Microstructure 2 Coring: It is defined as gradual compositional changes across individual grains.

. Macro-segregation persists through normal heating and working operations. Micro-segregation can often be removed by prolonged annealing or by hot-working. and (2) the existence of non-equilibrium phases at room temperature that do not appear on the phase diagram. Macro-segregation is used to describe more massive heterogeneities which may result from entrapment of liquid pockets between growing solidifying zones. Two non equilibrium effects of practical importance:(1) the occurrence of phase changes or transformations at temperatures other than those predicted by phase boundary lines on the phase diagram.Non-Equilibrium Transformation & Microstructure 3 Micro-segregation is used to describe the differences in composition across a crystal or between neighboring crystals.

Strengthening consists in hindering dislocation motion. We discuss the methods of grain-size reduction. etc. Dislocations interact among themselves. in a plane they are measured per unit area. they repel if they have the same sign and annihilate if they have opposite signs (leaving behind a perfect crystal).1 Basic Concept of dislocation Dislocations can be edge dislocations. they repel. Dislocations spawn from existing dislocations.Material Science/Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms Lecture Notes Chapter 6. Ability to deform plastically depends on ability of dislocations to move.) 6. solid-solution alloying and strain hardening. polycrystalline metals are stronger than single crystals (the exception is the perfect single crystal. Characteristics of Dislocations There is strain around a dislocation which influences how they interact with other dislocations. screw dislocations and exist in combination of the two. There is compression near the extra plane (higher atomic density) and tension following the dislocation line.2 Mechanisms of Strengthening in Metals General principles. In general. it will be constrained by its neighbors. impurities. When they are in the same plane. The number of dislocations per unit volume is the dislocation density. because being close increases the potential energy (it takes energy to strain a region of the material). Ordinarily. which may be less favorably oriented. These are for singlephase metals. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 6. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. As a result. Plastic Deformation Slip directions vary from crystal to crystal. as in whiskers. grain boundaries and surface irregularities. We discuss others when treating alloys. Bangalore M6/L1/V1/dec2004/1 . Their motion (slip) occurs by sequential bond breaking and bond reforming . The number of dislocations increases dramatically during plastic deformation. and from defects. When plastic deformation occurs in a grain. when dislocations are close and their strain fields add to a larger value. strengthening reduces ductility.

Solid-Solution Strengthening Adding another element that goes into interstitial or substitutional positions in a solution increases strength.Material Science/Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms Lecture Notes Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction This is based on the fact that it is difficult for a dislocation to pass into another grain. The reason for strain hardening is that the dislocation density increases with plastic deformation (cold work) due to multiplication. Pure metals are almost always softer than their alloys. A0 to the final value Ad : %CW = 100 (A0–Ad)/A0 Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Strain Hardening Ductile metals become stronger when they are deformed plastically at temperatures well below the melting point (cold working). (This is different from hot working is the shaping of materials at high temperatures where large deformation is possible. Small angle grain boundaries are not effective in blocking dislocations. The measure of strain hardening is the percent cold work (%CW). For high-angle grain boundaries. The scarcity of energy at low temperatures is why slip is hindered. 7. thus achieving a state of low potential energy. stress at end of slip plane may trigger new dislocations in adjacent grains. 6. The impurity atoms cause lattice strain (Figs. Atomic disorder at the boundary causes discontinuity in slip planes. The average distance between dislocations then decreases and dislocations start blocking the motion of each one.18) which can "anchor" dislocations. the yield strength varies with grain size d according to: σy = σ0 + ky / d1/2 Grain size can be controlled by the rate of solidification and by plastic deformation. the larger the area of grain boundaries that impedes dislocation motion. Bangalore M6/L1/V1/dec2004/2 .17 and 7.) Strain hardening (work hardening) is the reason for the elastic recovery discussed in Ch. Usually.8. Grain-size reduction usually improves toughness as well. It costs strain energy for the dislocation to move away from this state (which is like a potential well). especially if it is very misaligned. This occurs when the strain caused by the alloying element compensates that of the dislocation. given by the relative reduction of the original area. The finer the grains.

The "driving force" is the reduction of energy. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. It is typically 1/3 to 1/2 of the melting temperature. upon heating. Recrystallization temperature: is that at which the process is complete in one hour. Restoration to the state before cold-work is done by heating through two processes: recovery and recrystallization.3 Recovery. 2) strain hardening. Recovery Heating increased diffusion enhanced dislocation motion relieves internal strain energy and reduces the number of dislocation. recrystallization and Grain Growth Plastic deformation causes 1) change in grain size. which is proportional to the total area. Bangalore M6/L2/V1/dec2004/1 . by more regularlyspaced grains. Big grains grow at the expense of the small ones. the important parameters are both temperature and time. recrystallization does not occur.Material Science/Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms Lecture Notes 6. The electrical and thermal conductivity are restored to the values existing before cold working. These may be followed by grain growth. Grain Growth The growth of grain size with temperature can occur in all polycrystalline materials. It falls as the %CW is increased. It occurs by migration of atoms at grain boundaries by diffusion. Recrystallization Strained grains of cold-worked metal are replaced. Below a "critical deformation". This occurs through short-range diffusion enabled by the high temperature. 3) increase in the dislocation density. thus grain growth is faster at higher temperatures. Since recrystallization occurs by diffusion.

Module-6 Dislocations And Strengthening Mechanisms .

Strengthening mechanisms in metals 3.Contents 1. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Recrystallization and Grain growth Satish V. Recovery. Dislocations & Plastic deformation and Mechanisms of plastic deformation in metals 2.

Kailas ME/MS 3 .Plastic Deformation – Dislocations Permanent plastic deformation is due to shear process – atoms change their neighbors. Cumulative movement of dislocations leads to gross plastic deformation. Inter-atomic forces and crystal structure plays an important role during plastic deformation. Edge dislocation move by slip and climb. During their movement. while screw dislocation move by slip and cross-slip. Satish V. The interaction is very complex because of number of dislocations moving over many slip systems in different directions. dislocations tend to interact.

foreign particles. and change in structure due to phase change. grain boundaries. Kailas ME/MS 4 . resulting in either vacancies or interstitials. Dislocations moving on non-parallel planes hinder each other’s movement by producing sharp breaks – jog (break out of slip plane). external grain surface. Satish V. kink (break in slip plane) Other hindrances to dislocation motion – interstitial and substitutional atoms. Material strength can be increased by arresting dislocation motion.Plastic Deformation – Dislocations Dislocations moving on parallel planes may annihilate each other.

Slip occurs when shear stress applied exceeds a critical value. Feasible combination of a slip plane together with a slip direction is considered as a slip system. Slip is prominent among the two. It involves sliding of blocks of crystal over other along slip planes. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 5 .Plastic Deformation Mechanisms – Slip 1 Mainly two kinds: slip and twinning. Slip occurs most readily in specific directions (slip directions) on certain crystallographic planes. During slip each atom usually moves same integral number of atomic distances along the slip plane.

crystal structure. Kailas ME/MS 6 .external load and the corresponding value of shear stress produced by it. For single crystal.Plastic Deformation Mechanisms – Slip 2 Extent of slip depends on many factors . orientation of active slip planes with the direction of shearing stresses generated. Slip occurs when shear stress applied exceeds a critical value. Schmid defined critical shear stress as P cos λ P τR = = cos φ cos λ = σ cos φ cos λ A cos φ A ⇒ m = cos φ cos λ Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 7 . individual grains provide a mutual geometrical constraint on one other. movement and (re-)arrangement of dislocations. A minimum of five independent slip systems must be operative for a polycrystalline solid to exhibit ductility and maintain grain boundary integrity – von Mises. On the other hand.Slip 3 In a polycrystalline aggregate. mechanical integrity and coherency are maintained along the grain boundaries. During deformation. Satish V.Plastic Deformation Mechanisms . and this precludes plastic deformation at low applied stresses. Slip in polycrystalline material involves generation. crystal deform by twinning.

{123} Basal plane Prismatic & Pyramidal planes {110} Slip directions <110> <111> Close packed directions <110> NaCl Satish V.Slip Systems Crystal FCC BCC HCP More common Less common More common Less common Occurrence Slip planes {111} {110} {112}. Kailas ME/MS 8 .

Mg. Crystal Example Twin plane Twin direction FCC Ag. Cu (111) [112] BCC α-Fe. Twinning also occurs in a definite direction on a specific plane for each crystal structure. Ta (112) [111] HCP Zn. Au.Plastic Deformation Mechanisms Twinning It results when a portion of crystal takes up an orientation that is related to the orientation of the rest of the untwined lattice in a definite. symmetrical way. Kailas ME/MS 9 . The important role of twinning in plastic deformation is that it causes changes in plane orientation so that further slip can occur. Ti (10¯12) [¯1011] Satish V. Cd.

Kailas during/in slip during/in twinning Same above and Differ across the below the slip plane twin plane Fractions Every plane of region involved Milli seconds Micro seconds On many slip systems On a particular plane simultaneously for each crystal ME/MS 10 .Slip Vs. Twinning Crystal orientation Size (in terms of Multiples inter-atomic distance) Occurs on Widely spread planes Time required Occurrence Satish V.

Precipitation strengthening . Kailas ME/MS 11 .Martensite strengthening Satish V.Fiber strengthening . which is responsible for plastic deformation.Solid solution strengthening .Strain hardening in multi-phase materials .Strengthening Mechanisms Material can be increased by hindering dislocation. Different ways to hinder dislocation motion / Strengthening mechanisms: in single-phase materials .Grain size reduction .Dispersion strengthening .

Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 12 . often a dislocation encounters a hindrance. Hindrances can be two types: forcible change of slip direction. Smaller the grain size. Yield strength of material will be increased. and discontinuous slip plane. d) as HallPetch relation: Strengthening By Grain Size Reduction 1 σ y = σ i + kd −1 2 Grain size can be tailored by controlled cooling or by plastic deformation followed by appropriate heat treatment. Yield strength is related to grain size (diameter.It is based on the fact that dislocations will experience hindrances while trying to move from a grain into the next because of abrupt change in orientation of planes.

Sv is grain boundary area per unit volume.Strengthening By Grain Size Reduction 2 only strength. NA is number of grains per unit area on a polished surface: Sv = 2N L Grain size can also be measured by comparing the grains at a fixed magnification with standard grain size charts. but also the Grain size reduction improves not toughness of many alloys. Kailas ME/MS 13 3 3 d= = Sv 2N L 6 d= πN A . D (in mm) as follows: 1 645 D= 100 2 G −1 Satish V. If d is average grain diameter. Other method: Use of ASTM grain size number (Z). It is related to grain diameter. NL is mean number of intercepts of grain boundaries per unit length of test line.

electrical interaction .elastic interaction .modulus interaction .stacking-fault interaction .e.short-range order interaction . they are relatively insensitive to temperature and continue to act about 0. Satish V. and long-range order interactions are of long-range i. modulus. Solute atoms interact with dislocations in many ways: . Effectiveness of this strengthening depends on two factors – size difference and volume fraction of solute. Kailas ME/MS 14 .Solid Solution Strengthening Impure foreign atoms in a single phase material produces lattice strains which can anchor the dislocations.6 Tm.long-range order interaction Elastic.

1 Localized. Kailas ME/MS 15 . It characterizes that material needs higher stress to initiate plastic flow than to continue it. Satish V.Yield Point Phenomenon . heterogeneous type of transition from elastic to plastic deformation marked by abrupt elastic-plastic transition – Yield point phenomenon.

2 The bands are called Lüders bands / Hartmann lines / stretcher stains. It’s been found that either unlocking of dislocations by a high stress for the case of strong pinning or generation of new dislocations are the reasons for yield-point phenomenon. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 16 .Yield Point Phenomenon . Magnitude of yield-point effect will depend on energy of interaction between solute atoms and dislocations and on the concentration of solute atoms at the dislocations. Occurrence of yield point is associated with presence of small amounts of interstitial or substitutional impurities. and generally are approximately 45 to the tensile axis.

1 Phenomenon where ductile metals become stronger and harder when they are deformed plastically is called strain hardening or work hardening. Kailas 17 . During plastic deformation.Strain Hardening . Increasing temperature lowers the rate of strain hardening. And thus their interaction with each other resulting in increase in yield stress. dislocation density increases. Dislocation density (ρ) and shear stress (τ) are related as follows: τ =τ0 + A ρ ME/MS Satish V. Hence materials are strain hardened at low temperatures. thus also called cold working.

an appreciable decrease in electrical conductivity . It consists of three stages – recovery. alternate cycles of strain hardening and annealing are used to deform most metals to a very great extent. Satish V. recrystallization and grain growth. Kailas ME/MS 18 . It restores the original properties into material. In industry.a small decrease in density .small increase in thermal coefficient of expansion .2 During strain hardening.increased chemical reactivity (decrease in corrosion resistance). Deleterious effects of cold work can be removed by heating the material to suitable temperatures – Annealing. in addition to mechanical properties physical properties also changes: .Strain Hardening .

g. Mg-Al alloys. Requisite for precipitation hardening is that second phase must be soluble at an elevated temperature but precipitates upon quenching and aging at a lower temperature. Foreign particles can be introduced in two ways – precipitation and mixing-and-consolidation technique. Precipitation hardening is also called age hardening because strength increases with time. E. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 19 .e.: Al-alloys.Precipitation & Dispersion Hardening 1 Foreign particles can also obstructs movement of dislocations i. Cu-Be alloys. Cu-Sn alloys If aging occurs at room temperature – Natural aging If material need to be heated during aging – Artificial aging. increases the strength of the material.

Kailas ME/MS 20 . Satish V. E. second phase need to have very low solubility at all temperatures. Effective strengthening is achieved in the bending process.Precipitation & Dispersion Hardening 2 In dispersion hardening. when the particles are submicroscopic in size. Cutting of particles is easier for small particles which can be considered as segregated solute atoms.: oxides. borides. Dislocation moving through matrix embedded with foreign particles can either cut through the particles or bend around and bypass them. consolidated. carbides. fine second particles are mixed with matrix powder. For dispersion hardening. nitrides.g. and pressed in powder metallurgy techniques. etc.

. Satish V.volume fraction 4(1 − f )r λ= 3f Optimum strengthening occurs during aging once the right interspacing of particles is achieved.Smaller the particles. f .particle radius.larger the particles they will be distributed at wider distances.Stress (τ) required to bend a dislocation is inversely proportional to the average interspacing (λ) of particles: Precipitation & Dispersion Hardening 3 τ = Gb λ Interspacing (λ) of spherical particles: where r . dislocations can cut through them at lower stresses . Kailas ME/MS 21 .

not dislocation concepts as in other methods of strengthening. boron. etc. glass.1 Second phase can be introduced into matrix in fiber form too. matrix material – metals. Strengthening analysis involves application of continuum. polymers. ductile matrix distributes load to fibers. Satish V. Interface between matrix and fibers thus plays an important role. Kailas ME/MS 22 . metal.: fiber material – Al2O3. Higher modulus fibers carry load.Fiber Strengthening .g. Requisite for fiber strengthening: Fiber material – high strength and high modulus Matrix material – ductile and non-reactive with fiber material E. graphite. Mechanism of strengthening is different from other methods.

critical fiber volume which must be exceeded for fiber strengthening to occur: ' f critical σ mu − σ m = ' σ fu − σ m where σmu – strength of strain hardened matrix. σ’m – flow stress of matrix at a strain equal to fiber breaking stress.2 To achieve any benefit from presence of fibers.Fiber Strengthening . σfu – ultimate tensile strength of the fiber. Kailas ME/MS σ mu − σ m = ' σ fu + σ mu − σ m 23 . Minimum volume fraction of fiber which must be exceeded to have real reinforcement: ' f min Satish V.

Satish V.Martensite Strengthening . Martensite platelets assumes characteristic lenticular shape that minimizes the elastic distortion in the matrix.e. activation energy for growth is less. Martensite platelets grow at very high speeds (1/3rd of sound speed) i. Thus volume fraction of martensite exist is controlled by its nucleation rate. Always touching but never crossing one another.1 This strengthening method is based on formation of martensitic phase from the retained high temperature phase at temperatures lower then the equilibrium invariant transformation temperature. Martensite forms as a result of shearing of lattices. Kailas ME/MS 24 . These platelets divide and subdivide the grains of the parent phase.

Fe-Ni. only the alloys based on Fe and C show a pronounced strengthening effect. and even in pure metals like Li. can take place by one of two mechanisms: slip as in Fe-C Martensite or twinning as in Fe-Ni Martensite. However. Cu-Zn. carbon atoms are also involved in strengthening. Kailas ME/MS 25 . Au-Cd.Martensite Strengthening .2 Martensite platelets attain their shape by two successive shear displacements . Martensite formation occurs in many systems. In Fe-C system. Zr and Co.first displacement is a homogeneous shear throughout the plate which occurs parallel to a specific plane in the parent phase known as the habit plane. Fe-Ni-C. the lesser of the two. E. second displacement. High strength of Martensite is attributed to its characteristic twin structure and to high dislocation density.: Fe-C.g. Satish V.

There is some reduction. Kailas ME/MS 26 . During recovery. Satish V. physical properties of the cold-worked material are restored without any observable change in microstructure. recrystallization and grain growth.Recovery Annealing relieves the stresses from cold working – three stages: recovery. Driving force for recovery is decrease in stored energy from cold work. Recovery is first stage of annealing which takes place at low temperatures of annealing. in dislocation density as well apart from formation of dislocation configurations with low strain energies. Recovery involves annihilation of point defects. though not substantial.

The recrystallization temperature is strongly dependent on the purity of a material.7 Tm.3 Tm.5-0. Kailas ME/MS 27 . Driving force is stored energy during cold work. where Tm is absolute melting temperature of the material. while impure materials may recrystallizes around 0.Recrystallization This follows recovery during annealing of cold worked material. It involves replacement of cold-worked structure by a new set of strain-free. approximately equi-axed grains to replace all the deformed crystals. This is process is characterized by recrystallization temperature which is defined as the temperature at which 50% of material recrystallizes in one hour time. Satish V. Pure materials may recrystallizes around 0.

Recrystallization Laws A minimum amount of deformation is needed to cause recrystallization (Rx). The higher is the temperature of cold working. the smaller will be the recrystallized grain size. Greater the degree of deformation and lower the annealing temperature. the greater degree of deformation is required to produce an equivalent Rx temperature. the less is the strain energy stored and thus Rx temperature is correspondingly higher. The finer is the initial grain size. The Rx rate increases exponentially with temperature. higher will be the Rx temperature. The larger the initial grain size. Kailas ME/MS 28 . Smaller the degree of deformation. Satish V. lower will be the Rx temperature.

Grain growth is very strongly dependent on temperature. Satish V. Grain growth does not need to be preceded by recovery and recrystallization. it may occur in all polycrystalline materials. driving force for this process is reduction in grain boundary energy. Incorporation of impurity atoms and insoluble second phase particles are effective in retarding grain growth. Tendency for larger grains to grow at the expense of smaller grains is based on physics. In practical applications. In contrary to recovery and recrystallization.Grain Growth Grain growth follows complete crystallization if the material is left at elevated temperatures. Kailas ME/MS 29 . grain growth is not desirable.

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes Chapter 7. The solidus line is that below which the solution is completely solid (does not contain a liquid phase.) Interpretation of phase diagrams Concentrations: Tie-line method a. Read compositions. an isomorphous system. Binary Isomorphous Systems This very simple case is one complete liquid and solid solubility. the solution is liquid above the liquidus line. Phase Diagrams 7. The composition of the solid and the liquid change gradually during cooling (as can be determined by the tie-line method. Sometimes diagrams are given with pressure as one of the variables. That is. These diagrams do not indicate the dynamics when one phase transforms into another. The liquidus line separates the liquid phase from solid or solid + liquid phases. 9. The example is the Cu-Ni alloy of Fig. Bangalore M7/L1/V1/dec2004/1 . construct tie line (isotherm) b. Fractions: lever rule a. electronegativity and valence. In two phase region draw tie line or isotherm c. note intersection with phase boundaries. Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys a) Equilibrium cooling Solidification in the solid + liquid phase occurs gradually upon cooling from the liquidus line.) Nuclei of the solid phase form and they grow to consume all the liquid at the solidus line. The complete solubility occurs because both Cu and Ni have the same crystal structure (FCC). near the same radii.1 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams Give the relationship of composition of a solution as a function of temperatures and the quantities of phases in equilibrium. pressure is assumed to be constant at one atmosphere.2a. locate composition and temperature in diagram b. obtain ratios of line segments lengths. In the phase diagrams we will discuss.

following the equilibrium values that can be derived from the tie-line method. The composition of the liquid phase evolves by diffusion. where diffusion is fast. Single-phase regions are separated by 2-phase regions. Liquid and two solid phases exist in equilibrium at the eutectic composition and the eutectic temperature. To obtain the concentration of the eutectic microstructure in the final solid solution. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The eutectic microstructure is lamellar (layered) due to the reduced diffusion distances in the solid state. Alloys which are to the left of the eutectic concentration (hipoeutectic) or to the right (hypereutectic) form a proeutectic phase before reaching the eutectic temperature. This lead to the formation of layered (cored) grains (Fig.14) and to the invalidity of the tie-line method to determine the composition of the solid phase (it still works for the liquid phase.) Binary Eutectic Systems Interpretation: Obtain phases present. However. A layered. the new layers that solidify on top of the grains have the equilibrium composition at that temperature but once they are solid their composition does not change. • • Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys Case of lead-tin alloys. Note: • the melting point of the eutectic alloy is lower than that of the components (eutectic = easy to melt in Greek). 9.9–9.14. one draws a vertical line at the eutectic concentration and applies the lever rule treating the eutectic as a separate phase . Hence. Solvus line: limit of solubility Eutectic or invariant point. At most two phases can be in equilibrium within a phase field. eutectic structure develops when cooling below the eutectic temperature. while in the solid + liquid region. concentration of phases and their fraction (%).Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes b) Non-equilibrium cooling Solidification in the solid + liquid phase also occurs gradually. Bangalore M7/L1/V1/dec2004/2 . The eutectic structure then adds when the remaining liquid is solidified when cooling further. figures 9. diffusion in the solid state is very slow.

intermetallic compounds are treated like any other phase. except they appear not as a wide region but as a vertical line. even though the heat treatment procedures are similar. That insoluble compound is called a precipitate Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.3 Precipitation reactions A precipitation reaction is a reaction in which soluble ions in separate solutions are mixed together to form an insoluble compound that settles out of solution as a solid.2 Particle strengthening by precipitation The strength and hardness of some metal and alloys may be enhanced by the formation of extremely small uniformly dispersed particles of a second phase within the original phase matrix. The inverse reaction occurs when heating. Precipitation hardening and the treating of steel to form tempered matrensite are totally different phenomena. Congruent transformation is one where there is no change in composition. It also shows as V on top of a horizontal line in the phase diagram. eutectoid phase. The process is called precipitation hardening because the small particles of the new phase are termed “precipitates”.. Solid Phase 1 + liquid Solid Phase 2 Congruent Phase Transformations Another classification scheme. is called an intermediate phase or solid solution. this must be accomplished by phase transformations that are induced by appropriate heat treatments. eutectoid and proeutectoid microstructures. 7. An important phase is the intermetallic compound.g. There are associated eutectoid temperature (or temperature). Solid Phase 1 Solid Phase 2 + Solid Phase 3 The peritectic reaction also involves three solid in equilibrium. like allotropic transformations (e. separated from the extremes. α−Fe to γ-Fe) or melting transitions in pure solids. Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions The eutectoid (eutectic-like) reaction is similar to the eutectic reaction but occurs from one solid phase to two new solid phases. When using the lever rules. One that exists in the middle. that has a precise chemical compositions.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds A terminal phase or terminal solution is one that exists in the extremes of concentration (0 and 100%) of the phase diagram. the transition is from a solid + liquid phase to a different solid phase when cooling. Bangalore M7/L1/V1/dec2004/3 . 7.

the time dependence of the transformations rate (which is often termed the kinetics of a transformation) is an important consideration in the heat treatment of materials. the first process to accompany a phase transformation is nucleation. of the new phase which are capable of growing. some volume of the parent phase disappears. As would be expected. an S-shaped curve. represents the typical kinetic behavior for most solid state reactions. The transformation reaches completion if growth of these new phase particles is allowed to proceed until the equilibrium fraction is attained. Data are plotted as the fraction of transformed material versus the logarithm of time. in which the nuclei increase in size. The second stage is growth.the formation of very small particles or nuclei. Transformation progress is usually ascertained by either microscopic examination or measurement of some physical property. during this process.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes 7. With many investigations. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. while the temperature is maintained constant. the fraction of reaction that has occurred is measured as a function of time.4 Kinetics of nucleation and growth From a micro structural standpoint. Bangalore M7/L2/V1/dec2004/1 .

For their role in mechanical properties of the alloy. 10. It is not stable below the eutectic temperature (727 C) unless cooled rapidly (Chapter 10). Since reactions below the eutectoid temperature are in the solid phase. The new microstructures that form are discussed in Ch. the equilibrium is not achieved by usual cooling from austenite. An intermetallic compound.) Development of Microstructures in Iron—Carbon Alloys The eutectoid composition of austenite is 0. Cementite is in reality metastable. (Mechanical properties also depend on the microstructure. Hypoeutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid ferrite plus the eutectoid perlite. it is important to note that: Ferrite is soft and ductile Cementite is hard and brittle Thus. how ferrite and cementite are mixed.022 wt%.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes 7. The Influence of Other Alloying Elements Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. that is. Bangalore M7/L3/V1/dec2004/1 .ferrite is 0.14 wt %. combining these two phases in solution an alloy can be obtained with intermediate properties.76 wt %. The maximum solubility of C in α. The diagram Fe—C is simplified at low carbon concentrations by assuming it is the Fe—Fe3C diagram. When it cools slowly it forms perlite. It is not important in practice.5 The Iron–Carbon Diagram The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram This is one of the most important alloys for structural applications. The possible phases are: • • • • • α-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solution γ-austenite (FCC) Fe-C solution δ-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solution liquid Fe-C solution Fe3C (iron carbide) or cementite. Austenite has a maximum C concentration of 2. Concentrations are usually given in weight percent. Hypereutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid cementite plus perlite. decomposing into α-Fe and C when heated for several years between 650 and 770 C. a lamellar or layered structure of two phases: α-ferrite and cementite (Fe3C). δ−ferrite is only stable at high temperatures.

the strength of Fe–C alloys increase with C content and also with the addition of other elements. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Bangalore M7/L3/V1/dec2004/2 . Thus.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes Alloying strengthens metals by hindering the motion of dislocations.

g. An increase in carbon content decreases the martensite start temperature. Bangalore M7/L4/V1/dec2004/1 . Obviously a large number of experiments is required to build up a complete TTT diagram.4. The horizontal line that indicates constant temperature To intercepts the TTT curves on the left (beginning of the transformation) and the right (end of the transformation).. The family of S-shaped curves at different temperatures can be used to construct the TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagrams (e.3) are displaced to longer times at higher temperatures showing that the transformation is dominated by nucleation (the nucleation period is longer at higher temperatures) and not by diffusion (which occurs faster at higher temperatures). quenched etc. time. log. fig. the cooling rate required to attain martensite is less severe). These are timetemperature transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. and keep it at that temperature over time.) from a processing temperature as this is more economic than transferring to a separate furnace for an isothermal treatment. In other words a sample is austenitised and then cooled at a predetermined rate and the degree of transformation is measured. 10. 10. In other words a sample is austenitised and then cooled rapidly to a lower temperature and held at that temperature whilst the rate of transformation is measured.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes 7. fig.76 wt% C) from the austenite (γ. 7. Obviously a large number of experiments is required to build up a complete CCT diagram • • • An increase in carbon content shifts the CCT and TTT curves to the right (this corresponds to an increase in hardenability as it increases the ease of forming martensite .e. one needs to cool the material quickly to a given temperature To before the transformation occurs. furnace cooled. for example by dilatometry.) For these diagrams to apply. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams measure the extent of transformation as a function of time for a continuously decreasing temperature. The S-shaped curves (fraction of pearlite vs.i. CCT diagrams are generally more appropriate for engineering applications as components are cooled (air cooled. for example by dilatometry. Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams measure the rate of transformation at a constant temperature. thus one can read from the Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. that contains ferrite (α) plus cementite (Fe3C or iron carbide).8 Microstructure and Property Changes in Fe-C Alloys Isothermal Transformation Diagrams We use as an example the cooling of an eutectoid alloy (0. An increase in Mo content shifts the CCT and TTT curves to the right and also separates the ferrite + pearlite region from the bainite region making the attainment of a bainitic structure more controllable. When cooling proceeds below the eutectoid temperature (727 oC) nucleation of pearlite starts.phase) to pearlite.7 Transformation rate effects and TTT diagrams: There are two main types of transformation diagram that are helpful in selecting the optimum steel and processing route to achieve a given set of properties.

nucleation occurs fast and grain growth is reduced (since it occurs by diffusion. Spheroidite is a coarse phase that forms at temperatures close to the eutectoid temperature. this phase has a very fine (microscopic) microstructure. a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure with interstitial C atoms. diffusion allows for larger grain growth.and hypereutectoid alloys. A very important structure is martensite. which is hindered at low temperatures). It forms nearly instantaneously when the required low temperature is reached. but the proeutectoid phase that forms before cooling through the eutectoid temperature is also part of the final microstructure. 10. the analysis is the same. which is an indication that it is controlled by the rate of nucleation. Martensite is metastable and decomposes into ferrite and pearlite but this is extremely slow (and not noticeable) at room temperature. For hypo. This reduced grain growth leads to fine-grained microstructure (fine pearlite). thus leading to coarse pearlite. which forms when cooling austenite very fast (quenching) to below a maximum temperature that is required for the transformation. At higher temperatures. this is called an athermal transformation. Since diffusion is low at low temperatures. we used an eutectoid composition. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. and a new phase is formed. In the examples. since no thermal activation is needed.4 also indicates that the transformation occurs sooner at low temperatures. Martensite is a different phase. The relatively high temperatures caused a slow nucleation but enhances the growth of the nuclei leading to large grains. At low temperatures. bainite. At lower temperatures nucleation starts to become slower. The formation of pearlite shown in fig.Material Science/Phase Diagrams Lecture Notes diagrams when the transformation occurs. Bangalore M7/L4/V1/dec2004/2 .

Module-07 Phase Diagrams .

Kailas ME/MS 2 . Equilibrium phase diagrams. phase transformations 4. Transformation rate effects and TTT diagrams. Particle precipitation and precipitation reactions 2. The iron-carbon system. Kinetics of nucleation and growth 3.Contents 1. Microstructure and property changes in iron-carbon system strengthening by Satish V.

Satish V. Macroscopic basic unit of a material is called component. it is a physically distinct from other phases. liquid water. and water vapor.e. A phase can be defined as a homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics i. Carbon exists as graphite and diamond. ions or compounds. Thus engineering materials attain their special properties. Kailas ME/MS 3 . E. A component can exist in many phases.g.Mixtures – Solutions – Phases . It refers to a independent chemical species.: Water exists as ice.1 Almost all materials have more than one phase in them. The components of a system may be elements. chemically homogeneous and mechanically separable portion of a system.

Kailas ME/MS 4 . In mixtures. a mixture is a material with more than one phase. A solution (liquid or solid) is phase with more than one component.Mixtures – Solutions – Phases . and the composition of any solution can be varied. It is possible to have a mixture of two different solutions! Satish V.2 When two phases are present in a system. there are different phases. it is not necessary that there be a difference in both physical and chemical properties. Solute (minor component of two in a solution) does not change the structural pattern of the solvent. each with its own atomic arrangement. a disparity in one or the other set of properties is sufficient.

Gibbs Phase Rule In a system under a set of conditions. pressure can be treated as a constant (1 atm.: pressure. temperature) that can be varied individually to effect changes in a system. Thus Condensed Gibbs phase rule is written as: P+F =C+2 Satish V. number of phases (P) exist can be related to the number of components (C) and degrees of freedom (F) by Gibbs phase rule.).g. Thermodynamically derived Gibbs phase rule: In practical conditions for metallurgical and materials systems. Degrees of freedom refers to the number of independent variables (e. Kailas P + F = C +1 ME/MS 5 .

Satish V. Equilibrium phase diagrams represent the relationships between temperature. Useful terminology related to phase diagrams: liquidus. It is actually a collection of solubility limit curves. inter-metallic compound. compositions and the quantities of phases at equilibrium. Phase diagrams are classified according to the number of component present in a particular system. Kailas ME/MS 6 . solidus. etc. solvus. It is also known as equilibrium or constitutional diagram. These diagrams do not indicate the dynamics when one phase transforms into another.Equilibrium Phase Diagram A diagram that depicts existence of different phases of a system under equilibrium is termed as phase diagram. invariant reaction. intermediate solid solution. terminal solid solution.

. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 7 .It indicates equilibrium solid solubility of one element/compound in another. obtainable from a phase diagram: . .It shows phases present at different compositions and temperatures under slow cooling (equilibrium) conditions. .It suggests temperature at which an alloy starts to solidify and the range of solidification.Amount of each phase in a two-phase mixture can be obtained.It signals the temperature at which different phases start to melt. useful in materials development and selection.Phase Diagram – Useful Information Important information. .

The component may exist in different forms.: water). Kailas ME/MS 8 . equilibrium of phases exist is depicted by unary phase diagram.Unary Phase Diagram If a system consists of just one component (e.g. thus variables here are – temperature and pressure. Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 9 . Two component systems are classified based on extent of mutual solid solubility – (a) completely soluble in both liquid and solid phases (isomorphous system) and (b) completely soluble in liquid phase whereas solubility is limited in solid state. Two components can be either two metals (Cu and Ni). or two compounds (Al2O3 and Si2O3).g. For isomorphous system .Binary Phase Diagram If a system consists of two components. Ag-Au. pressure is constant. For most systems.E. equilibrium of phases exist is depicted by binary phase diagram. Al2O3-Cr2O3. thus independently variable parameters are – temperature and composition.: Cu-Ni. Ge-Si. Satish V. etc. or a metal and a compound (Fe and Fe3C).

Elements should have the same valence. Satish V.Elements should not form compounds with each other i.Hume-Ruthery Conditions Extent of solid solubility in a two element system can be predicted based on Hume-Ruthery conditions. there should be no appreciable difference in the electronegativities of the two elements. Kailas ME/MS 10 .e.Crystal structure of each element of solid solution must be the same. . then complete solid solubility can be expected. .Size of atoms of each two elements must not differ by more than 15%. If the system obeys these conditions. Hume-Ruthery conditions: . .

Isomorphous Binary System An isomorphous system – phase diagram and corresponding microstructural changes. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 11 .

from which each of each phase is read. phases present and their composition (tie-line method) along with relative fraction of phases (lever rule) can be computed. . Satish V. U’ represents composition of liquid phase and V’ represents composition of solid phase as intersection U meets liquidus line and V meets solidus line.Tie Line – Lever Rule .A tie-line or isotherm (UV) is drawn across two-phase region to intersect the boundaries of the region.1 At a point in a phase diagram.Perpendiculars are dropped from these intersections to the composition axis. Kailas ME/MS 12 . Procedure to find equilibrium concentrations of phases (refer to the figure in previous slide): . represented by U’ and V’.

The relative amount of a phase is computed by taking the length of tie line from overall composition to the phase boundary for the other phase.Tie Line – Lever Rule . .A tie-line is constructed across the two phase region at the temperature of the alloy to intersect the region boundaries.2 Procedure to find equilibrium relative amounts of phases (lever rule): . Kailas Uc CS = UV ME/MS CL + CS = 1 13 . relative amount of liquid and solid phases is given respectively by: cV CL = UV Satish V. In previous figure. and dividing by the total tieline length.

Pb-Sn Eutectic Binary System Satish V.Many of the binary systems with limited solubility are of eutectic type – eutectic alloy of eutectic composition solidifies at the end of solidification at eutectic temperature. Kailas ME/MS 14 .: Cu-Ag.g. E.

EutecticSystem–Cooling Curve Microstructure . Kailas ME/MS 15 .1 Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 16 .Eutectic System–Cooling Curve – Microstructure .2 Satish V.

Eutectic system – Cooling curve – Microstructure . Kailas ME/MS 17 .3 Satish V.

4 Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 18 .Eutectic system – Cooling curve – Microstructure .

e. Try changing any of the variable.Invariant Reactions . In binary systems. Kailas ME/MS 19 . phases are not equilibrium any more! Hence they are known as invariant points. and represents invariant reactions. it does not exist i.1 Observed triple point in unary phase diagram for water? How about eutectic point in binary phase diagram? These points are specific in the sense that they occur only at that particular conditions of concentration. temperature. pressure etc. we will come across many number of invariant reactions! Satish V.

2 Satish V.Invariant Reactions . Kailas ME/MS 20 .

Intermediate Phases Invariant reactions result in different product phases – terminal phases and intermediate phases.: Fe3C is metallic.g. Occurrence of intermediate phases cannot be readily predicted from the nature of the pure components! Inter-metallic compounds differ from other chemical compounds in that the bonding is primarily metallic rather than ionic or covalent. Intermediate phases are either of varying composition (intermediate solid solution) or fixed composition (intermetallic compound). Kailas ME/MS 21 . Satish V. When using the lever rules. whereas MgO is covalent. E. inter-metallic compounds are treated like any other phase.

: Allotropic transformations. melting of pure a substance.: MgNi2. Intermediate phases are sometimes classified on the basis of whether they melt congruently or incongruently. It usually occurs at a temperature. Satish V. E.g. E.Congruent.: All invariant reactions. Incongruent Transformations Phase transformations are two kinds – congruent and incongruent. at least one phase will undergo compositional change.g.g. melting of isomorphous alloy. Kailas ME/MS 22 . E. During incongruent transformations. for example. melts congruently whereas Mg2Ni melts incongruently since it undergoes peritectic decomposition. Congruent transformation involves no compositional changes.

Precipitation – Strengthening – Reactions 1 A material can be strengthened by obstructing movement of dislocations. Satish V.g. quenching and aging.65% at 548ْ C that decreases with decreasing temperature. Second phase particles are effective. Most important pre-requisite for precipitation strengthening: there must be a terminal solid solution which has a decreasing solid solubility as the temperature decreases.: Au-Cu in which maximum solid solubility of Cu in Al is 5. E. Kailas ME/MS 23 . Three basic steps in precipitation strengthening: solutionizing. or by precipitation. Second phase particles are introduced mainly by two means – direct mixing and consolidation.

During this heat treatment step finely dispersed precipitate particle will form. where the sample is rapidly cooled to a lower temperature (room temperature). and aging temperature is usually between 15-25% of temperature difference between room temperature and solution heat treatment temperature. Most alloys require artificial aging.Precipitation – Strengthening – Reactions 2 Solutionizing (solution heat treatment). Aging the alloy at room temperature is called natural aging. Resultant product – supersaturated solid solution. Aging is the last but critical step. whereas at elevated temperatures is called artificial aging. where the alloy is heated to a temperature between solvus and solidus temperatures and kept there till a uniform solid-solution structure is produced. Kailas ME/MS 24 . Quenching. Satish V.

Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 25 .Precipitation – Strengthening – Reactions 3 Al-4%Cu alloy is used to explain the mechanism of precipitation strengthening.

Kailas ME/MS 26 . produces coarse grains – moderate strengthening. and aged! Following sequential reactions takes place during aging: Supersaturated α → GP1 zones → GP2 zones (θ” phase) → θ’ phase → θ phase (CuAl2) Satish V. it is quenched.Precipitation – Strengthening – Reactions Al-4%Cu alloy when cooled 4 slowly from solutionizing temperature. For precipitation strengthening.

Temperature changes are important among variables (like pressure. composition) causing phase transformations as diffusion plays an important role. Just nucleated particle has to overcome the +ve energy associated with new interface formed to survive and grow further. 2. difficulty encountered in nucleating small particles via change in surface energy associated with the interface. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 27 . Two other factors that affect transformation rate along with temperature – 1. It does by reaching a critical size.Nucleation And Growth Structural changes / Phase transformations takes place by nucleation followed by growth. diffusion controlled rearrangement of atoms because of compositional and/or crystal structural differences.

It requires considerable under-cooling (cooling a material below the equilibrium temperature for a given transformation without the transformation occurring). Satish V. ∆g is the Gibbs free energy change per unit volume and γ is the surface energy of the interface. Free energy change associated with formation of new particle Homogeneous Nucleation – Kinetics 1 4 3 2 ∆f = πr ∆g + 4πr γ 3 where r is the radius of the particle.Homogeneous nucleation – nucleation occurs within parent phase. Kailas ME/MS 28 . All sites are of equal probability for nucleation.

∆T – amount of under-cooling at which nucleus is formed. ∆Hf – latent heat of fusion. 2γ * r =− ∆g or 2γTm r = ∆H f ∆T * Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 29 .Homogeneous Nucleation – Kinetics 2 reduces with underCritical value of particle size (which cooling) is given by where Tm – freezing temperature (in K).

walls of container holding the liquid In solid-solid transformation . stacking faults and dislocations. force equilibrium during second phase formation: Heterogeneous Nucleation – Kinetics 1 γ αδ = γ αβ cos θ + γ βδ Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 30 .: During solidification . grain boundaries. E.inclusions of foreign particles (inoculants). Considering.In heterogeneous nucleation. interfaces. the probability of nucleation occurring at certain preferred sites is much greater than that at other sites.foreign inclusions.g.

e. the foreign particle does not play any role in the nucleation process → ∆f * = ∆f * het hom If the product particle completely wets the foreign surface.Heterogeneous Nucleation – Kinetics 2 ∆f * het = 3 4πγ αβ 3( ∆g ) 2 ( 2 − 3 cos θ + cos θ ) = ∆f 3 * hom 2 − 3 cos θ + cos 3 θ 4 When product particle makes only a point contact with the foreign surface. θ = 0ْ→ * 1 * ∆f het = 2 ∆f hom Satish V. i.e. θ = 0ْ. Kailas ME/MS 31 . i. there is no barrier for heterogeneous nucleation → * ∆f het = 0 In intermediate conditions such as where the product particle attains hemispherical shape. θ = 180ْ.

e. I): Satish V. dX/dt= fn (U. growth rate (I) and overall transformation rate (dX/dt) that is a function of both nucleation rate and growth rate i. growth of it occurs until equilibrium phase is being formed.Growth Kinetics . or athermal collective movement of atoms. Growth occurs in two methods – thermal activated diffusion controlled individual atom movement. First one is more common than the other. Kailas ME/MS 32 . Temperature dependence of nucleation rate (U).1 After formation of stable nuclei.

at larger degrees of supercooling. Ccurve (time-temperature-transformation or TTT diagram). relatively fine particles result. Transformation data are plotted as characteristic S-curve. Kailas ME/MS 33 . Satish V. relatively coarse particles appear.Growth Kinetics . At small degrees of supercooling.2 Time required for a transformation to completion has a reciprocal relationship to the overall transformation rate. where slow nucleation and rapid growth prevail.

athermal collective movement of atoms can also result in growth – Martensitic transformation. Ms is temperature where transformation starts.Martensitic Growth Kinetics Diffusion-less. Consequently. E. Martensitic transformations in Fe-C alloys and Ti are of great technological importance. and Mf is temperature where transformation completes. Ms and Mf are presented as horizontal lines on a TTT diagram. a martensitic transformation only occurs in the solid state. Satish V.: FCC structure of Co transforms into HCP-Co or FCCaustenite into BCT-Martensite. It involves congruent transformation. Because of its crystallographic nature.g. Takes place at a rate approaching the speed of sound. Kailas ME/MS 34 .

Fe-C Binary System – Phase Transformations . Kailas ME/MS 35 .1 Satish V.

eutectoid reaction at 723 ْC and 0.51%C. L ↔ γ-iron + Fe3C (cementite) [ledeburite] .an inter-metallic compound and liquid Fe-C solution and four invariant reactions: . L ↔ L + γ-iron (austenite) .monotectic reaction 1495 ْC and 0.2 Fe-Fe3C phase diagram is characterized by five individual phases.8%C. δ-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution. γ-austenite (FCC) Fe-C solid solution. γ-iron ↔ α– ferrite + Fe3C (cementite) [pearlite] Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 36 .peritectic reaction at 1495 ْC and 0.: α–ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution.eutectic reaction at 1147 ْC and 4. Fe3C (iron carbide) or cementite . δ-ferrite + L ↔ γ-iron (austenite) .Fe-C Binary System – Phase Transformations .3 %C.16%C.

11 Cast irons 2.11 < %C Cast irons that were slowly cooled to room temperature consists of cementite.% C present in the alloy for technological convenience as follows: Commercial pure irons % C < 0. If inoculants are used in liquid state to have graphite nodules – spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron. Kailas ME/MS 37 .%C .008 Low-carbon/mild steels 0.8.3 . It is heat treated to have graphite in form of nodules – malleable cast iron.0.008 .2.8 High-carbon steels 0.%C . Satish V.3 Medium carbon steels 0.0. look grayish – gray cast iron. If it contains graphite. look whitish – white cast iron.Fe-C Alloy Classification Fe-C alloys are classified according to wt.%C .

TTT Diagram For Eutectoid Transformation In Fe-C System

Satish V. Kailas



Transformations Involving Austenite For Fe-C System

Satish V. Kailas



CCT Diagram For Fe-C System - 1
TTT diagram though gives very useful information, they are of less practical importance since an alloy has to be cooled rapidly and then kept at a temperature to allow for respective transformation to take place. Usually materials are cooled continuously, thus Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams are appropriate. For continuous cooling, the time required for a reaction to begin and end is delayed, thus the isothermal curves are shifted to longer times and lower temperatures. Main difference between TTT and CCT diagrams: no space for bainite in CCT diagram as continuous cooling always results in formation of pearlite.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 40

CCT Diagram For Fe-C System - 2

Satish V. Kailas



Material Science/Failure

Lecture Notes

Chapter 8. Failure

8.1 Fundamentals of Fracture Fracture is a form of failure where the material separates in pieces due to stress, at temperatures below the melting point. The fracture is termed ductile or brittle depending on whether the elongation is large or small. Steps in fracture (response to stress):
• •

Track formation Track propagation

Ductile vs. brittle fracture Ductile Deformation Track propagation Type of materials Warning Strain energy Fractured surface Necking 8.2 Ductile Fracture Stages of ductile fracture
• • • • •

Brittle Little Fast Ceramics, ice, cold metals None Lower Smoother No

Extensive Slow, needs stress Most metals (not too cold) Permanent elongation Higher Rough Yes

Initial necking Small cavity formation (microvoids) Void growth (ellipsoid) by coalescence into a crack Fast crack propagation around neck. Shear strain at 45o Final shear fracture (cup and cone)

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Failure

Lecture Notes

The interior surface is fibrous, irregular, which signify plastic deformation. Brittle Fracture There is no appreciable deformation, and crack propagation is very fast. In most brittle materials, crack propagation (by bond breaking) is along specific crystallographic planes (cleavage planes). This type of fracture is transgranular (through grains) producing grainy texture (or faceted texture) when cleavage direction changes from grain to grain. In some materials, fracture is intergranular.

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Failure

Lecture Notes

8.3 Fracture Mechanics Fracture occurs due to stress concentration at flaws, like surface scratches, voids, etc. If a is the length of the void and ρ the radius of curvature, the enhanced stress near the flaw is: σm ≈ 2 σ0 (a/ρ)1/2 where σ0 is the applied macroscopic stress. Note that a is 1/2 the length of the flaw, not the full length for an internal flaw, but the full length for a surface flaw. The stress concentration factor is: Kt = σm/σ0 ≈ 2 (a/ρ)1/2 Because of this enhancement, flaws with small radius of curvature are called stress raisers.

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Normalized tests.Material Science/Failure Lecture Notes 8.4 Impact Fracture: Impact fractures can best be described as a flute or strip of material that was cleanly sheared from a projectile point. like the Charpoy and Izod tests measure the impact energy required to fracture a notched specimen with a hammer mounted on a pendulum. This energy is called notch toughness. Alloying usually increases the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. 8. Bangalore M8/L3/V1/dec2004/1 .5 Ductile brittle transition : Ductile to brittle transition occurs in materials when the temperature is dropped below a transition temperature. this type of transition occurs at much higher temperatures than for metals. The energy is measured by the change in potential energy (height) of the pendulum. Some points were reworked into a useable point after having been damaged by an impact fracture. for ceramics. The most common type of impact fracture starts at the tip of a point and runs down one blade edge possibly reaching the shoulder of a point.

propagation (incremental in each cycle) III.7 Crack Initiation and Propagation Stages is fatigue failure: I.6 Fatigue: Fatigue is the catastrophic failure due to dynamic (fluctuating) stresses. with little plastic deformation it occurs in stages involving the initiation and propagation of cracks. The characteristics are: • • • • long period of cyclic strain the most usual (90%) of metallic failures (happens also in ceramics and polymers) is brittle-like even in ductile metals. Cyclic Stresses These are characterized by maximum. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Bangalore M8/L4/V1/dec2004/1 . machine components.propagation Crack propagates by repetitive plastic blunting and sharpening of the crack tip. crack initiation at high stress points (stress raisers) II. minimum and mean stress. and the stress ratio. airplanes. 8. final failure by fracture Nfinal = Ninitiation + Npropagation Stage I . etc. It can happen in bridges.propagation • • • slow along crystallographic planes of high shear stress flat and featureless fatigue surface Stage II .Material Science/Failure Lecture Notes 8. the stress amplitude.

The first two models are used for constant amplitude loading. Threshold cracks are also incorporated.8 Crack propagation rate Crack propagation life is computed based on a crack-growth model such as Paris. Bangalore M8/L4/V1/dec2004/2 . For other cases. Crack growth is computed using either the cycle-by-cycle or segment-by-segment approach. The latter approach provides a fast approximation. it requires considerable computational time. which is then cumulated. crack growth is divided into a finite number of segments and number of cycles required for each segment is obtained. depending on the material and type of loading. Walker. a are generated from fracture analysis. while the latter three correspond to variable amplitude loading and include crack-growth retardation/ acceleration effects. Accordingly. While the first method is accurate. Forman. Elber or Collipriest. values of K vs. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. K vs.Material Science/Failure Lecture Notes 8. relations are available for standard crack configurations.

The results of creep rupture tests are most commonly presented as the logarithm of stress versus the logarithm of rupture lifetime.Material Science/Failure Lecture Notes 8. Examples: turbine blades.11 Stress and Temperature Effects: Both temperature and the level of the applied stress influence the creep characteristics. There is essentially no creep at temperatures below 40% of the melting point. Bangalore M8/L5/V1/dec2004/1 .10 Generalized Creep Behavior At a constant stress. Creep increases at higher applied stresses. Characteristics: • • Creep rate: dε/dt Time to failure. where K. The behavior can be characterized by the following expression. 8. Finally the strain increases fast and leads to failure in the tertiary region. steam generators. 8. Keys are the time dependence of the strain and the high temperature. n and Qc are constants for a given material: dε/dt = K σn exp(-Qc/RT) Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. then increases more slowly in the secondary region at a steady rate (creep rate).9 Creep Creep is the time-varying plastic deformation of a material stressed at high temperatures. the strain increases initially fast with time (primary or transient deformation). Creep becomes more pronounced at higher temperatures.

Module-08 Failure .

crack initiation and propagation. Creep. Fracture. ductile-to-brittle transition 4.Contents 1. stress and temperature effects Satish V. generalized creep behavior. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Impact fracture. Fracture mechanics 3. ductile and brittle fracture 2. Fatigue. crack propagation rate 5.

Controlled by design and elastic modulus of the material. E. Satish V. mode in which most machine parts fail in service.g. Kailas ME/MS 3 . involves complete disruption of continuity of a component – under static load: brittle or ductile.Failure – Classification Failure of a material component is the loss of ability to function normally or to perform the intended job! Three general ways failure: Excessive elastic deformation.g. Fracture. under fluctuating/cyclic load: fatigue.: loss of shape. E. Controlled by yield strength of the material.: buckling. creep and/ or stressrupture at elevated temperatures. Excessive plastic deformation.

Fracture is classified based on several characteristic features: Characteristic Strain to fracture Crystallographic mode Appearance Crack propagation Satish V. Kailas Terms Used Ductile Shear Fibrous and gray Along grain boundaries ME/MS Brittle Cleavage Granular and bright Through grains 4 .Fracture Fracture defined as the separation or fragmentation of a solid body into two or more parts under the action of stress.

(b) cup-&-cone and (c) brittle. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 5 .Fracture Modes Ductile and Brittle are relative terms. Most of the fractures belong to one of the following modes: (a) rupture.

Glasses. during cracking Crack propagation Warning sign Deformation Necking Fractured surface Type of materials Satish V. Ice 6 .Ductile Fracture Vs Brittle Fracture Parameter Strain energy required Stress. Kailas Ductile fracture Higher Increasing Slow Plastic deformation Extensive Yes Rough and dull Most metals (not too cold) ME/MS Brittle fracture Lower Constant Fast None Little No Smooth and bright Ceramics.

McClintock’s strain to ductile fracture.(1) formation of cavities (2) growth of cavities (3) final failure involving rapid crack propagation at about 45ْto the tensile axis. It is usually preceded by necking. εf = sinh (1 − n) (σ a + σ b ) (2 σ ME/MS [ (1 − n) ln(l 0 2b 0 ) 3) ] 7 Satish V. It exhibits three stages .Ductile Fracture . Fractography of ductile fracture reveals numerous spherical dimples separated by thin walls on the fractured surface. Kailas .1 Ductile fracture in tension occurs after appreciable plastic deformation. εf.

crack initiation and eventual fracture under ductile fracture mode: Satish V.Ductile Fracture .2 Stages of void nucleation. void growth. Kailas ME/MS 8 .

e. (3) eventual crack propagation under applied stress aided by stored elastic energy. Satish V. Most often brittle fracture occurs through grains i. Kailas ME/MS 9 . Crack propagates nearly perpendicular to the direction of applied tensile stress.(1) plastic deformation that causes dislocation pile-ups at obstacles.Brittle Fracture Brittle fracture intakes place with little or no preceding plastic deformation. It occurs. transgranular. by rapid crack propagation. and hence called cleavage fracture. often at unpredictable levels of stress. Three stages of brittle fracture . (2) micro-crack nucleation as a result of build-up of shear stresses.

Brittle Fracture – Griffith Theory Nominal fracture stress that causes brittle fracture in presence of cracks (length of interior crack=2c). Thus for thin 12 plates: 2 Eγ ⎞ ⎛ σ =⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ cπ ⎠ ⎛ 2 Eγ ⎞ For thick plates: σ = ⎜ ⎜ (1 − ν 2 )cπ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ When plastic energy is also taken into account1 2 (Orowan’s 12 ⎛ Ep ⎞ ⎛ 2 E (γ + p ) ⎞ modification): σ =⎜ ≈⎜ ⎟ ⎟ cπ ⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 10 ⎝ 4c ⎠ . the stress 12 raisers. ⎛ Eγ ⎞ σf ≈⎜ ⎟ Griffith’s criteria: a crack will propagate when the decrease in elastic energy is at least equal to the energy required to create the new crack surface.

thin plates: K 2 = GE For plane strain conditions i.1 Relatively new field of mechanics. G: G = E (2) Stress concentration factor.e. K: K = ασ cπ Both parameters are related as: For plane stress conditions i. is expressed in two forms. known as fracture toughness. that deals with possibility whether a crack of given length in a material with known toughness is dangerous at a given stress level or not! Fracture resistance of a material in the presence of cracks.e. thick plates: K 2 = GE (1 − ν 2 ) Satish V.Fracture Mechanics . Kailas ME/MS 11 . πσ 2 c (1) Strain-energy release rate.

microstructure and orientation of fracture.2 K depends on many factors. Depending on the orientation of fracture. three modes of fracture are identified as shown in the figure: Satish V. The value of K decreases with increasing strain rate. the most influential of which are temperature. strain rate. Kailas ME/MS 12 .Fracture Mechanics . grain size and/or decreasing temperature.

Kailas ME/MS 13 . Usually a notch will be introduced to simulate the conditions. Satish V. rapid rate of loading. Three factors that aid transition from ductile to brittlecleavage type of fracture are: 1. tri-axial state of stress 2. Since brittle fracture is most unpredictable. b) by introducing a tri-axial state of stress. low temperature. and d) by producing a local magnification to the strain rate. its been extend at a greater extent.1 Ductile and Brittle are terms used to distinguish two extremes of fractures modes based on plastic deformation involved before fracture occurs. and 3. c) by producing high local strain hardening and cracking.Notch-Impact Testing . A notch increases the tendency for brittle fracture by four means: a) by producing high local stresses.

Two kind of specimen configurations & loading directions: Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 14 . and calculation of ductility.Notch-Impact Testing .2 A material’s susceptibility to different kinds of fracture is measured using notched specimen subjected to impact load. Further study involves examining the fracture surfaces.

Kailas ME/MS 15 .5-0.1-0. Satish V. In metals DBTT is around 0.Ductile-To-Brittle Transition Energy absorbed during the notch-impact is plotted as a function of temperature to know at what temperature range (DBTT) material fracture in a particular mode.2 Tm while in ceramics it is about 0.7 Tm. where Tm represents absolute melting temperature.

and are responsible for a large number fraction of identifiable service failures of metals. etc. Satish V. aircraft landing gear.1 Failure that occurs under fluctuating/cyclic loads – Fatigue. These failures are dangerous because they occur without any warning. Fatigue fracture surface is perpendicular to the direction of an applied stress. bridges. Fatigue failures occur in both metallic and non-metallic materials.Fatigue Failure . Typical machine components subjected to fatigue are automobile crank-shaft. Fatigue occurs at stresses that considerable smaller than yield/tensile stress of the material. Kailas ME/MS 16 .

Satish V.Fatigue Failure .2 Fatigue failure can be recognized from the appearance of the fracture surface: Any point with stress concentration such as sharp corner or notch or metallurgical inclusion can act as point of initiation of fatigue crack. Kailas ME/MS 17 .

Amplitude ratio. Stress ratio.Fatigue Failure . Mean stress. Satish V. Alternating stress. Stress cycles that can cause fatigue failure are characterized using the following parameters: Range of stress.3 Three basic requisites for occurrence of fatigue fracture are: a) a maximum tensile stress of sufficiently high value b) a large enough variation or fluctuation in the applied stress and c) a sufficiently large number of cycles of applied stress. Kailas σr = σmax – σmin σa = σr/2 = (σmax – σmin)/2 σm = (σmax + σmin)/2 R= σmin / σmax A= σa / σm = (1-R) / (1+R) ME/MS 18 .

involves applying fluctuating load cyclically. Kailas ME/MS 19 .Fatigue Testing – Data Presentation Fatigue test. usually. using a logarithmic scale for the latter variable. A specimen of rotating beam type is often used because of its simplicity. S-N curve can be represented by the Basquin equation: Nσ ap = C Satish V. Fatigue data is usually presented by plotting maximum stress (S) against number of cycles to fracture (N).

Hence stress corresponding to 107 cycles is considered as characteristic of material. there is no particular limiting stress i. For most materials it is in the range of 0.4-0. Number of cycles is called fatigue life. For non-ferrous materials.e. After a limiting stress. Kailas ME/MS 20 . Satish V. as stress reduces. and known as fatigue strength. This limiting stress is called – fatigue limit / endurance limit. Endurance ratio – ratio of fatigue stress to tensile stress of a material.Fatigue Parameters Material fails under fatigue mode at higher number of stress cycles if stress applied is lower.5. ferrous materials won’t fail for any number of stress cycles. number of cycles to failure keep increasing.

1 The Goodman diagram presents the dependence of allowable stress ranges on mean stress for a material. Allowable stress range increases with increasing compressive mean stress i. Kailas ME/MS 21 . Satish V. compressive stress increases the fatigue limit.Fatigue Data Presentation – Goodman Diagram .e.

The following equation summarizes the diagram: ⎡ ⎛σ ⎞x ⎤ σ a = σ e ⎢1 − ⎜ m ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ σu ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x=1 for Goodman line.2 An alternative method of presenting mean stress data is by using Heig-Soderberg diagram. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 22 . x=2 for the Gerber parabola.Fatigue Data Presentation .

Fatigue – Crack Initiation & Propagation Fatigue failure consists of four stages: (a) crack initiation – includes the early development of fatigue damage that can be removed by suitable thermal anneal (b) slip-band crack growth – involves the deepening of initial crack on planes of high shear stress (stage-I crack growth) (c) crack growth on planes of high tensile stress – involves growth of crack in direction normal to maximum tensile stress (stage-II crack growth) (d) final ductile failure – occurs when the crack reaches a size so that the remaining cross-section cannot support the applied load. Kailas ME/MS 23 . Stage-I is secondary to stage-II crack growth in importance because very low crack propagation rates involved during the stage. Satish V.

1 Feature Slip (nm) Static load 1000 Cyclic load 1-10 Extrusions Intrusions Some grains Very high Not necessary 24 Deformation feature Contour Grains involved Vacancy concentration Necessity diffusion Satish V. Kailas & All grains Less of Required ME/MS .Static Load Vs Cyclic Load .

Static Load Vs Cyclic Load . Kailas ME/MS 25 .2 Satish V.

Kailas Stage-I Shear Yes Low (nm/cycle) Single slip plane Feature less ME/MS Stage-II Tensile No High (µm/cycle) Multiple slip planes Striations 26 .Fatigue Crack Growth: Stage-I Vs Stage-II Parameter Stresses involved Crystallographic orientation Crack propagation rate Slip on Feature Satish V.

Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate Studies of fatigue crack propagation rate attained much importance because it can be used as fail-safe design consideration. a ) = Cσ a a n dN Paris law: da = A(∆K ) p dN p= 3 for steels. Kailas ME/MS 27 . da m = fn(σ . 3-4 for Al alloys Satish V.

it is extremely sensitive to temperature.Creep Failure Deformation that occurs under constant load/stress and elevated temperatures which is time-dependent is known as creep.4 Tm. Creep test data is presented as a plot between time and strain known as creep curve. Kailas ME/MS 28 . Satish V. Tm is absolute melting temperature). However. Creep deformation (constant stress) is possible at all temperatures above absolute zero. creep in usually considered important at elevated temperatures (temperatures greater than 0. Hence. The slope of the creep curve is designated as creep rate.

Creep Curve . Kailas ME/MS 29 .1 Satish V.

Kailas & ε = ε 0 + ε t (1 − e ) + ε s t − rt ME/MS 30 . Primary creep is followed by secondary or steady-state or viscous creep. ε0. and is known as primary or transient creep.2 Creep curve is considered to be consists of three portions.Creep Curve . the creep rate decreases continuously with time. which is characterized by constant creep rate. Finally. tertiary creep occurs that is characterized by increase in creep rate. a third stage of creep known as. After initial rapid elongation. Andrade creep equation: 13 kt ε = ε 0 (1 + β t )e Garofalo creep equation: Satish V. This stage of creep is often the longest duration of the three modes.

Kailas ME/MS 31 . Satish V.Creep In Different Stages First stage creep is associated with strain hardening of the sample. or diffusional changes in the phases that are present. Third stage creep occurs in constant load tests at high stresses at high temperatures. This stage is greatly delayed in constant stress tests. recrystallization. Creep rate during the secondary creep is called the minimum creep rate. Constant creep rate during secondary creep is believed to be due to balance between the competing processes of strain hardening and recovery. Third stage is often associated with metallurgical changes such as coarsening of precipitate particles. Tertiary creep is believed to occur because of either reduction in cross-sectional area due to necking or internal void formation.

Creep Rate – Stress & Temperature Effects Two most important parameter that influence creep rate are: stress and temperature. With increase in either stress or temperature (a) instantaneous elastic strain increases (b) steady state creep rate increases and (c) rupture lifetime decreases. Kailas ME/MS 32 . Qc RT & ε s = K 2σ n e − Satish V.

They are especially important as engineering construction materials. carbon) o Talonite Alloys of nickel • • • Mu-metal (iron) Monel metal (copper. Bangalore . aluminium or any other element) o Phosphor bronze (tin and phosphorus) Bell metal (tin) Beryllium copper (beryllium) Cupronickel (nickel) M9/L1/V1/feb2005/1 Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. tungsten. molybdenum. iron) Alloys of copper • • • • • • • Brass (zinc) Prince's metal (zinc) Gilding metal (zinc) Bronze (tin. silicon) Nonferrous alloys: Alloys of cobalt • Stellite (chromium. iron. The principal disadvantage of many ferrous alloys is their susceptibility to corrosion. Different alloys of iron are given below: Alloys of iron • • • Steel (carbon) o Stainless steel (chromium.1 Types of metals and alloys: Ferrous alloys: Ferrous alloys are those in which iron is the prime constituent. manganese) Nichrome (chromium. carbon. nickel) o Silicon steel (silicon) o Tool steel (tungsten or manganese) Cast iron (carbon) Spiegeleisen (manganese.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys Lecture Notes Chapter 9 Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys 9. nickel) Surgical stainless steel (chromium.

copper) Alloys of mercury • Amalgam Alloys of lead • • Solder Type metal Alloys of bismuth • Wood's metal 9. in size and with temperatures up to 2400°C with controlled or vacuum atmospheres are available for heat treating. and hydraulic presses. Bangalore M9/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . Laboratory-sized extrusions can also be produced.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys • • • Lecture Notes Nickel silver (nickel) Billon (silver) Nordic gold (aluminium. The facility includes various sizes of rolling mills. x 24 in. steel capacity shear. swaging machines. draw benches. x 72 in. welding equipment (including electron-beam). Alloys can be produced by arc melting or induction melting in a vacuum or in a controlled atmosphere. and can be shaped using a variety of equipment. zinc. specialty equipment such as a hot isostatic press and a high-energy impact Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. tin) Alloys of silver • Sterling silver (copper) Alloys of tin • • Pewter (lead. 1/2 in. tubing reducers. copper) Solder (lead) Alloys of gold • Electrum (silver.2 Fabrication of Metals and Composite Materials: The fabrication of metals and composite materials can be conducted on a variety of processing equipment. In addition. An area for cleaning and chemical etching with exhaust systems is also located at the facility. straightening equipment. Furnaces up to 24 in.

Forming operations Forming operations are those in which the shape of a metal piece is changed by plastic deformation.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys Lecture Notes mill are available. otherwise it is cold working. Casting: Casting is a fabrication process whereby a totally molten metal is poured into a mold cavity having the desired shape. with a corresponding increase in length. for example. upon solidification. a reduction in thickness results from compressive stresses exerted by the rolls. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. the extruded piece that emerges has the desired shape and a reduced cross sectional area. a bar of metal piece through a die orifice by a compressive force that is applied to a ram. the metal assumes the shape of the mold but experiences some shrinkages. this may be accomplished by the application of successive blows or by continuous squeezing. Rolling Rolling. investment and continuous casting. extrusion and drawing are common forming techniques. A reduction in cross section results. the most widely used deformation process consists of passing a piece of metal between two rolls. Different types of casting techniques which are commonly employed are: sand . Drawing Drawing is the pulling of a metal pice through a die having a tapered bore by means of a tensile force that is applied on the exit side. Forging Forging is mechanically working or deforming a single piece of a normally hot metal. When deformation is achived at a temperature above that at which recrystallization occurs. Bangalore M9/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . the process is termed hot working. Complete metallographic facilities to study the microstructure of the materials processed are also located at the facility. die. Extrusion For extrusion. forging. rolling.

The joining bond is metallurgical rather than juts mechanical. the work pieces to be joined and the filler material are heated to a sufficiently high temperature to cause both to melt. This method is especially suitable for metals having low ductilities. Bangalore M9/L1/V1/feb2005/4 . the filler material forms a fusion joint between the work pieces. The time at the high temperature (soaking time) is long enough to allow the desired transformation to occur. since only small plastic deformation of the powder particles need occur. 9.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys Lecture Notes Miscellaneous Techniques: Powder Metallurgy This is another fabrication technique which involoves the compaction of powdered metal. Cooling is done slowly to avoid the distortion (warping) of the metal piece. caused by stresses induced by differential contraction due to thermal inhomogeneities. Welding In welding. two or more metal parts are joined to form a single piece when one part fabrication is expensive or inconvenient.3 Thermal Processing of metals Annealing Processes Annealing is a heat treatment where the material is taken to a high temperature. Diffusional processes during the heat treatment are central to the development of these properties. or even cracking. kept there for some time and then cooled. followed by a heat treatment to produce a more dense piece. During arc and gas welding. ductility and toughness produce a specific microstructure Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Both similar and non similar metals can be joined by welding. upon solidification. Benefits of annealing are: • • • relieve stresses increase softness. High temperatures allow diffusion processes to occur fast.

This leads to a supersaturated solid solution that remains stable (metastable) due to the low temperatures.5 Precipitation Hardening Hardening can be enhanced by extremely small precipitates that hinder dislocation motion. eventually the hardness decreases. Bangalore M9/L2/V1/feb2005/1 . The requirements for precipitation hardening are: • • • appreciable maximum solubility solubility curve that falls fast with temperature composition of the alloy that is less than the maximum solubility 9. b) rapid cooling across the solvus line to exceed the solubility limit. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Precipitation hardening is also called age hardening because it involves the hardening of the material over a prolonged time.4 Heat Treatments Precipitation hardening is achieved by: a) solution heat treatment where all the solute atoms are dissolved to form a single-phase solution. The precipitates form when the solubility limit is exceeded. c) precipitation heat treatment where the supersaturated solution is heated to an intermediate temperature to induce precipitation and kept there for some time (aging).Material Science/Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys Lecture Notes 9. which prevent diffusion. This is called overaging. If the process is continued for a very long time.

Module-09 Applications and Processing of Metals and Alloys .

Thermal processing of metals Satish V.Contents 1. Types of metals and alloys 2. Fabrication of metals 3. Kailas ME/MS 2 .

Kailas ME/MS 3 .g. especially. E.Materials – Classification Materials are classified into three basic groups based on their mechanical and physical nature as – metals. Aluminium. Satish V.: Brass. Silver.g. Titanium. For an engineer. E. ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials those are not ferrous are termed as nonferrous materials.: steel. Ferrous materials – chief constituent is iron (Fe). cast iron. Metallic materials are again classified for ease of selection and/or based on their tonnage of usage broadly into two classes – ferrous and non-ferrous. metals are more important owing to ability to carry loads and ease of manufacturing.

ease of forming .poor corrosion resistance . There are some drawbacks about ferrous materials: .availability of abundant raw materials combined with economical extraction .Ferrous Materials .e.Introduction In engineering applications. lion share is served by ferrous materials.low thermal and electrical conductivities Satish V. Factors account for it are: . low specific strength .high density i.their versatile mechanical and physical properties. Kailas ME/MS 4 .

E.Ferrous Materials .14% Cast irons: %C is above 2. sliding guides in machinery. Steels: %C is up to 2. Steels are serving major part of present engineering applications. cast irons mostly serve as structural components. Kailas ME/MS 5 . Satish V.14% Cast irons are called so because they are usually manufactured through casting technique owing to their brittle nature due to presence of iron carbide.Classification There are two classes – steels and cast irons – categorized based on carbon content. However.g.: automobile motor casings. lathe bed.

6 High-carbon steels: % wt of C > 0.6 Low carbon steels: .1 In steels. structural shapes.Typical applications: tin cans. C atoms occupies interstitial sites of Fe.They are easily weldable and machinable. Satish V.Steels . hence are strengthened by cold work.3 Medium carbon steels: 0. Low-carbon steels: % wt of C < 0. Kailas ME/MS 6 . . etc. Steels are classified based on their C content/alloying additions which in turn dictates their applications: plain carbon steels and alloying steels.3 <% wt of C < 0. .Carbon present is not enough to strengthen them by heat treatment. automotive body components.

High carbon steels: .They are less ductile and stronger than low carbon steels.Hardenability is increased by adding Ni.2 Medium carbon steels: . .Alloying additions – Cr. Cr. . Used in tempered or hardened conditions. razors. Satish V.They are strongest and hardest of carbon steels. machine parts. V. . hacksaw blades.Heat treatable.Heat treatable (austenitizing.Typical applications: gears. Mo . railway tracks. Kailas ME/MS 7 . . .Used in various tempered conditions.Steels . W. .Typical applications: Knives. etc where high wear resistance is the prime requirement. quenching and tempering). Mo.

austenitic and precipitation hardenable (martensitic. V. . Cr.They can be strengthened by heat treatment. bridge beams.They typical consists min.Alloying addition – Cu. thus highly corrosion resistant owing to presence of chromium oxide. . . W. Mo. Ni. Kailas ME/MS 8 .12% Cr along with other alloying elements. etc. semi-austenitic) – based on presence of prominent microstructural constituent.Typical applications: support columns. Stainless steels: .Ductile and formable. .1 HSLA (high strength low alloy) steels: .Three kinds . Satish V. pressure vessels.ferritic & hardenable Cr steels.HSLA And Stainless Steels .

martensitic steels Ms is made to be above the room temperature. . storage tanks. Ni.2 Stainless steels: . V. domestic items .For. .Austenitic steels contain 18% Cr and 8% Ni plus minor alloying elements. And small additions of Mo.Ferritic steels are principally Fe-Cr-C alloys with 12-14% Cr. Major alloying elements are: Cr.Stainless Steels . Satish V. surgical knives. which are magnetic. Nb. Mn and Mo. Ni stabilizes the austenitic phase assisted by C and N. These alloys are heat treatable. .Typical applications – cutlery. Kailas ME/MS 9 .Ferritic and austenitic steels are hardened and strengthened by cold work because they are not heat treatable. .Austenitic steels are non-magnetic as against ferritic and martensitic steels.

They are brittle and extremely difficult to machine. Kailas ME/MS 10 . .Fractures surface looks whitish because of cementite.Fractured surface looks grey because of presence of graphite.Cooled fast so that cementite does not decompose. . hence the name. . hence the name.Cast Irons .1 Grey cast iron . Thus they are brittle.Possess good damping properties. . . Satish V. machine beds White cast iron .Cementite decomposes during solidification to form carbon flakes. .Typical applications – base structures.Used as source materials for producing malleable iron.

crank shafts. Kailas ME/MS 11 . etc. Malleable cast iron . . Heat treatment involves heating to 800-900C. Satish V.They are stronger and ductile than grey cast iron.Formed by heat treating white cast iron. automotive components.Alloying addition of Mg/Ce to grey cast iron melt results in graphite to form as modules.Typical applications – pump bodies. connecting rods.Typical applications – railroad.Cementite decomposes to form graphite and ferrite. . marine and other heavy-duty services.2 Nodular cast iron . . keep it there for long hours. then cooling to room temperature. .Cast Irons .

low density.high specific strength. .: Al-alloys Cu-alloys (brass. Pt. bronze) Mg-alloys Ti-alloys Noble metals (E.: Nb. Mo.g. Pa) Refractory metals (E. W and Ta) Satish V.g.: Ag.distinct properties thus used for specific purposes.can be formed with ease. E. .g. . Au.Non-Ferrous Materials Typical advantages of non-ferrous materials over ferrous materials: . .high electrical and thermal conductivities. Kailas ME/MS 12 .

Other important technique is powder metallurgy. and letting harden the metal without external pressure. Satish V. Joining – where different parts are joined by various means.Fabrication Of Metals And Alloys Four basic manufacturing processes: Casting – to give a shape by pouring in liquid metal into a mold that holds the required shape. Kailas ME/MS 13 . Machining – in which material is removed in order to give it the required shape. Forming – to give shape in solid state by applying pressure.

Kailas .Metal Casting – Metal Forming Four important casting techniques are: Sand casting Die casting Investment casting Continuous casting Four important forming techniques are: Forging Rolling Extrusion Drawing ME/MS 14 Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 15 .Metal Forming Techniques Satish V.

Purpose of heat treatment: . and the surrounding atmosphere under the thermal treatment. Satish V.improvement in ductility . Thermal processing is also known as heat treatment.increase of strength . length of time that the material is held at the elevated temperature. rate of cooling. Kailas ME/MS 16 .grain size refinement .relieving internal stresses .improvement in machinability and toughness Thermal processing factors – temperature up to which material is heated.Thermal Processing Two main kinds of metal processing methods – mechanical and thermal.

Kailas ME/MS 17 . Quenching (also known as hardening) means cooling the material at a rapid rate to arrest the equilibrium phase transformations. During annealing. Satish V.Thermal Processing Methods Two kinds heat treating methods are – annealing and quenching & tempering. For quenching. These differ in the way material is cooled from an elevated temperature. allowing phase changes. material is immersed in water / oil quench bath. Annealing involves cooling the material slowly. material is cooled in air and/or heating furnace itself.

Improves ductility.g. then cooling in open air atmosphere. Full annealing – used for products that are to be machined later-on. Normalizing – used to refine the grains and produce a more uniform and desirable size distribution. Kailas ME/MS 18 . Temperatures are low such that cold work effects are not affected. Stress relief – purpose of it is to remove stresses.Annealing Techniques Process annealing – applied to cold worked materials to negate effects of cold work. Hardness and strength are restored by additional heat treatments after machining.: austenite in steels). Commonly sandwiched between two cold work operations. Satish V. Cooling is done in furnace itself. It involves heating the component to attain single phase (e.

Here Martensite transforms to ferrite embedded with carbide particles. Austempering involves austenite-to-bainite transformation. Tempering involves heating martensitic steel at a temperature below the eutectoid transformation temperature to make it softer and more ductile. Thus. Martempering is used to minimize distortion and cracking. Kailas ME/MS 19 . The final structure of martempered steel is tempered Martensite. Satish V.Quenching & Tempering Quenching operation is usually followed by tempering. holding it there until temperature is uniform. followed by cooling at a moderate rate to room temperature before austenite-to-bainite transformation begins. It involves cooling the austenized steel to temperature just above Ms temperature. the final structure of austempered steel is bainite.

The glasses are a familiar group of ceramics.e. We calcined the as-received ash at 800°C for two hours to remove any volatile Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/1 .Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes Chapter 10. 1) Glasses and glass ceramics. Production of Glass-Ceramics Glass-ceramic articles may be produced by three routes: · · · The heat treatment of solid glass (the traditional route) The controlled cooling of a molten glass. by forming a glass-ceramic. the final microstructure. insulation or other specialized applications. containers.this was the aim of our work. windows. In the latter case.the introduction of a controlled crystallization process through a subsequent heat treatment. After densification. To compensate for their lack of strength ceramics are usually combined with some other material to form a ceramic composite. including glass-ceramics with specified porosities and glass-ceramic matrix composites. and hence the properties. the powders are densified at relatively low temperatures by exploiting a viscous flow sintering mechanism. both densification and crystallisation may take place during a single sintering step. Glass-Ceramics Based on Coal Ash The very high iron oxide content of coal ash. Alternatively. Along with the economic advantage of using relatively low processing temperatures. the material is subjected to a crystallisation heat-treatment to obtain the required glass-ceramic microstructure. the slow cooling from the molten state causes nucleation and growth of certain crystalline phases. lenses and fiberglass represent typical applications. Therefore. The properties of standard vitrified products are insufficient for architectural applications and structural building components. ceramics are not very strong. Yet there is an effective way to improve these properties without major alterations to the process itself . Using the petrurgic method. known as the petrurgic method The sintering and crystallisation of glass powders. depends mainly on the composition and the cooling rate. the powder technology route is suitable for the production of a range of advanced materials.1 Types and applications of ceramics: Ceramics offer a high temperature range. However. table 1. Applications and Processing of Ceramics 10. indicates the potential for developing magnetic phases using appropriate processing . i.

for TiC reinforced Silceram . The mixture was melted at 1.000-1. Glass-Ceramic Composites Work to date has largely concentrated on composites with a matrix of the slag-based Silceram glass-ceramic (a glass-ceramic for floor and wall tiles and wear components). gases and solids. Using the petrurgic method. oxidation (they are already fully oxidized). the thermal shock resistance of glass-ceramics is superior to the parent glasses. As mentioned previously. and for outside and inside facing walls. We are currently addressing issues associated with the effect of environmental influences on the chemical durability and toxic potential of the materials. and aerobraking heat shields. casting molds for molten materials. with the desired porosity. Industrial refractory needs can be satisfied by sintered calcia (CaO). coal ash was mixed with sodalime glass powder. alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2). whereas a 20wt%SiC composite has a value of 270°C. e. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . Some refractories and their ceramics have low expansion due to heat and are attractive for space environments where a wide range of temperatures are experienced. including sulfur and carbon.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes compounds.the larger the reinforcement particle size and the greater the volume fraction. due to their great resistance to heat. we mixed calcined ash powder with various amounts (10-50wt%) of borosilicate (Pyrex) glass. and gave us products with different phases and microstructures. Of course..g. corrosion and abrasion. these stable materials are commonly used on Earth for the same purposes. silica (SiO2). The powder and petrurgic methods were explored. and the shock resistance is further improved by particulate reinforcement. Public acceptance of the use and exploitation of glass-ceramic-based materials in such applications will strongly depend on a satisfactory consideration of these issues.500°C for periods of up to 15 hours. Results indicate a way for transforming vitrified silicate residues into useful products with broad application potential. heat exchangers. We have investigated both particulate. for industrial processing.500°C and cooled to room temperature at rates of between 1-10°C per minute. For example. monolithic Silceram has a thermal shock critical temperature of 180°C. Applications include solar furnaces. Erosion resistance may also be improved by particulate reinforcement. Minerals such as olivine [(MgFe)2SiO4] and anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) are also useful for making refractory bricks and ceramics.(SiC and TiC) and fibre-reinforcement (SiC). The powder mixtures were uniaxial cold pressed to a cylindrical shape and sintered in air at temperatures in the range of 1. the lower the erosion rate. magnesia (MgO). For the sintering experiments. 2) Refractories -Refractories are materials needed for handling high temperature liquids. The glass-ceramics obtained are candidate materials for applications in floors of industrial buildings and in construction. Properties measured include the fundamental mechanical properties but also more complex properties such as thermal shock resistance and erosion resistance. e. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.g. which may be compromised by the presence of heavy metals incorporated in the glass or crystalline phases..

and Mackenzie and Claridge. Abrasives are used in several forms-bonded to grinding wheels. alumina (Al2O3) or anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8). which as a group are produced in extremely large quantities. The characteristic feature of these materials is that when mixed with water. thereby increasing cargo weight capacity. This process can be readily performed in space when we can produce silica of the required purity. grind or cut away other material. Diamonds.e. in addition. they are relatively expensive. with the resulting tile having as much as 93% porosity (i. plaster of paris. and good thermal shock properties. Of course. including Poisl and Fabes. 3) Abrasives. e. this is the method used by spacecraft to return to Earth. and perhaps slowing down some incoming asteroid payloads by aerobraking. however. Silica fibers are used on the Space Shuttle in order to keep its weight down. which necessarily is softer. they form a paste that subsequently sets and hardens. Diamonds. Aerobraking tiles are produced from amorphous silica fibers which are pressed and sintered. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . Therefor. as coated abrasives and as loose grains.. tungsten carbide(WC).g. Cheaper materials besides silica fibers can be used. 4) Cements: Several familiar ceramic materials are classified as inorganic cements:cements. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. metals. including the reusable Space Shuttle. both natural and synthetic. so some refractoriness is also desirable. Coated abrasives are those in which an abrasive powder is coated on some type of paper or cloth material. low thermal conductivity. high temperatures may be produced from abrasive frictional forces. aerodynamic surface for a smooth landing). A number of other materials can be used for heat shields. corundum.silicon carbide and rouge are used in loose form over a variety of grain size ranges.Abrasive cements are used to wear. aluminium oxide and silica sand.. very lightweight) and low thermal expansion. among others. we don't have this economic need. and lime.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes Production of ceramics and refractories in space from lunar materials has been discussed in a number of papers. a hig degree of toughness is essential to ensure that the abrasive particles do not easily fracture. One particular application of refractories is in transportation for returning cargoes to low Earth orbit by aerobraking with the upper atmosphere..Grinding. For resources already in space. This trait is especially useful in that solid and rigid structures having just about any shape may be expeditiously formed. The more common ceramic abrasives include silicon carbide. lapping and polishing wheels often employ loose abrasive grains that are delivered in some type of oil or water based vehicle. are utilized as abrasives. sandpaper is probably the mostly familiar example. the prime requisite for this group of materials is hardness or wear resistancr. Wood. ceramics and plastics are all frequently ground and polished using this form of abrasive. The Space Shuttle's tiles are made from silica (SiO2) (with a thin borosilicate coating to provide a smooth. Furthermore. as well as Shirley et al.

Lime and silica make up approximately 85 percent of the mass (1). or when heat build-up is a concern.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes Portland Cement Portland cement is a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium. Type Sulfate resistant portland cement. 3 Type 4 low heat portland cement. Type 1 is a general use cement. shells. aluminum. and iron ore. This was because his cement blend produced concrete that resembled the color of the natural limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel. combined with shale. IIA and IIIA are cements used to make air-entrained concrete. Type high early strength. silica sand. Variuos types of Portland cements are: Type normal portland cement. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods. There are other types for various purposes such as architectural concrete and masonry cements. Some of the raw materials used to manufacture cement are limestone. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/4 . Used where the water or soil is high in alkali. iron and small amounts of other compounds. Different types of Portland cement are manufactured to meet different physical and chemical requirements for specific purposes. Many cement manufacturers make Portland Cement. just to name two examples Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. These are very short descriptions of the basic types of cement. and chalk or marl. except that they have small quantities of airentrained materials combined with them. clay. and III. slate or blast furnace slag. 5 Types IA. They have the same properties as types I. 1 Type 2 is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate. The term "Portland" in Portland cement originated in 1824 when an English mason obtained a patent for his product. which he named Portland Cement. not a brand name.Portland Cement is a type of cement. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Designation C 150 provides for eight types of Portland cement: (reference). to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regulate the setting time of the concrete. silicon. II. Used where the amount and rate of heat generation must be kept to a minimum.

photographs and technical details of ceramic components. to a prominent. (ACI) has evolved over its 56 year history from a small. ACI serves the aerospace. and processes. This technology has opened the doors to many new sporting goods ACI's fiber works extremely well as an acoustic transducer. In recent years ACI has been the recipient of numerous R & D grants from the Defense Department. including thread guides. Visit the pages below for further information on services and products. family owned manufacturer of ceramic wear parts for the textile industry. and ceramic fiber. Ceramic Fiber ACI has developed a line of piezoelectric fiber materials using its patented VSSP manufacturing process to make actively controlled structures. NASA and the Department of Energy. industrial. This active structural control adds up to 15% more power to a ball hit and about 6% more functional edge on a ski. insulators and thermally resistant parts. consumer. new materials research information. Contact Advanced Cerametrics for product details. smart sporting goods. and automotive industries with three main product lines — traditional ceramics. and all other inquiries. using ACI’s PZT fiber's electrical and mechanical properties to counteract the forces. Head Sport introduced their new line of Intellifiber and Intellichip active fiber composite tennis rackets and skis with energy harvesting actuators made from ACI's patented PZT fiber.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes 5) Advanced Ceramics: Advanced Cerametrics Inc. capabilities. and current research and development projects. an advanced line of thick walled and complex injection molded ceramics. high-tech company developing and manufacturing advanced materials.information on applications of ACI materials. textile. ACI Products . finishes. the ability of a transducer to provide clear signals directly impacts the quality of the images produced. Using ACI's fiber transducers to replace the bulk Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. As an integral component for the ultrasonic equipment market. electronic. Includes a material selection and property chart. medical. ACI Technology . military. This fiber technology has been incorporated in the newest generation of active. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/5 . These self-powered products actively dampen the vibration created during a ball strike or edge chatter from a ski turn and use the energy to create electrical force to control the shape of the ski or racket.

etc. electrical porcelain. music. roofing tile. decorative ceramics Brick and monolithic products are used in iron and steel. glass fibers (home insulation). boots. Other products using this fiber include smart. and military applications (also for battery charging Industry of Ceramic Segments Industry Segment Structural clay products Whitewares Refractories Common Examples Brick. and clothing or any location where there is a source of waste energy or mechanical deflexion. non-ferrous metals. Energy Harvesting: ACI's PZT materials have demonstrated the capability for use as a renewable energy source by incorporating it's patented PZT technology into flexible. cutting. which are currently used in commercial ultrasound testing equipment. Acoustic applications include ultrasound imaging for medical and non-destructive testing. floor and wall tile. skiing. glass.. etc. active fiber composite shapes that can be placed in shoes. and advanced/specialty glass (optical fibers) Natural (garnet. vibration damping in military and industrial systems and energy harvesting footwear.e. and military systems. Projects currently under development with major manufacturers include selfheated boots for hiking. These flexible composites generate power from the scavenged energy and harness it using microprocessor controls developed specifically for this purpose. container glass (bottles). motion sensitive (vibration. compression or flexure). actively controlled automotive suspensions. cements. energy conversion.) abrasives are used for grinding. sanitaryware. voice reproduction. and chemicals industries Flat glass (windows). Glasses Abrasives Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. recreational and commercial fish finders. flue linings Dinnerware. Bangalore M10/L1/V1/feb2005/6 . clay floor and wall tile (i. diamond. has yielded excellent results with no lateral wave interference. petroleum. quarry tile).Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics Lecture Notes ceramic transducers.) and synthetic (silicon carbide. pressed and blown glass (dinnerware). hearing aids. ceramics. fused alumina. sewer pipe. diamond.

Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics

Lecture Notes

polishing, lapping, or pressure blasting of materials Cements Advanced ceramics Structural Wear parts, cutting tools, components bioceramics, and engine Used to produce concrete roads, bridges, buildings, dams, and the like


Capacitors, insulators, substrates, integrated circuit packages, piezoelectrics, magnets and superconductors Engine components, cutting tools, and industrial wear parts Filters, membranes, catalysts, and catalyst supports

Coatings Chemical and environmen tal

10.2 Fabrication and processing of ceramics: Ceramic Synthesis: Our expertise and capabilities in synthesizing ceramics are based on chemical solution techniques. Chemical solution or sol-gel approaches have been developed to fabricate powders, films, and porous bodies. Materials of interest range from silica to complex, multicomponent electronic ceramics. The complexity inherent in fabricating materials with structured nanoporosity or complex chemistries requires a fundamental understanding of these chemical solution approaches. Fabrication of unique precursors for complex oxides is being done with novel metal alkoxide chemistry to produce powders and thin-film materials with carefully controlled properties. Our ability to synthesize materials with complex structures, chemistries, or both, is at the heart of numerous research and development efforts at Sandia. Ceramic Processing: Sandia's fabrication of ceramic components and devices is based on a strong ceramic-processing capability. We recently have demonstrated the ability to characterize and model the powder-compaction process in detail, and to address and control density gradients in powder compacts that cause shape distortion and differential shrinkage. Proprietary 3D, finite-element code packing and compaction models, and process-control tools are now available to improve the production of ceramic components. Sandia has capabilities in the areas of hydrostatic and triaxial compaction testing to characterize materials properties, and x-ray radiography, ultrasound, and computed tomography for density characterization. In addition, expertise in slurry

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics

Lecture Notes

processing has enabled the development of direct-fabrication processes. Furthermore, we are developing phenomenological sintering models to enhance both ceramic component design and manufacturing capability.

Ceramic Synthesis and Processing Research Briefs:

Constrained Sintering of Multi-Material Systems Development of A Predictive Model for Ceramic Powder Compaction ESP (Engineered Stress Profile) Glass - Unique Opportunities for Performance and Reliability Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Reactive Wetting in Ceramic-Metal Systems PZT 95/5 Material Development for Neuron Generator Applications Precursor's Structure Effects on Thin-Film Densification of TiO2 Relationship between Interfacial Interactions and Fracture Stress for Adhesive Joints in Mode II Loading Robocasting : Layered Manufacturing by Slurry Extrusion Synthesis and Processing of Composites by Reactive Metal Penetration 10.3 Electrical conduction in ionic ceramics and in polymers: This requires creation of electron [e'] and hole [h⋅] pairs in ionic solid according to the symbolic chemical reaction, which describes creation of carriers due to thermal activation (this process results in intrinsic conductivity): nil ⇔ e' + h⋅ K = [e'] + [h⋅ ] = n . p = exp (- ∆G0/RT) = exp (∆S0/R) exp (-Eg /RT)

Accordingly, a supply of "band gap" energy Eg is necessary, hence the strong dependence of conductivity on temperature. The equilibrium constant of the above reaction can be approximately expressed as: n.p ≈ 1019exp(Eg/kT), or, the carrier concentration (assuming the same concentration of holes p and electrons e), c ≈ 109.5exp(Eg/2kT).

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics

Lecture Notes

The magnitude of the band gap Eg determines ability of a material to conduct. For Eg > 6 eV, materials are considered as insulators . This wide energy gap is typical for the ionic oxides of metals having a single stable oxidation state: groups IA, IIA, IIIA. The electrical resistivity of most stable insulators correlates with the ionic character of their bond: the larger difference of electronegativity, the larger % of ionic bond, and the larger energy gap Eg.

The band gap magnitude correlates also with the ionic bond energy, i.e. the most stable ionic ceramic are also the best insulators. For example, the bond energy of alumina is ~6eV/equivalent (1/3 Al2O3) and Eg = ~7eV; the bond energy of one equivalent of cadmium oxide (CdO) is ~4 eV/equivalent and Eg = ~2eV.

The oxides of metals able to have multiple oxidation states (such as transition elements, with partially filled "d" orbitals) have narrower band gaps of the order of 2-5eV, resulting in intrinsic semiconducting properties. The presence of point defects in ionic solids (such as solutes, vacancies, interstistials) can dramatically decrease the energy required for the creation of electron/hole pairs.

This is because these defects are typically located “within” the energy gap, either close to the valence band (acceptors) or conduction band (donors). An example is KCl containing VK', VCl•, CaK• , or MgO containing VMg'', VO•,VMg', VC0, AlMg•. The point defects are the key feature of extrinsic semiconductors, the basic components of modern electronics.

Mixed and Ionic Ceramic Conductors The variety of point defects present in ceramics gives frequently a mixed ionic and electronic type of electrical conduction. To some extent, every ionic crystal is a mixed conductor, but the share of electronic conductivity, expressed through the charge transference number for electrons, can be negligible. If Ohm’s law is expressed in terms of current density J [A/m2], material conductivity σ [A/Vm] and electric field Ee, [V/m] following relationship results: J = - σ.Ee

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore


Material Science/Applications and Processing of Ceramics

Lecture Notes

where, for mixed a conductor, σ = Σσi, the sum of conductvities due to the various charge-carrying species, i.e. ions, holes and electrons. The transference number ti of a given species is then defined as: tj = σj/Σσi

For ionic conductors, the aim is to maximize the charge transference due to the movement of ions and minimize the transference due to electrons and holes movement. That is, tion ≈ 1 , te,h ≈ 0 . This is principle behind the operation of solid electrolytes. The sub-class of solid electrolytes useful for solid-state electrochemical devices (batteries, sensors) can be defined as "fast ionic conductors" as long as:

1. The activation energy Ed for diffusion is LOW, less than ~0.1 eV/atom, or 2.5 kcal/mole, or 10 kJ/mole, or ~10% of the energy needed to form a point defect in a close packed ionic solid.

2. The corresponding D0 value (diffusion coefficient D = D0exp[-Ed/kT], so D = D0 at T = ∞) is HIGH (D0 >10-4 cm2/s) and therefore the corresponding σ0 value (ionic conductivity σ=σ0exp[-E/kT]) is HIGH, σ0 > 0.1 1/Ω.cm.

If the above conditions are fulfilled, the diffusivity at room temperature will be D > 10-6 cm2/s, and room temperature ionic conductivity will be σ > 0.01 1/Ωcm, or resistivity ρ = 100 Ωcm . This magnitude of conductivity allows the use of solid state ionic conductors in devices like batteries, sensors and fuel cells.

The resistivity of ionic conductor is the primary factor that determines internal resistance of the cell, and thus maximum current that can be drawn from the cell. As resistance R = ρ L/A (L being electrolyte thickness, typically 0.1-1 cm, and A area, typically 10-1000 cm2), then the internal resistance of such battery is typically 1 Ω .

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc, Bangalore



Applications and Processing of Ceramics

1. Types and applications of ceramics 2. Fabrication and processing of ceramics

Satish V. Kailas



Introduction – Ceramics
The word ‘ceramic’ is originated from greek word keromikos, which means ‘burnt stuff’. Ceramics are compounds of metallic and non-metallic elements. Characteristics of ceramics are: - high temperature stability - high hardness - brittleness - high mechanical strength - low elongation under application of stress - low thermal and electrical conductivities
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 3

Kailas ME/MS 4 . properties and applications.1 Ceramics are classified in many ways.Classification – Ceramics .Fluorides etc.Sulfides .Oxides . ceramics are: . It is due to divergence in composition.Carbides . Based on their composition.Nitrides . Satish V.

Kailas ME/MS 5 .Classification – Ceramics .2 Based on their specific applications. ceramics are classified as: .Abrasives .Refractories .Glasses .Clay products .Advanced ceramics for special applications Satish V.Cements .

Traditional ceramics – most made-up of clay. ceramics are classified into two groups as: traditional and engineering ceramics.3 Based on their engineering applications. silica and feldspar. Kailas ME/MS 6 .Classification – Ceramics . silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitiride (Si3N4) Satish V. Engineering ceramics – these consist of highly purified aluminium oxide (Al2O3).

Satish V.Introduction – Processing Ceramics The very specific character of ceramics – high temperature stability – makes conventional fabrication routes unsuitable for ceramic processing. Typical ceramic processing route: powder synthesis – green component (casting. Most other ceramic products are manufactured through powder processing. compaction) – sintering / firing. though. Kailas ME/MS 7 . make use of lower melting temperatures. extrusion. Inorganic glasses.

Processing Ceramics – Glasses Most of them are silica-soda-lime variety. bottles. rods. Glass melt is processed by different route to form different products: Pressing – to form shapes like plates and dishes Blowing – used to produce objects like jars. whiskers. Drawing – to form lengthier objects like tubes. light bulbs. Kailas ME/MS 8 . etc. Raw materials are heated to an elevated temperature where melting occurs. Satish V.

Ceramic Powder Processing Ceramic powder processing route: synthesis of powder. Synthesis of powder involves crushing. injection molding and cold-/hot. extrusion. Green component can be manufactured in different ways: tape casting. followed by fabrication of green product which is then consolidated to obtain the final product. Satish V. blending different powders. grinding. Kailas ME/MS 9 . separating impurities.compaction. slip casting. Green component is then fired/sintered to get final product.

Kailas ME/MS 10 .Casting Slurry of ceramic powder is processed via casting routes – tape casting. As water begins to move out due to capillary action. Satish V. In this slurry of ceramic powder + binders + plasticizers is spread over plastic substrate. Slip casting – here aqueous slurry of ceramic powder is poured into plaster of Paris mold. Tape is then dried using hot air.Ceramic Powder Processing . It is possible to form solid piece by pouring more slurry. and slip casting. Later tape is subjected to binder burnout and sintering. Tape casting – also known as doctor blade process – used for making thin ceramic tapes. thick mass builds along mold wall.

before sintering rest of the ceramic shape. plasticizer. Extrusion and Injection molding are used to make ceramic tubes. and tiles. Mixture of ceramic powder. Injection molding – it is similar to the process used for polymer processing. thermoplastic polymer. It is suitable for producing complex shapes. and additives is injected into die with use of a extruder. Satish V.Ceramic Powder Processing – Extrusion & Injection Molding Extrusion – viscous mixture of ceramic particles. Kailas ME/MS 11 . bricks. Then the product is dried and sintered. binder and other additives is fed through an extruder where continuous shape of green ceramic is produced. Then polymer is burnt off.

pressure is applied at high temperatures thus compaction and sintering occurs simultaneously. pressure is applied using oil/fluid. Satish V. In hot iso-static pressing (HIP). In cold iso-static pressing (CIP). Basis for compaction – application of external pressure from all directions. but have certain advantages. Kailas ME/MS 12 . then green product is subjected to sintering.Ceramic Powder Processing – Compaction Ceramic powder is compacted to form green shapes of sufficient strength to handle and to machine. Its is expensive.

Ceramic Powder Processing – Compaction. This lead to coalescence of particles. HIP HIP is used . and eventual mechanical integrity. Diffusion (atomic.almost nil porosity is the requirement .and bluk-) is responsible for growth of bonds at contact points of particles (necks). Satish V. Driving force for sintering – reduction in total surface area and thus energy.when during CIP not enough strength is gained .for Refractories and covalently bonded ceramics. Sintering – process of subjecting the green ceramic to elevated temperatures with the purpose of gaining mechanical integrity. Kailas ME/MS 13 .

1 Mechanical behavior of polymers The description of stress-strain behavior is similar to that of metals. increases strength by orienting the molecular chains. Bangalore M11/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . Examples are cross-linking (aligned chains have more van der Waals inter-chain bonds) and a large mass (longer molecules have more inter-chain bonds). decreasing the strain rate has the same influence on the strain-strength characteristics as increasing the temperature: the material becomes softer and more ductile. The tensile strength is defined at the fracture point and can be lower than the yield strength. 16. Mechanical properties change dramatically with temperature. plastic and highly elastic (elastomeric or rubberlike). In general. Applications and Processing of Polymers 11. For undrawn polymers. 11. Predeformation by drawing. going from glass-like brittle behavior at low temperatures (like in the liquid-nitrogen demonstration) to a rubber-like behavior at high temperatures . but elongation can be up to 1000 % in some cases. analogous to strain hardening in metals. The stress-strain behavior can be brittle. but a very important consideration for polymers is that the mechanical properties depend on the strain rate. temperature. Unlike the case of metals. the neck gets stronger since the deformation aligns the chains so increasing the tensile stress leads to the growth of the neck.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Polymers Lecture Notes Chapter 11. heating increases the tensile Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. (Fig. Tensile modulus (modulus) and tensile strengths are orders of magnitude smaller than those of metals. Crystallinity increases strength as the secondary bonding is enhanced when the molecular chains are closely packed and parallel. Obstacles to the steps mentioned in strengthen the polymer.5). and environmental conditions.2 Deformation of Polymers Many semicrystalline polymers have the spherulitic structure and deform in the following steps : • • • • elongation of amorphous tie chains tilting of lamellar chain folds towards the tensile direction separation of crystalline block segments orientation of segments and tie chains in the tensile direction The macroscopic deformation involves an upper and lower yield point and necking. Factors that Influence the Mechanical Properties of Polymers The tensile modulus decreases with increasing temperature or diminishing strain rate.

. Bangalore M11/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . and reduces the ductility .Material Science/Applications and Processing of Polymers Lecture Notes modulus and yield strength.opposite of what happens in metals. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.

5 Polymer synthesis and processing: The large macromolecules of the commercially useful polymers must be synthesized from substances having smaller molecules in a process termed polymerization. and depends on the temperature at which the polymer was crystallized. Melting. 16.8 of the melting temperature. and more brittle than thermoplasts. the properties of a polymer may be modified and enhanced by the inclusion of additive materials.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Polymers Lecture Notes 11. more dimensionally stable. and Glass Transition Phenomena Crystallization rates are governed by the same type of S-curves we saw in the case of metals (Fig. Nucleation becomes slower at higher temperatures.3 Crystallization.g. The melting temperature increases with the rate of heating. defects cross-linking Rigid chains have higher melting temperatures. Thermosets are harder. Polymerization Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Furthermore. so the glass and melting temperatures depend on: • • • • • chain stiffness (e.5 and 0. single vs. double bonds) size. Bangalore M11/L2/V1/feb2005/1 . The melting behavior of semicrystalline polymers is intermediate between that of crystalline materials (sharp density change at a melting temperature) and that of a pure amorphous material (slight change in slope of density at the glass-transition temperature). thickness of the lamellae. 11. as cross-linking hinder bending and rotations..7). shape of side groups size of molecule side branches. Melting involves breaking of the inter-chain bonds. The glass transition temperature is between 0. 11.4 Types of Polymers: Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplasts) soften reversibly when heated (harden when cooled back) Thermosetting polymers (thermosets) harden permanently when heated.

which is eliminated. No reactant species has the chemical formula of the mer repeat unit. and the intermolecular reaction occurs every time a mer repeat unit is formed Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.addition and condensation. it is simply the process by which monomer units are joined over. to generate each of the constituent giant molecules.Material Science/Applications and Processing of Polymers Lecture Notes The synthesis of the large molecular weight polymers is termed polymerization. propagation and termination are involved in addition polymerization. according to the reaction mechanisms. Bangalore M11/L2/V1/feb2005/2 . there is usually a small molecular weight by producer such as water. Condensation polymerization is the formation of polymers by stepwise intermolecular chemical reactions that normally involve more than one monomer species. Addition polymerization is a process by which bifuncational monomer units are attached one at a time in chainlike fashion to form a linear macromolecules. The reactions by which polymerization occurs are grouped into two general classification. Three distinct stages. the composition of the resultant products molecule is an exact multiple for that of the original reactant monomer.initiation.

Module-11 Applications and Processing of Polymers .

Contents 1. Kailas ME/MS 2 . Crystallization. melting and glass transition 3. Mechanisms polymers of deformation and strengthening of Satish V. Mechanical behavior of polymers 4. Polymer types and polymer synthesis and processing 2.

low temperature stability . Kailas .low hardness .low thermal and electrical conductivities .high sensitivity of properties to their morphology ME/MS 3 Satish V.high elongation under application of stress .low mechanical strength .Introduction – Polymers The word ‘polymer’ is originated from Greek word meros. which means ‘a part’. however few polymers are made of inorganic compounds. Characteristics of ceramics are: . Polymers are primarily organic compounds.

thermoplasts and .Classification – Polymers Ceramics are classified in many ways. Plastic polymers are again classified based on their temperature dependence of their structure as follows: .thermosets Satish V. The prime classification based on their industrial usage is: plastics and elastomers. Kailas ME/MS 4 .

PVC.: Acrylics.Thermoplasts Plastics which softens up on heating and hardens up on cooling where the softening and hardening are totally reversible processes. Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 5 . Perspex glass. They consist of linear molecular chains bonded together by weak secondary bonds or by inter-winding. Cross-linking between molecular chains is absent in theromplasts. Nylons. etc. E. Hence thermoplasts can be recycled.g.

etc.g. Kailas ME/MS 6 .: Epoxies. Characterized by high modulus / rigidity / dimensional stability when compared with thermoplasts. Amino resins. linear molecular chains bonded together by weak secondary bonds or by interwinding. E. Satish V. hence thermosets can not be recycled. They consist of 3-D network structures based on strong covalent bonds to form rigid solids. some polyester resins. This process is not reversible.Thermosets Plastics which are ‘set’ under the application of heat and/or pressure.

g. but high toughness. They consist of coil-like molecular chains. Kailas ME/MS 7 . E. which straightens up on application of load. Characterized by low modulus / rigidity / strength.Elastomers These polymers are known for their high elongations. which are reversible upon release of applied loads. Satish V.: natural and synthetic rubber.

Polymerization is process in which multi-functional monomers are attached to form linear/3-D macro molecular chains.Polymer Synthesis . in Additional polymerization.e. Kailas ME/MS 8 . resultant macro-molecule’s composition is an exact multiplication of composition of individual monomer. When polymerization process involves single kind of monomers i.1 Processing of polymers primarily limits to synthesis followed by forming. Polymers are synthesized by process known as polymerization. Satish V.

As molecular chain grows longer. reaction rate decreases.g.2 Additional polymerization process involves three stages namely initiation. Kailas ME/MS 9 . Initiation process will be started by an initiator (e. benzoyl peroxide) which forms an reactive site where carbon atom of another monomer is attracted.Polymer Synthesis . However the growth process is terminated either by the combination or disproportionation process. Satish V. upon which reaction site transfers to different place leading to molecular chain growth. propagation and termination.

Polymer Synthesis - 3
Condensation polymerization process involves more then one monomer species. This process is also known as step growth polymerization. In condensation polymerization, smaller macro-molecule by-product such as water is eliminated. No resultant product has the chemical formula of mere one monomer. Repeat unit in condensation process itself is product of polymerization involving basic constituents. Reaction times for condensation polymerization is usually longer than those for additional polymerization.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 10

Degree Of Polymerization
Extant of polymerization is characterized in terms of ‘degree of polymerization’. It si defined as number of mer units in molecular chain or ration of average molecular weight of polymer to molecular weight of repeat unit. Average molecular weight is defined in two ways: Weight average molecular weight (based on weight fraction) and Number average molecular weight (based on the number fraction). Number average molecular weight is is always smaller than the weight average molecular weight.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 11

Polymer Forming
Thermoplasts usually formed above their glass transition temperatures under application of pressure which ensures detailed product shape. Thermosets are formed in two stages – making liquid polymer and then molding it. Different molding techniques are employed to mold polymers – compression molding transfer molding injection molding blow molding extrusion
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 12

Polymer Forming Mechanics - 1
Polymer forming involves melting, cooling upon which crystallization takes place. In addition, glass transition occurs in polymers. Crystallization rate depends on temperature and molecular weight. It decrease with increase in molecular weight. Polymer melting is different from that of metals as it takes place over a temperature range. Glass transition occurs in amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers. Upon cooling, this transformation corresponds to gradual change of liquid to rubbery material, and then rigid solid.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 13

Polymer Forming Mechanics - 2
Polymer melting and glass transition is heavily dependent on polymer morphology. Following factors has marked effect on these: chain stiffness (e.g., single vs. double bonds) size, shape of side groups size of molecule side branches, defects cross-linking

Satish V. Kailas



Mechanical Behavior Of Polymers - 1
To an large extant, mechanical behavior of polymers is similar to metals and ceramics. However, polymers are distinct in the sense that parameters namely temperature, strain rate, and morphology of polymers has strong influence on mechanical behavior of polymers. Mechanical properties of polymers change dramatically with temperature, going from glass-like brittle behavior at low temperatures to a rubber-like behavior at high temperatures.
Satish V. Kailas ME/MS 15

Mechanical Behavior Of Polymers - 2
Highly crystalline polymers behave in a brittle manner, whereas amorphous polymers can exhibit plastic deformation. Due to unique structures of cross-linked polymers, recoverable deformations up to very high strains / point of rupture are also observed with polymers (elastomers). Tensile modulus (modulus) and tensile strengths are orders of magnitude smaller than those of metals, but elongation can be up to 1000 % in some cases.

Satish V. Kailas



Mechanical Behavior Of Polymers . Kailas ME/MS 17 .3 Typical stress-strain diagram for polymers: Satish V.

kinked.Mechanisms Of Deformation In Polymers Elastic deformation – bending and stretching of covalent bonds and slight adjustments of secondary vander Waals forces. stretching. but either rotation. which is opposite to the behavior of other materials. Kailas ME/MS 18 . and straightening of molecular chains that are highly twisted. Satish V. Plastic deformation – NOT by dislocation movement. and coiled in unstressed state. When an elastomer is stretched. sliding or disentanglement of molecular chains. causing decrease in entropy. which may occurs in several stages. Elastomers – simple uncoiling. in-turn causes the modulus of elasticity to increase with increasing temperature.

Every parameter that influence the strength can be used as means of strengthening the polymers. For thermosets.Strengthening Polymers Polymers’ resistance to deformation – strength – is influenced by many parameters. Satish V. presence of polar and other specific atoms. its reinforcement methods. degree of crystallization. Kailas ME/MS 19 . presence of phenyl rings in main chains and addition of reinforcements. For thermoplasts: average molecular mass. presence of side groups.

marine. The later variety is costlier but offers more strength than former. Aramid (aromatic polyamide) fibers – also known as Kevlar – are commercially highly successful fibers. applicable to both thermoplasts and thermosets. Kailas ME/MS 20 .Reinforcements For Polymers Reinforcement strengthening in polymers is an important mechanisms. and many other industrial applications. They are used with plastics in many application including protection from ballasts. Satish V. ropes. Fibers used as reinforcements are made of either glass. carbon or aramid. Glass fibers are two verities – E-glass and S-glass. aerospace.

The rule of mixtures predicts that an upper limit of the elastic modulus of the composite is given in terms of the elastic moduli of the matrix (Em) and the particulate (Ep) phases by: Ec = EmVm + EpVp where Vm and Vp are the volume fraction of the two phases. silica. COMPOSITES 12. They fall in two categories depending on the size of the particles: • • large-particle composites. containing 10-100 nm particles. made of a cement matrix that bonds particles of different size (gravel and sand. limiting plastic deformation. A lower bound is given by: Ec = EmEp / (EpVm + EmVp) Concrete The most common large-particle composite is concrete. alumina.excessive porosity. The matrix bears the major portion of the applied load and the small particles hinder dislocation motion. Bangalore M12/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . clay and lime-bearing minerals fired to 1500o C (calcinated). It sets into a solid in minutes and hardens slowly (takes 4 months for full strength). and water. too much .Material Science/Composites Lecture Notes Chapter 12. Romans made cement by mixing lime (CaO) with volcanic ice.) Cement was already known to the Egyptians and the Greek. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The disadvantages are that it is weak and brittle.incomplete bonding.1 Particle-reinforced composites These are the cheapest and most widely used. cement is a fine mixture of lime. similar to what was discussed under precipitation hardening. Portland cement is a fine powder of chalk. In its general from. Concrete is cement strengthened by adding particulates. which act by restraining the movement of the matrix.2 Large-Particle Composites Properties are a combination of those of the components. and that water in the pores can produce crack when it freezes in cold weather. and it is very cheap. Properties depend on how well it is mixed. if well bonded. 12. The use of different size (stone and sand) allows better packing factor than when using particles of similar size. and the amount of water: too little . It forms a paste when dissolved in water. The advantage of cement is that it can be poured in place. dispersion-strengthened composites. it hardens at room temperature and even under water.

wires. Applications include auto and boat bodies. Cermets are composites of ceramic particles (strong. Pre-stressed concrete shapes are usually prefabricated. Dispersion-Strengthened Composites Use of very hard. small particles to strengthen metals and metal alloys. Reinforced rubber is obtained by strengthening with 20-50 nm carbon-black particles.3 Fiber-reinforced composites In many applications. so there is reduced danger of cracking due to thermal stresses. The strength depends on the fiber length and its orientation with respect to the stress direction. there is a need for high strength per unit weight (specific strength). and applying pressure during hardening. enabling it to sustain tensile loads without fracturing.4 Structural Composites Largest and most diverse use of composites due to ease of fabrication. 12. Particles like oxides do not react so the strengthening action is retained at high temperatures. When the tensile stress is removed. Used in auto tires.Material Science/Composites Lecture Notes Concrete is improved by making the pores smaller (using finer powder. low cost and good properties. the concrete is left under compressive stress. For instance. A common use is in railroad or highway bridges. The efficiency of load transfer between matrix and fiber depends on the interfacial bond. tungsten carbide or titanium carbide ceramics in Co or Ni. Pre-stressed concrete is obtained by applying tensile stress to the steel rods while the cement is setting and hardening. Steel has the advantage of a similar thermal expansion coefficient. Reinforced concrete is obtained by adding steel rods. Glass-fiber reinforced composites (GFRC) are strong. Bangalore M12/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. like in aircraft parts. corrosion resistant and lightweight. brittle) in a metal matrix (soft. ductile) that enhances toughness. 12. This can be achieved by composites consisting of a lowdensity (and soft) matrix reinforced with stiff fibers. aircraft components. The effect is like precipitation hardening but not so strong. They are used for cutting tools for hardened steels. adding polymeric lubricants. mesh. but not very stiff and cannot be used at high temperatures.

Wood This is one of the oldest and the most widely used structural material. Kevlar. CFRC are strong. brake and clutch linings. aircraft components. The properties are anisotropic and vary widely among types of wood. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. tires. Applications include bullet-proof vests. inert. golf clubs. Bangalore M12/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . allow high temperature use.Material Science/Composites Lecture Notes Carbon-fiber reinforced composites (CFRC) use carbon fibers. which have the highest specific module (module divided by weight). Wood is ten times stronger in the axial direction than in the radial or tangential directions. and aremid-fiber composite can be used as textile fibers. It is a composite of strong and flexible cellulose fibers (linear polymer) surrounded and held together by a matrix of lignin and other polymers. Applications include fishing rods.

only 12 metals were known. The other seven metals. It is also used as a cladding material for aluminum alloy substrates. zinc and bismuth . Iron. while platinum was discovered in the 16th century. of these 24 metals. some 7700 years. Lead.Mercury. were discovered in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Tin. These seven metals are Gold. Therefore. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The following links will lead to interesting information concerning specific metals and indexes to relevant pages of the Corrosion Doctors site: Aluminum Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gold Iron Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Silver Tin Titanium Zinc Pure metals are used in many applications. The lost electrons are conducted through the bulk metal to another site where they are reduced. Copper. and the site where electrons are transferred to the reducing species is called the cathode. Before the 19th century only 24 of these metals had been discovered and. Pure aluminum can also be used in wiring. Corrosion is a natural process that seeks to reduce the binding energy in metals. is used to make the wire which goes inside electrical cables. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 13. Four of these metals. 12 were discovered in the 18th century. In corrosion parlance. Silver. for example. until the end of the 17th century. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . arsenic. Currently there are 86 known metals. whereby it loses one or more electrons and leaves the bulk metal. antimony .Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes Chapter 13. were the metals upon which civilization was based.1 Corrosion of Metals The corrosion resistance of metals and alloys is a basic property related to the easiness with which these materials react with a given environment. Copper. known as the Metals of Antiquity. The end result of corrosion involves a metal atom being oxidized. gold and copper. from the discovery of the first metals. the site where metal atoms lose electrons is called the anode. Copper was chosen because it can be drawn into long thin wires very easily (it is ductile) and because it is a good conductor of electricity.

heat exchangers: SiC.high energy battery systems (such as sodium-sulphur): beta-alumina is being investigated . that is. metals or plastics. born nitride (BN) and graphite are useful in handling melts and including the extremely corrosive melts of silicate glasses. Is this always true? Corrosion is generally understood as property degradation due to environmental attack. their chemical inertness in corrosive environments. This is why. there are a number of environments in which ceramics can degrade at a rapid rate. because of: • mechanical nonreliability of structural ceramic components • difficult design with brittle materials • a shortage of information and standardization of ceramics • human reluctance to use non-ductile materials Issues of particular importance when considering corrosion of ceramics: • The resistance of many ceramics to wetting by a corrosive liquid is a valuable property. BN and graphite are not wetted by these liquids. Little corrosion is expected if a liquid does not wet a ceramic. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . As it will be shown in this section. the potential for ceramics as corrosion resistant engineering structural materials are far from being fully realized. as compared to any other group of engineering materials. Still. composites are being investigated Ceramics are indeed much more environmentally stable. e. for example.2 Corrosion of Ceramics: It is often said that one of the biggest advantages which ceramics have over other materials is their corrosion resistance.g. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. There exists a tremendous need for reliable and corrosion resistant structural ceramic or partly ceramic materials which can be used in aggressive environments such as: .gas turbines: silicon nitride and/or carbide are being investigated .Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes 13.

Reaction barriers can form and prevent corrosion. there is. Not as Long-Lasting as Once Thought Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.Although the manufacturers of early ‘plastics’ such as horn buttons. in particular under stress) could be corroded (leached). continuous dissolution of the reaction product can occur and sustain corrosion even for small chemical driving force. and alumina on Al.Alumina in water.Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes • The solubility of the reaction product in the corrosive environment (liquid) is critical to the extent of corrosion. Bois Durci paperweights or celluloid collars would be astonished to see how well many of their goods have survived. . Every collection of plastics worldwide. • Even if a major component of the ceramic is resistant to a given corrosive environment.e. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . leading to the general failure of the component. a growing band of people trying to save plastics. . where preferential attack of the grain boundary glassy (silicate) phases occurs. for instance Al2O3 in molten KOH. a minor phase (especially a grain boundary phase. with eutectic point below ambient temperature).The oxide grain boundary phases in nonoxides (B2O3 in BN.The preferential attack of free Si in reaction bonded SiC. On the other hand. has already lost or is losing unique and beautiful pieces through degradation. many other plastics have begun to show disturbing signs of instability. Plastics. silicates in Si3N4 and SiC) are sensitive to water. the corrosion will proceed at a dramatic rate if the refractory is wetted by the slag. from the Science Museum and Tate Gallery to the Comb & Plastics Museum in Oyonnax. If the reaction is thermodynamically possible. by alkalis or molten metals. The example of above situation is the system composed of metallurgical slag in contact with refractories. Some examples are silica on silicon carbide or nitride. Degradation of polymers: While the plastics industry searches for solutions to the problem of plastics waste. surprisingly. Some examples include: . Severe corrosion takes place if the ceramic is in contact with a substance which can combine with it and form low-melting liquids (i.

By 1991 John Morgan of the Plastics Historical Society had collected enough data to write Conservation of Plastics -An Introduction. museums have a duty to preserve their acquisitions. Deterioration of Acrylic Paintings and Pieces of Art By 1992 acrylic based paintings worth millions of pounds by leading artists of the 1960s including David Hockney and Jackson Pollock had begun to suffer discolouration. mixed material products such as space suits is confronted with a conservation dilemma: which material deserves priority treatment when each separate plastic has different requirements? Factors Affecting Polymer Degradation The degradation of plastics can be said to begin as soon as the polymer is synthesised. At room temperature they are relatively soft and attract dirt which becomes embedded. and the Conservation Unit launched a survey to identify objects at risk with the aim of setting up a research programme. For example. Polyurethane foam appears to be one of the worst victims. Impact on the Photographic Film Industry The photographic film industry was also badly hit when irreplaceable archive nitrate stock started to decompose. Preserving Plastics Pieces in Museums The PHS/CU survey unearthed some interesting facts. and is increased by residual stresses left by moulding processes. and modem plastics are also showing symptoms of decay. These paints seemed particularly vulnerable. The curator who has to supervise a collection of high-tech. This can be followed by Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. the National Film Archive transfers cellulose nitrate and cellulose triacetate onto more stable polyester at the rate of a million metres a year. and many early video and audio tapes on magnetic media are already unplayable. cracking and greyness due to the absorption of dust and atmospheric pollutants. tackiness. Recognition of Polymer Degradation It was not until the late 1980s that attention was paid to the fact that plastics artefacts had been physically changing. showing signs of acid vapour.Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes The crucial fact is that plastics are organic and have been described as a time bomb ticking away since cellulose nitrate based plastics were invented around 130 years ago. It can of course be argued that manufacturers’ foremost intentions have never been to make beautiful objects for museums. to date no method has been found of cleaning them. embrittlement and crazing. a joint PHS /Conservation Unit publication. Today. The survey included everything from radios and cables to textiles and sculptures. Cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate were particularly affected. However. warping. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/4 . However. 40% of museums surveyed contain plastics objects manufactured and collected since 1980.

the plastics ‘doctor’ must jump another hurdle. Ageless is a reactive powdered iron and is normally used to prolong the shelf-life of dry foods by absorbing oxygen. a conservator at the Tate Gallery. and both are closely inter-connected. Solutions to Polymer Degradation As the recognition of polymer degradation improves. can be attacked by plasticiser migrating from a PVC strap. these catalyse further reactions and eventually cause serious crazing and total destruction of the object. If not removed. All the conservator can do is to keep mouldings in a very stable. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. for example. Preserving Plastics Derek Pullen. If degrading cellulose esters are not isolated. Plastics can also be contaminated by other materials. but even before this. explains.Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes exposure to light (especially UV). one of the few ‘hallmarks’ found on plastics and an obvious aid to identification. and this is a technical area full of pitfalls. Even a patent number. has also been tested with encouraging results as an acid absorbing coating on degrading cellulose nitrate. the acidic fumes will infect similar objects stored close by and initiate degradation there. conservation guidelines are beginning to emerge. or simply painted as was common practice in the 19th century. ‘Plastics are giant molecules held together by forces which can be broken by attacking energy forces such as light. Chemical reactions include oxidation and hydrolysis. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/5 . Specific conservation action cannot be taken until the polymer has been identified. Types of Polymer Degradation There are two main types of plastics degradation being researched at present: physical and chemical. including other plastics. Epoxidised soyabean oil (ESBO). bacteria and stress. which emit acidic degradation products. low energy environment (the burial chambers of the Pyramids were ideal)’. but tailor made scavengers such as activated charcoal or Ageless help to create a low oxygen environment. High-tech solutions which could help in theory are prohibitively expensive. oxygen. Ideally the conservator needs information about the history of an object before prescribing treatment. heat. may refer to a fixing mechanism and not to the moulding. and are a problem particularly affecting the cellulose esters (cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate). A 1920s black brooch could be made of at least six different plastics materials. Physical degradation can involve environmental stress cracking and plasticiser migration and loss. A polystyrene camera body. humidity.

Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.Material Science/Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Lecture Notes Conclusion Compared to traditional materials with long established technologies such as metals and glass. the complex chemical nature of plastics is providing conservators with possibly their most formidable challenge yet. Bangalore M13/L1/V1/feb2005/6 .

The second effect. limits the number of electrons that can have the same property (which include Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Semiconductors have conductivities in the range 10-6 to 104 (Ω-m). In addition. First. In most metals. constraining the electrons to a small volume raises their energy. R = ρl/A Electrical Conductivity The electrical conductivity is the inverse of the resistivity: σ = 1/ρ. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . In ionic crystals. two specific quantum mechanical effects happen. Energy Band Structures in Solids When atoms come together to form a solid. Ohm's law can then be expressed in terms of the current density j = I/A as: j=σE The conductivity is one of the properties of materials that varies most widely. their valence electrons interact due to Coulomb forces.1 Electrical Conduction Ohm’s Law When an electric potential V is applied across a material. the charge carriers are ions. from 107 (Ω-m) typical of metals to 10-20 (Ω-m) for good electrical insulators. and hence the name electronic conduction. and they also feel the electric field produced by their own nucleus and that of the other atoms. Electronic and Ionic Conduction In metals. according to Ohm's law: I = V/R where R is the electrical resistance. The electric field in the material is E=V/l.Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes Chapter 14. due to the Pauli exclusion principle. R depends on the intrinsic resistivity ρ of the material and on the geometry (length l and area A through which the current passes). this is called promotion. at low values of V. the current is carried by electrons. thus the name ionic conduction. the current is proportional to V. a current of magnitude I flows. Electrical Properties 14.

electrons and holes move in opposite direction because they have opposite charges.. this is not possible in these materials because that would imply that the electrons are promoted into the forbidden band gap. Conduction occurs by promoting electrons into the conduction band. 19. Fig. The bands are separated by gaps. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . following Pauli's principle.. Al). and the atomic arrangement (e. the electrons occupy states up to the Fermi level. where electrons cannot exist. In extrinsic semiconductors the conductivity depends on the concentration of impurities.g. that starts at the Fermi level.g. carbon vs.8 illustrates how the resistivity increases with temperature. Electrical conduction requires that electrons be able to gain energy in an electric field. the valence band is filled. One of the effects of this is that electrons do not scatter from a perfect lattice. Conduction is by electrons and holes. the distance between atoms in the solid. which can be: o o o o atoms displaced by lattice vibrations vacancies and interstitials dislocations. impurities and dislocations. 14. Quantum mechanics tells us that electrons behave like waves. as a sum of resistivities due to thermal vibrations. They scatter by defects. with deformation. the valence electrons of atoms form wide valence bands when they form a solid. grain boundaries impurities One can express the total resistivity ρtot by the Matthiessen rule..Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes the energy). Si vs. Electrical Resistivity of Metals The resistivity then depends on collisions. The precise location of the bands and band gaps depends on the type of atom (e. In an electric field. and no more electrons can be added. In semiconductors and insulators. Intrinsic means that electrical conductivity does not depend on impurities.2 Semiconductivity: Intrinsic Semiconduction Semiconductors can be intrinsic or extrinsic. thus intrinsic means pure. In metals. and with alloying. diamond). separated by the valence band by an infinitesimal amount. The conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is: σ = n |e| µe + p |e| µh Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. As a result of all these effects.

For instance phosphorous. Thus: n=p Thus. so that the electron is promoted (ionized) easily at room temperature. The dependence of conductivity on temperature is like other thermally activated processes: σ = A exp(–Eg/2kT) Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. This means that the conduction occurs mainly by the donated electrons (thus n-type). elements in columns V and VI of the periodic table are donors for semiconductors in the IV column. an extrinsic semiconductor may have different concentrations of holes and electrons. They are called acceptors. This is the case of elements of group II and III in column IV semiconductors. Two common methods of doping are diffusion and ion implantation. It is called p-type if p>n and n-type if n>p. They are made by doping. the addition of a very small concentration of impurity atoms. Thus. Extrinsic Semiconduction Unlike intrinsic semiconductors. it does not move easily by capturing electrons from adjacent atoms.Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes where p is the hole concentration and µh the hole mobility. This means that conduction occurs mainly by the holes (thus p-type). Si and Ge. The bond with the neighbors is incomplete and so they can capture or accept electrons from adjacent silicon atoms. Excess holes are produced by substitutional impurities that have fewer valence electrons per atom than the matrix. One finds that electrons move much faster than holes: µe > µh In an intrinsic semiconductor. leaving a hole (the ionized donor) behind. Excess electron carriers are produced by substitutional impurities that have more valence electron per atom than the semiconductor matrix. is an electron donor in Si since only 4 electrons are used to bond to the Si lattice when it substitutes for a Si atom. a hole is produced by the promotion of each electron to the conduction band. like B in Si. σ = 2 n |e| (µe + µh) (only for intrinsic semiconductors). so that an electron may easily hop from the valence band to complete the bond leaving a hole behind. The energy level of the acceptor is close to the valence band. Since this hole is unlike a hole in the matrix. The energy level of the donor state is close to the conduction band. with 5 valence electrons. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . or holes to acceptor levels. The Temperature Variation of Conductivity and Carrier Concentration Temperature causes electrons to be promoted to the conduction band and from donor levels.

19.Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes where A is a constant (the mobility varies much more slowly with temperature). the band gap is too large for thermal electron promotion. The central region is very thin and is called the base. both the impurity levels and valence electrons are ionized. Control of the current through the transistor is by means of the electric field induced by the gate. Semiconductor Devices A semiconductor diode is made by the intimate junction of a p-type and an n-type semiconductor (an n-p junction). the intensity of the electrical current that passes through the material depends on the polarity of the applied voltage.22). and this can be used to amplify electrical signals (Fig. Another common device is the MOSFET transistor where a gate serves the function of the base in a junction transistor. At high temperatures. electrical conduction in insulators is usually along the surface. This means that at low temperatures. Conduction in Ionic Materials In ionic materials. For this reason. 1/T produces a straight line of slope Eg/2k from which the band gap energy can be determined. Unlike a metal. in addition to this dependence. extrinsic semiconductors have larger conductivity than intrinsic semiconductors. one due to the thermal promotion of electrons from donor levels or holes from acceptor levels. The dependence on temperature is also exponential but it eventually saturates at high temperatures where all the donors are emptied or all the acceptors are filled. If the positive side of a battery is connected to the p-side. Cation vacancies allow ionic motion in the direction of an applied electric field. A small voltage applied to the base has a large effect on the current passing through the transistor. This is called rectification. this is referred to as ionic conduction. Holes and electrons are removed from the region of the junction. a situation called forward bias. Extrinsic semiconductors have. A p-n-p junction transistor contains two diodes back-to-back. due to the deposition of moisture that contains impurity ions. eventually the behavior is dominated by the intrinsic type of conductivity. The asymmetric current-voltage characteristics of diodes is used to convert alternating current into direct current. Plotting ln σ vs. which is isolated electrically by an oxide layer. but since the impurities are very low in number and they are exhausted. where they recombine (annihilate). a large amount of current can flow since holes and electrons are pushed into the junction region. High temperatures produce more vacancies and higher ionic conductivity. which therefore becomes depleted of carriers and behaves like an insulator. the diode operates under reverse bias. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/4 . the current is very small under reverse bias. If the polarity of the voltage is flipped. At low temperatures. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.

when a new class of ceramic superconductors was discovered that "superconducted" at higher temperatures. and to electricity transmission in power lines. and used. Capacitance When two parallel plates of area A. an electric field develops between the plates E = D/εε0 where D = Q/A. For a given applied voltage V. Scientists had been intrigued with the concept of superconductivity since its discovery in the early 1900s.5 Dielectric Behavior A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be made to exhibit an electric dipole structure (displace the negative and positive charge so that their center of gravity is different). are charged by +Q.3 Superconductivity: Superconductivity is the ability of certain materials to conduct electrical current with no resistance and extremely low losses. If an electric field is applied. and along with it came the prospect for an elegant technology that promises to "supercharge" the way energy is generated. Dipoles between the plates of a capacitor will produce an electric field that opposes the applied field. or dielectric constant (ε = 1 for vacuum). The science of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) was born. delivered. V = E l. superconductors can carry as much as 100 times the amount of electricity of ordinary copper or aluminum wires of the same size.Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes 14. separated by a small distance l. In terms of the voltage between the plates. This all changed in 1986. Field Vectors and Polarization The dipole moment of a pair of positive and negative charges (+q and –q) separated at a distance d is p = qd. V = Dl/εε0 = Q l/Aεε0 = Q / C The constant C= Aεε0/l is called the capacitance of the plates. This ability to carry large amounts of current can be applied to electric power devices such as motors and generators. For example. but the extreme low temperatures the phenomenon required was a barrier to practical and low-cost applications. the dipole tends to align so that the positive charge points in the field direction. ε0 is called the vacuum permittivity and ε the relative permittivity. – Q. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/5 . there will be an increase in the charge in the plates by an amount Q' so that the total Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. 14.

A typical ferroelectric is barium titanate. glass. in an avalanche process (or electrical discharge).in the central plane can be displaced to one side or the other of this central ion . the charge density becomes D = D0 E + P. The time needed by the specific polarization to occur is called the relaxation time. like mica. where the polarization P = ε0 (ε–1) E . Types of Polarization Three types of polarization can be caused by an electric field: • • • Electronic polarization: the electrons in atoms are displaced relative to the nucleus. in turn. Dielectric Materials Capacitors require dielectrics of high ε that can function at high frequencies (small relaxation times). At smaller frequencies. the relative displacement of positive and negative ions can occur. Dielectric Strength Very high electric fields (>108 V/m) can free electrons from atoms. Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant Electrons have much smaller mass than ions. and the field necessary to start the is called the dielectric strength or breakdown strength. Two possible arrangements of this asymmetry results in two distinct polarizations. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/6 . Orientation of permanent dipoles. which can be used to code "0" and "1" in ferroelectric memories. free other electrons. where Q0 is the charge of a vacuum capacitor with the same V. and porcelain).Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes charge becomes Q = Q' + Q0. Polymers usually have lower ε. which require the rotation of a molecule can occur only if the oscillation is relatively slow (MHz range or slower). Orientation polarization: permanent dipoles (like H2O) are aligned. Ionic polarization: cations and anions in an ionic crystal are displaced with respect to each other. BaTiO3. where the Ti4+ is in the center of the unit cell and four O2. For electric field that oscillates at very high frequencies (such as light) only electronic polarization can occur. This is due to the asymmetric location of positive and negative charges within the unit cell. Many of the ceramics have these properties. so they respond more rapidly to a changing electric field.6 Ferroelectricity Ferroelectric materials are ceramics that exhibit permanent polarization in the absence of an electric field. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. This is called dielectric breakdown. With Q' = PA. 14. and accelerate them to such high energies that they can.

like quartz. Bangalore M14/L1/V1/feb2005/7 . Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.7 Piezoelectricity In a piezolectric material. an applied mechanical stress causes electric polarization by the relative displacement of anions and cations.Material Science/Electrical Properties Lecture Notes 14.

The coefficient of thermal expansion is generally defined as the fractional increase in length per unit rise in temperature.3 Thermal Conductivity: The thermal conductivity of a material is equivalent to the quantity of heat that passes in unit time through unit area of a plate. the heat capacity C is expressed as follows: C=dQ/dT Where dQ is the energy required to produce a dT temperature change. while the latter is governed by the slope of the chord between two points on this curve.Material Science/Thermal Properties Lecture Notes Chapter 15.g.1 Heat Capacity: Heat Capacity is a property that is indicative of a materials ability to absorb heat from external surroundings. thermal conductivity is measured in watts per metre-kelvin. Thermal conductivity = Heat flow rate ÷ (Area × Temperature gradient) In the SI system of units. (W·m-1·K-1) where a • • watt is the unit of power metre is the unit of distance M15/L1/V1/feb2005/1 Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. when its opposite faces are subject to unit temperature gradient (e. 15. Considerable variation in the value of the CTE can occur according to the definition employed. The exact definition varies. depending on whether it is specified at a precise temperature (true coefficient of thermal expansion) or over a temperature range (mean coefficient of thermal expansion). The former is related to the slope of the tangent to the length – temperature plot. This is significant since there is generally a variation (usually an increase) in CTE with temperature. Thermal Properties 15. For metallic materials values in the range 10 x 10-6 to 30 x 10-6 K-1 are common. The change in length with temperature for a solid material may be expressed as follows: Over small temperature ranges. the linear nature of thermal expansion leads to expansion relationships for length. Unit of heat capacity is J/kg-K. and volume in terms of the linear expansion coefficient. area. it represnts tha amount of energy required to produce a unit temperature rise. However data for engineering alloys at very high temperatures is often limited. 15. and the thermal expansion of pure metals up to their melting points has been well characterised.2 Thermal expansion: Most solid materials expand upon heating and contract when cooled. one degree temperature difference across a thickness of one unit). Bangalore .In mathematical terms.

This means a member may expand (or contract) but not as much as it would if unconstrained. Stresses resulting from temperature gradients: When a solid body is heated or cooled. Bangalore M15/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . Partially Constrained Thermal Deformation: A more normal situation in a structure. Thermal stresses may be established as a result of temperature gradients across a body. which are frequently caused by rapid heating or cooling.4 Thermal Stress Thermal stresses are stresses induced in a body as a result of changes in temperature. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. is a partially constrained thermal deformation. the internal temperature distribution will depend on its size and shape. Completely Constrained Thermal Deformation: The thermal stress which develops if a structure or member is completely constrained (not allowed to move at all) is the product of the coefficient of linear expansion and the temperature change and Young's modulus for the material. There are various types of thermal deformation. in that the outside changes temperature more rapidly than the interior.Material Science/Thermal Properties • Lecture Notes kelvin is the unit of temperature 15. the thermal conductivity pf the material and the rate of temperature change. rather than completely constrained or completely free thermal deformation.

The magnitude of the induced magnetic moment is extremely small and in a direction opposite to that of the applied field.Material Science/Magnetic Properties Lecture Notes Chapter 16. the net magnetic alignment is lost as the dipoles relax back to their normal random motion. Manganese oxide is a ceramic material that is ionic in character. Bangalore M16/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . Magnetic Properties 16. the alignment of the spin moments of neighbouring atoms or ions in exactly opposite directions is termed antiferromagentism. say in the to . paramagnetic material is one whose atoms do have permanent dipole moments. but in the absence of the strong ferromagnetic effect. the susceptibilities are rather small. the dipole moments try to line up with the magnetic field. 16. since there is a total cancellation of both spin and orbital moments. 16. and manifest very large and permanent magnetizations. Because the dipoles try to line up with the applied field. the susceptibilities of such materials are positive. it will attract and repel other magnets in the usual way. and they are displayed by the transition metals iron. In one such group. When a paramagnetic material is placed in a strong magnetic field. These are the characteristics of ferromagnetism.2 Ferromagnetism: Certain metallic materials possess a permanent magnetic moment in the absence of an external field. the Mn ions possesses s nrt magnetic moment that is Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. in a ferromagnetic material. even in the absence of an external field. and some of the rare earth metals. Furthermore. But when the strong magnetic field is removed. having both Mn and O ions. nickel. coupling interactions cause net spin magnetic moments of adjacent atoms to align with one another. and as long as the strong magnetic field is present. If a magnetic field is applied to such a material. but are prevented from becoming perfectly aligned by their random thermal motion. cobalt. There is also an orbital magnetic moments contribution that is small in comparison to the spin moment. Permanent magnetic moments in ferromagnetic materials result from atomic magnetic moments due to electron spinuncancelled electron spins as a consequence of the electron structure. Manganese oxide(MnO) is one such material that displays this behavior. It is induced by a change in the orbital motion of electrons due to an applied magnetic field.1 Diamagnetism and Para magnetism: Diamagnetism is a very weak form of magnetism that is nonpermanent and persists only while an external field is being applied. this coupling results in an antiparallel alignment. The maximum possible magnetization or saturation magnetization Ms of a ferromagnetic material represents the magnetization that results when all the magnetic diploes in a solid piece are mutually aligned with the external field. it range becomes a magnet.3 Antiferromagnetism: This phenomenon of magnetic moment coupling between adjacent atoms or ions occurs in materials other than those that are ferromagnetic. but the magic of ferromagnetism is not active. there is also a corresponding saturation flux density Bs. However.No net magnetic moment is associated with O ions.

cobalt. The atomic magnetic moments are free to rotate. The saturation magnetization is a maximum at ) K. regardless of whether an external field is present. For ferromagnetic. there will be large number of domains and all may have different magnetization orientations. in a microscopic piece of material. causing some dipole misalignment. the increased thermal motion of the atoms tends to randomize the directions of any moments that may be aligned. Obvioulsy. 16. for iron. the saturation magnetization diminishes gradually and then abruptly drops to zero at what is called the curie temperature Tc. Adjacent domains are separated by domain boundaries or walls across which the direction of magnetization gradually changes. Thus. Normally.335 and 585 degree Celsius. at which temperature the thermal vibrations are a minimum. The macroscopic magnetic characteristics of ferromagnets and ferrimagents are similar.5 Domains and Hysteresis: Any ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic material that is at a temperature below Tc is composed of small-volume regions in which there is a mutual alignment in the same direction of all magnetic dipole moments. the atomic thermal motions counteract the coupling forces between the adjacent atomic dipole moments. the respective values are 768.4 Influence of temperature on magnetic behavior: Temperature can also influence the magnetic characteristics of materials. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. 16. The result is a decrease in the saturation magnetization for both ferro and ferrimagnets.Material Science/Magnetic Properties Lecture Notes predominantly of spin origin.1120. hence with rising temperature. antiferromagnteic materials also become paramagnetic. The magnitude of the curie temparature varies from material to material. At temperatures above this point. Antiferromagnetism is also affected by temperature. The net ferrimagentic moment arises from the incomplete cancellation of spin moments. and each one is magnetized to its saturation magnetization.. for example.These Mn ions are arrayed in the crystal structure such that the moments of adjacent ions are antiparallel. nickel. each grain may consist of a single domain. Bangalore M16/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . With increasing temperature. domains are microscopic in size and for a polycrystalline specimen. the solid as a whole possesses no net magnetic moment. Ferrimagnetism Some ceramics also exhibit a permanent magnetizations termed ferrimagentism. this behavior vanishes at what is called the Neel temperature. Such a region is called a domain. the opposing magnetic moments cancel one another and as a consequence. antiferromagentic and ferrimagentic materials. the distinction lies in the source of the net magnetic moments.

All frequencies of visible light are absorbed by metals because of the continuously available empty electron states. Metals are transparent to high frequency radiation. the frequency ν and wavelength λ of the electromagnetic radiation are a function of velocity according to: C= ν/λ Frequency is expressed in terms of hertz(Hz). A bright silvery appearance when exposed to white light indicates that the metal is highly reflected beam.In the classical sense. which permit electron transitions. and also according to the technique by which it is generated.c.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes Chapter 17. Each is characterized primarily by a specific range of wavelengths. The electromagnetic spectrum covers a wide range of wavelengths and photon energies.1 Basic concepts: Electromagnetic Radiation. heat. in both cases a high-energy band is only partially filled with electrons. in terms of frequency and number is approximately the same as for the incident beam. consisiting of electric and magnetic field components that are perpendicular to each other and also to the direction of propagation. from radio waves. Since metals are opaque and highly reflective the perceived color is determined by the wavelength distribution of the radiation that is reflected and not absorbed. This velocity. visible. radar and x-rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Light used to "see" an object must have a wavelength about the same size as or smaller than the object. Metals are opaque because the incident radiation having frequencies within the visible range excites electrons into unoccupied energy states above the Fermi energy. which appears as reflected light. Most of the absorbed radiation is reemitted from the surface in the form of visible light of the same wavelength. Furthermore. through infrared. the composition of these reemitted photons. metals are opaque to all electromagnetic radiation on the low end of the frequency spectrum. The ALS generates light in the far ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. Ranges of frequency for the various forms of electromagnetic radiation are also included in the spectrum. Thus there is an association between the electromagnetic constant c and these electrical and magnetic constants. the visible and into about the middle of the ultraviolet radiation. Optical Properties 17. ultraviolet. that of light. and 1 Hz=1 cycle per second. Aluminum and silver are the two metals that exhibit this reflective behavior. because some of Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . Copper and gold appear red orange and yellow. which span the wavelengths suited to studying molecules and atoms. 17. Light. The electromagnetic spectrum of radiation spans the wide range from gamma rays having wavelengths on the order of 10-12. In fact.2 Optical properties of metals: Consider the electron energy band schemes for metals. infrared and finally radio waves with wavelengths as long as 1015 All electromagnetic radiation traverses a vacuum at the same velocity. is related to the electric permittivity of a vacuum and the magnetic permeability of a vacuum through . respectively. through x-rays. radio waves. electromagnetic radiation is considered to be wave-like.

Not only does the index of refraction affect the optical path of light. Absorption by electronic polarization is important only at light frequencies in the vicinity of the relaxation frequency of the constituent atoms. In principle. R=Ir/Io Where Io and Ir are the intensities of the incident and reflected beams. but also it influences the fraction of incident light that is reflected at the surface. The reflectivity R represents the fraction of the incident light that is reflected at the interface. thus the electronic component of the dielectric constant may be determined from index of refraction measurements. some of the light is scattered at the interface between the two media even if both are transparent. The other mechanism involves valence band-conduction band electron transitions. so does the reflectivity vary with wavelength. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . the greater will be the electronic polarization. which results in the separation of colors. this phenomenon is termed refraction. Absorption: Nonmetallic materials may be opaque or transparent to visible light. the larger an atom or ion.3 Optical properties of non metals: By virtue of their electron energy band structures. The phenomenon of refraction is related to electronic polarization at the relatively high frequencies for visible light.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes the energy associated with light photons having short wavelengths is not reemitted as visible light. Each color is deflected by a different amount as it passes into and out of the glass. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. if transparent. This effect is graphically demonstrated by the familiar dispersion or separation of a beam of white light into its component colors by a class prism. respectively. The index of refraction n of a material is defined as the ratio of the velocity in vacuum c to the velocity in the medium ν . light radiation is absorbed in this group of materials by two basic mechanisms. and. which also influence the transmission characteristics of these nonmetals. the slower the velocity and greater the index of refraction. or n=c/ν The magnitude of n will depend on the wavelength of the light. they often appear colored. Since the retardation of electromagnetic radiation in a medium results from electronic polarization. which depends on the electron energy band structure of the material. nonmetallic materials may be transparent to visible light. Reflection: When light radiation passes from one medium into another having a different index of refraction. Refraction: Light that is transmitted into the interior of transparent materials experiences decrease in velocity and as result is bent at the interface.Just as the index of refraction of a solid depends on the wavelength of the incident light. refraction and transmission phenomena also need to be considered. in addition to reflection and absorption. 17. Therefore. the size of the constituent atoms or ions has a considerable influence on the magnitude of this effect-generally.

refraction. Energy is absorbed when an electron is promoted to an excited energy. This should not be mistaken for what occurs with the ordinary incandescent Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Furthermore. 17. There are several varieties of luminescence. Electroluminescence is luminescence caused by electric current. and lightning flashes. Photoluminescence should not be confused with reflection. light from other sources of energy. "day-glo" or "neon" colors. visible light is emitted when it false back to a lower energy state. photoluminescence is generally taken to mean luminance from any electromagnetic radiation. Luminescence is "cold light". is unity. amusement park and movie special effects. some energy source kicks an electron of an atom out of its "ground" (lowest-energy) state into an "excited" (higher-energy) state. each of of the variables R. A and T depends on light wavelength. the auroras. Bleaches enhance their whitening power with a white fluorescent material. In luminescence. or scattering of light. absorptivity A and transmittivity T. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/3 . although it may be used for other photoluminescences also. Fluorescence is seen in fluorescent lights. Other examples of electroluminescence are neon lights. or what the trigger for the luminescence is. luminescence is classified according to the magnitude of the delay time between absorption and reemission events. mechanical or chemical energy. Fluorescence and Photoluminescence are luminescence where the energy is supplied by electromagnetic radiation (rays such as light. The sum of reflectivity R. while fluorescence is often used only for luminescence caused by ultraviolet. Photons of emitted light are generated from electron transitions in the solid. this is how television pictures are formed. Photoluminescence is distinguished in that the light is absorbed for a significant time. The absorbed energy may be applied as higher energy electrons or by heat.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes Transmission: The phenomena of absorption. which can take place at normal and lower temperatures.4 Applications of optical phenomena Luminescence Some materials are capable of absorbing energy and then reemitting visible light in a phenomenon called luminescence. but otherwise independent of. the redness of rubies in sunlight. each named according to what the source of energy is. the frequency of the absorbed light. which will be discussed later). The fraction of incident light that is transmitted through a transparent material depends on the losses that are incurred by absorption and reflection. and in emission nebulae seen with telescopes in the night sky. and generally produces light of a frequency that is lower than. Cathodoluminescence is electroluminescence caused by electron beams. which cause most of the colors you see in daylight or bright artificial lighting. Also. then the electron gives back the energy in the form of light so it can fall back to its "ground" state. reflection and transmission may be applied to the passage of light through a transparent solid.

in which the electricity is used to produce heat. or silicon with impurities. the higher the conductance of the sample becomes. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/4 . and maintains its size and direction over very large distances.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes electric lights. and for inspecting optical equipment. and on the temperature. this sharply focused beam of coherent light is suitable for a wide variety of fact. With lasers. Typical photoconductive substances consist of germanium. that is. Other common materials include metal oxides and sulfides. Lasers have been used in industry for cutting and boring metals and other materials. also called photoluminescence Photoconductivity Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more conductive when subjected to ultraviolet or gamma radiation. The term may be used to refer to luminescence caused by X-rays.however. Photoconductivity is the tendency of a substance to conduct electricity to an extent that depends on the intensity of light-radiant energy (usually infrared transmission or visible light) striking the surface of a sample. selenium. on the specific material(s) from which it is made. that is. When there is no illumination. the light waves are out of phase with one another. Older glow-in-the-dark clock dials often used a paint with a radioactive material (typically a radium compound) and a radioluminescent material. further increases in irradiation produce no change in the conductance. Radioluminescence is luminescence caused by nuclear radiation. These transition events occur independently of one another and at random times. they have been used in surgical operations.coherent light is generated by electron transitions initiated by an external stimulus. Lasers have been used in several kinds of Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. producing radiation that is incoherent. also known as dopants. gallium. See photoconductor. and it is the heat that in turn produces light. the greater the radiant energy of a specific wavelength that strikes the surface. Photoconductive materials are used in the manufacture of photoelectric devices. Most semiconductor materials have this property. an electron falls from a high energy state to a lower one without any external provocation. Applications of Lasers The light beam produced by most lasers is pencil-sized. Lasers All the radioactive electron transitions are spontaneous.”laser” is just the acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. When the maximum conductance is reached for a particular sample. In medicine. up to a certain maximum. added. In most cases. a photoconductive sample has a conductance that depends on its dimensions.

can be reconstructed to produce a three-dimensional image of the object. the transmitted light beam is modulated with a signal and is received and demodulated some distance away. medicine. our increasing ability to transmit more information. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/5 . which is concerned with the study of such phenomena as the frequency doubling of coherent light by certain crystals. That reputation soon disappeared as lasers found uses in a variety of industries. Today’s low-loss glass fiber optic cable offers almost unlimited bandwidth and unique advantages over all previously developed transmission media. But now several new lasers. nonlinear optics. instead of producing light of only a single frequency. particularly solid state instruments that operate at ultraviolet wavelengths and those based on nonlinear materials. more quickly and over longer distances has expanded the boundaries of our technological development in all areas. Progressing from the copper wire of a century ago to today’s fiber optic cable. Optical fibers in communications: Our current "age of technology" is the result of many brilliant inventions and discoveries. The basic point-to-point fiber optic transmission system consists of three basic elements: the optical transmitter. in a manner similar to radio transmission. the laser was spoken of as a solution without a problem. that is perhaps most responsible for its evolution . in particular. and the media we use to do it. For years after its invention. the fiber optic cable and the optical receiver. Lasers have also been used in plasma physics and chemistry. The field of holography is based on the fact that actual wave-front patterns. and. One important result of laser research is the development of lasers that can be tuned to emit light over a range of frequencies. but it is our ability to transmit information. stand to benefit from the unique qualities of these new or improved systems. Work is being done to develop lasers for communication. are finding uses in emerging areas. telecommunications. Computing. Lasers have opened a new field of scientific research. The Optical Transmitter: The transmitter converts an electrical analog or digital signal into a corresponding optical signal.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes scientific research. captured in a photographic image of an object illuminated with laser light. The source of the optical signal can be either a light Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.

Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/6 . it will not corrode and is unaffected by most chemicals. For systems requiring transmission over distances of many kilometers. making it ideal for transmission of serial digital data. there is no possibility of a spark from a broken fiber. but provides special protection for the optical fiber within. Advantages of Fiber Optic Systems Fiber optic transmission systems – a fiber optic transmitter and receiver. It is easier to handle and install. The fiber is totally immune to virtually all kinds of interference. 2. The most popular wavelengths of operation for optical transmitters are 850. As the basic fiber is made of glass. and no danger of electrical shock to personnel repairing broken fibers. 3. The Optical Receiver: The receiver converts the optical signal back into a replica of the original electrical signal. connected by fiber optic cable – offer a wide range of benefits not offered by traditional copper wire or coaxial cable.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes emitting diode. 7. It can be buried directly in most kinds of soil or exposed to most corrosive atmospheres in chemical plants without significant concern. than coaxial cable. which act as waveguides for the optical signal. is usually much smaller and lighter in weight than a wire or coaxial cable with similar information carrying capacity.) Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. The Fiber Optic Cable: The cable consists of one or more glass fibers. or 1550 nanometers. 5. Even in the most explosive of atmospheres. The detector of the optical signal is either a PIN-type photodiode or avalanche-type photodiode. Fiber optic cables are virtually unaffected by outdoor atmospheric conditions. The ability to carry much more information and deliver it with greater fidelity than either copper wire or coaxial cable. or where two or more fiber optic cables must be joined together. 1300. or a solid state laser diode. allowing them to be lashed directly to telephone poles or existing electrical cables without concern for extraneous signal pickup. 4. A fiber optic cable. and at greater distances. even one that contains many fibers. It will also not create ground loops of any kind. (It can frequently be installed without ducts. and will not conduct electricity. Since the only carrier in the fiber is light. and uses less duct space. Fiber optic cable is similar to electrical cable in its construction. Fiber optic cable can support much higher data rates. These include: 1. there is no fire hazard. including lightning. an optical splice is commonly used. 6. It can therefore come in direct contact with high voltage electrical equipment and power lines.

receivers.Material Science/Optical Properties Lecture Notes 8. An appreciation of the underlying technology will provide a useful framework for understanding the reasons behind its many benefits. Bangalore M17/L1/V1/feb2005/7 . and the fiber cable itself. there is absolutely no electrical radiation from a fiber. How are fiber optic cables able to provide all of these advantages? This guide will provide an overview of fiber optic technology – with sections devoted to each of the three system components – transmitters. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. Fiber optic cable is ideal for secure communications systems because it is very difficult to tap but very easy to monitor. In addition.

In many of these cases. The more positive image of materials engineering that can be portrayed is one where the industry is at the forefront of technical advances . 18. and Social Issues of Material Usage 18. however people living near a steelworks would argue against this. processing and design as well as more general areas such as legislative.Material Science/Economic.2 Environmental and Social considerations: Issues of environmental protection and sustainable development are gaining an increasing importance in everyday life. takes relatively little energy to extract and is easy to recycle. from extraction and production. It is probably sensible to define such materials as those that have distinct differences that achieve environmental benefit compared to conventional materials. that are nonetheless important. materials. and Social Issues of Material Usage Lecture Notes Chapter 18. whereas the former would consider much simpler aspects. highlighting examples where materials production and use has led to environmental problems. Furthermore there are many cases where the developments of novel ‘environmentally-friendly’ materials are providing new challenges for materials scientists and engineers. Interesting topics within this area can be presented at a range of levels: for instance the sustainable use of materials in the IT sector can be discussed by 11 year olds with as much enthusiasm as by post-graduate students .although the latter would be expected to grasp the chemical details of identifying brominated flame-retardants. economic and social aspects. There is a danger that this could give a negative picture. it is abundant. Almost every aspect of materials usage. through product design and ultimately disposal issues. the list would include: Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. but also to drive sustainable and safe use of materials for the future. Environmental. The growing awareness of environmental issues has increased the attention focused on the materials industry. Bangalore M18/L1/V1/feb2005/1 . is now subject to environmental considerations. additives and production methods were used for very good materials engineering reasons before environmental concerns were established.3 Recycling issues: It could easily be argued that steel is a very sustainable material. chemical and physical properties. and nowhere is this more so than in the field of Materials Science and Engineering.1 Economic Considerations: It is essential for the engineer to know about and understand economic issues simply because the company/institution for which he or she works must realize a profit from the products it manufactures. Materials engineering decisions have economic consequences with regard to both material and production cost 18.not only to 'deal with past mistakes'. Environmental. Economic. The topic of 'Environmental Materials' is broad and can touch on some relatively in-depth aspects of materials structure. With this definition.

Bangalore M18/L1/V1/feb2005/2 . natural fibre composites. and arguably also much steel and aluminum. 2. including wood. composites made from waste mineral powders. natural polymers. particularly in the production of green energy. Materials of a significantly plant-based nature. and Social Issues of Material Usage Lecture Notes 1. Materials produced using a large proportion of waste material. including recycled polymers. These include: o o o Solar-cell materials Fuel-cell technology Catalytic pollution control The figure below schematically shows how the disparate areas under the heading of 'environmental materials' can be linked via a life cycle analysis approach.Material Science/Economic. The most exciting developments in Materials Science are in the realm of functional materials. and many of these serve an environmentally-beneficial purpose. Environmental. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc.

such as energy usage. It is often known as a 'cradleto-grave' analysis and can encompass the entire lifetime from extraction to end-of-life disposal. product use and finally end-of-life considerations. economic and legislative issues occur throughout the cycle. Environmental. For instance it could cover the environmental impact of the global aluminium industry or simply that of one single plastic injection moulding machine. Satish Kailash Vasu/IISc. energy and resource usage of a material or product. Bangalore M18/L2/V1/feb2005/1 . This approach is followed below.4 Life Cycle Analysis and its use in design: Life Cycle Analysis is essentially a method of considering the entire environmental impact. The scope of a life cycle analysis can be adjusted to suit a particular case. Therefore the first consideration would be the impact of materials extraction. Various aspects. and Social Issues of Material Usage Lecture Notes 18. students would be expected to have a good grasp of the necessary underlying technical areas. The most conventional way of approaching a life cycle analysis is to follow a particular material or product through its lifetime. In order to gain most learning benefit from this area. and then production and manufacture.Material Science/Economic. which could be quite complex and so this ideally suits more advanced degree level students. Life cycle analysis can be an extremely effective way of linking many different aspects of the environmental impacts of materials usage.

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