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Candidate

Centre Number Number

Candidate Name

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE ESOL EXAMINATIONS


English for Speakers of Other Languages
Cambridge ESOL Certificates in ESOL for Work
Reading and Listening D141
Sample Test
Additional materials:
Answer sheet

TIME Approx. 110 minutes

Do not open this paper until you are told to do so.

Write your name, Centre number and candidate number at the top of this page.

Listening: About 50 minutes.


As you listen, write your answers in this Question Paper. When the listening test
finishes, you have 5 minutes to copy your answers onto your answer sheet.

Reading: 60 minutes.
Write your answers on your answer sheet.

Write clearly in pencil, not pen.

FOR EXAMINER’S USE


Listening 50

Reading 60

Overall 110

This question paper consists of 29 printed pages and 3 blank pages.

500/2178/3, 500/2177/1
© UCLES 2008 [Turn over
BLANK PAGE

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LISTENING

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LISTENING

PART ONE
Questions 1 – 10

• You will hear 10 short recordings.


• For questions 1 – 10, circle one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.
• You will hear each recording twice.

1 Which of the products ordered are out of stock?

A B

2 What is the first thing that the speaker usually does at work?

A B

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3 Which is the company’s best selling range?

A B

4 Which piece of equipment needs to be repaired?

A B

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5 Where has the company sold most of its new products?

A B

6 Which training courses does Claire decide to take?

A quality assurance

B production processes

C operations management

7 What is the man’s opinion of Garvey’s?

A They offer value for money.

B They produce high quality goods.

C Their deliveries are reliable.

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8 What does the woman want her colleague to do?

A demonstrate how to operate some new equipment

B answer questions from new employees

C write a user guide

9 Who is the shop assistant talking to?

A her boss

B another assistant

C a customer

10 What does the man do?

A He's a trainer.

B He's a receptionist.

C He's a student.

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PART TWO
Questions 11 – 22

• You will hear three conversations.


• Fill in the missing information in the numbered spaces, using one or two words or a
number.
• You will hear each conversation once only.

Conversation One
Questions 11 – 14

• Look at the form below.


• You will hear a woman questioning a visitor at a trade fair for a market survey.

Market Survey Questionnaire

Company name: Agri-Techno

Product: farm (11) ………………………

Name of delegate: James (12) ………………………

Position in company: (13) ………………………

Length of visit: (14) ………………………

Conversation Two
Questions 15 – 18

• Look at the notes below.


• You will hear a man giving some information to new hotel staff on their first day at work.

Notes for First Day

The staff room is on the (15) …………………………………. floor – Room F249.

(16) …………………………………. will be issued on Wednesday.

Collect (17) …………………………………. from laundry at midday.

There will be a test of the (18) …………………………………. at 3.30pm today.

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Conversation Three
Questions 19 – 22

• Look at the note below.


• You will hear a man leaving a message for his company’s printing department about
changes needed on a print order.

Message from: Paul Kwok, Accounts Department


(job reference (19) ………………………………….)

Requirements:

• Letterhead: Put correct (20) ………………………………….


• Invoice Pro Forma: Include space for writing in the (21) ………………………………….
• Expenses forms: Add category for (22) …………………………………. (visitors)

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PART THREE

Section One
Questions 23 – 27
• You will hear five trainee managers saying what they find difficult about their jobs.
• As you listen, decide what each speaker finds difficult.
• Choose your answer from the list A – I, and write the correct letter in the space provided.
• You will hear the five pieces once only.

Example: ...... I .......

A telephoning
B writing letters
23 Person 1 ................................. C writing reports
24 Person 2 ................................. D contributing in meetings
25 Person 3 ................................. E giving presentations
26 Person 4 ................................. F socialising with customers
27 Person 5 ................................. G taking minutes
H interviewing
I writing memos

Section Two
Questions 28 – 32
• You will hear five speakers talking about mistakes made by retail companies.
• As you listen, decide which mistake each speaker refers to.
• Choose your answer from the list A – I, and write the correct letter in the space provided.
• You will hear the five pieces once only.

Example: …… I …… A Staff lacked training in customer service.


B Space in the shop was wasted.
28 Person 1 ………………… C A popular item was discontinued.
29 Person 2 ………………… D Sales assistants were not made familiar with products.
30 Person 3 ………………… E Deliveries of stock were inadequate.
31 Person 4 ………………… F Too much money was spent on display fittings.
32 Person 5 ………………… G Some items were stocked in a limited number of stores.
H Nobody had responsibility for stock control.
I Items seemed out-dated.

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PART FOUR

Section One
Questions 33 – 38

• You will hear two friends, Matthew and Anthea, discussing a curriculum vitae (CV) that
Matthew has written.
• For questions 33 – 38, circle one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.
• You will hear the conversation twice.

33 What does Anthea say about the length of CVs?

A CVs should always be a maximum of two pages long.


B Shorter CVs tend to please most employers.
C Length should depend on the type of job people want.

34 According to Anthea, what should Matthew have included at the top of his CV?

A full contact details


B age and nationality
C marital status

35 What does Matthew say he will do before he finalises his CV?

A find out about the work of an employer


B make his achievements sound impressive
C give examples of responsibilities he had in his last job

36 What information does Anthea suggest Matthew should add to his CV?

A the fact that he enjoys reading


B a club he belongs to
C the foreign language he speaks

37 What does Anthea say Matthew should change about the presentation of his CV?

A He should use two columns.


B He should reduce the font size.
C He should use bold type for headings.

38 What does Anthea offer to help Matthew with?

A looking for some useful websites


B choosing a suitable photograph
C checking spelling and grammar

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Section Two
Questions 39 – 44

• You will hear a supervisor, called Belinda, talking to new recruits at AnswerCall, a call
centre.
• For questions 39 – 44, circle one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.
• You will hear the talk twice.

39 Jane Westwood decided to set up AnswerCall because

A she’d sometimes received poor service on the phone herself.


B she’d seen how phone calls needed to be dealt with.
C she’d been asked for help by a number of companies.

40 The supervisor says AnswerCall helped one particular company when

A it was short-staffed due to illness.


B it wanted to close for holidays.
C it had a lot of extra business.

41 AnswerCall’s main clients are

A health care providers.


B catering firms.
C car manufacturers.

42 What does the supervisor think is the main reason for AnswerCall’s success?

A It has a close relationship with clients.


B Its callers are unaware it’s a call centre.
C Its staff have a highly professional manner.

43 What will training for the recruits include?

A dealing with angry callers


B general customer service
C assessing callers’ needs

44 What does the supervisor say call centre staff often forget?

A to use simple language


B to be aware of body language
C to speak loudly enough

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Section Three
Questions 45 – 50

• You will hear Dan and Kasha, two junior managers working for the shoe manufacturer,
Kingston. They are discussing a seminar Dan attended on quality control (QC) issues.
• For questions 45 – 50, circle one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.
• You will hear the discussion twice.

45 What was the first part of the seminar about?

A the differences between quality assurance and quality control


B the importance of the consultation process in quality control
C a general history of quality control in their industry

46 Dan thinks the most interesting part of the seminar was on evaluating

A the raw materials.


B the production process.
C the finished products.

47 Kasha thinks the current quality control systems at Kingston are

A too expensive.
B carried out too late.
C too difficult to follow.

48 Dan thinks that Kingston’s existing quality control processes

A do not fit in with modern production techniques.


B send a negative message to clients.
C affect employee morale.

49 What does Kingston plan to do to improve its QC systems?

A specify who is in charge of each stage


B do a full cost/benefit analysis
C present data in a more manageable way

50 Dan and Kasha agree that following on from this seminar, Kingston should try to
improve its

A choice of managers.
B health and safety record.
C internal communications.

That is the end of the Listening Section. You now have 5 minutes to copy
your answers onto your answer sheet.

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READING and LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE

PART ONE

Section One
Questions 51 – 57

• Look at the following messages and notices.


• For questions 51 – 57, mark one letter A, B or C on your answer sheet.

Example:

STORE CONTENTS IN A COOL PLACE OUT OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT

A The contents should be kept at a constant temperature.


B The contents are sensitive to heat and light.
C The contents must be kept frozen.

A B C
0

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! MESSAGE
To: George
From: Clare

Martin Promotions called about your


order for 10,000 pens with our logo.
They could do 12,000 with a 7%
discount. Do you want the extra ones?

Clare is asking George

A how many pens he ordered.


B whether he would like more pens.
C what discount on pens he arranged.

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AST, a major employer in Buckinghamshire, have announced they are to axe a
minimum of 50 jobs in a downsizing programme designed to cut costs by at least £1m
over the next 12 months.

Staff levels at AST are being cut in order to

A reduce costs to £1m.


B avoid further rises in costs.
C lower costs in the coming year.

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2007 latest available figures
SHARE OF MARKET

80 72.8%
70
60 57.7%

50 45.1%
40.9% 43%
Tech Solutions
40
Syscom
30
20 13.9%

10
0
Midlands North East Greater London

The graph shows that in 2007

A Syscom’s share of the market was weakest in Greater London


B Syscom slightly outperformed Tech Solutions in the North East.
C Syscom’s greatest market share was in the Midlands.

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All sales hotline staff, please note –

For orders received before 1pm Monday through Thursday, tell customers we
guarantee next day delivery. For those received after that time, explain that
we can deliver within two working days.

If customers place an order from Monday to Thursday in the morning,

A they will receive their order before 1pm.


B the goods will be delivered two days later.
C they are assured of a delivery the following day.

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55

Paula – The Regional Manager just


rang from Liverpool airport.
Could the presentations be delayed
until this afternoon because her
flight's held up by at least two
hours? She apologises for the
inconvenience.

The Regional Manager wants to

A explain her absence from the start of the presentations.


B suggest that the presentations start without her.
C change the starting time of the presentations.

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Dear Ms Willhead
Re: Premises Insurance – Renewal
We can confirm renewal of your insurance and duly enclose the relevant documentation for
your safekeeping. We hope you will find everything in order. Should you have any questions
please do not hesitate to contact us.

What should Ms Willhead do now?

A sign and return the enclosed form


B put the documents in a secure place
C call to confirm the arrangements

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The Gold Line Tour Co
Our staff may, at their discretion, require any person to withdraw from any
tour if they deem his acts or conduct offensive or a nuisance to other
passengers, and the company shall have no further liability.

A Gold Line may have to change their tour staff and hope this does not upset customers.
B Gold Line staff can ask people to leave the tour if their behaviour is not acceptable.
C Gold Line would like to be informed when customers disapprove of staff actions.

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PART ONE

Section Two
Questions 58 – 63

• Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence.


• For questions 58 – 63, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet.

58 The housekeeping team is responsible ……………….. cleaning the hotel bedrooms.

A by
B for
C of
D to

59 When replying, please ……………….. the above reference number.

A refer
B reproduce
C quote
D mention

60 This storage cupboard is in a real mess - can somebody ……………….. it out today,
please?

A work
B keep
C make
D sort

61 If the company decides to ……………….. up food prices, some of our regular customers
will go and shop somewhere else.

A go
B put
C set
D take

62 The average business won't ……………….. a profit until it has operated for a least a year.

A made
B make
C makes
D making

63 My job frequently involves having to work ……………….. a lot of pressure.

A below
B under
C beneath
D underneath

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PART ONE

Section Three
Questions 64 – 69

• Read the article below about women who run their own business and answer questions
64 – 69 on the opposite page.
• For questions 64 – 69, mark one letter A, B or C for the correct answer.

WOMEN RUNNING THEIR OWN BUSINESS

According to recent research, a third of new companies set up in Britain are run by
women. Typical examples are Lisa Simons, who started up her own highly successful
clothing shops in London with a loan of £15,000 from her bank, and Kate Rogers, who
set up Cellar Cafés five years ago and sold out to a major restaurant chain this month,
at a profit of £3 million.

There are many other examples. Surprise, a mail order company selling unusual gifts,
had a turnover of $4 million last year. The company was started by Claire Fuller five
years ago in a garage, but later moved into premises in the centre of Coventry.
Similarly, Nina Taylor started her company, NC Books, in an old warehouse in Bristol. A
lawyer by training, she had no previous experience of the retail trade but believes that
this worked to her advantage. ‘Having no knowledge of the book trade,’ she says,
‘allowed me to bring fresh ideas into the business.’

Young women are also running successful businesses, like Maria Fellows and Christine
Craig, both still in their early twenties. Together they set up Denlows Recruitment
Agency in an office in Liverpool less than two years ago; the firm now has six offices
and a staff of 38. Another young woman, American-born Amy Bailey, could not find any
good coffee shops in England so set up Coffee Choice Company in 1994. Two years ago
a large American group bought the company, although Amy continues to play a leading
part in the business.

There are many reasons why women want to run their own businesses. One is that they
are increasingly confident that they are capable of doing this. Another is that many no
longer want to work for companies which fail to offer satisfying careers. ‘Women’s
businesses are often more successful that those run by men,’ says Denise Johnson, of
the National Business Bank, ‘because women are good at looking ahead and seeing
what will be best for a business – they find it very satisfying.’

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64 One third of new British businesses
A are aimed at female customers.
B are owned or managed by women.
C operate within the women’s clothing sector.

65 What does the second paragraph tell us about the company called Surprise?
A The company delivers its products by post.
B The company has made a profit every year.
C The company operates from a garage.

66 What did Nina Taylor think helped her when she started her business?
A having a good knowledge of the law
B being the owner of a warehouse
C knowing nothing about how to sell books

67 According to the third paragraph, Denlows Recruitment Agency has been a success
because
A it has been in business for over two years.
B it has recruited 25 new employees.
C it has opened several new offices.

68 Coffee Choice Company was established


A to fill a gap in the market.
B despite strong competition.
C with finance from the US.

69 According to the final paragraph, women are successful at running their own businesses
because they
A enjoy learning new skills.
B like making plans for the future.
C prefer working for small companies.

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PART ONE

Section Four
Questions 70 – 74

• For questions 70 – 74, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each
space.
• Write only one word for each space on your answer sheet.

Example:

He is very interested (0) ……….………. computers.

Answer:
0 in

Dear Customer

We are writing to ask you to take part in Johnson’s latest customer survey
(70) ……………….. that we can find out if you are happy with our service. We’d also
like your views on some new developments at Johnson’s. The survey data is being
recorded (71) ……………….. NSB Research, an independent research agency. This
will ensure that all data is passed on to us at Johnson’s anonymously – we won’t even
know which of our customers (72) ……………….. taken part in the survey.

The questions are all online, short and straightforward, and should only take about 15
minutes (73) ……………….. total. Go to www.NSBResearch.co.uk and click on
‘Johnsons’. All survey participants will (74) ……………….. entered into a draw to win
£1,000 of travel vouchers. The closing date for completion of the survey is 9th May.

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READING and LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE

Part Two

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PART TWO

Section One
Questions 75 – 81

• Read the sentences below and the descriptions on the opposite page of four different
courses.
• Which course does each sentence 75 – 81 refer to?
• For each sentence, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet.

Example:
0 This course will help you if you are new to managing people

Answer:

A B C D
0

75 This course will give you a range of techniques to get teams of large numbers of
people working together effectively.

76 This course will enable you to take on greater levels of responsibility.

77 This course will help you to take account of the individual needs of team members.

78 This course will help you to assess how well the people who work for you are doing
their jobs.

79 This course will help you to organise tasks and deal with them in a logical order.

80 This course will enable you to make sure work is completed on time.

81 This course will introduce you to people who could be helpful to you.

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A

This course is for team leaders with less than one year's experience who wish to affirm that
they are doing well and to develop useful techniques. At this stage in your career, you want
to start taking responsibility for your future career development. Attending this course will
provide you with a greater understanding of how to adapt your management style to the
particular requirements of each person in your team.

This course is designed to support managers and leaders of big teams needing a suite of
performance management skills and an effective approach to dealing with a wide variety of
issues. Different stages of team-building will be examined, including avoiding failure in
the performances of your team members and performance measurement tools.

This course is for people on their way to great things. You will learn techniques to assist
you to move beyond team management and gain the confidence you need to undertake
more important duties within your organisation. You will also learn how to avoid the three
great errors of running businesses: not communicating, not delegating, and not providing
support. People you meet on this course will be useful contacts in the future.

This course is designed to address the needs of the modern manager. Outsourced or in-
house, proposals, tenders and one-off projects are an ever-greater part of the modern
manager's life. We will equip you with powerful techniques to help you reduce spend, beat
deadlines and plan for surprises. All projects need a beginning, middle and end, and this
course will show you the essential components required in planning these.

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PART TWO

Section Two
Questions 82 – 86

• Read this article about an expanding company.


• Choose the best word to fill each space from the words below.
• For each question 82 – 86, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet.

Example:

He wants you to (0) ……………….. him the reason.

0 A speak B tell C say D talk

Answer:
A B C D
0

Molly Maid Expansion

Domestic cleaning specialist Molly Maid is responding to a huge increase in


demand for domestic services by gearing up for a (82) ………………..
expansion of their franchise network over the next five years.

Since the first Molly Maid UK franchise started in Essex in 1986, the company
has become (83) ……………….. in most parts of the country. And over the
past decade, recruitment has switched to other areas, although there are still
many opportunities in the south east.

The new drive is powered by fresh resources committed to the company since
Canada-based Molly Maid International (MMI) (84) ……………….. its direct
investment in the UK at the end of 2002, when MMI (85) ……………….. the
UK Molly Maid franchise from Agostpolar Group. Thanks to this, Molly Maid
UK has undergone a comprehensive (86) ……………….., particularly in
regard to enhanced franchisee support services.

82 A main B significant C chief D principal

83 A rooted B grounded C stood D established

84 A rose B developed C increased D grew

85 A acquired B attained C achieved D collected

86 A amendment B conversion C transformation D modification

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PART TWO

Section Three
Questions 87 – 91

• For questions 87 – 91, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each
space.
• Write only one word for each space on your answer sheet.

Example:

He is very interested (0) ……….………. computers.

Answer:
0 in

Writing a job profile for a recruitment ad

When writing a job profile, you need to be precise about what you want
(87) ……………….. order to ensure that you get it. You must define the position vacant
and the ideal candidate very accurately. (88) ……………….. you don’t, you will just
attract the wrong people for the job. Before you write the profile, establish a clear idea
of the kind of person you need and the actual work involved in the role.

When listing skills requirements, only list those related (89) ……………….. the position.
Similarly, when stating previous experience requirements, think about
(90) ……………….. much experience is strictly necessary for the candidate to do the job
well. You may ideally want your new employee to be highly trained in all things, but
avoid being unrealistic and consider only the competencies (91) ……………….. are
actually needed for the position offered.

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PART TWO

Section Four
Questions 92 – 97

• Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence.


• For questions 92 – 97, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet.

92 My boss promised to ……………….. on board the suggestions I made at the meeting.

A take
B let
C hold
D set

93 The company has good industrial ……………….. and disputes are rare.

A workings
B affairs
C terms
D relations

94 Do you know how much time the boss is going to ……………….. to each performance
review session?

A distribute
B allocate
C divide
D share

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95 More and more organisations are using the internet for the ……………….. of recruitment.

A rationale
B function
C purpose
D use

96 I don't think the business will succeed ……………….. it innovates more frequently.

A but
B despite
C even
D unless

97 Westburg plc got into trouble when they moved away from their ……………….. business.

A core
B basis
C heart
D essence

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PART TWO

Section Five
Questions 98 – 103

• Read the article below about careers advice and answer questions 98 – 103 on the
opposite page.
• For questions 98 – 103, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet.

Keys to unlock path of career fulfilment


It used to be called vocational guidance. Then it became careers advice and counselling. Since the late
1920s there have been various tests to help guide bewildered and guileless school leavers into job
categories suited to their interests and abilities. Hence extroverts have been advised, wisely, to go into sales
and marketing, where they thrive on the variability, people-contact and air of optimism. Introverts on the other
hand find the quiet work of accounts, stores and engineering, where they can work alone in a less people-
orientated, frenetic atmosphere, more to their taste.

But good careers advisors need to look at other factors when giving advice. For example, career counselling
is flawed if it fails to allow for the possibility of people adapting to, and changing, their jobs once they are in
them. Most organisations attempt through various explicit (induction, mentoring, training, appraisal) and
implicit (reliance on observation) techniques to mould behaviour into an acceptable pattern. This means that
attitudes and even aptitudes of employees may be changed over the first year of employment, sometimes,
but not always, in the direction desired by the organisation. Thus a fit may easily and quickly develop into a
misfit and vice versa.

Individuals also change their jobs (without leaving them). They rearrange furniture, use space and technology
differently and personalise different aspects of the job. They can negotiate with colleagues, earn special
privileges and use other means to improve their role and output. In this sense, very soon they are doing the
job differently from their predecessors, and possibly from the way recommended by the company. However,
both adaptation of personal work-style and attempts to change the way of doing the job are more likely to
lead to a higher level of fit, because the changes are usually all attempts to increase fit.

And jobs themselves change. Organisational restructuring, the development of new technology, changes in
the market, and so on all mean that jobs evolve fairly fast. Because of the speed of technology, all jobs are in
a state of flux. Job analysis is therefore less relevant to careers advice. Counsellors’ analysis has to focus
instead on personal potential rather than current knowledge or skill. And the features of such analysis are
potential speed and thoroughness in the acquisition of new knowledge and skills.

The areas that are probably most predictive of these are intelligence and personality. Intelligence is probably
the best predictor of speed of learning. Often, intelligent people are curious and self-confident and hence
happy to tackle new tasks. Intelligent people are better and quicker at analysing both logical and deductive
and creative problems. Probably the most important personality dimensions are conscientiousness and
neuroticism. Conscientious people soon get a good reputation which serves them in good stead. Coupled
with ability, this trait is a sure-fire career winner. On the other hand neuroticism is a deep and abiding
handicap. It is not easy to ‘cure’ and can have a lasting effect on a career. The neurotic is unhappy and tends
to be dissatisfied, stressed and complaining in all jobs they have. The consistency of their behaviour leads
them to develop a poor reputation which of course can be self-fulfilling.

Success in the job in 2020 can be assessed now. We have little idea what the world of work will be like but
advisors can do a reasonable job in assessing the potential of the individual within it because they know the
predictors of success. And it is these predictors that counsellors need to attend to if they are to give the best
advice.

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98 What does the writer say about careers advice in the first paragraph?

A Those receiving it have sometimes disagreed with it.


B It has favoured certain types of people over others.
C Some of the standard advice given has been appropriate.
D It has acquired a more appropriate title than it used to have.

99 What does the writer say about organisations in the second paragraph?

A They can turn suitable employees into unsuitable ones.


B Many of them have a low opinion of careers advisors.
C They are unaware of the effect their methods have on new
employees.
D Many of them are unclear as to what they expect from new employees.

100 The writer says that when individuals make changes to their jobs,

A they usually concentrate on their physical working conditions.


B they generally have the best of intentions.
C they are often reprimanded as a consequence.
D they frequently pretend they are not doing this.

101 The writer’s main point in the fourth paragraph is that

A people have become less sure about which career would suit them.
B people no longer want to stay in the same job for a long time.
C the speed of change in the world of work has caused confusion.
D careers advice should no longer be based on the fixed nature of
specific jobs.

102 The writer contrasts conscientious people with neurotic people with regard to

A the kind of advice that can be given.


B their chances of finding employment.
C the impression they give to other people.
D their willingness to take advice.

103 What is the writer’s general view on careers advice in the article as a whole?

A It has had to allow for the fact that people now have higher
aspirations.
B Whether it is useful or not has become harder to assess.
C Predicting future developments has become a prime ingredient.
D It has become much less relevant in today’s world of work.

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PART TWO

Section Six
Questions 104 – 110

• A colleague has given you this text for the company's intranet for you to check.
• In some lines there is one wrong word.
• If there is a wrong word, write the correct word on your answer sheet.
• If there is no mistake, put a tick (") on your answer sheet.

Example:

Please note that there has been a increase in 0 an

the prices of some goods in the new catalogue 00 "

HOW TO USE COMPUTERS SAFELY

104 More than 90% of jobs now requiring IT skills, a fact that has made the appropriate

105 and safe use of technology a majority business issue for every employer, irrespective

106 by size or sector. There are some simple ways for employees to adapt and modify

107 the computers they use and so protect their health. Help your eyes by ensuring that

108 the font size and screen brightly are best suited to your particular needs. Also, make

109 sure your screen and keyboard are for the right height and angle to avoid the risk of

110 sitting awkwardly. Keep your wrists and fingers relaxation at all times, taking

frequent breaks and doing exercises to prevent injury.

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