# IMPROVE YOUR

Math

IMPROVE YOUR

Math
Problem Solving Made Simple for Middle School Math

Francine D. Galko

NEW YORK

Contents

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INTRODUCTION GETTING STARTED: Pretest SECTION 1: Whole Numbers Lesson 1: Order of Operations Lesson 2: Finding Squares and Square Roots Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 2: Fractions Lesson 3: Converting Fractions Lesson 4: Adding and Subtracting Fractions Lesson 5: Multiplying and Dividing Fractions Lesson 6: Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 3: Decimals Lesson 7: Adding and Subtracting Decimals Lesson 8: Multiplying and Dividing Decimals Real World Problems Answers and Explanations

vii 1 15 17 23 28 30 33 35 44 50 56 68 70 87 89 98 107 110
CONTENTS

v

vi

CONTENTS

SECTION 4: Percentages Lesson 9: Converting Percents, Decimals, and Fractions Lesson 10: Solving Percent Problems Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 5: Statistics Lesson 11: Finding Mean, Median, and Mode Lesson 12: Using Ratios and Proportions Lesson 13: Understanding Probability Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 6: Graphs, Tables, and Charts Lesson 14: Interpreting Pie Charts, Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs Lesson 15: Getting Information from Tables and Charts Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 7: Introduction to Algebra Lesson 16: Algebraic Expressions Lesson 17: Solving Algebraic Equations Real World Problems Answers and Explanations SECTION 8: Introduction to Geometry Lesson 18: Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles Lesson 19: Finding Perimeter, Circumference, Area, and Volume Lesson 20: Congruence and Similarity Lesson 21: The Pythagorean Theorem Real World Problems Answers and Explanations CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING: Posttest

121 123 132 141 143 157 159 165 180 186 189 199 201 212 227 235 241 243 254 260 262 275 277 294 307 320 326 329 343

Introduction

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M

iddle school is an exciting time of your life. It’s full of changes and challenges. By eighth

grade, you are expected to be proﬁcient in a number of areas—you’ll be required to take tests that measure your reading, writing, and math skills. So, take the time now to brush up your math skills before you hit high school.

INTRODUCTION vii

Real World Problems Each section ends with a set of Real World Problems. Each lesson tells you what kinds of key words and problems to look for when you are solving math problems. algebra. you’ll know that a quicker. you’ll see that the skills you’re learning aren’t important only for math tests. you’re given a chance to apply what you’ve learned with hundreds of practice problems. You’ll get extra information and more in-depth discussions when you see this icon. These aren’t the same old practice problems you’ll ﬁnd in other math books. You’ll ﬁnd this icon both in the lessons and in the answer key. so you can practice the shortcuts and see how they work in real problems. decimals. Sometimes math books assume you can follow explanations of difﬁcult concepts even when they move quickly or leave out steps. As you work through these problems. As you work through this book. These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in each section to situations you encounter every day. . and geometry. Then. long after you’ve worked through all the lessons in the book. S TEST TA NG TIP KI I Test Taking Tip This icon tells you about tips especially useful for taking math tests. you’ll ﬁnd step-bystep strategies for tackling the different kinds of math problems you are likely to ﬁnd on standardized tests and classroom math tests. you’ll notice that the lessons are sprinkled with all kinds of helpful tips and icons. Each section is divided into short lessons that explain the main concepts you need to know. easier way to solve a math problem follows. or major areas of math. and gives you step-by-step strategies to solve each kind of problem you will encounter. THIN K OUT IT AB Think About It This icon is used to signal another way of looking at a problem or concept. In each lesson. such as fractions. RTCUT HO Shortcut When you see this icon. so you can check your progress as you go along. That’s not the case with this book. Answers to the practice problems are provided at the end of each section. They are also important skills to know for questions that come up every day.viii IMPROVE YOUR MATH INTRODUCTION HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED This book is organized into eight sections. Look for these icons and the tips they provide. They cover additional strategies or well-organized information you can use as a reference.

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2

GETTING STARTED Pretest

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d

Pretest GETTING STARTED

3

1. Anne has two containers for water: A rectangular plastic pitcher with a base of 16 square inches, and a cylindrical vase with a radius of 2 inches and a height of 11 inches. If the rectangular pitcher is ﬁlled with water 9 inches from the bottom, and Anne pours the water into the vase without spilling, which of the following will be true? a. The cylinder will overﬂow. b. The cylinder will be exactly full. c. The cylinder will be ﬁlled to an approximate level of 10 inches. d. The cylinder will be ﬁlled to an approximate level of 8 inches. 2. What fraction of the ﬁgure is shaded in?

a. b. c. d.

1 2 1 4 2 3 3 8 12 4

3. Write a. 8 b. 4 c. 3 d. 2

as a whole number.

Use the chart below to answer Questions 4 and 5.
LAURIE’S JOGGING LOG DAY MILES JOGGED

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

4 3 33 5 23 23 3
2 1 1

4

GETTING STARTED Pretest

4. Which of the following correctly shows the difference between the number of miles Laurie jogged on Tuesday and the number of miles she jogged on Thursday? a. 3 1 + 2 1 3 3 b. 3 − 2 1 3 c. 3 1 − 2 2 3 3 d. 3 1 − 2 1 3 3 5. What was Laurie’s average daily jog for the week shown? a. 2 2 miles per day 3 b. 3 miles per day c. 3 1 miles per day 3 d. 3 2 miles per day 3 6. Rayeel jogs at an average rate of 5 1 miles per hour. If he just jogged 16 miles, how long has he 3 jogged so far? a. 3 hours b. 3 1 hours 3 c. 3 2 hours 3 d. 4 hours
1 7. Faleena was given a 110-question homework assignment. On Friday night, she did 5 of the assignment. On Saturday, she ﬁnished 1 of the remaining questions. On Sunday, she did another 1 of 4 3 the remaining questions. How many questions does Faleena have left? a. 23 b. 32 c. 44 d. 51

8. Adam collected the following amounts of change from under his living room furniture: 0.24, 0.75, 0.89, and 1.27. How much money did he ﬁnd altogether? a. \$315.00 b. \$31.50 c. \$3.15 d. \$0.315 9. Six students agree to equally divide the cost of materials needed for a project. If the total cost of materials is \$27.90, how much money does each student need to pay? a. \$4.50 b. \$4.65 c. \$6.75 d. \$6.80

Pretest GETTING STARTED

5

10. Which of the following percents is equivalent to the fraction a. 42% b.
42 50 %

42 50 ?

c. 84% d. 90% 11. Which of the following is 17% of 3,400? a. 200 b. 340 c. 578 d. 620 The pie chart below shows Charlie’s monthly expenses. Use this information to answer Question 12.

Car 12% Recreation 17% Rent 35%

Utilities 15% Food 21%

12. If Charlie’s total expenses are \$1,500 per month, how much does he spend on food over the course of two months? a. \$270 b. \$315 c. \$420 d. \$630 13. A scanner that usually sells for \$448 is on sale for 15% off. Which of the following represents the sale price of the scanner? a. \$448 − 15 b. 0.15 × \$448 c. \$448 − (0.15 × \$448) d. \$448 × 15

6

GETTING STARTED Pretest

14. Which of the following represents 3x + 15 = 32? a. 15 less than 3 times a number is 32 b. 32 times 3 is equal to 15 more than a number c. 15 more than 3 times a number is 32 d. 3 more than 15 times a number is 32 15. When 42 is subtracted from a number, the result is 56. What is the number? a. 14 b. 28 c. 54 d. 98 16. Look at the ﬁgure below. What is the value of y?
R 6
1

S 10 T

2

y

12

W

16

U

a. b. c. d.

15 20 30 40

17. What is the measure of angle 1 in the ﬁgure below?

3 60° 2 1

a. b. c. d.

15° 30° 45° 90°

Pretest GETTING STARTED

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18. 5 × 2 + 16 ÷ 4 = a. 6.5 b. 14 c. 20 d. 24 19. What is the length of one side of a square that has an area of 324 square inches? a. 18 inches b. 182 inches c. 19 inches d. 19 inches 20. A sack holds 3 purple buttons, 2 orange buttons, and 5 green buttons. What is the probability of drawing one purple button out of the sack and then—without replacing the ﬁrst button—drawing a second purple button out of the sack? a. 115 b. 15% c. d.
47 90 6.7 100

–– –– 21. What is the length of DC in the ﬁgure below?

A 6 D
a. b. c. d. 6 8 10 12

B 10

C

22. A bag contains 4 red tokens, 5 yellow tokens, and 3 blue tokens. What is the probability that the ﬁrst token drawn at random from the bag will be red? a. b. c. d.
1 3 1 4 1 5 1 12

8

GETTING STARTED Pretest

23. What is the perimeter of the triangle shown below?

24 cm

10 cm
a. b. c. d. 26 cm 37 cm 57 cm 60 cm

24. How many miles would you drive if you started in Los Angeles, drove to Chicago, and then drove to Boston?
U.S. CITY MILEAGE TABLE

Atlanta Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Los Angeles 1037 674 1398 2182

Boston 1037

Chicago 674 994

Denver 1398 1949 996

Los Angeles 2182 2979 2054 1059

994 1949 2979 996 2054

1059

a. b. c. d.

994 2,054 2,979 3,048

25. Evaluate m = n (10 − 3) + (15 − n), when n = 3. a. 27 b. 30 c. 33 d. 36

you can simplify the multiplication: 7 7 × 1 7 1 = 10 3 The improper fraction 130 is equal to the mixed number 3 1 . Here’s what Faleena does each day: Day Number of Questions Start Friday Saturday Sunday 110 minus minus minus 1 5 1 4 1 3 110. These concepts are covered in Lesson 5. You can further simplify your division by converting the mixed number to an improper fraction. Write the whole number 7 as a fraction ( 7 ). These concepts are covered in Lessons 3–6 and 11. These concepts are covered in Lessons 3–6. So your ﬁnal answer is 3 1 3 3 miles per day. you are being asked to multiply the number by that fraction. Using canceling. and then put this over 3: 23 = 70 3 70 3 10 tim es 1 3 plus Now you are ready to divide: 730 ÷ 7. When you are asked to take a fraction of another number. a. Begin by setting up a proportion: 5 1 miles jogged 3 1 hour = 16 miles jogged ? hours = 53 1 1 = 16 x Then. 6. or –22 88. c. so you can simplify this problem by writing it as the fol1 lowing division problem: 23 3 ÷ 7. invert it 1 ( 1 ) and multiply: 730 × 1 . You can simplify the multiplication by ﬁrst convert1 16 ing the mixed number 5 3 to the improper fraction 3 . 7. and 12. or –22 66. 16 3x 16 3x = 16 = 16 × 3 16 3 16 × x=3 So Rayeel has been jogging for 3 hours. add 1. or –22 88 66 44 So Faleena still has 44 questions left on her assignment. Multiply 23 × 3. cross multiply and solve for x.10 IMPROVE YOUR MATH GETTING STARTED Pretest Average = 23 1 3 7 The fraction bar is a division sign. .

a. set up an algebraic equation and solve for x. b. 6 12 = 10 y Cross multiply to solve for y. 17. the square root of 324 is 18. From the problem. . b. First. y = 20. Begin by letting x = the number you are looking for. These concepts are covered in Lessons 16 and 17. you simply follow the order of operations. To solve this problem. or side2. add and subtract numbers in order from left to right: 10 + 4 = 14 So. b. The problem is asking you to calculate the square root of 324 because the area of a square is side × side. So you can set up a proportion to solve for the missing length. and the length of one side of a square with an area of 324 square inches is 18 inches. From the diagram. 15. then divide 16 by 4: 5 × 2 + 16 ÷ 4 = 10 + 4 Then. These concepts are covered in Lesson 20. add 42 to each side of the equation to solve for x. 16. Then. 6y = 10 × 12 6y 6 = 120 6 y = 20 So. So.12 IMPROVE YOUR MATH GETTING STARTED Pretest So the answer is 15 more than 3 times a number is 32. multiply and divide numbers in order from left to right. 19. These concepts are covered in Lesson 17. So the answer is 30°. d. These concepts are covered in Lesson 2. The sides of similar triangles are proportional. To calculate the measure of angle 1. You multiply 5 by 2. the ﬁnal answer is 14. You also know that angle 2 is 60° because it is vertical to (or opposite of ) another 60° angle. you know that subtracting 42 from x gives you 56. Thus. so x − 42 = 56 Then. These concepts are covered in Lesson 1. 18. you ask yourself what number multiplied by itself equals 324: 18 × 18 is 324. You know that the triangles ΔRST and ΔUWT are similar because two of their angles are congruent. x − 42 = 56 + 42 + 42 x = 98 So the ﬁnal answer is 98. These concepts are covered in Lesson 18. Both triangles have right angles and angles 1 and 2 are vertical angles (which are congruent). you know that the sum of angles 1 and 2 is 90°. you simply subtract: 90 − 60 = 30.

a. you might let a = the length of A D and b = –– –– –– –– the length of DC . First. There are four red tokens (favorable outcomes) and twelve total tokens (possible outcomes). Next. a2 + b2 = c2 62 + b2 = 102 36 + b2 = 100 36 + b2 = 100 − 36 − 36 2 = 64 b b2 = b=8 64 So. These concepts are covered in Lesson 21. and c with –– –– the parts of the right triangle. The variable c must equal the length of A C because it is the hypotenuse. 2 and the probability of drawing a second purple button is 9 . Notice that the ﬁrst event— drawing a purple button out of the sack—affects the probability of the second event because it changes both the number of purple buttons still in the sack. So you can use the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2) to solve for the missing length. you multiply the two probabilities together to ﬁnd the probability that the two events will occur: 3 10 × 2 9 = 6 90 = 1 15 1 Therefore. For example. the probability of drawing a red token is 12 . determine the missing length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle. 3 . 23. These concepts are covered in Lesson 13. match up the variables a. b. the probability of drawing two purple buttons consecutively is 15 .Pretest GETTING STARTED IMPROVE YOUR MATH 13 20. as well as the total 3 number of buttons in the sack. First. a. These concepts are covered in Lesson 13. 21. b. plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem and solve. which reduces to your ﬁnal 1 answer. Then. First. d. the length of the missing leg is 8. determine the probability that each event will occur. Plug the variables into the equation and solve for c: a2 + b2 242 + 102 576 + 100 676 676 26 = c2 = c2 = c2 = c2 = c2 =c . Plug these numbers into the equation for probability: P (event) = number of favorable outcomes number of total outcomes = 4 12 4 Therefore. The probability of drawing the ﬁrst purple button is 10 . 22. Notice that ACD forms a right triangle. you can use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for the missing length. Since the triangle is a right triangle.

. So your ﬁnal answer is 60 cm. So you would drive 3. = 3 (10 − 3) + (15 − 3) = 3 (7) + (12) = 21 + 12 = 33 Thus. Now you are ready to calculate the perimeter of the triangle: 24 + 10 + 26 = 60.14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH GETTING STARTED Pretest So the length of the hypotenuse is 26 cm. 25. Add the two: 2. 24. These concepts are covered in Lesson 15. These concepts are covered in Lessons 1 and 16. Los Angeles to Chicago is 2.048. To evaluate an algebraic expression means to ﬁnd its value by plugging in the known values of its variables. Chicago to Boston is 994 miles.048 miles.054 miles. These concepts are covered in Lessons 19 and 21.054 + 994 = 3. c. d. So begin by replacing the variable n with the number 3: m = n (10 − 3) + (15 − n) = 3 (10 − 3) + (15 − 3) Follow the order of operations and solve for m. the answer is 33.

but the concepts in this section are important facts that need to be practiced and reinforced.= 1 SECTION ÷ Whole Numbers YOU HAVE PROBABLY covered these basic number operations and number concepts in previous math studies. you’ll learn how to use what you already know and apply that knowledge to solve math problems of any sort. . a clear understanding of these basic skills is a necessary foundation on which to build math proficiency. In this section. For all students.

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add (24 + 20 = 44). 6. In this lesson. multiplying. and dividing. subtracting. W SOLVING PROBLEMS WITH MULTIPLE STEPS You are familiar with the four basic operations. Sometimes a problem will ask you to do more than one operation. you could multiply (8 × 3 = 24). then divide (44 ÷ 4 = 11) to get 11. what should you do? 8 × 3 + 20 ÷ 4 = You could do the operations in order from left to right. These numbers include 6. This lesson will also help you review adding. 8. and so on. But you would not get the correct answer. subtracting. multiplying. you will learn speciﬁc ways to deal with numbers that 1 2 come in between whole numbers. In later lessons. and dividing whole numbers. 3 . 34. 1. 2. if you are asked to solve this problem. That is. 7. 2 .5. 5. and 9. For example. The cor- Order of Operations LESSON 1 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 17 . This lesson will show you how to determine which calculations to do and the order to do them in. or ways of calculating: adding.6. 4. you will work only with whole numbers.= 1 LESSON Order of Operations LESSON SUMMARY Many math problems require you to do more than one calculation. hole numbers are made up of ten digits: 0. 3.

Also. PRACTICE Solve the following problems using the order of operations. 5 × 7 + 16 ÷ 4 = 12.Order of Operations LESSON 1 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 19 S RTCUT HO continued from previous page If you know that 12 × 5 is 60. 9 × 7 + 8 ÷ 4 = 7. You cannot change the order of subtraction and division numbers and still get the correct answer. (3 + 4) × (2 + 6) = 4. 9 ÷ 3 + 7 = 6. which isn’t as quick to calculate at 60 × 7. (8 + 12) + (6 ÷ 2) = 5. Notice that if you did 12 × 7 ﬁrst. 1. you could do this calculation ﬁrst. (8 + 2) − 3 × 2 = 2. (18 + 6) ÷ (18 − 12) = 11. Regrouping the numbers can speed up your calculations. Keep in mind that all of the operations in the series must be either addition or multiplication for this shortcut to work. 12 + 8 − (20 × 2) ÷ 10 = 13. then you would end with 84 × 5. (10 × 4) + 12 − 6 = 9. 6 × (5 + 2) − 1 = 8. 3 × 9 − 15 ÷ 5 = 14. (9 + 3) × (18 ÷ 3) = 10. 14 − 1 − 4 ÷ 2 = . You can check your answers at the end of the section. remember that the order of the numbers in subtraction and division is important. Then calculate 60 × 7 (420). 9 × 5 + 3 ÷ 1 = 3.

11 + 5 + 4 × 3 + 7 = 18. Look for these clues when you have to choose the operations. ·) when you are asked to ﬁnd a product add the same number over and over . 8 × 4 + 21 ÷ 3 − 7 + 9 − 1 = CHOOSING AN OPERATION Often a problem will tell you exactly which operation you should do. 12 + 4 ÷ 4 × 4 + 7 = 16. 8 × 6 + 10 ÷ 2 = 19.20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 1 Order of Operations 15. 4 × 10 − 7 + 17 + 7 × 2 = 20. You add (+) when you are asked to ﬁnd a sum ﬁnd a total combine amounts Key words to look for: sum total altogether You subtract (−) when you are asked to ﬁnd a difference take away an amount compare quantities Key words to look for: difference take away how many more than how much less than how many fewer than how much is left over You multiply (×. However. (13 + 2) ÷ 3 + 2 = 17. sometimes you will have to translate the words in a word problem into the operations.

This lesson will explain what squares and square roots are and show you how to calculate them.= 2 LESSON Finding Squares and Square Roots LESSON SUMMARY Some math problems will ask you to calculate a square or a square root of a number. So the square of 4 is 4 × 4 = 16. that’s a good way to think about squares and square roots. W FINDING SQUARES A square of a number is just the number multiplied by itself. To Finding Squares and Square Roots LESSON 2 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 23 . As you’ll see in this lesson. hen you think of a square. How does this relate to a square-shaped ﬁgure? The area of a square is the amount of space a square takes up. you probably think of a box-shaped ﬁgure with four equal sides like the one shown here.

it means to multiply the number by itself. Thus. it’s a good idea to memorize common squares for standardized tests. That is why the area of a square is sometimes written as s squared. or to square the number. or 900. you multiply the length of one side by itself. Thus. 92 = 9 × 9 = 81. multiply it by itself. Example: Find 92. When a number is followed by a raised 2. or s 2. Any time a number is written with a 2 raised after it.24 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 2 Finding Squares and Square Roots calculate the area of a square. you should square it. Here are some common squares you might want to learn. Example: What is the square of 30? To ﬁnd the square of a number. SQUARES TO KNOW Number Square Calculation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 . the square of 30 is 30 × 30. NG TIP KI TEST TA I Although you can always calculate the square of a number by multiplying.

132 11. you are being asked to ﬁnd the square root of that number. 912 FINDING SQUARE ROOTS To ﬁnd a square root of a number you have to think backwards. or square root. If you have memorized the list of common squares. 252 15. 152 8. 22 2. It’s not as tricky as it sounds. That is. The answer to the problem. 162 4. the square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself equals the number given in the problem. When it is written over a number. 52 7. 262 13. 32 10. You will be given the area of an entire square. 352 14. 62 6. 1.Finding Squares and Square Roots LESSON 2 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 25 PRACTICE Solve each problem. You may have seen this symbol before: . You can check your answers at the end of the section. 72 12. This is the symbol for a square root. 122 5. 82 9. Keep reading. Ask yourself what number multiplied by itself equals 25. Even . is the length of only one side of the square. 92 3. this problem is not very hard. Example: What is 25? The problem is asking you to calculate the square root of 25.

the square root of 121 is 11. you can ﬁgure this problem out: 5 × 5 = 25. If it’s not the correct square root. TEST TA NG TIP KI I If you aren’t sure what the square root of a given square is.2 The problem is asking you to calculate the square root of 121. 22. Thus. Then multiply the number by itself. 17.26 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 2 Finding Squares and Square Roots if you haven’t learned the list of common squares yet. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 21. 19. 18. 20. make a guess. 64 36 49 81 361 529 625 . and the length of one side of a square with an area of 121 square inches is 11 inches. Example: What is the length of one side of a square that has an area of 121 square inches? Area = 121 in. Ask yourself what number multiplied by itself equals 121? You know that 11 × 11 is 121. 16. at least now you can make a better guess the second time! PRACTICE Solve each problem. though. So the square root of 25 is 5.

Thus. You know that 62 = 36 and 72 = 49. What is the length of one side of a square that has an area of 144 square inches? 29. sometimes math problems will ask you to calculate square roots that are not whole numbers. you are working only with whole numbers.600 square centimeters. you might be able to use a calculator to solve the problem. What is the length of one of its sides? 30. EXAMPLE: What is 45? The problem is asking you what number equals 45 when multiplied by itself. 24. Read the question carefully. the square root of 45 is a number between 6 and 7. 26.Finding Squares and Square Roots LESSON 2 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 27 23.600 441 0 3.600 28. In other cases. A square has an area of 576 square meters. NG TIP KI TEST TA I In this lesson. 25. Find the length of one of the sides of a square that has an area of 3. You can find a more precise answer using a calculator. . You might be asked to round your answer to a certain place. However. 27. 256 1.

REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 29 3. She wants to have a swimming party. Angela and Jon have been given a square of 64 square feet to decorate for the upcoming pep rally. she must hire one lifeguard for every 20 classmates. how much will it cost to hire the lifeguards for the party? 5. Candy is organizing an end-of-the-year party for her class. Each lifeguard charges \$8 per hour. He earns \$5 for his club for each sale. She thinks about 60 people will come to the party. Angela wants to outline their space with a gold fringe. Aidan sold two clocks for \$25 each and three clocks for \$32 each. As a member of the Marketing Club at school. In order to have a swimming party. How much will the club receive from Aidan’s sales? 4. If the party is scheduled to last for three hours. What length of gold fringe is needed? .

15. 12. 16. 5. 6. 9. 30 10 − 6 = 4 45 + 3 = 48 7 × 8 = 56 20 + 3 = 23 3 + 7 = 10 63 + 2 = 65 6 × 7 − 1 = 41 40 + 12 − 6 = 46 12 × 6 = 72 24 ÷ 6 = 4 35 + 4 = 39 12 + 8 − 40 ÷ 10 = 12 + 8 − 4 = 16 27 − 3 = 24 14 − 1 − 2 = 11 12 + 4 + 7 = 23 15 ÷ 3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7 11 + 5 + 12 + 7 = 35 48 + 5 = 53 40 − 7 + 17 + 14 = 64 32 + 7 − 7 + 9 − 1 = 40 (30 + 45) ÷ 5 = 15 81 ÷ 9 × 9 = 81 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 1 IMPROVE YOUR MATH . 2. 19. 13. 21. 20. 4. 14. 18.Answers & Explanations = 1 SECTION LESSON 1 1. 8. 7. 10. 11. 22. 3. 17.

2×2=4 9 × 9 = 81 16 × 16 = 256 12 × 12 = 144 6 × 6 = 36 5 × 5 = 25 15 × 15 = 225 8 × 8 = 64 3×3=9 13 × 13 = 169 7 × 7 = 49 26 × 26 = 676 35 × 35 = 1. 14. 4. multiply the number of hours she babysat by \$4.225 25 × 25 = 625 91 × 91 = 8. 27. divide the total number of lawns mowed by 3. Thus. 12. So. 19.000 ÷ \$25 = 120 lawns). 9. 13.5 = \$42. 20.5 hours (2 + 4 + 3.281 64 = 8 36 = 6 49 = 7 81 = 9 361 = 19 529 = 23 625 = 25 256 = 16 1. 21. 2. 24. calculate the number of hours Teresa babysat over the weekend. Since she charges \$4. First. Teresa made \$42. LESSON 2 1.5). 3.Section 1 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 31 9 × 6 + 12 = 66 7 − 3 + 2 × 8 = 20 (12 + 4) × 8 = 128 42 ÷ 6 − 3 = 4 (3 + 7) × (2 + 8) = 100 (15 + 5) ÷ (2 × 5) = 2 First. 26.600= 40 .74 babysitting over the weekend. 24. 15. Then. 23. 10.50 per hour for babysitting. 7. 22. Juan mowed 40 lawns last summer. 8.5) × \$4.000 ÷ \$25 ÷ 3 = 40 lawns. 6. 29. 16. 5. 18.74. One way to set up the problem is as follows: \$3. One way to set up the problem is as follows: (2 + 4 + 3. 30. 28. 17. She babysat for 9. 25. 11.50. determine how many lawns the three boys mowed altogether (\$3. 23.

mean questions. You’ll build up your competence dealing with fractions—no matter where they turn up. ratio questions. and so on. . geometry questions. chart questions. You’ll learn how to think about fractions and you’ll come to understand how they are used in your everyday life.= 2 SECTION Fractions ÷ FRACTIONS ARE INCLUDED in any type of math question you can think of: They’re in proportion questions.

.

you will use these skills to compare fractions. you learned some ways to work with whole numbers. or 9 . Lastly. The pizza is cut into nine slices. In this lesson. You will also learn how to reduce a fraction to lowest terms and how to convert a fraction to higher terms.= 3 LESSON Converting Fractions LESSON SUMMARY In Section 1. If one of you eats the whole pizza and doesn’t share with the other one. W hat exactly is a fraction? Imagine that you and a friend order a whole pizza for yourselves. You will learn what fractions are and how to write them. But what if you ate two slices and your friend ate three slices? Then you ate 9 Converting Fractions LESSON 3 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 35 . then you would eat nine 9 2 of the nine slices. you will begin working with fractions—numbers that represent parts of whole numbers.

2. Solve each problem. 6. A store that rents videos stocks 900 videos. What fraction of each week does the cafeteria serve hamburgers? 10. 5. What fraction of the students in Karen’s French class has visited France? 4. 8.38 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 3 Converting Fractions PRACTICE Write a fraction to represent the part of each whole that is shaded in. 9. 1. What fraction of the store’s videos is rated G? . 3. Out of twenty students in Karen’s French class. 7. The school cafeteria serves hamburgers every Friday. three have visited France. Only 40 of these videos are rated G. You can check your answers at the end of the section.

Even if the directions do not tell you to reduce to lowest terms. Begin by thinking of a number that will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. Example: Reduce 28 to lowest terms. Divide both the numerator and the denominator by the same whole number. then the fraction is said to be reduced to lowest terms.000 = 3 70 ■ If both numbers are even. .000 to lowest terms. you are dividing by 10. you can begin by dividing by 2. The whole number must divide evenly into both numbers. 300 7. you should always reduce your fractions to lowest terms. 7÷7 28 ÷ 7 1 7 = 1 4 7 28 . If only 1 divides into both numbers evenly. You know that 4 × 7 = 28. You can cross out two zeros in each number. look at the last digits of the numerator and denominator. then cross out the same number of zeros in each number. Often the directions on math tests will tell you to reduce fractions to lowest terms. To reduce a fraction to lowest terms.000 end in zeros. ■ If both the numerator and the denominator end in zero. but don’t end in zero. This is the standard and usual way to write fractions. Both 300 and 7. 300 EXAMPLE: Reduce 7. Crossing out two zeros at the end of each number is dividing by 100. S RTCUT HO No number other than 1 can divide into both 1 and 4 . so 1 4 is reduced If you don’t know where to begin to reduce a fraction. Continue to divide the numerator and denominator until there is no number other than 1 that can divide evenly into both numbers. you need to ﬁnd a fraction that is equal to the one you have and write it with a smaller numerator and denominator. so you can divide both numbers by 7. The fraction 4 is equal to to lowest terms. If you cross out one zero in each number.Converting Fractions LESSON 3 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 39 REDUCING FRACTIONS TO LOWEST TERMS The numerator and the denominator of a fraction are called terms.

you can reduce the fraction with only one step: 8÷8 24 ÷ 8 = 1 3 Notice that you get the same answer either way. you will have to divide more than one time. Both numbers are even. If you can ﬁnd the largest number that divides into both numbers. . divide by 2: 8÷2 24 ÷ 2 = 4 12 Then divide by 4: 4÷4 12 ÷ 4 = 1 3 If you begin by dividing by 8. Begin by dividing by 2: 12 ÷ 2 22 ÷ 2 ■ 12 = 6 11 Often when you begin reducing a fraction by dividing by a small number. If you begin by dividing by 2. you will have to divide again by 4: First. you can reduce the fraction faster—often in only one step.40 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 3 Converting Fractions S RTCUT HO continued from previous page EXAMPLE: Reduce 22 to lowest terms. 8 EXAMPLE: Reduce 24 to lowest terms.

27. 30. 26. 22. 3 9 1 ? PRACTICE Raise each fraction to higher terms with the denominator given. 21. 28. 23. 29. The new denominator is 9. 2 3 5 8 3 8 = = = ? 12 ? 32 ? 32 ? 40 ? 50 ? 39 ? 120 ? 100 12 20 9 10 7 13 3 10 20 50 2 9 1 8 = = = = = = = ? 810 ? 640 .42 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 3 Converting Fractions Example: 3 = 9 1 This problem asks you to raise 3 to 9ths. 1×3=3 Step 3: Write the answer to Step 2 over the new denominator. 9÷3=3 Step 2: Multiply the answer to Step 1 by the numerator. Step 1: Divide the denominator into the new denominator. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 24. 25.

The number with the higher numerator is larger. you can compare their numerators. . This is called finding a common denominator. 5 or 3 ? 6 4 To answer this question. EXAMPLE: Which fraction is larger. You might be asked which of two fractions is larger. you need to find a denominator that both 6 and 4 can divide into. 5 6 3 4 × × 2 2 3 3 = = 10 12 9 12 Then compare the numerators of the two fractions. you simply compare the numerators. for example. What if the fractions do not have the same denominator? One way to answer this type of question is to convert both fractions so that they have the same denominator. Then raise each fraction to higher terms with the same denominator. you know that 12 is larger than 192 . You could choose 24 (6 × 4 = 24). or 12. 152 or 182 ? You know that 8 is larger than 5.Converting Fractions LESSON 3 NG TIP KI IMPROVE YOUR MATH 43 TEST TA I Sometimes you will be asked to compare two or more fractions. 10 Because 10 is greater than 9. so 182 is larger than 152 . If the two fractions have the same denominator. If the two fractions have the same denominator. you can raise both fractions to higher terms with a common denominator. EXAMPLE: Which fraction is larger. First. Or you could be asked if two fractions are equal.

1 12 + 5 2 12 = 3. . TEST TA I When subtracting fractions. the order of the fractions is important. 4÷4 12 ÷ 4 = + 3 1 3 1 12 So. Write the numerator that you are subtracting from first. 2 8 Step 3: Reduce your answer to lowest terms. Then subtract as you would any two numbers. Step 1: Subtract the numerators. 5−3=2 Step 2: Write the difference over the common denominator.Adding and Subtracting Fractions LESSON 4 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 45 Step 2: Write the sum of the numerators over the denominator. 2÷2 8÷2 = 1 4 1 So. 4 12 Step 3: Reduce your answer to lowest terms. NG TIP KI 5 8 − 3 8 = 4. 1 Example: 8 − 8 Both fractions have the denominator 8.

12. are common denominators. So. The numbers that are the same. 24 is a common denominator for 1 1 1 4 and 6 . 1 . Example: Find a common denominator for 4 and 6 . 3. Before you can add or subtract unlike fractions. 1. 1 Another way to ﬁnd a common denominator is to multiply the denominators together. 8. 9. 2. 5. List multiples for each denominator. 16 Multiples of 6: 6. 10. 3. 24 The numbers 4 and 6 share the multiple 12. 5. and so on. 1 5 1 3 2 6 + + + 3 5 1 3 3 6 = = = + + 2 15 3 20 7 15 1 20 8 9 + + 1 15 6 20 = = − 2 9 = = = = = 7 10 3 11 12 25 4 15 − − − − 1 10 1 11 2 25 1 15 ADDING AND SUBTRACTING UNLIKE FRACTIONS Fractions that have different denominators are called unlike fractions. There are two main ways to ﬁnd a common denominator. 7. So.46 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 4 Adding and Subtracting Fractions PRACTICE Write the answer to each problem in lowest terms. 12. 4. 12 is a common denominator for 1 1 1 4 and 6 . Multiply the denominators together: 4 × 6 = 24. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Example: Find a common denominator for 4 and 6 . Multiples of 4: 4. or that are in common. 18. This process is called ﬁnding a common denominator. 6. 8. you ﬁrst need to change the fractions so that they have the same number in the denominator. Then compare the lists of multiples of each denominator. 4. One way is to multiply each denominator by 2.

The closer the number in the numerator is to the number in the denominator. 18. 19. 16. 1 1 4 4 9 9 = 1. the closer the fraction is to 1. . 15. 23. 25. 22. 1 5 2 7 + + 6 10 3 21 = = = 2 15 1 5 1 2 3 8 3 4 5 6 1 3 1 4 1 2 3 4 7 8 + 5 20 + + + − − − − − − − 6 12 1 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 9 1 5 1 9 = 1 6 + + = = = = = = = 3 16 6 20 3 9 = = = = 7 16 9 10 − − 1 4 12 15 TEST TA NG TIP KI I You know from the pizza example in Lesson 3 that fact. 12. In =1 =1 2 2 5 5 =1 =1 3 3 =1 and so on. 13.Adding and Subtracting Fractions LESSON 4 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 49 PRACTICE Write the answer to each problem in lowest terms. 17. 11. any number over itself is equal to 1. 14. 24. 21. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 20.

A recipe calls for 4 a cup of sugar to make two dozen brownies. Find 8 9 of 8 ? 5 of 6 . 7. 5. 2. To divide a fraction by another fraction follow these steps.Multiplying and Dividing Fractions LESSON 5 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 53 PRACTICE Write the answer to each problem in lowest terms. If one loop on the school’s track is a quarter mile. 3 11. Step 1: Invert the second fraction. Jake ran half way around his school’s track. how far did Jake run? DIVIDING FRACTIONS Dividing fractions is very similar to multiplying fractions. What is 10. 8. 3. 1. write the numerator on the bottom and the denominator on the top. Elizabeth wants to make only one dozen brownies. 4. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Step 3: Write the answer in lowest terms. Step 2: Multiply the two fractions. How much sugar does she need? 12. 3 4 1 3 inverts to 4 3 . 6. Example: 3 ÷ 4 Step 1: Invert the second fraction. That is. 1 3 2 5 × × 1 2 1 5 = = = 3 12 6 7 × 4 20 × 3 4 = = = = 2 20 7 21 × × 6 8 3 7 3 100 3 7 × 7 9 10 17 × = 6 15 5 9.

54 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 5 Multiplying and Dividing Fractions Step 2: Multiply. 10 1 inverts to 1 10 Step 2: Multiply. 1 3 × 4 3 = 4 9 Step 3: The numbers 4 and 9 can both be divided evenly only by 1. TEST TA NG TIP KI 4 I Some math problems include whole numbers and fractions. so this fraction is already written in lowest terms. The answer is 1 50 . so this fraction is already written in lowest terms. The answer is 9 . 1 5 × 1 10 = 1 50 Step 3: The numbers 1 and 50 can both be divided evenly only by 1. 1 5 ÷ 10 1 = Step 1: Invert the second fraction. You can write a whole number as a fraction by writing the whole number over 1. 1= 2= 3= 4= 5= 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 and so on 1 EXAMPLE: 5 ÷ 10 = Rewrite the question so that the whole number is a fraction. .

She wants to make as many batches of cookies for a bake sale 2 as possible. 1 4 1 3 1 2 3 9 1 8 1 9 2 7 1 8 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 3 1 2 5 6 = = = = 8 10 1 3 1 6 2 5 3 4 = = = = = = = 1 2 25 1 20 1 60 ÷ ÷ ÷ 4 5 9 10 5 12 24. 19. 16. 23. Thuy has ten cups of brown sugar. His mother told him to use about 3 pound of meat for each burger. 22. 21. 18. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 20. 14. remember that the bar in a fraction means to divide the top number by the bottom number. If each batch of cookies requires 3 cup of brown sugar. 15.) .Multiplying and Dividing Fractions LESSON 5 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 55 PRACTICE Write the answer to each problem in lowest terms. Jason helped make hamburgers for his family’s cookout. 17. 13. how many batches of cookies can Thuy make? (Hint: When writing your ﬁnal answer to this problem. How many burgers can he make if he has ﬁve pounds of meat? 25.

= 6
LESSON

Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers
LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson, you will learn the difference between a proper fraction and an improper fraction and how to convert an improper fraction to a mixed number. You will also practice adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing when a problem includes an improper fraction or a mixed number.

o far, the fractions you have been working with in this book have all been proper fractions. A proper fraction is one in which the numerator is smaller than the denominator. These are examples of proper 1 2 5 34 fractions: 2 , 3 , 6 , 91 , and so on. Proper fractions are always equal to less than 1. They represent a part of whole.

S

WHAT ARE IMPROPER FRACTIONS?
The numerator of an improper fraction is greater than its denominator. Here are some examples of 4 25 12 10 improper fractions: 2 , 5 , 4 , 3 , and so on. Remember that the bar in a fraction means to divide the top number by the bottom number. Now, look again at the examples of improper fractions. 4 4 Let’s try dividing the ﬁrst one: 2 . What is 4 ÷ 2? Yes, it’s 2. So the improper fraction 2 = 2. Now 25 25 you try 5 . Do you see that 5 = 5? Notice the pattern here. Improper fractions are all equal to or greater than 1.

56

LESSON 6 Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers LESSON 6

57

Example: Write a fraction to represent the shaded part of the ﬁgure.

To solve this problem, you ﬁrst count the number of equal parts the circles have been divided into. Each circle is divided into four wedges of equal size, so the denominator of the fraction is 4. Then count 15 the number of the parts that are shaded in: 15. So the fraction that is shaded in is 4 . Notice that this is an improper fraction because 15 is greater than 4.

PRACTICE
Write a fraction to represent the shaded part of each ﬁgure. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 1.

2.

58

LESSON 6 Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

3.

4.

5.

CONVERTING IMPROPER FRACTIONS TO WHOLE NUMBERS AND MIXED NUMBERS
Many improper fractions are equal to whole numbers. For example, 2 = 2 and 5 = 5. But some improper fractions are not equal to a whole number. They represent a whole number plus a proper fraction. A 2 1 whole number plus a proper fraction is called a mixed number. Examples of mixed numbers are 1 3 , 3 2 , 7 25 8 , and so on. Improper fractions should usually be converted to whole numbers or mixed numbers when writing your ﬁnal answer to a problem. Here’s how to convert an improper fraction to a mixed number. Step 1: Divide the numerator by the denominator. Step 2: Write the number of times the denominator divides into the numerator as the whole number part of the mixed number. Step 3: Write the remainder on top of the improper fraction’s denominator. Example: Convert 3 to a mixed number. Step 1: Divide the numerator by the denominator. 3 13
13 4 25

Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers LESSON 6

59

Step 2: Write the number of times the denominator divides into the numerator as the whole number part of the mixed number. 4 3 13 so the mixed number will begin with the whole number 4 −12 Step 3: Write the remainder on top of the improper fraction’s denominator. 4 The whole number is the 1 whole number part of the 4 3 13 so you write 1 over 3, to get 3 You keep mixed number. the same 3 13 −12 denominator –12 1 The remainder

1
The mixed number equal to
THIN K

becomes the new numerator.

13 3

is 4 3 .

1

OUT IT AB

What if the improper fraction in the last example had been 12 3 ? Let’s follow the same steps. Step 1: Divide the numerator by the denominator. 3 12 Step 2: Write the number of times the denominator divides into the numerator as the whole number part of the mixed number. 4 so the mixed number will begin 3 12 with the whole number 4 −12 Step 3: Write the remainder on top of the improper fraction’s denominator. 4 if there is no remainder, then 3 12 the answer is a whole number −12 0 12 The whole number equal to 3 is 4. When there is no remainder, the answer will be a whole number rather than a mixed number.

60

LESSON 6 Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

PRACTICE
Convert each improper fraction to a mixed number or a whole number. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
7 7 15 3 5 4 36 6 7 5 29 4 50 7 500 50 14 4 65 60

CONVERTING WHOLE NUMBERS AND MIXED NUMBERS TO IMPROPER FRACTIONS
When multiplying a whole number or a mixed number with a fraction, you will need to convert the whole number or mixed number to an improper fraction. You already know how to change a whole number into an improper fraction: you just write the whole number over 1. Example: Convert 12 to an improper fraction. 12 Write the whole number over 1: 1 . Here’s how to convert a mixed number to an improper fraction. Step 1: Multiply the whole number part of the mixed number by the denominator of the fraction. Step 2: Add the numerator of the fraction to the product (the answer to step 1). Step 3: Write the sum (the answer to step 2) as the numerator in the improper fraction. Step 4: Keep the same denominator. Example: Convert 2 3 to an improper fraction. Step 1: Multiply the whole number part of the mixed number by the denominator of the fraction. 2×3=6
2

Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers LESSON 6

61

Step 2: Add the numerator of the fraction to the product (the answer to step 1). 6+2=8 Step 3: Write the sum (the answer to step 2) as the numerator in the improper fraction. So the numerator in the new fraction will be 8. Step 4: Keep the same denominator. So the denominator in the new fraction will be 3. The answer is 3 .
8

PRACTICE
Convert each number to an improper fraction. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 16. 17 17. 6 2 18. 3 4 19. 5 6 20. 7 5 21. 12 3 22. 8 7 23. 1 50 24. 2 40 25. 6 10
4 23 3 6 2 4 1 3 1

When adding and subtracting mixed numbers, you add the fractions and the whole numbers separately and then put them together at the end. Follow these steps to add mixed numbers. Step 1: If the fractions do not have a common denominator, change them into fractions with a common denominator. Step 2: Add the numerators of the fractions. Write the sum over the common denominator. Step 3: Add the whole numbers.

62

LESSON 6 Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

Step 4: If your answer includes an improper fraction, convert the improper fraction to a mixed number and add it to the whole number part of your answer. Example: 3 5 + 6 5 = Step 1: If the fractions do not have a common denominator, change them into fractions with a common denominator. Both
1 5 1 3

and

3 5

have a 5 in the denominator, so you do not need to do anything.

Step 2: Add the numerators of the fractions. Write the sum over the common denominator. 1 + 3 = 4, so 4 is the numerator of your new fraction. 4 The new fraction is 5 . Step 3: Add the whole numbers. 3+6=9 Step 4: Write the whole number and the fraction beside one another. 95 Step 5: If your answer includes an improper fraction, convert the improper fraction to a mixed number and add it to the whole number part of your answer. Because 4 is less than 5, 4 is 9 5 .
4 3 4 5 4

is a proper fraction. You do not need to do anything. The answer

Example: 1 5 + 7 4 = Step 1: If the fractions do not have a common denominator, change them into fractions with a common denominator. Both 5 and 4 have different denominators, so you need to ﬁnd a common denominator. You might choose to use 20 as a common denominator since both 4 and 5 divide evenly into 20.
4×4 5×4 3×5 4×5 4 3

= =

16 20 15 20

Step 2: Add the numerators of the fractions. Write the sum over the common denominator. 16 + 15 = 31, so 31 is the numerator of your new fraction. 31 The new fraction is 20 . Step 3: Add the whole numbers. 1+7=8

2 2 × 3 3 = 37. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 36. Reduce your answer to lowest terms. 11 3 × 3 5 = 11 3 1 × 3 5 1 = 11 5 Step 4: Change any improper fractions to proper fractions. 4 5 ÷ 1 5 = 43. 1 6 × 4 8 = 41. 3 2 ÷ 1 3 = 44.Working with Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers LESSON 6 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 67 Step 2: Invert the second fraction. 6 2 × 9 4 = 40. 4 5 × 3 4 = 39. 1 PRACTICE Multiply or divide the mixed numbers. Reduce your answers to lowest terms. 5 3 inverts to 3 5 Step 3: Multiply the fractions. 2 5 11 −10 1 So your answer written in lowest terms is 2 5 . 5 3 ÷ 2 5 = 42. 5 3 × 2 5 = 38. 5 10 ÷ 3 2 = 45. 9 8 ÷ 5 4 = 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 .

1. However. what fraction of the granola bars are left over at the end of the school week? 2. about how much time should you allow for each one? 68 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 1 1 REAL WORLD PROBLEMS . They are important skills for ordinary questions that come up every day. how long will it take him? 3. It takes him 3 2 minutes to play the new song this week. the answer is greater than the number you are dividing. If Toby takes one granola bar to school in his lunch each day. The directions on an exam allow 2 2 hours to answer 50 questions. Toby’s mother buys a package of eight granola bars for his lunch each week. If you want to spend an equal amount of time on each of the 50 questions. Patrick plays the ﬂute. As you work through these problems.Real World Problems ÷ x These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 2 to every day situations. the answer is less than the number you are dividing. If Patrick needs to practice the song six times each day. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. TEST TA NG TIP KI I When you divide by a proper fraction. You can check your answers at the end of the section. when you divide by an improper fraction.

As part of a school project. What fraction of the people who said recycling is important buys things made from recycled materials? 6. 7 4 gallons. 8 said that recycling is important. Jackie did a survey for her social studies project. Kyril’s parents allow him to work 10 hours per week after school and on weekends. Here is a list of the ingredients needed to make 16 brownies. This 1 1 3 week he walked 1 2 miles on Tuesday. Sunita recorded how much gasoline her family put in their car in one 7 1 3 month. How many more hours is Kyril allowed to work this week? 9. How much gasoline did Sunita’s family put in their car for the month? 10. To run a total of three and a half miles. Julien walks three days a week. Jason works in a pizza delivery restaurant. Her family bought 8 2 gallons. Of the people Jackie talked to. This week 1 he has already worked 8 3 hours. He keeps track of the number of miles he walks each week. On Friday. how many complete laps must a person complete? 7. and 6 10 gallons over the month. How much cheese is left over for pizzas on Monday? 1 2 3 . One lap on a particular outdoor track measures a quarter of a mile around. Jason used half of the cheese over the weekend. How many miles did Julien walk this week? 8. Only 3 of the people who said recycling is important said that they also buy things made from recycled materials. the restaurant received 22 2 pounds of cheese.REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 69 4. DELUXE BROWNIES cup butter 5 squares (1 ounce each) unsweetened chocolate 1 1 2 cups sugar 2 teaspoons vanilla extract 2 eggs 1 cup ﬂour How much sugar is needed to make 8 brownies? 5. She asked people if they thought that recycling 7 1 is important. 3 4 miles on Thursday. and 2 4 miles on Saturday.

S RTCUT HO Since both the numerator and the denominator end in zero. Nine will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. Fifty will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. Thus. to begin reducing. so you reduce the fraction 50 150 50 3 by dividing by 50 : 250 ÷ 50 = 5 . Two will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. determine the denominator. so you reduce the frac7 7 7 1 tion by dividing by 7 : 49 ÷ 7 = 7 . First. you can cross out a zero (which is the same as dividing by ten). and you get 25 ÷ 5 = 5 . 11. so you reduce the frac9 18 9 2 tion by dividing by 9 : 27 ÷ 9 = 3 . The store carries 900 videos. 45 of the store’s videos are rated G. so you reduce the fraction 12 12 12 1 by dividing by 12 : 48 ÷ 12 = 4 . so the fraction of the store’s videos that is rated G is 900 . Only 40 40 of these videos are rated G. 15. . One-hundred twenty will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. 14. 16. so you reduce the frac2 42 2 21 tion by dividing by 2 : 88 ÷ 2 = 44 . Then. so you 120 240 120 2 reduce the fraction by dividing by 120 : 360 ÷ 120 = 3 S RTCUT HO Since both the numerator and the denominator end in zero. and you get 36 ÷ 12 = 3 . so you reduce the fraction 9 9 9 1 by dividing by 9 : 81 ÷ 9 = 9 . you easily see that both 24 12 2 numbers are divisible by 12. so the denominator is 900. Twelve will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator.Section 2 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 71 10. Then. Nine will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. to begin reducing. making the number smaller and easier 240 24 to manage: 360 becomes 36 . making the number smaller and easier 150 15 to manage: 250 becomes 25 . Reduce 4 2 2 2 the fraction to lowest terms: 90 ÷ 2 = 45 . 12. 17. you can cross out a zero (which is the same as dividing by ten). 13. you easily see that both 15 5 3 numbers are divisible by 5. Seven will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator.

The final answer 20. 21. Cancel as follows: S RTCUT HO 1 1 20 2 × 10 9 = 1 18 1 18 . Cancel by dividing by 4: 4 1 8 2 × 4 3 1 = 1 6 1 The final answer is 6 . Invert the second fraction and multiply the two fractions: S RTCUT HO 1 1 2 25 × 4 . 1 7 × 5 1 5 = 7 . The final answer is . Cancel by dividing by 5 and 2: 5 2 25 5 × 5 4 2 = 1 10 1 10 . Invert the second fraction and multiply the two fractions: S RTCUT HO 1 8 × 3 . Invert the second fraction and multiply the two fractions: 1\20 × 10\9. The final answer is 22.78 IMPROVE YOUR MATH RTCUT HO 1 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 2 S 2 7 × 5 2 1 You have simplified your problem to 5 is 7 .

2 Divide 7 by 5 to get the mixed number: 1 5 . The final answer is 24. Cancel as follows: S RTCUT HO 5 5 1 10 1 × 3 2 1 = 15 1 = 15 Thus. 4. invert the second fraction and multiply the two frac10 3 tions: 1 × 2 . First. invert the second fraction and multiply the two frac5 3 tions: 1 × 1 = 15. 2. 1 Divide 65 by 60 to get the mixed number: 1 12 . 1 Divide 50 by 7 to get the mixed number: 7 7 . 5. Jason can make 15 burgers using the meat. . 8. Thus.Section 2 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 79 23. Thuy can make 15 batches of cookies. 10. 1 Divide 14 by 4 to get the mixed number: 3 2 . Divide 500 by 50 to get the whole number: 10. Then. 7. Then. 6. 12. 14. Cancel as follows: 1 60 5 × 12 5 = 1 25 1 25 . 1 Divide 5 by 4 to get the mixed number: 1 4 . Divide 15 by 3 to get the whole number: 5. 15. 3. 11. Divide 36 by 6 to get the whole number: 6. 1 Divide 29 by 4 to get the mixed number: 7 4 . Invert the second fraction and multiply the two fractions: S RTCUT HO 1 1 60 × 12 5. set up the problem: 1 ÷ 3 . 13. 9. set up the problem: 1 ÷ 3 . 10 2 25. First. 5 1 2 or 2 2 9 1 8 or 1 8 8 2 3 or 2 3 10 2 6 or 1 3 7 1 2 or 3 2 Divide 7 (the numerator) by 7 (the denominator) to get the whole number: 1. LESSON 6 1.

First. you invert the second fraction and multiply. you change the improper fraction to a proper fraction: 51 16 16 35 = 1 35 . Use canceling to simplify the multiplication. S RTCUT HO 3 5 3 8 5 6 1 × 7 2 1 = 21 1 = 21 Thus.Section 2 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 83 44. 45. Your final answer is 1 46 . and 3 2 becomes 2 . change the mixed numbers to improper fractions: 9 8 becomes 8 . you invert the second fraction and multiply. and 5 4 becomes 4 . set the problem up as follows: 1 × 3 2 . First. Your final answer is 1 35 . . 6 1 2. S RTCUT HO 1 51 1 7 51 10 5 × 2 7 1 = 51 35 Next. Then. it takes Patrick 21 minutes to practice the song six times. S RTCUT HO 1 1 73 3 23 73 8 2 × 4 23 = 73 46 Next. so he has 8 ( 8 − 8 ) left over. First. Toby takes 8 of the package of granola bars in his school lunch each week. REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 1. Change the mixed number to an improper fraction and cancel as shown below. you change the improper fraction to a proper fraction: 73 27 27 46 = 1 46 . Then. Use canceling to simplify the multiplication. change the mixed numbers to improper fractions: 5 10 becomes 10 .

cancel as shown below. 4 cup of sugar is needed to make eight brownies. Write 20 as a proper fraction to get 3. Then. S RTCUT HO 1 7 2 1 × 4 1 2 = 14 1 = 14 1 It takes 14 complete laps to make 3 2 miles. you should spend three minutes on each problem. First. 24 of the people surveyed think recycling is important and buy recycled products. Change the whole number to a fraction and invert it. . 1 1 6. Change the mixed number to an improper fraction and invert it. To calculate. Thus. cancel as shown below. Thus. you should spend three minutes on each problem. Then. Then. RTCUT HO 1 S A shortcut for this problem is to divide the total number of 1 minutes (2 2 × 60 = 150) by the number of questions (50): 150 ÷ 50 = 3. set the problem up as follows: 1 2 ÷ 2. 7 7 7 1 5. Change the mixed number to an improper fraction and invert the second fraction. Thus. Set the problem up as follows and multiply: 8 × 3 = 24 . First. Thus. set the problem up as follows: 2 ÷ 50. set the problem up as follows: 3 2 ÷ 4 . 4. you should spend 20 of an hour on each question. First. the number of minutes 1 60 60 60 you should spend on each question: 20 × 1 (there are 60 minutes in one hour) = 20 . Change the mixed number to an improper frac3 1 3 3 tion.84 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 2 3. mulitply: 2 × 2 = 4 . S RTCUT HO 1 5 5 2 × 1 50 10 = 1 20 So.

sub3 1 2 2 tract: 9 3 − 8 3 = 1 3 hours. First. Add the whole numbers and reduce the fraction to lowest terms: 6+1=7 2 1 4 = 2 1 1 7 + 2 = 72 1 He walked 7 2 miles last week. 1 . Then.Section 2 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 85 7. set the problem up as follows: 22 2 × 2 . Thus. First. set the problem up as follows: 1 4 + 3 4 + 2 4 = 6 + 4 . Convert 4 to a mixed number: 2 1 4 . Add the whole number and the mixed number: 21 + 1 20 19 19 = 22 20 . Convert the improper fraction to a mixed number. they put 22 20 gallons in their car over the month. Borrow 1 from the 10 3 1 and write the 1 as a fraction with the same denominator as the fraction: 9 3 − 8 3 . First. There are 1 11 4 pounds of cheese left over for Monday. 2 1 3 6 6 6 4 = 8. Convert the improper 39 19 19 fraction to a mixed number: 20 = 1 20 . You will have to regroup. Kyril can work 1 3 hours more this week. 1 1 10. 10 15 14 39 9. set the problem up as follows: 10 − 8 3 . Change the mixed number to an improper frac45 1 45 tion and multiply: 2 × 2 = 4 . First. set the problem up as follows and add: 8 20 + 7 20 + 6 20 = 21 + 20 .

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You’ll compare them. . convert them to fractions. You’ll come to understand that a decimal is a special kind of fraction that you use every day when you deal with measurements or money. and you will also learn how to perform mathematical operations with them.= 3 SECTION Decimals ÷ THIS SECTION WILL introduce you to the idea of decimals. You’ll sharpen your skills so you know them cold! You will learn what decimals are and how to read them.

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= 7 LESSON Adding and Subtracting Decimals LESSON SUMMARY In Section II. In this lesson. Those to the right of the decimal point are fractions. f you’ve ever gone shopping. you know that \$1. Adding and Subtracting Decimals LESSON 7 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 89 . You will also learn how to write decimals so they are easy to add and subtract. then you are familiar with decimals. Like fractions. either to the far left or somewhere in the middle.50 is neither one whole dollar nor two whole dollars. of whole numbers. The dot is called a decimal point. For example. decimals represent parts of whole numbers. you learned how to work with parts of a whole that are represented by fractions. It’s one dollar and one-half of another 1 dollar. or parts. or a period. Another way to write 1.50 is 1 2 . you will begin working with decimals—another way of writing parts of a whole. You will learn what decimals are and how to read them. I HOW TO READ A DECIMAL Notice that decimals are numbers written with a dot. We use decimals to represent amounts of money. The numbers to the left of the decimal point are whole numbers.

The 2 stands for 2 hundreds. DECIMAL AND FRACTION EQUIVALENTS TO KNOW Fraction 1 100 1 10 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 9 10 Decimal 0. for example. The names and positions of several place values are shown below. . The 3 stands for 3 tens.80 0. it’s a good idea to know common decimal and fraction equivalents for standardized tests. Each digit to the right of a decimal point also has a place value.5 0.2 0. And the 4 stands for 4 ones.67 0.90 IMPROVE YOUR MATH NG TIP KI LESSON 7 Adding and Subtracting Decimals TEST TA I Although you can always convert a fraction to a decimal by dividing the numerator by the denominator.01 0.1 0.33 0. Here are some common decimals and fractions you might want to learn. A place value is a position in the number. te th te te re ou dths s te and nth ths hu ous nd a re ndt dhs th ou sa nd us th o an ds ds an us re an th o re ds d- nd us nd hs n- ns es hu nt nd th .25 0. So.234 represents a place value.90 You probably already know that each digit in the number 1.234 stands for 1 thousand. s ds th o hu on hu .75 0. the 1 in 1. These are the place values that occur to the left of a decimal point.

9. +5. EXAMPLE: 12 + 5.10 16.23 6.23 + 6. It will always come to the right of the whole number.35 The correct answer is 16. 9. Write the decimal into the whole number.02 +1.35.23 6.94 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 7 Adding and Subtracting Decimals Example: 9. 9.013 Step 1: Write the numbers so that the decimal points are lined up.1 Step 2: Make sure that all the decimals have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point by adding zeros to the end of shorter decimals. Step 4: Add the decimals just as you would if you were adding whole numbers.23 6.02 +1.23 6.013 .02 +1.10 . OUT IT AB THIN K How would you add a whole number and a decimal together? You would follow the same steps. 9.02 + 1.1 Step 1: Write the numbers so that the decimal points are lined up.10 Step 3: Write the decimal point in the answer so that it lines up with the decimal points in the problem. 12.02 +1.

21. 1. 3. 12.000 +5. You can check your answers at the end of the section. PRACTICE Add the following decimals.03 + 4.013 The correct answer is 17.Adding and Subtracting Decimals LESSON 7 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 95 THIN K OUT IT AB continued from previous page Step 2: Make sure that all the decimals have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point by adding zeros to the end of shorter decimals. 12.7 + 4.013.01 + 2.013 Step 3: Write the decimal point in the answer so that it lines up with the decimal points in the problem.67 . 12.5 + 6 23.90 24. 22.013 . 12.000 +5.000 +5. Step 4: Add the decimals just as you would if you were adding whole numbers.013 17.1 22.4 + 5. 13.89 25.

Step 4: Subtract the decimals just as you would if you were subtracting whole numbers. Step 4: Subtract the decimals—don’t forget to borrow! 10 10 11. − 5. 3.005 28. Step 3: Write the decimal point in the answer so that it lines up with the decimal points in the problem.0 − 5.2 Step 3: Write the decimal point in the answer so that it lines up with the decimal points in the problem. 4.3 SUBTRACTING DECIMALS Subtracting decimals is very similar to adding them.5 + 5 + 2. Step 1: Write the numbers so that the decimal points are lined up.2 Step 1: Write the numbers so that the decimal points are lined up.05 + 0.0 − 5.8 + 3. 11.01 + 5 29. 11.0 − 5.96 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 7 Adding and Subtracting Decimals 26.2 Step 2: Make sure that all the decimals have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point by adding zeros to the end of shorter decimals.09 30. 4.14 + 8 + 2.601 + 3.8.8 The correct answer is 5. 11. Example: 11 − 5. Follow these steps to subtract decimals.2 5.2 . 3. Step 2: Make sure that all the decimals have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point by adding zeros to the end of shorter decimals.45 27. 4. .

79 − 6. 31. 9.9 36.105 .999 40.2 32. 4. You can check your answers at the end of the section.Adding and Subtracting Decimals LESSON 7 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 97 PRACTICE Subtract the following decimals.41 − 2.83 37.3 − 2.3 33. 9. 3 − 2. 10 − 1. 5.5 − 2. 5. 8.3 − 6.003 − 1. 8 − 4.8 35.99 39. 7.65 34.1 − 7.2 38.

When multiplying decimals. 98 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 8 Multiplying and Dividing Decimals .= 8 LESSON Multiplying and Dividing Decimals LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. Step 1: Multiply the numbers as if you were working with whole numbers. I f you can multiply and divide whole numbers. follow these steps. you come back to the decimal point. You can ignore the decimal points for now. then you can multiply and divide decimals. Placing the decimal point in your answer is just a matter of counting place values. The main thing to watch out for is the placement of the decimal point. Then. Step 2: Now count the number of decimal places to the right of the decimal point—in each number you are multiplying. you will learn how to multiply and divide decimals. you begin as if you were working with whole numbers. MULTIPLYING DECIMALS When you multiply decimals.

Then. so you move the decimal point over one place in 0. The number 100 has two zeros. too. Your calculator omitted these zeros in its answer. And you can. when you write your final answer. EXAMPLE: 100 0. S RTCUT HO When multiplying by a multiple of 10.5 Step 1: Count the number of zeros in the multiple of 10. The number 10 has only one zero.5. Example: 0. That’s 2 for this problem. You counted one zero in step one. such as 10.25. 100. Step 2: Move the decimal point in the decimal you are multiplying to the right the number of zeros you counted in Step 1.5 × 0.100 IMPROVE YOUR MATH NG TIP KI LESSON 8 Multiplying and Dividing Decimals TEST TA I continued from previous page As you know.5 Step 1: Count the number of zeros in the multiple of 10. count out the number of decimal places you found in step 2. The answer is 5. zeros at the end of the decimal do not change its value. 5 × 5 = 25 Step 2: Count the number of decimal places to the right of the decimal point—in each number you are multiplying.25 The answer is 0. . Both numbers have one decimal place to the right of decimal point: 1 + 1 = 2. Step 3: Beginning with the digit farthest to the right in your answer. write the decimal point to the left of the last digit counted: 0.5 Step 1: Multiply the numbers. 1. and so on.000. you just have to move the decimal point to the right. EXAMPLE: 10 × 0.

0. 0. so you move the decimal point over two places in 0.5 × 2.5 × 10 2.5 8. 4 × 3. PRACTICE Multiply the following decimals. You counted two zeros in step one. so you add zeros to the right of the 5.3 3.007 6.01 × 2.6 × 0.5. 0. 1.92 × 1000 4.1 5.004 9.5.Multiplying and Dividing Decimals LESSON 8 RTCUT HO IMPROVE YOUR MATH 101 S continued from previous page Step 2: Move the decimal point in the decimal you are multiplying to the right the number of zeros you counted in Step 1.01 10. 1.005 × 0. You can check your answers at the end of the section.001 . 2. The answer is 50. 0.12 7.2 × 0. 0.4 × 0. 9. But there aren’t two places to move the decimal point in 0.00004 × 4. 3.

7.7 7 4. .9 49 The answer is 0. 7 4. Follow these steps when dividing a decimal by a whole number. and so on. EXAMPLE: 0. .102 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 8 Multiplying and Dividing Decimals DIVIDING DECIMALS BY WHOLE NUMBERS Dividing decimals by whole numbers is very similar to dividing whole numbers by whole numbers.000.5 ÷ 10 Step 1: Count the number of zeros in the multiple of 10: 10 has only one zero. Step 2: You counted one zero in step one. so you put the decimal in the correct position. you just have to move the decimal point to the left.9 ÷ 7 Step 1: Write the decimal point in the answer portion of the division problem.05.5 0. such as 10. Step 2: Divide as if you were dividing whole numbers. It should go just above the decimal point in the problem. Example: 4. Step 1: Write the decimal point in the answer portion of the division problem. the answer is 0.0. 0. S RTCUT HO When dividing by a multiple of 10. Ignore the decimal point for the moment.5 Therefore.9 Step 2: Divide as if you were dividing whole numbers. so you move the decimal point one place to the left: 0. 100. The main trick is to set the problem up correctly. 1. It should go just above the decimal point in the problem.

Step 1: Make the divisor—the number you are dividing by—a whole number. You can add zeros to the left of the number if you run out of places: 00. 10 59.5 ÷ 100 Step 1: Count the number of zeros in the multiple of 10. . the answer is 0. Step 2: Move the decimal point in the dividend—the number you are dividing into—the same number of places to the right as you did for the divisor.005.0 0. Here’s how it works. The number 100 has two zeros. 11. 3 51.6 13. 100 56. you should ﬁrst change it to a whole number. 4 600.Multiplying and Dividing Decimals LESSON 8 RTCUT HO IMPROVE YOUR MATH 103 S continued from previous page EXAMPLE: 0.4 15. Step 3: Divide as usual. so you move the decimal point two places to the left.5 12.5 Therefore.981 DIVIDING BY DECIMALS Some problems will require you to divide by a decimal. PRACTICE Solve the following problems.5 . When the number you are dividing by is a decimal. You do this by moving the decimal point to the right of the number in the ones place. Step 2: You counted two zeros in step one. You can check your answers at the end of the section.3 14. 5 14.

5 3 1 5 1 . 0. Remember the decimal point always comes to the right .03 1.0 3 15 Step 2: Move the decimal point in the dividend the same number of places to the right. 0.5.5 – 15 01 – 0 15 – 15 0 The answer is 50.104 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 8 Multiplying and Dividing Decimals Example: 0. 5 0 .5 1 5 Step 3: Divide as usual.03 1 5 Step 1: Make the divisor a whole number. To do this. Example: 0. so you could move the decimal point the correct number of places to the right. you will first have to add the decimal point to the whole number.0 3 1.515 Step 1: Make the divisor a whole number.5 15 Step 2: Move the decimal point in the dividend the same number of places to the right. 3 1 . but you would add zeros on to the end of the whole number. THIN K OUT IT AB What if you are dividing a decimal into a whole number and there aren’t enough decimal places to move the decimal to the right? You would follow the same steps.

57. 89. Now you can move the decimal point over. add zeros after the decimal point. 43. Step 3: Divide as usual.2 ÷ 10 19.00 Add the decimal point here.36 ÷ 1.5 ÷ 5 17. 32. just add zeros. Then.Multiplying and Dividing Decimals LESSON 8 OUT IT AB IMPROVE YOUR MATH 105 THIN K continued from previous page of a whole number.59104 ÷ 1000 21.24 ÷ 5. 32 ÷ 0.6 23.004 .2 24.2 22.6 ÷ 6 20. PRACTICE Solve the following problems. 2. You can check your answers at the end of the section. So anytime you need to move a decimal point more places to the right. 3. 3 15. 3 1500. 192. 16.04 25. 16. 55 ÷ 0. Remember that adding zeros to the right of a decimal does not change its value.6 ÷ 3 18.16 ÷ 0. 15 000 The answer is 500. 500.

106 IMPROVE YOUR MATH NG TIP KI LESSON 8 Multiplying and Dividing Decimals TEST TA I There’s an easy way to check your division: just multiply your answer by the divisor (the number you are dividing by). 8.9 = 35. solve the problem.6 First. .6 32 36 36 0 Then. check your answer with multiplication. Example: 4 3 5 .9 4 35. 4 × 8.6 Your answer is correct.

So you would write \$1.Real World Problems ÷ x IMPROVE YOUR MATH These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 3 to everyday situations. You can check your answers at the end of the section. As you work through these problems. NG TIP KI TEST TA I Amounts of money are represented to the hundredths place. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. You should round decimals that go beyond the hundredths place to the nearest hundredths place. When you use a calculator to work with amounts of money.278 as \$1. They are important skills for ordinary questions that come up every day. not as 1. This means two things: ■ ■ You should add a zero to a decimal that goes only to the tenths place. So you would write \$1. we write one and one-half dollars as \$1.5.50.20. REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 107 .28.2 as \$1. remember to write your final answer to the hundredths place. For example.

REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 109 9.67 for lunch and had \$3. After that Malita spent \$4. Estrella wants to buy a rug for her bedroom. The dimensions of the room are 15. Malita had \$5.75 feet.71 as a birthday gift for her brother. She bought a CD for \$15.48 of her own money and borrowed some more money from her mother. Then she went shopping.6 feet by 27. How much money did she borrow from her mother? .60 left. What is the largest rug size she can ﬁt on the ﬂoor of her room? 10.

13 0. 2. 6.12 0.605 65. 9.06 0. 3. 12. 8.006 3. 10. 7. 11. 15. ﬁve hundredths two tenths twenty-two hundredths one and two hundred thirty-four thousandths twenty-ﬁve and eighty-nine hundredths thirteen and nine tenths or thirteen and ninety hundredths one hundred and one thousandth forty-ﬁve and one hundred two thousandths seven and eight thousand thirty-ﬁve ten thousandths two and three hundredths or two and thirty thousandths 0. 20.4 0. 4. 13. 19. 18. 16.025 0. 17.0012 25. 5. 14.0105 110 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 3 .028 18.Answers & Explanations = SECTION 3 LESSON 7 1.

add: 4. subtract: 3. Then. add: 4. Then. To solve this problem correctly. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. subtract: 9. To solve this problem correctly. To solve this problem correctly.010 +5.45 34. Then.611 29. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.59 30.00 +2.0 33.0 − 2. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.14 8.2 3.30 13.8 0.5 − 2. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. To solve this problem correctly. Then. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.09 11. To solve this problem correctly.50 5.2 .3 − 6.601 3. add: 3. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.112 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 3 28. subtract: 8. To solve this problem correctly.44 31. Then.65 1. To solve this problem correctly.3 2.10 − 7. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.3 32. subtract: 5. Then.000 12.00 +2. Then.

83 1.47 37. subtract: 10. so you move the decimal place one place to the left. Then. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. Now you have to insert the decimal point in the correct place.200 7. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. Begin by multiplying the numbers together: 15 × 10 = 150.99 2. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. Then. You have a total of one decimal place (1 place in 1. To solve this problem correctly. subtract: 8.42 39. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly.41 − 2. .000 − 4. Then.5 and none in 10).999 8.105 3. To solve this problem correctly. subtract: 9.895 LESSON 8 1. Then. subtract: 5. you must be sure that the decimal points are lined up correctly. To solve this problem correctly. and your answer is 15.803 38.001 40. Count the number of places to the right of the decimal point in each number you are multiplying. To solve this problem correctly.Section 3 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 113 35.30 − 2. Then.89 36.90 0. subtract: 4. Then. subtract: 7.000 − 1.003 − 1. To solve this problem correctly. To solve this problem correctly.79 − 6.

9. Set the problem up as follows: 4 × \$12.71 + \$4. . Each plot will be 84.74 square feet.9 square feet or smaller.48 = \$18.120 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 3 6. 8. Set the problem up as follows and divide: 423.23 seconds − 37.9 square feet.50 from her mother.95 + \$7.50.67 + \$3. The fastest swimmer beat the slowest swimmer by 1.74 square feet.6 feet × 27.34 seconds.89 seconds = 1.65.60 − \$5. The rug needs to be 432.75 feet = 432. Set the problem up as follows: \$15.85 = \$59.7 square feet ÷ 5 = 84. 10. Malita borrowed \$18. Set the problem up as follows and multiply: 15.34 seconds. Set the problem up as follows and subtract: 39. 7. The total cost of the purchase was \$59.65.

= 4 SECTION Percentages ÷ NOW THAT YOU know all about decimals. sales tax. . Percents are just hundredths. we will review how to express given percentages as both fractions and decimals. and discounts. You’ll find that you come into contact with percentages every day with grades. In this section. We’ve already seen hundredths when we addressed fractions and decimals. tips. it’s time to learn about percentages.

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and you’ll see plenty of signs announcing “20% off” or “Take an additional 30% off. You will also learn how to convert decimals and fractions to percents. percent is another way to represent the parts of a whole. 25%. and Fractions LESSON 9 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 123 . Notice that percents are written with the percent sign after a number: 10%. You will learn what percents are and how to convert them to decimals and fractions. Decimals. Go to the mall. you’ve learned how to work with parts of a whole that are represented by fractions and decimals. 30%. Decimals. 50%.” Packages at the supermarket regularly claim to include “30% more free. ercents are everywhere you look.= 9 LESSON Converting Percents. 99%.” Converting Percents.” Even your grades at school are probably percents! P WHAT ARE PERCENTS? Like fractions and decimals. and Fractions LESSON SUMMARY So far in this book. In this lesson. The percent sign represents the words “out of 100 parts” or “per 100 parts. and so on. you will begin working with another way of writing parts of a whole—percents.

3 .124 IMPROVE YOUR MATH OUT IT AB LESSON 9 Converting Percents.25 So 25% = 0. Step 3: Move the decimal point two places to the left. Step 1: Drop the percent sign. Example: Convert 25% to a decimal. . 1. Step 3: Move the decimal point two places to the left. That means that percents can be written as fractions with 100 in the denominator and decimals written to the hundredths place. Step 2: Add a decimal point if there isn’t already one. 5 . So 25% becomes 25. Decimals represent the parts of a whole that is divided into either 10. on the other hand. 25. 100. Step 2: Add a decimal point. Percents. always represent a whole that is divided into 100 equal parts. 15 212 .000. Decimals. and Fractions THIN K Recall that fractions represent the parts of a whole that is divided into any number of equal parts. and so on. so you can skip this step.25 Example: Convert 22. Step 1: Drop the percent sign. 0. 10 . Step 1: Drop the percent sign. 22. or another multiple of 10 equal parts.5% to a decimal. Here are the basic steps.5 Step 2: There is already a decimal point in place. whole numbers are followed by a decimal point. CONVERTING PERCENTS TO DECIMALS Changing percents to decimals is as simple as moving the decimal point two digits to the left. So. you can find frac1 2 4 6 tions with any whole number in the denominator: 2 . Remember that even when it’s not written in.

5% 5. you move the decimal point two digits to the right.15 becomes 15.2% 7. 100% 9. Step 1: Move the decimal point two places to the right. Step 2: Add a percent sign after the number.15 = 15%. . 0. 4. Decimals.Converting Percents.225 So 22.5% = 0. You can check your answers at the end of the section. If there aren’t enough digits to move the decimal point over two places.000% CONVERTING DECIMALS TO PERCENTS Changing decimals to percents is the opposite of what you’ve just done. 1. Example: Convert 0. Step 2: Add a percent sign after the number. 15% Thus. 25% 2. Step 1: Move the decimal point two places to the right. 128. So 0. 0. and Fractions LESSON 9 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 125 Step 3: Move the decimal point two places to the left. 12% 3. add zeros. 2.9% 10. 62. Here are the basic steps. 50% 4.15 to a percent. When you change a decimal to a percent. 125% 8.2% 6.225 PRACTICE Convert these percents to decimals. 0.

56 20. 790% Thus. 3. 8 CONVERTING PERCENTS TO FRACTIONS To change a percent to a fraction. 11. 0. Don’t forget to reduce the fraction to lowest terms as you would any other fraction.5 19.56 17. you write the percent over 100.75 13. Step 1: Move the decimal point two places to the right. 6.9 to a percent. PRACTICE Convert these decimals to percents. Decimals. 2.0 18. . Step 1: Drop the percent sign. So 7. Here are the steps to follow.40 12. Example: Convert 15% to a fraction. 0. Step 2: Add a percent sign after the number. 1.126 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 9 Converting Percents. 7. Step 1: Drop the percent sign. Add zeros as needed. 0.625 14. Step 3: Write improper fractions as mixed numbers. and Fractions Example: Convert 7. 15% becomes 15. 0.29 15. 0.9 becomes 790.33 16. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Reduce the fraction to lowest terms.9 = 790%. Step 2: Write the number as a fraction over 100.

NG TIP KI 1 TEST TA I What if the percent already has a fraction in it? EXAMPLE: Convert 15 2 % to a fraction. 15 2 % = 1 31 200 .Converting Percents. 15 2 1 1 1 Step 2: Write the number as a fraction over 100. 15 ÷ 5 100 ÷ 5 = 3 20 So. So. 1 So you can rewrite this problem as a division problem. 150% = 1 2 . Step 2: Write the number as a fraction over 100. you’re done. Step 1: Drop the percent sign. 150% becomes 150. 15 2 100 Step 3: Remember that the bar in a fraction means to divide. and Fractions LESSON 9 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 127 Step 2: Write the number as a fraction over 100. 2 ÷ 100 1 31 31 Invert the second fraction and multiply. Decimals. 15 2 ÷ 100 1 31 Change the mixed number 15 2 to an improper fraction. 2 × 100 = 200 Step 4: Since the fraction is already in lowest terms. 150 100 Step 3: Write the improper fraction as a mixed number. 15% = 3 20 . and reduce the fraction to lowest terms. 150 ÷ 50 100 ÷ 50 = 3 2 = 12 1 So. Step 1: Drop the percent sign. Example: Convert 150% to a fraction. . Both 15 and 100 can be divided by 5. 15 100 Step 3: Reduce the fraction to lowest terms.

You should try both ways. and see which one works best for you. 25% 24. 80% 25. 16 3 % 2 1 CONVERTING FRACTIONS TO PERCENTS There are two basic ways to convert fractions to percents. You can check your answers at the end of the section.128 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 9 Converting Percents. 21. Method 2 100 Step 1: Multiply the fraction by 1 . and Fractions PRACTICE Convert these percents to fractions. Step 2: Write the product as either a whole or a mixed number. Step 3: Add a percent sign. 3% 29. Method 1 Step 1: Divide the numerator by the denominator. 10% 27. 5% 23. (This is the same as moving the decimal point two digits to the right. . Example: Change 2 5 to a percent.) Step 3: Add a percent sign. 16% 22. 34% 26. 89% 28. Decimals. 87 2 % 30. Step 2: Multiply by 100.

40% TEST TA NG TIP KI I To convert a mixed number to a percent. 0.Converting Percents. 1 Step 2: Multiply the fraction by 5 2 × 100 1 = 500 2 = 250 1 Step 3: Write the product as either a whole or a mixed number. first change it to an improper fraction.4 5 2. 0.4 × 100 = 40 Step 3: Add a percent sign. Decimals. 40 Step 3: Add a percent sign.0 – 20 Step 2: Multiply by 100. 40% Method 2 Step 1: Multiply the fraction by 2 5 100 1 . EXAMPLE: Convert 2 2 to a percent. 1 . 250 Step 4: Add a percent sign. follow either Method 1 or Method 2 above. and Fractions LESSON 9 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 129 Method 1 Step 1: Divide the numerator by the denominator. 2 2 = 250%. × 100 1 = 200 5 = 40 1 Step 2: Write the product as either a whole or a mixed number. Then. Step 1: Change the mixed number to an improper fraction. 22 = 1 5 2 100 1 . 250% So.

and fractions using the described methods. 39. 33. 31. decimals.130 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 9 Converting Percents. Knowing them in advance can save you valuable time on a timed test. and fraction equivalents for standardized tests. Besides. 34. it’s a good idea to know common percent. 32. Decimals. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 37. Knowing the equivalents can help you see the easier route faster. 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 4 3 50 1 8 7 10 17 20 19 25 18 5 1 4 41. 40. 36. . working with a value in one form is often easier than working with it in another form. 38. decimal. Here are some common equivalents you might want to learn. 9 5 NG TIP KI TEST TA I Although you can always convert between percents. 3 4 42. and Fractions PRACTICE Convert these fractions to percents. 35.

05 0. Decimals.2 0.40 0.01 0.Converting Percents.33 0.25 0.00 Fraction 1 100 5 100 1 10 1 8 1 5 1 4 1 3 2 5 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 9 10 1= 1 1 .80 0.125 0.90 1.5% 20% 25% 33 3 % 40% 50% 66 3 % 75% 80% 90% 100% 2 1 Decimal 0.75 0.5 0.1 0.67 0. and Fractions LESSON 9 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 131 TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page EQUIVALENTS TO KNOW Percent 1% 5% 10% 12.

You can use this equation to ﬁnd any one of the elements that might be missing. you will use percents to solve math problems. the whole. TEST TA NG TIP KI I It’s often easier to multiply a percent if you first convert it to a decimal.10. multiply: 0.10 P = LESSON Solving Percent Problems LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. or a kind of math sentence.1 × 12 = 1.1 Then. or 0. It tells how different elements are related to one another. EXAMPLE: 10% × 12 Convert 10% to a decimal: . You will learn about three basic kinds of percent problems and how to solve them.2 LESSON 10 Solving Percent Problems 132 IMPROVE YOUR MATH . ercent problems ask you to ﬁnd one of three things: the part. Whole × Percent = Part This is called an equation. Here’s how these three elements are related to one another. or the percent.

10 = Part Step 4: Solve: 20 × 0.5% of 30? 4. You have the whole: 20 students. You can check your answers at the end of the section. you are given a whole and a percent. Example: What is 30% of 60? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. So.30 = Part Step 4: Solve: 60 × 0. and are asked to ﬁnd the part represented by the percent of the whole. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole Percent = Part Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 60 × 30% = Part Step 3: Convert the percent to a decimal to make your multiplication easier: 60 × 0. two students received an A on Mrs. There are 20 students in the class. Let’s go through some examples. You have the percent: 10%. Cunningham’s class got an A on the last test. How many students got an A on the last test? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You are looking for the part—the part of the class that got an A on the last test. You have the whole: 60. You have the percent: 30%. 30% of 60 is 18. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 20 × 10% = Part Step 3: Convert the percent to a decimal to make your multiplication easier: 20 × 0. Step 2: Then. What is 10% of 52? 3.30 = 18. What is 100% of 99? . 1. You are looking for the part.10 = 2.Solving Percent Problems LESSON 10 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 133 FINDING A PART OF A WHOLE Often you will be asked to ﬁnd a part of a whole. So. PRACTICE Solve each problem. What is 1% of 34? 2. In these problems. Step 2: Then. Example: Only 10% of Mrs. What is 0. Cunningham’s last test.

10 ÷ 200 = 0. 10 is 5% of 200. What is 20% of 70? 7. Hopkin’s class got a B in his class last year. You are looking for the percent. How many students got a B in Mr. What is 90% of 10? 8.05 0. Your task is to determine what percent the part is of the whole. You can solve these types of problems by writing the part over the whole and converting the fraction to a percent.05 × 100 = 5 5% So. Step 2: Write a fraction of the part over the whole. you will be given the part and the whole. 10 200 Step 3: Convert the fraction to a percent. How many candy bars did Lan sell? FINDING A PERCENT In the following types of problems.134 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 10 Solving Percent Problems 5. Example: 10 is what percent of 200? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. . Method 1 is shown below. Lan’s class sold candy bars to raise money for the school French Club. Hopkin’s class last year? 10. You have the whole: 200. Fifty percent of Mr. Use either method. You have the part: 10. Remember that a percent is just a fraction written over 100. What is 25% of 100? 6. What is 80% of 50? 9. There were 120 students in the class. Remember there are two methods for converting fractions to percents. Lan sold 40% of the 500 candy bars that were sold.

Step 2: Write a fraction of the part over the whole. for a ﬁeld trip. You are looking for the percent. You have the whole: 500. Method 1 is shown below. so that the equation is set to solve for the percent. Whole × Percent = Part If you have already learned some algebra. Thus. the equation would look like this: Percent = Whole Notice that when you set up a fraction with the part over the whole. you know that the elements in an equation can be rearranged in order to solve for one element in the equation. Use either method. Fifty people in her class were chosen to go to Washington. 50 500 Step 3: Convert the fraction to a percent. In this case. 50 ÷ 500 = 0. Remember there are two methods for converting fractions to percents.Solving Percent Problems LESSON 10 OUT IT AB IMPROVE YOUR MATH 135 THIN K Let’s look at the equation from earlier in the lesson again. You have the part: 50. you are really just solving this equation.1 0. What percent of Sandra’s class was chosen to go on the ﬁeld trip? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Part Example: There are 500 people in Sandra’s 8th grade class.1 × 100 = 10 10% So. DC. another way to approach this type of problem is to go back to the original equation and rearrange the elements. 10% of Sandra’s class was chosen to go on the ﬁeld trip. .

Find the percent decrease. This year.2 0. this type of problem will ask you to find a percent change.2 × 100 = 20 20% So. You are looking for the percent. Step 2: Write a fraction of the part over the whole. he can run a mile in 8 minutes. Sasha’s running time improved by 20% since last year. you are probably being asked to calculate the part of the whole represented by the difference between the whole and the part given. By what percent did his timing improve? Step 1: Begin by figuring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Find the percent increase. The problem will give you one part of the whole. When you see these types of phrases. 2 minutes 10 minutes Step 3: Convert the fraction to a percent. By what percent did it improve? By what percent did it go down? By what percent did it go up? . EXAMPLE: Last year.136 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 10 Solving Percent Problems TEST TA NG TIP KI I Sometimes. Sasha could run one mile in 10 minutes. 2 ÷ 10 = 0. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Find the percent change. You have the part: 10 minutes − 8 minutes = 2 minutes You also have the whole: 10 minutes. Your task is to calculate the part of the whole represented by the difference between the whole and the part given.

Your task is to determine the whole.138 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 10 Solving Percent Problems TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page You also have the whole: 10 + 5 + 8 + 2 = 25 beads. You are looking for the percent. You have the part: 45 You also have the percent: 75% You are looking for the whole.4 0. Step 2: Write a fraction of the part over the whole.4 × 100 = 40 40% So. 10 ÷ 25 = 0. Whole = Part Percent Example: 45 is 75% percent of what number? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You can solve these types of problems by writing the part over the percent and dividing. . 10 red beads 25 total beads Step 3: Convert the fraction to a percent. 40% of the beads are red. you will be given the part and the percent. 45 is 75% of 60. Step 2: Write the part over the percent. FINDING THE WHOLE In the following types of problems. 45 75% Step 3: Convert the percent to a fraction to make your division easier: 45 ÷ Step 4: Solve: 45 ÷ 45 1 75 100 100 75 75 100 = Whole × = 60 So.

10% percent of what number is 5? 28. You have the part: 5 students You also have the percent: 20% You are looking for the whole. 20 is 2% percent of what number? 26. 30 is 75% percent of what number? 23. 75 is 75% percent of what number? 25. 21. 6 is 50% percent of what number? 24.Solving Percent Problems LESSON 10 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 139 Example: Five students on the track team qualiﬁed to go to the State competition. PRACTICE Solve these problems. 200% of what number is 50? 30. there are 25 students on the track team. 40% percent of what number is 100? 27. How many students are on the track team? Step 1: Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. How many students are on the track team? . One student on the track team sprained her ankle last week. Step 2: Write the part over the percent. This represents 2% of the track team. 20 is 20% percent of what number? 22. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 80% of what number is 120? 29. 5 20% Step 3: Convert the percent to a fraction to make your division easier: 5 ÷ Step 4: Solve: 5÷ 5 1 20 100 100 20 20 100 = Whole × = 25 So. This represents 20% of the track team.

multiply the numerator (or top number) of the first fraction by the denominator (or bottom number) of the second fraction and the denominator of the first fraction by the numerator of the second fraction. Part Whole = % 100 You can use this proportion to solve all three types of percent problems. To cross multiply.140 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 10 Solving Percent Problems TEST TA NG TIP KI I Instead of rearranging the percent equation for each type of problem. You cross multiply to solve each time. you can use it to set up a proportion like the one shown below. The result will look like this: Part 100 Whole % .

Real World Problems ÷ x IMPROVE YOUR MATH These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 4 to everyday situations. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. She got 25% off the original price. Marguerite got 80% of the items on a test correct. Her insurance company will pay for 90% of the cost of the repairs. How much money did she save? 2. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Estrella’s car was damaged in an accident. The label on a shampoo bottle says “33% free. 1. If the repairs cost \$800. how much of the shampoo is supposed to be free? 4. The original price for the dress was \$50. what was the total number of items on the test? REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 141 . Jackie bought a dress on sale.” If the bottle contains 20 ounces. As you work through these problems. They are important skills for ordinary questions that come up every day. how much money does Estrella need to pay from her own funds? 3. TEST TA NG TIP KI I Before calculating the answer to a word problem. If she got 56 items correct. first determine what pieces of information are known and what pieces of information the question expects you to calculate.

In a given area of the United States. What percent of the games did the Tigers win? 7. About what percent of the alcohol-related accidents were caused by speeding? 10. What percent of mornings did Sheila wake up to her alarm? 6. Of these. What is the selling price of the item? 11. If she receives a 4. how much will she earn? 9. A merchant buys a product for \$12. If the dealer wants to earn a proﬁt of 20% based on the cost. what was her percent loss? 12. Nakata’s class. If there are ﬁve left-handed students in Ms. how many students are there in the class? 8.5% salary increase. Special Agent Tate earns \$26. A dealer buys a car from the manufacturer for \$13. In one month. The Tigers won 18 of 45 football games this season. Natasha bought a set of golf clubs for \$340.000. at what price should he sell the car? . in one year. Twenty percent of Ms. 113 were caused by speeding.000 a year.20 and then marks it up 35% to sell it. Sheila has a hard time waking up to an alarm. there were about 215 highway accidents associated with drinking alcohol. Nakata’s class is left-handed. she woke up to her alarm only 9 of the 27 mornings that it went off. If she sold them for \$255.142 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 5.

use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. RTCUT HO S Remember when multiplying by a multiple of 10.20 = Part = 14. Then. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. 6. you just have to move the decimal point the correct number of places. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. You are looking for the part. You are looking for the part. Then. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. The answer is 9. The answer is 25. You are looking for the part. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. 5. You have the percent: 90%. You have the whole: 99. You have the whole: 70.00 = 99. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 70 × 0. You have the whole: 10. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part.90 = Part = 9. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: Part = 100 × 0.Answers & Explanations SECTION 4 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 147 4. You have the percent: 25%. You have the percent: 100%. You have the whole: 100. You are looking for the part. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: Part = 99 × 1. 7. Then.25 = 25. Then. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 10 × 0. You have the percent: 20%. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. The answer is 14. . The answer is 99.

Thus. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. 8. 10 Since you are looking for the percent. Then. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. 11. Then. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 500 × 0. . you just have to move the decimal point.148 IMPROVE YOUR MATH RTCUT HO SECTION 4 Answers & Explanations S Remember when multiplying by a multiple of 10. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Then. You have the whole: 50.2 0.40 = Part = 200. convert the fraction to a percent: 10 ÷ 50 = 0. Then. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the percent: 50%. You are looking for the part. 60 students received a B last year in Mr. You have the percent: 40%.80 = Part = 40. You have the part: 10. Hopkin’s class. use the equation to solve the problem: Whole × Percent = Part. 10. You are looking for the part. You have the percent: 80%. The answer is 200 candy bars. You have the whole: 50. You have the whole: 120.50 = Part = 60. The answer is 40. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the whole: 500. You are looking for the part. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 120 × 0.2 × 100 = 20 The answer is 20%. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 50 . 9. Plug in the pieces of the equation that you know: 50 × 0.

.25 0. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 18 .Answers & Explanations SECTION 4 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 149 12. 5 Since you are looking for the percent. 13. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the part: 5.5 0. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 80 . write a fraction of the part over the whole: 20 . 6 Since you are looking for the percent.25 × 100 = 25 The answer is 25%. convert the fraction to a percent: 5 ÷ 20 = 0. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. convert the fraction to a percent: 6÷6=1 1 × 100 = 100 The answer is 100%. 14.25 0. You have the part: 9. 20 Since you are looking for the percent. Then. Then. You have the whole: 18. convert the fraction to a percent: 20 ÷ 80 = 0. You have the whole: 6. convert the fraction to a percent: 9 ÷ 18 = 0. You have the part: 20. You have the part: 6. 9 Since you are looking for the percent. Then. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 6 .25 × 100 = 25 The answer is 25%. 15. You have the whole: 20. Then.5 × 100 = 50 The answer is 50%. You have the whole: 80.

22 0. convert the fraction to a percent: 1 ÷ 50 = 0. You have the part: 1. convert the fraction to a percent: 22 ÷ 100 = 0. You have the whole: 60. 1 Since you are looking for the percent. convert the fraction to a percent: 3 ÷ 30 = 0. 18.2 0. You have the part: 12. convert the fraction to a percent: 12 ÷ 60 = 0.1 0. 12 Since you are looking for the percent. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Then.150 IMPROVE YOUR MATH SECTION 4 Answers & Explanations 16. Then.22 × 100 = 22 The answer is 22%. 17. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 100 .2 × 100 = 20 Thus. . Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for.02 × 100 = 2 The answer is 2%. 22 Since you are looking for the percent. Then. You have the whole: 100.02 0. You have the part: 22. Then. You have the whole: 30. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 60 . Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 30 . 3 Since you are looking for the percent. You have the part: 3. 20% of those trying out are selected. You have the whole: 50. 19. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. write a fraction of the part over the whole: 50 .1 × 100 = 10 The answer is 10% of the class.

Part = \$800 × 0. . 2.90 = \$720—this is the part that the insurance company will pay. Estrella has to pay \$80 (\$800 × 0. You are looking for the part. The question asks for the part that Estrella has to pay: \$800 − (\$800 × 0. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. the answer is 50 students.50. So. there were 70 items on the test. You have the whole: 20 ounces. Part = \$50 × 0. S RTCUT HO Another way to look at the problem: If the insurance company will pay 90%. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Since you are looking for the whole (total number of items on the test). You have the part: 56. You have the percent: 25%. 4.80 and divide. You also have the percent: 80%. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for.154 IMPROVE YOUR MATH SECTION 4 Answers & Explanations Invert the second fraction and multiply: So. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. write the part over 56 the percent: 0. You have the whole: \$800. The answer is \$12. You are looking for the part.50. The answer is \$80. then Estrella has to pay 10% (100% − 90% = 10%). REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 1.10 = \$80). Part = 20 ounces × 0. You have the percent: 33%.25 = \$12. 1 1 × 100 2 . 3.6 ounces. You have the whole: \$50.33 = 6.6 ounces. Multiply across the top and bottom to get 50. You are looking for the part. You have the percent: 90%.90) = \$80. The answer is 6.

Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for.000 × 0. write a fraction of the part over the whole and con9 1 vert it to a percent: 27 × 100 = 33 3 % Thus. 6.Answers & Explanations SECTION 4 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 155 5. You are looking for the part: Part = \$26. 8. Sheila woke up to her alarm only 33 3 % of the mornings. So she will earn \$27. the Tigers won 40% of the football games. 5 Since you are looking for the whole. there are 25 students in the class. write the part over the percent ( 0. write a fraction of the part over the whole and con18 vert it to a percent: 45 × 100 = 40%.000. You have the part: 5.170.20 ) and divide. You have the part: 9.000 × 0.000 = \$27. . Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for.170. But the question asks for the amount she will make with this raise. 7. You have the whole: 27. You have the percent: 4.045 = \$1.5%. So.170. You also have the percent: 20%.000 = \$27. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. so you have to add the part to her salary: \$1. Since you are looking for the percent.045 + \$26. You have the part: 18.170 + \$26.170. S RTCUT HO 1 Another way to look at the problem: Special Agent Tate will earn \$26. Since you are looking for the percent. Thus. You have the whole: 45. You have the whole: \$26.

35 = \$4. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. This is the amount of proﬁt the car dealer wants to make.600. You have the part: \$340 − \$255 = \$85. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the whole: 215.600 + \$13.600.27 + \$12. This is the amount of mark-up the merchant will add to the price of the product. You are looking for the part: Part = \$12. write a fraction of the part over the whole and con113 vert it to a percent: 215 × 100 = 52. You have to add the part to the price: \$2. she lost 25%. about 53% of alcohol-related accidents are also caused by speeding.000 × 0. S RTCUT HO Another way to look at the problem: He should sell the car for \$13.600.600.20 + \$13. Since you are looking for the percent. or about 53%.20. S RTCUT HO Another way to look at the problem: The selling price is \$16.47.035 + \$12.20 × 0.47.20 × 0.156 IMPROVE YOUR MATH SECTION 4 Answers & Explanations 9. So the selling price will be \$16. So the selling price will be \$15. 11. Thus. .000.20).20 = \$16. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the whole: \$340. S RTCUT HO Another way to look at the problem: \$340 − \$255 \$340 × 100 = 25% 12.000 × 0. You have the whole: \$13. 10.27. You have the whole: \$12. write a fraction of the part over the whole and con85 vert it to a percent: 340 × 100 = 25%. So. You have to add the part to the price: \$4.20 = \$2.47 (\$12.000 = \$15. Begin by ﬁguring out what you know from the problem and what you’re looking for. You have the percent: 20%. You have the percent: 35%. Since you are looking for the percent.000 = \$15.56%. You are looking for the part: Part = \$13.

= 5 SECTION Statistics ÷ tistics. Mean. you may hear that 19 out of 20 advanced students will attain a brown belt. Listening to the weather report. median. In this section. Ratios and proportions are ways to compare these staSimilarly. These are all ways to express probability. STATISTICS ARE EVERYWHERE—in news reports. and on your favorite websites. . sports. At karate lessons. On television. They are called measures of central tendency because they are different ways of finding the central trend in a group of numbers. you see probabilities or predictions all the time. you might hear that four out of five dentists recommend a certain toothbrush. you will also learn what probability is and how to calculate it. you may hear that there is a 60% chance of rain tomorrow. and mode are three common statistics that give information on a group of numbers.

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so you may already know the basic steps to ﬁnding the mean of a set of numbers. S FINDING THE MEAN Mean is just another word for average. and mode of a set of numbers. Step 3: Divide the sum (the result of Step 1) by the number (the result of Step 2). You probably already average your grades at school regularly. and Mode LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. they are called measures of central tendency because they are different ways of ﬁnding the central trend of a group of numbers. and Mode LESSON 11 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 159 . and mode are three common statistics that give information on of a group of numbers. is one of the most useful and common statistics. The mean. median. Mean. Step 2: Count the number of numbers in the list. Step 1: Add all the numbers in the list. Median. you will learn how to find the mean. In fact. median. or average. In news reports.= 11 LESSON Finding Mean. tatistics are everywhere. even in class at school—we get information in the form of statistics every day. Median. Finding Mean. at the doctor’s ofﬁce.

4. 19 Step 2: The middle number is the median. In a set of numbers. 19. 12. and \$9. So far this grading period. half will be greater than the median and half will be less than the median. he saved \$5. 15. 81. On average. 11. 11. Does he have a B in Math so far? 8. and Mode LESSON 11 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 161 7. and 84. how much did John spend per brother on birthday presents this year? 10. 7. They are 82. She earned the following amounts each weekend: First weekend: \$25 Second weekend: \$27 Third weekend: \$13 Fourth weekend: \$18 What is the mean of Mara’s earnings per weekend last month? 9. Last month. So. \$7. Mara babysat all four weekends last month. 4. 5. Jack has three grades of equal weight in Math. Example: Find the median of the following set of numbers: 5. Median. 11 is the median. 7. Step 2: The middle number is the median. He needs an 83 average or better to receive a B in Math. 15. how much did Philip save per week last month? FINDING THE MEDIAN The median is the middle number in a group of numbers arranged in sequential order. The middle number is 11.Finding Mean. \$2. John spent the following amounts on his brothers’ birthday presents this year: Mike: \$21 Dave: \$17 Steve: \$19 On average. Step 1: Put the numbers in sequential order. Philip saves a portion of his allowance each week. Step 1: Put the numbers in sequential order. 12. .

107 16. 13. 11. to find the mean of a set of numbers. 88. 105. 11. 67. In this case. 3. That value is your median. so the middle number was easy to find. 9. 3. 4. there was an odd number of numbers. 3. 16 17. 19 Step 2: The middle number is the median. But what if you are given an even number of numbers? Let’s see how it works. 17. 7.162 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 11 Finding Mean. 4. 7. EXAMPLE: Find the median of the following set of numbers: 5. 19. 8. 110. 7. Median. you find the mean (or average) of the two middle numbers. and Mode THIN K OUT IT AB In the last example. 12. 101. 104. 11. 5. 4. 92. 5. 100. Remember. 100. 85 14. 8. 15. 6. 103. 11 15.5). 14. 9 18. 11. Then. 6 12. Step 1: Put the numbers in sequential order. 13. 3. 15. 5. 7. 10. 12. But there are two middle numbers: 11 and 12. 8. you first add the numbers together (11 + 12 = 23). 23. 8. 7. 95. you divide the sum by the number of numbers (23 ÷ 2 = 11. 4. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 3. 6. 10 . 36 13.5 is the median. 11. 5. 7. So. 12. 9. PRACTICE Find the median for each set of numbers. 10. 48. 45.

17. 7 28. 9. 9. When a set of numbers has two modes. 16 27. And how would a store ﬁnd the mean or the median of different styles of clothes? It can’t. 11. 8. 7. styles. 9. 7. mode shows clustering. 39. 9. 9. 7. 11. 10. It makes more sense to buy the sizes that most people wear. so there is no mode. 5. 17. 12. To ﬁnd the mode. Example: Find the mode of the following set of numbers: 5. the mode isn’t always a middle number in a set of numbers. 8. or prices are most popular.164 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 11 Finding Mean. 4. 7. 107 26. Example: Find the mode of the following set of numbers: 5. 5. PRACTICE Find the mode for each set of numbers. 25 30. 5. 39. 100. 7. 15. so both 5 and 9 are modes. 6. so 9 is the mode. 103. 3. 9. 5. 7. 5. 5 24. 27. Mode is often used in stores to decide which sizes. 3. 12. 10. 21. 3. 8. Instead. 7. it is called bimodal. 3. 11 25. 9. 6 22. 9. 8. 110. 45. 7. 22. 4. 11. Median. 48. It wouldn’t make sense for a clothing store to stock up on the mean size or the median size of pants. 3. 12. 12. 103. 3. 8 . 8. 14. 104. 10 29. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 6. you just look for numbers that occur more than once and ﬁnd the one that appears most often. 67. 19. There’s where the mode comes in. 3. 101. 9. As you can see. 25. 2. 15. 4. 10. 3. 6. 23. 8. 45 23. The number 9 occurs twice in the list. 7. None of the numbers occurs more than once. The numbers 5 and 9 both occur twice in the list. 4. 8. 7. 5. 11. 11. 12. 3. 7. 36. 13. Example: Find the mode of the following set of numbers: 5. and Mode FINDING THE MODE The mode refers to the number in a set of numbers that occurs most frequently.

You’ll also ﬁnd them in math word problems. R WHAT ARE RATIOS? A ratio is a way of comparing two or more numbers.= 12 LESSON Using Ratios and Proportion LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. with the word to: 1 to 2 using a colon (:) to separate the numbers: 1 : 2 using the term for every: 1 for every 2 1 separated by a division sign or fraction bar: 2 Using Ratios and Proportion LESSON 12 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 165 . including those used in measurement conversions. Here are some examples of ways to write ratios. atios and proportions are often found in textbooks and news reports. You will also learn how to write ratios and proportions and how to work with them in basic calculations. There are several different ways to write ratios. you will learn what ratios and proportions are.

TEST TA NG TIP KI I Keep the terms of a ratio in the order that the problem compares them. However. Since the last example compared girls to boys. it’s not here—it’s a ratio comparing the number of wins to the number of losses.166 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion Example: Write the following ratio as a fraction: ﬁve girls to six boys. EXAMPLE: Write the following ratio as a fraction: 10 wins to 5 losses. . You can however. 10:5 Example: Write the following ratio as a fraction: 10 wins to 5 losses. A ratio that looks like a fraction is comparing the two numbers. You will lose the comparison if you treat the ratio as a fraction and convert it to a mixed number. 5 The question asks you to write the ratio as a fraction: 6 . 10 5 Even though 150 looks like an improper fraction. Let’s look again at the last example. reduce the ratio to 2 lowest terms: 150 = 1 . Example: Write the following ratio using a colon: 10 wins to 5 losses. 10 5 NG TIP KI TEST TA I Ratios often look like fractions and they can be reduced to lowest terms just as fractions can be. do not change a ratio whose numerator is larger than its denominator to a whole number or a mixed number. your answer should give the number of girls to the number of boys.

lost 6 games and tied no games. that this fraction represents a part over a part. or 36 You could reduce OUT IT AB 30 36 to 6 . so you were able to calculate the total number of games played last season—the whole. Let’s look at another example. b. In Section 2. The ratio of games won to games played is 30 games won 30 36 total games . .168 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion Write your answers as fractions. 7 to 8 can be written as 8 . What is the ratio of boys to girls in your math class? You can write the ratio 15:20. For example. 5 THIN K Often. Notice. a. however. which reduces to 4 . The second part of the question asks for the ratio of games won to games played. You could reduce the ratio to 1 . ratios are written to look like fractions. In the last example. a ratio represents a part over a part: Pa rt Part But ratios can also represent a part over a whole: Part Wh ole When a ratio represents a part over a part. you can often find the whole if you know all the parts. Since the Tigers won 30 games. You could also write it as 15 3 a fraction: 20 . you need to calculate the total number of games played. they must have played a total of 36 games. a fraction represents a part over a whole: Part Wh ole Often. First. The ﬁrst part of the question asks for the ratio of games won to games lost. you did know all the parts. you would 30 5 write 6 . and so on. So. EXAMPLE: Assume that there are 15 boys and 20 girls in your math class. you learned that fractions are ways of representing a part of a whole. Usually. 2 7 2:3 can be written as 3 .

On his last science test. ■ There are 1.172 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page ■ The camp provides three meals per day. 2. What is the ratio of correct answers to total questions? 13. So. Marc answered 21 questions correctly.54 centimeters per inch. He missed 4 questions. He missed 4 questions. You can reduce this ratio (by dividing by 2) to 50 miles:1 hour. 3 meals 1 day ■ Use one cup of sugar for every four cups of blue1 cup sugar 4 cups of blueberries berries. PRACTICE Solve the following problems.6 kilometers 1 mile ■ There are 12 inches per foot. what is his average speed? You can answer this question by setting up a ratio: 100 miles:2 hours. If a driver drives 325 miles in ﬁve hours. 1. what is his average speed? . These ratios are sometimes called unit rates because they are written in terms of one unit. On his last science test. Example: If a driver drives 100 miles in two hours. 11.6 kilometers in a mile. Mac answered 21 questions correctly. What is the ratio of correct answers to incorrect answers? 12. 12 inches 1 foot ■ There are 2. the driver drove on average 50 miles per hour. You can check your answers at the end of the section.54 centimeters 1 inch Notice that ratios written using the word per are almost always fractions over the number 1.

Here’s how it works. TEST TA I You can also use cross multiplication to check that two ratios are equal. 100 ÷ 10 = 10 Step 2: Multiply the answer to Step 1 by the numerator.174 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion Let’s use these steps to solve for the missing term in the proportion. The new denominator is 100. 8 × 100 = 800 Step 2: Divide the product (the answer to Step 1) by the denominator in the ﬁrst ratio. 80 100 There’s another way to solve for the missing term. 800 ÷ 10 = 80 So. It’s called cross multiplying or ﬁnding the cross products. the results of cross multiplication should be equal. EXAMPLE: Use cross multiplication to check that the two ratios in this proportion are equal: 8 10 = 80 100 . Write the answer over the denominator in the second ratio. Example: 8 10 = ? 100 Step 1: Multiply the numerator of the ﬁrst ratio by the denominator in the second ratio. Write the answer over the denominator in the second ratio. When a proportion is set up properly. Let’s look at the example above again and solve using cross multiplication. Here’s how cross multiplying works. Step 2: Divide the product (the answer to Step 1) by the denominator in the ﬁrst ratio. the second ratio is NG TIP KI 80 100 . Example: 8 10 = ? 100 Step 1: Divide the denominator into the new denominator. Step 1: Multiply the numerator of the ﬁrst ratio by the denominator in the second ratio. 8 × 10 = 80 Step 3: Write the answer to Step 2 over the new denominator.

The ratio of blue marbles to yellow marbles is 2:5. If there are 10 yellow marbles. Use cross multiplication to check your answers. 20. 800 = 800 Use cross multiplication to check your proportions as you work. your proportion is valid. 22. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 17.Using Ratios and Proportion LESSON 12 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 175 TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page Step 1: Multiply the numerator of the first ratio by the denominator in the second ratio. 21. 23. how many blue marbles are there? . PRACTICE Solve for the missing number in each proportion. 8 × 100 = 800 Step 2: Multiply the denominator of the first ratio by the numerator in the second ratio. 10 × 80 = 800 Step 3: Set the answer to Step 1 equal to the answer to Step 2. If they are equal. 18. 5 8 2 9 1 8 = = = ? 32 ? 810 ? 640 ? 110 7 10 5 6 3 4 = = = ? 36 ? 120 ? 250 45 50 = 24. 19.

how many kilograms does the baby weigh? Step 1: Set up a proportion. how much will Harry earn? Step 1: Set up a proportion. Let’s look at some examples of proportion word problems.5 mile on a map. how far could she drive in seven hours? Step 1: Set up a proportion.) . If she maintained the same speed.5 pounds. One inch represents 0. Margaret could drive 308 miles in seven hours. Example: Harry earns \$6 per hour at his job.5 inches away from your house.2 = 3. Example: Margaret drove 220 miles in ﬁve hours.176 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion 25. Example: There are 2.5 ÷ 2. how many miles away is the library? SOLVING PROPORTION WORD PROBLEMS Proportions are common in word problems.2 pounds 7.5 pounds 1 kilogram = ? kilograms Step 2: Solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 1 × 7.4 (We rounded the answer to the nearest tenth of a kilogram so that our numbers were all parallel—accurate to the nearest tenth. If the library is 3. ? miles 220 miles 5 hours = 7 hours Step 2: Solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 220 × 7 ÷ 5 = 308 Step 3: Check your work by cross multiplying: 220 × 7 = 5 × 308 1540 = 1540 Keeping the same speed. If a baby is born weighing 7. Harry will make \$54.2 pounds in a kilogram. 2. \$? \$6 1 hour = 9 hours Step 2: Solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 6 × 9 ÷ 1 = \$54 Step 3: Check your work by cross multiplying: 6 × 9 = 54 × 1 54 = 54 Working seven hours. If he works nine hours this week.

The following table relates some SI prefixes to their meanings. You know some of these units as centimeters. There are 2. Notice that many SI units have a prefix. 26.2 × 3.Using Ratios and Proportion LESSON 12 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 177 Step 3: Check your work by cross multiplying: 1 × 7. You can use this table to convert between SI units.48 Round 7. .48 up to 7. commonly referred to as SI units. The units of the International System of Units. Sometimes SI units are called metrics. Determine your own weight in kilograms. how many did they lose? 29. The Jaguars have a win/lose ratio of 7:2.5 = 7.5 pounds also weighs 3. are used in most countries of the world as well as by almost all scientists around the world. kilograms. NG TIP KI TEST TA I Use proportions to convert from one unit of measure to another. how far could she drive in twelve hours? 27.5 = 2.8 liters. you can set up a proportion. Hermalinda earns \$12 per hour. Sandy drove 510 miles in eight hours.4 kilograms. When you know the conversion factor. Conversion factors are ratios used to convert from one unit of measure to another. If she works 20 hours this week. A gallon is equal to about 3.2 pounds in a kilogram. If they won 21 games in all. and milliliters. How many liters are in 10 gallons? 30. A baby weighing 7. PRACTICE Solve the following problems. how much will she earn? 28.5 to see that these are equivalent. If she maintained the same speed. You can check your answers at the end of the section.4 7.

so 1 kilometer = 1.1 meter So.(kilometer) is 1. 10 centimeters × 1 meter 100 centimeters = 0. Based on the table.54 centimeters yard = 0. you know that a unit with the prefix kilo. Below are some common conversion factors used to convert between the SI and conventional systems of measurement. 10 centimeters equals 0. EXAMPLE: Convert 10 centimeters to meters.000 larger than a unit with no prefix (meter). Conventional units include feet.6 kilometers gallon = 3.000 100 10 1 10 1 100 1 1000 EXAMPLE OF UNIT kilometer hectometer decameter decimeter centimeter millimeter You can use the information in this table to convert kilometers to meters. 1 1 1 1 1 1 foot = 0. Here’s how.04 inch . and miles.3048 meter inch = 2.1 meter. gallons. pounds.178 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 12 Using Ratios and Proportion TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page SI PREFIXES AND THEIR MEANINGS SI PREFIX kilohectodecadecicentimilliSYMBOL k h da d c m CONVERSION FACTOR 1. You can also use conversion factors to convert between SI and conventional units.000 meters.9144 meter mile = 1. Now try it with centimeters.8 liters millimeter = 0.

2 pounds EXAMPLE: Convert 100 pounds to kilograms.45 kilograms. 100 pounds × 1 kilogram 2.2 pounds = 45. 100 pounds equals 45.Using Ratios and Proportion LESSON 12 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 179 TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page 1 centimeter = 0. .62 mile 1 kilogram = 2.45 kilograms So.3937 inch 1 kilometer = 0.

On TV. Listening to the weather report.= 13 LESSON Understanding Probability LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. you might hear that 19 of 20 students will pass math this 4 year. At school. and percents. W WHAT IS PROBABILITY? Probability is the mathematics of chance. decimals. It is expressed as the following ratio: Number of favorable outcomes Number of total outcomes P (event) = 180 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 13 Understanding Probability . These are all ways of expressing probabilities. e hear probabilities all the time. It is a way of calculating how likely it is that something will happen. You will also practice writing probabilities as fractions. you might hear that 5 of dentists recommend a certain brand of toothpaste. you will learn what probability is and how to calculate it. you might hear that there is a 60% chance of rain tomorrow.

Here are two: You can write the answer as a 4 2 fraction 150 . . Example: What is the probability of getting heads with a single coin toss? Step 1: Plug the numbers into the probability equation. A probability of 50% is said to be random or chance. P (event) = Number of favorable outcomes Number of total outcomes 4 150 P (winning ticket) = Step 2: Solve the equation.Understanding Probability LESSON 13 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 181 The term favorable outcomes refers to the events you want to occur. .). A probability of 100% or 1. . There are several ways to write your answer. what is the probability that one of Aili’s tickets will be drawn? Step 1: Plug the numbers into the probability equation. as a percent: 2. What is the probability of drawing a purple button out of the sack? Step 1: Plug the numbers into the probability equation.7% (we rounded this answer up from 2.00 is certain to occur. 1 The probability of getting heads is 2 . . which reduces to 75 . If 150 were sold. and ﬁve green buttons. so you create the following equation: P (heads) = 1 2 Step 2: Solve the equation. P (event) = Number of favorable outcomes Number of total outcomes There are two possible outcomes: heads or tails.66666 . Probabilities can be written in different ways: As a ratio: 1 out of 2 (1:2) 1 As a fraction: 2 As a percent: 50% As a decimal 0. two orange buttons. Total outcomes refers to all the possible events that could occur. Example: A sack holds three purple buttons. A probability of zero (0) means that the event cannot occur. Example: Aili has four tickets to the School Carnival Rafﬂe. Or. P (event) = Number of favorable outcomes Number of total outcomes There are 10 buttons (3 + 2 + 5 = 10) in the sack. or you have a 50% chance of getting heads.5 Let’s look at some example problems.

or there is a 30% chance of Example: A sack holds three purple buttons. 1 5 2 3 1 3 2 4 a. You can check your answers at the end of the section. What is the probability of spinning a 1? What is the probability of spinning an even number? What is the probability of spinning a 3 or less? Suppose you need to spin either a 3 or a 5 to win a game. PRACTICE Solve the following problems. 5 1 There is a 2 (reduced from 10 ) chance of pulling a green button out of the sack. 1. d. b. P (event) = Number of favorable outcomes Number of total outcomes There are 10 buttons (3 + 2 + 5 = 10) in the sack. Use the ﬁgure below to answer these questions. two orange buttons. and ﬁve green buttons. What is the probability of drawing a green button out of the sack? Step 1: Plug the numbers into the probability equation. 3 10 . c.182 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 13 Understanding Probability P (purple) = 3 10 Step 2: Solve the equation. or a 50% chance of drawing a green button out of the sack. P (green) = 5 10 Step 2: Solve the equation. What are the chances that you will win? e. The probability of pulling a purple button out of the sack is drawing a purple button out of the sack. What are the chances of spinning a number other than 5? .

two orange buttons. The product is the probability that the two events will occur together. What is the probability that both coins will land heads up? Step 1: Determine the probability that each event will occur. Example: You toss a penny and a dime into the air. Dependent Events Sometimes the ﬁrst event does affect the probability of next event. the events are said to be dependent. 1 2 1 × 1 2 = 1 4 1 Therefore. Example: A sack holds three purple buttons. Each coin has two sides: heads and tails. 2 The probability of drawing a second purple button is 9 . Tossing the penny into the air does not affect the probability of outcome of tossing the dime into the air. In this case. or 25%. . the probability of both coins landing heads up is 4 . What is the probability of drawing one purple button out of the sack and then—without replacing the ﬁrst button—drawing a second purple button out of the sack? Step 1: Determine the probability that each event will occur. The probability that the dime will land heads up is 2 . 1 The probability that the penny will land heads up is 2 . or vice versa. OUT IT AB THIN K Notice that the two events in the last example are independent of one another.184 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 13 Understanding Probability Let’s redo the last example using this method. The probability of drawing the ﬁrst purple button is 3 10 . and ﬁve green buttons. notice that the ﬁrst event— drawing a purple button out of the sack—affects the probability of the second event because it changes both the number of purple buttons still in the sack as well as the total number of buttons in the sack. Let’s look at an example. Step 2: Multiply the probabilities together. First.

During the last week of track training. What is her ﬁnal score? 2. or mode should always be in between the lowest and highest numbers in the series given. they are important skills for ordinary questions that come up every day. Her three best times this week are averaged for her ﬁnal score on the course. what is the average number of miles driven each day? 186 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS . As you work through these problems. you should take another look at your answer. and 59. median. 1. 59. ask yourself if the answer makes sense. the answer to a problem asking for the mean.Real World Problems ÷ x These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 5 to everyday situations. 25 miles on Tuesday. TEST TA NG TIP KI I After you’ve arrived at an answer for a problem. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. Shoshanna achieves the following times in seconds: 66. 64. and 19 miles on Wednesday. If a vehicle is driven 22 miles on Monday. If your answer is outside the range. 57. 54. For example. 54.

Its membership was 486 in 1999. and 4 nieces. and 573 in 2001. 8. What is the mode of these numbers? 5. 28. 22 cousins. 4 grandparents. Fikstad. 34. Lefty keeps track of the length of each ﬁsh that he catches. 17. 31. drew a name. 3 siblings. What is the median ﬁsh length that Lefty caught that day? What is the mode of the ﬁsh lengths he caught that day? 8. She counted 7 aunts. 34. After picking Benjamin’s name for the rose bush. Fikstad replaced it in the jar and mixed up the names. What is the probability that Mrs. 9. 591 in 2000. and mode of the waist sizes sold yesterday? Which of these statistics will probably be most valuable to Mary Beth’s manager? 9. Stephen recorded the number of butterﬂies he saw in his backyard for four months and put the information in the table below. 32. median. At the Knott Block Party. 8 uncles. she sold men’s pants in following waist sizes: 40. Rita made a list of all of her relatives and then counted up the number of people in each category. The chart below lists the number of students present at the monthly meetings for the Environment Protection Club. 13. 34. 33. What was the average monthly attendance over the course of all the months listed? MONTH September October November December NUMBER OF STUDENTS PRESENT 54 61 70 75 4. Mary Beth works in the men’s department at a local department store. 10. A jar held the names of 26 different people. What was the mean number of butterﬂies in Stephen’s backyard during these four months? MONTH May June July August NUMBER OF BUTTERFLIES SPOTTED 28 44 64 56 6. two drawings were held for a new rose bush and a pair of gardening gloves. the oldest woman on the block. These are the lengths in inches of the ﬁsh that he caught one day: 12. Mrs. What is the mean. Yesterday. 8. and without looking. What is the mean membership for these three years? 7. Mrs. Fikstad then selected Benjamin’s name to win the pair of gardening gloves? .REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 187 3. The Burnsville Neighborhood Association has been growing for the past three years. 36. a. 30.

000. How much does the gas cost in dollars per gallon? 13. 10 green beans. A recipe serves six people and calls for 2 4 cups of broth. 12 white socks. and 9 orange beans. On a trip to France.000. and 7 black socks. What is the probability of selecting either a yellow or an orange bean? b.8 liters and one dollar is equal to 7. A bag of jellybeans contains 8 black beans.000. He reached into the drawer without looking and pulled out the ﬁrst sock he touched.188 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS b. Fikstad set it aside and mixed up the remaining names. and then selecting a green bead? 14. After picking Benjamin’s name for the rose bush. If you want to serve four people. What. you notice that gasoline costs 7 French francs per liter. is the ratio of white blood cells to red blood cells in human blood? 11. The number of white blood cells in one cubic millimeter of human blood is about 8. What is the probability that Mrs. In Derrick’s sock drawer. how much broth do you need? 12. taking that bead out of the jar and not replacing it. What were the odds he pulled out a blue sock? 1 . The number of red blood cells in one cubic millimeter of human blood is about 5. a.5 French francs. You know that a gallon is equal to 3. then. What is the probability of selecting a yellow or an orange bead. 3 yellow beans. there were 5 blue socks. Mrs. Fikstad then selected Francine’s name to win the pair of gardening gloves? 10.

The mean is the same as the average of the numbers. the total amount of numbers: 3 + 7 + 8 + 10+ 3 + 5 + 6 7 =6 So. so you add all the numbers together and divide by 7. so you add all the numbers together and divide by 5. The mean is the same as the average of the numbers. so you add all the numbers together and divide by 5. The mean is the same as the average of the numbers.8 So.Answers & Explanations = 5 SECTION LESSON 11 1. the mean is 6. the mean is 43. 2. the mean is 92. Section 5 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 189 . so you add all the numbers together and divide by 8. the total amount of numbers: 88 + 92 + 100 + 95 + 85 5 = 92 So. 3.8. the mean is 6. 4. the total amount of numbers: 23 + 45 + 67 + 48 + 36 5 = 43. The mean is the same as the average of the numbers. the total amount of numbers: 3+4+5+6+7+8+9+6 8 =6 So.

and you will lose the comparison if you treat the ratio as a fraction and convert it to a mixed number. 3 1 3 4 4. 65 miles per hour. 9. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. so you get 3:1. so you get 3:9. 325 miles 65 miles hour . so you get 1:1. so you get 1 . 15. so you get 5:40.192 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 5 30. so you get 3. 6. Remember not to change the improper fraction to a mixed number. 15 20 . 7. so you cannot write it as a fraction. Write the numbers in the order requested: 5 dogs to 10 cats. 8. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. on average. A ratio that looks like a fraction is comparing the two numbers. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. Remember not to change the improper fraction to a mixed number. and you will lose the comparison if you treat the ratio as a fraction and convert it to a mixed number. the ratio is 21:4. the driver 14. so there are three modes: 3. which can be reduced to 1:8. 5 10 . Write the numbers in the order that they are requested: 5 dogs:10 cats:15 chickens:20 hamsters. so you get 12 15 . You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. which can be reduced to 2 . Reduce to lowest terms by dividing each number by 5. 5. and 8. so you get 2:10. Marc got 21 questions correct and 4 incorrect. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. This ratio will involve more than two numbers. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. Then reduce by dividing by 5 and you get drove. calculate the total number of questions on the test: 21 + 4 = 25. 2 So. 6 which can be reduced to 5 . 7. so you get 4 . 1 dog:2 cats:3 chickens:4 hamsters. LESSON 12 1. which can be reduced to 4 . write the number 21 of questions Marc got right over the total number of questions on the test: 25 . which can be reduced to 1:3. Reduce the terms by dividing each number by 5. 11. which can be reduced to 2 . You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. 13. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. 12. First. Therefore. which can be reduced to 1:5. so you get 2. First. A ratio that looks like a fraction is comparing the two numbers. . 10. Three numbers occur more than once. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. 1 dog:2 cats. You just have to set the comparison up in a fraction. Then. write the ratio: 5 hours .

1 8 = 80 640 Cross multiply to check your work: 1 × 640 = 880 640 = 640 20. 17.620 = 1. Then. 5 6 = 30 36 Cross multiply to check your work: 5 × 36 = 6 × 30 180 = 180 22.Section 5 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 193 16. 5 8 = 20 32 Cross multiply to check your work: 5 × 32 = 820 160 = 160 18.620 19. 7 10 = 77 110 Cross multiply to check your work: 7 × 110 = 10 × 77 770 = 770 21. calculate the total number of animals that participated in the show: 15 + 5 + 20 + 10 = 50 animals.250 = 11. 2 9 = 180 810 Cross multiply to check your work: 2 × 810 = 9 × 180 1. write the number of cats over the total number of animals and reduce to lowest 10 cats 1 terms: 50 total animals reduces to 5 . First.250 . 45 50 = 225 250 Cross multiply to check your work: 45 × 250 = 50 × 225 11. 3 4 = 90 120 Cross multiply to check your work: 4 × 90 = 3 × 120 360 = 360 23.

First.75 = 1. set up the proportion: 2 blue marbles 5 yellow marbles = ? blue marbles 10 yellow marbles Then solve for the missing number using one of the methods in the lesson. Begin by setting up a proportion. One way is to multiply 2 and 10 and divide by 5.75. solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 12 × 20 ÷ 1 = 240. Check your work by cross multiplying: 510 × 12 = 8 × 765 6.5 × 3.194 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 5 24.5 1. which yields 1. Begin by setting up a proportion.5 and 3.5 and divide by 1. Check your work using cross multiplication: 2 × 10 = 54 20 = 20 25. \$12 1 hour = \$? 20 hours Then. Check your work using cross multiplication: 1 × 1.120 Keeping the same speed. 510 miles 8 hours = ? miles 12 hours Then. set up the proportion: 1 inch 0.75 26.5 inches ? miles Then solve for the missing number using one of the methods in the lesson. So the library is 1. 27. Hermalinda will make \$240. .5 mile = 3. First. Sandy could drive 765 miles in 12 hours. solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 510 × 12 ÷ 8 = 765. Check your work by cross multiplying: 12 × 20 = 1 × 240 240 = 240 Working 20 hours. So there are 4 blue marbles. which yields 4.75 miles from home.120 = 6. One way is to multiply 0.75 = 0.

To determine the median. 7 FF 1 liter = ? FF 3. 40. There are 26 pos1 sible names in the jar.8 ÷ 1 = 26. To calculate the median.5. So the probability that Benjamin’s name is chosen is 26 . add up all the numbers in the list and divide by 10. 13. Rita has four grandparents and four cousins. Then. No other number recurs in the list. 6 people 2 4 cups of broth 1 = 4 people ? cups of broth 1 1 Then. Add up the total membership over the three years and divide by 3. 11. So the mode is 34. The mode will be the most valuable of these three statistics because it will tell the manager what size of pants is more likely to sell and. put the numbers in sequential order: 28. This problem requires setting up and solving two proportions. Begin by setting up a proportion. Add up the total number of butterﬂies seen each month and divide by the number of months (4). To calculate the mean. 8. 33. Four is the only number that recurs in the list.000 white blood cells 5. Set up a ratio as follows: 8. so the median is 10. 7. 6. b. solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 4 × 2 4 ÷ 6 = 1 2 . The mean membership for the three years is 550. 32. The order is not important. reduce the ratio (by dividing by 8.2 inches.6. Francine’s name occurs only once. The mean number of butterﬂies in Stephen’s backyard during these four months is 48. 31. The number 34 occurs three times. 5. thus. You might ﬁrst determine the cost of a gallon of gas in French francs (FF). a. 10. The number 8 occurs twice in the series.000) to 1:625.Section 5 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 197 4. There are two middle numbers 33 and 34. which size to stock in the store. 8. These are independent events. 36. 34.000. 12. 9. so the mode is 8. 17. 34. ﬁrst put the numbers in sequential order: 8. The middle number is the median. Now that Benjamin’s name has been removed from the jar.8 liters Notice that you use 3. The mean is 33. Check your work by cross multiplying: 1 1 4 × 24 = 6 × 12 9=9 1 You need 1 2 cups of broth to serve four people.8 liters instead of one gallon because you must use the same units in both proportions. 10. 34. 12. so the probability of drawing Francine’s 1 name for the gardening gloves is 25 . 30. The mode is 4. The median is the average of the two: 33.000 red blood cells Then. Now . there are only 25 possible names to draw. Benjamin’s name occurs once in the jar. solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 7 × 3. 9.

There are three yellow and nine orange jelly beans.198 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 5 you know that one gallon of gas costs 26. solve for the missing number in the second ratio: 1 × 26. a. 5 24 that Derrick . There are ﬁve blue socks and a total of 24 socks in the drawer.6 FF in France. and then drawing a green jellybean is 5 × 29 = 145 = 29 .55 FF Then. so there are 12 possible favorable out12 2 comes (3 + 9 = 12). So there is a 30 .55. So.5 FF = \$? 26.55. Next you can calculate the cost in dollars. chance of selecting either a yellow or an orange jellybean from the jar. 13. 2 5 1 x 10 29 2 = 4 29 14. So the probability of drawing a yellow or an orange jellybean. RTCUT HO S You can use canceling to reduce the fraction to lowest terms.6 ÷ 7. So the odds are pulled out a blue sock. There are total of 30 jellybeans in the jar. The probability of drawing either a yellow or an orange 2 jellybean the ﬁrst time is 5 . These are dependent events. one gallon of gas in France costs \$3. or 5 . taking that jellybean 20 4 2 10 out of the jar. \$1 7.5 = 3. b. The probability of drawing a green jellybean the second time 10 is 29 .

and charts is to explain a problem. situation. when you watch a baseball game on TV. For example. An effective chart finds relationships that were hidden behind the raw numbers or pages of text on which the chart was based. and in your day-to-day life you see graphs.= SECTION 6 ÷ Graphs. The goal of graphs. and charts everywhere. find a solution. They organize information visually. or opportunity so viewers can draw a conclusion. tables. Tables. . and Charts IN CLASS. television sports producers flash tables and charts on the screen so viewers can absorb information about a team’s standings in the league or a player’s averages at a glance and quickly return to the game. so that you can see what it looks like instead of having a list of numbers. ON tests. tables. or develop a plan.

14 .

Line Graphs. Pie charts are sometimes called circle graphs. you’ll often see information presented in a graph. line graphs. PIE CHARTS Pie charts show how the parts of a whole relate to one another. and bar graphs as well as how to decide when one type of chart or graph is better suited to a set of data than another type of graph. You’ll learn how to read and interpret pie charts. we give and receive information visually. and Bar Graphs LESSON 14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 201 . A pie chart is a circle divided into slices or wedges—like a pizza. line graphs. and a good reason to understand how to read them. More and more. Each slice represents a category. and Bar Graphs LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. Interpreting Pie Charts. That’s one reason you’re likely to ﬁnd graphs on math tests. you will learn three ways data is shown visually in graphs and charts. Line Graphs. Let’s look at three common kinds of graphs—pie charts. Let’s look at some examples of pie charts and see what kinds of information they can provide.= 14 LESSON Interpreting Pie Charts. and bar graphs. W hen you pick up the newspaper or watch a news report on TV.

You can check your answers at the end of the section. Which single element makes up the largest percent of Earth’s crust? b. Which two elements make up most of Earth’s crust? What percent of the crust do these two elements represent together? c.Interpreting Pie Charts. what percent of Earth’s crust do iron and aluminum make up? 2. and Bar Graphs LESSON 14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 203 PRACTICE Use each graph to answer the questions that follow it. Line Graphs. Nicholas found the following pie chart in his Physical Science textbook. Elements that Make Up Earth’s Crust Magnesium 2% Sodium 2% Calcium 4% Iron 6% Oxygen 46% Silicon 28% Potassium 2% Titanium 1% All other elements 1% Aluminum 8% a. 1. They represent data collected from a recent telephone survey. Jackie found the following pie charts in the newspaper. Together. How Federal Dollars Are Spent Space Other 2% 8% Energy 10% National Defense 2% Environment 6% Energy 11% Space 12% Health 49% Health 14% National Defense 53% How the Money Is Spent Other 4% Environment 29% How Voters Think the Money Should Be Spent .

Let’s look at an example of a line graph and see what kinds of information it can provide. d.000 each month. Johnson Family Budget Transportation 9% Savings 10% Housing 30% Entertainment 12% Clothing 4% Miscellaneous 13% Food 22% a. Therefore. What is the smallest category of spending in the budget? c. often you will see line graphs with time on the horizontal axis. b. Usually. how much more money is spent on food than on transportation and clothing combined? d. Line Graphs. how much do they save each month? LINE GRAPHS Line graphs show how two categories of data or information (sometimes called variables) relate to one another.204 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 14 Interpreting Pie Charts. The data is displayed on a grid and is presented on a scale using a horizontal and a vertical axis for the different categories of information the graph is comparing. In percent of overall expenses. which category of spending best matches the voter’s wishes? On which category of spending did the voters say they want most of the money spent? Which category of spending receives the most federal dollars? To which two categories of spending did voters say they wanted the most money to go? Which two categories of spending actually received the most money? 3. . and Bar Graphs a. or how the data changes over time. c. If the Johnsons make \$2. Where does most of the budget go each month? b. The Johnsons made the following graph of their monthly family budget. Based on the survey. each data point is connected together to form a line so that you can see trends in the data.

Look at the labels. Line Graphs. Isabel’s Weight 30 25 Weight (in pounds) 20 15 10 5 0 Vertical axis 2 4 6 8 10 12 Age (in months) Horizontal axis a. Isabel’s weight in pounds is shown on the vertical axis. Isabel gained the least weight during this period. During which two-month period did Isabel have the smallest weight gain? d. b. Look at how steep the line is. Her age in months is shown on the horizontal axis. Isabel gained the most weight during this time. How much weight did Isabel gain during her ﬁrst year? Explanations: a. Use the line graph to answer the following questions.Interpreting Pie Charts. and Bar Graphs LESSON 14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 205 Example: Julia was very excited when her baby sister was born. What variable is shown on the vertical axis? What variable is shown on the horizontal axis? b. The average weight for a one-year-old girl is 20 pounds. c. The line is the steepest between 10 and 12 months. According to the graph. . Isabel weighed about 26 pounds at 12 months. How much more than average did Isabel weigh at one year? e. The steepest part of the line represents the fastest weight gain. She made the following line graph to chart her sister’s weight gain over the ﬁrst year. Subtract the average weight from this amount: 26 − 20 = 6 Isabel weighed about 6 pounds more than the average girl at twelve months. Look at how steep the line is. d. The ﬂattest part of the line represents the slowest weight gain. During which two-month period did Isabel have the greatest weight gain? c. The line is ﬂattest between 8 and 10 months.

and Bar Graphs e. TEST TA NG TIP KI I Line graphs are often used to show the results of a scientific experiment. Edwin measures the height of a plant every other day and marks it on a line graph. Subtract her weight at birth from her weight at 12 months: 26 − 8 = 18 Isabel gained about 18 pounds during her ﬁrst year. 4. Isabel weighed about 8 pounds at birth. Edwin's Science Project 10 9 8 Height (in inches) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Day 17 19 21 23 25 . Line Graphs. so you can see how the data changes over time. Edwin’s graph is shown below. The variable that the scientist is measuring and tracking is often called the dependent variable. She weighed about 26 pounds at 12 months. As part of his science project. You can check your answers at the end of the section. It is usually measured on the vertical axis of a graph. PRACTICE Use each graph to answer the questions that follow it.206 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 14 Interpreting Pie Charts. The horizontal axis is usually measuring time.

at what density are people most likely to use public transportation? c. Let’s look at an example of a bar graph and see what kinds of information it can provide. What is the most likely height of the plant on that day? c. During which two-day period did the plant grow the most? d. Which form of transportation becomes less popular as population density increases? BAR GRAPHS Like pie charts. Edwin forgot to measure the height of the plant on day 9. What variable is shown on the vertical axis? What variable is shown on the horizontal axis? b. The length of the bar represents the relative frequency of the category—compared to the other categories on the graph. What variable is shown on the vertical axis? What variable is shown on the horizontal axis? b. Jeannie saw the following graph on the news last night. at what density are people most likely to use their own car to get to work? d. . Based on the graph. bar graphs show how different categories of data relate to one another. How People Get to Work Percent of workers using each form of transportation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Public transportation Walking or Cycling Own car Population density (in workers per acre) a. and Bar Graphs LESSON 14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 207 a. During which two-day period did the plant grow the least? e.Interpreting Pie Charts. How much did the plant grow from day 1 to day 25? 5. Line Graphs. A bar represents each category. Based on the graph.

How many more inches of rain fell in January 2002 than on average during the last ﬁve years in January? . He constructed the following graph using data from his local library. how do you decide which kind of graph to use? Think about what your purpose is. Use the bar graph to answer the following questions. a pie chart is probably better. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 less than the average rainfall? d.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Key Monthly rainfall in 2002 Average monthly rainfall for 1997–2001 Scale Months Bar labels a. So when you have data to graph.208 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 14 Interpreting Pie Charts. then a bar chart is probably better because the amounts of each category are shown in comparison to each other. and Bar Graphs THIN K OUT IT AB Both pie charts and bar graphs are used to compare different categories of data. How many more inches of rain fell in April 2002 than in January 2002? e. If your purpose is to compare the absolute values of each category.0 2.0 4. What does each bar represent? What is the difference between the shaded bars and the white bars? b. Example: Vaughan’s teacher asked him to compare the rainfall in Cherokee County this year with the average rainfall in Cherokee County over the last ﬁve years. If your purpose is to show how each part relates to the whole.0 Title Rainfall (in inches) 6.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 5. Line Graphs. Rainfall in Cherokee County 7. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 greater than the average rainfall? c.

You can check your answers at the end of the section. and Bar Graphs PRACTICE Use each graph to answer the questions that follow it. Emmanuel used data from a local pet store to compare the amounts of dog food different breeds eat in one month. 6.210 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 14 Interpreting Pie Charts. Amount of Dog Food Eaten by Different Dog Breeds in One Month 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 Dog food eaten (in pounds) Shih tsu Mastiff Pug Beagle Great dane German shepherd Siberian husky Breed of Dog a. Which breed of dog ate the most food during the month that Emmanuel graphed? How many pounds of food did this breed of dog eat over the course of the month? . What does each bar represent? b. He recorded his data in the following graph. Line Graphs.

(in millions) Bike Camp Fish Walk Swim 0 a. . d. . Line Graphs. How much more food did the breed that ate the most eat than the breed that ate the least? e. and Bar Graphs LESSON 14 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 211 c. Melissa found the following graph in a magazine at the library.Interpreting Pie Charts. Which breed of dog ate the least amount of food during the month that Emmanuel graphed? How many pounds of food did this breed of dog eat over the course of the month? d. according to the graph? Which activity has the fewest participants? How many more people say they walk than go ﬁshing? How many more people walk than bike? . How Many People . c. b. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 What does each bar represent? Which activity has the most participants. How much more food did the beagle eat than the shih tzu? 7. e.

and yes. Tables and charts organize information. Rows go across. Information can also be organized into tables and charts. If you take just about any kind of standardized test. it’s important to read the table title. 212 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts .= 15 LESSON Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON SUMMARY You already know how information is presented in graphs. you will learn about different kinds of tables and charts and how to read and understand the information in them. or horizontally. or cell. or vertically. almanacs. you are likely to be asked to ﬁnd speciﬁc information in several different kinds of tables and charts. that is made where a row and a column meet provides speciﬁc information. websites. The box. extbooks. When looking for information in tables. the column headings. Columns go up and down. Frequency tables are used to track how often things happen. newspapers. Let’s look at some examples of tables and the types of information you might expect to learn from them. In this lesson. even math tests are ﬁlled with tables and charts. T GETTING INFORMATION FROM TABLES Tables present information in rows and columns. and the row labels so you understand the information you are looking at.

” Step 2: Slide your ﬁnger over to the tally marks associated with this reason. How many students came to the library to look up information last week? Step 1: Find the row that says. How many more students came to the library because their teacher told them to than the number who came to study for a test? Step 1: Count the tally marks for Required by teacher. why did most of the students come to the school library last week? Step 1: Look in the column containing tally marks. This is the reason most of the students Margie tracked came to the school library last week. Each mark represents one student. you will see that there are eight (one group of ﬁve. Reasons for a Visit to the School Library Reason Given Number of Students Title Column headings Check out a book Row labels Look up information Study for a test Required by a teacher Based on Margie’s frequency table. Here is the frequency table she made for the students she spoke with last week. The reason most students visited the library last week was to check out a book.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 213 Example: Margie works in the school library. Example: Look at Margie’s frequency table again. Each mark represents one student. Step 2: Find the cell with the most tally marks in it. plus three more marks). Then. . Step 2: Count the tally marks for Study for a test. and each group of marks with a slash through it represents ﬁve students. If you count the marks. Step 3: Trace your ﬁnger over to the reason given. 14 more students came to the library because they were required to by their teacher than those who came to study for a test. you will see that the ﬁrst cell has the most tally marks in it. “Look up information. Therefore. If you look in the table. Step 3: Subtract: 26 − 12 = 14. She keeps track of why students come to the library. Example: Look at Margie’s frequency table in the last example. count the tally marks. Therefore. eight students came to the library last week to look up information. There are 26 marks. There are 12 marks.

How far is it from Atlanta to Boston? b. THE FUJITA-PEARSON TORNADO INTENSITY SCALE CLASSIFICATION WIND SPEED (IN MILES PER HOUR) F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 72 73–112 113–157 158–206 207–260 261–319 320–379 Mild Moderate Signiﬁcant Severe Devastating Cataclysmic Overwhelming DAMAGE a.059 a.054 1. CITY MILEAGE TABLE ATLANTA Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Los Angeles 1. U.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 215 PRACTICE 1.182 2. Chicago to Denver or Boston to Chicago? c. S.398 1. drove to Chicago.979 996 2.949 2.979 2. What wind speed would you anticipate if a tornado of F6 were reported? . Then. How much farther is Los Angeles to Boston than Atlanta to Chicago? 2. Use the mileage table below to answer the following questions.054 1. If a tornado has a wind speed of 173 miles per hour. Answer the following questions. how would it be classiﬁed? b. Which is farther.037 674 1. Use the table below to answer the following questions.037 CHICAGO 674 994 DENVER 1.182 994 1. What kind of damage would you expect from a tornado having a wind speed of 300 miles per hour? c. How many miles would you drive if you started in Denver. and then drove to Boston? d.398 2.059 BOSTON 1. check your answers at the end of the section.949 996 LOS ANGELES 2.

CEDAR VALLEY SOFTBALL — TEAM A NAME Meghan Patty David Nasser Lan AT BATS 16 17 15 18 16 HITS 5 6 7 5 4 WALKS 2 3 2 3 6 a.216 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts 3. A player’s batting average is the number of hits divided by the number of times at bat. Use the table below to answer the following questions. Either a hit or a walk can get a player to ﬁrst base. Which player has been up to bat the most? b. COMPARTMENT 1 Ax Pry bar Sledgehammer Torch COMPARTMENT 3 Fire extinguishers Fire ﬁghting foam Portable pump COMPARTMENT 2 Nozzle Two lengths of hose Pipe wrench Toolbox COMPARTMENT 4 First aid kit Oxygen cylinder Rescue rope a. Which player has most likely gotten to ﬁrst base the most? d. What would be a good title for this table? In which compartment would you expect to ﬁnd more lengths of hose? Which compartment would you look in for bandages? Where would you ﬁnd a sledgehammer? 4. b. Use the table below to answer the following questions. Which player has had the most hits? c. c. What is Lan’s batting average? . d.

FLOW CHART: to organize a series of steps in a process Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 TIMELINE : to sequence events over time te ve nt nt t ev en ird d Fi rs on Th Se c Fo u rth ev en ev e t .Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 217 GETTING INFORMATION FROM CHARTS Charts present information in many different ways. Here are three common kinds of charts. You probably use charts all the time.

218 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts VENN DIAGRAMS: to organize similarities and differences A differences AB B differences similarities A AB ABC AC B BC C Let’s look at some examples of these charts and the kinds of information you can get from each kind. .

animal feed. These are germ. corn oil or corn syrup? Look at the middle row of arrows in the ﬂow chart. sweeteners. At the bottom. . Example: Look at the ﬂow chart again. starches. So corn oil is reﬁned before corn syrup. Notice that the corn oil is reﬁned ﬁrst. and gluten. and alcohol and other chemicals. Example: Joachim is writing a report for school about corn. What three parts of corn are used to make food for animals? Find animal feed in the chart. Then. follow the arrows to see which corn products are used to make it. These are corn oil. The corn syrup is reﬁned last. ﬁber. Example: Look at the ﬂow chart. the products of each process are listed. steep the corn take out the germ grind and screen take out starch and gluten convert the starch fermentation refine corn oil germ fiber gluten dry the starch refine the corn syrup corn oil animal feed starches sweeteners alcohol and chemicals Corn Oil DOG FOOD Corn Starch Corn Syrup Ethanol What ﬁve products are made using corn? Look at the ﬂow chart. Which is reﬁned ﬁrst. He found the following ﬂow chart in a pamphlet from a corn processor.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 219 Flow Charts Flow charts often show the steps in a process.

NATO formed in 1949. The Korean War began in 1950. Warsaw Pact is signed.S.1955) 1945 1948 1949 1950 1955 Korea is divided into two regions: North and South. Example: Hakim found the following timeline in his history textbook. How many years passed between the division of Korea and the beginning of the Korean War? Korea divided into two regions in 1945.220 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts Timelines Timelines are used to show the sequence of events over time. So NATO formed before the Korean War began. Subtract: 1950 − 1945 = 5. TEST TA NG TIP KI I Here are some things for you to keep in mind as you read a timeline. Korean War begins. Ask yourself: How much time passes between each event listed in the timeline? . Did NATO form before or after the Korean War began? Look at the dates on the timeline. Marshall Plan. ■ ■ Look at the time covered by the timeline. Congress NATO approves forms. Example: Look at the timeline again. U. The Korean War didn’t begin until 1950. Ask yourself these questions: When does it begin? When does it end? Look at the sequence of events listed in the timeline. North and South Korea set up separate governments. Find when each event occurred. So ﬁve years passed between the division of Korea and the beginning of the Korean War. Major Events of the Cold War (1945 .

Scott’s class on Monday.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 221 TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page ■ ■ Think about events that are not listed in the timeline. The circle labeled J represents all the students in Mrs. They are often used in math when talking about sets of numbers. . Scott’s class were wearing jeans on Monday? Look at the key. So 23 students were wearing jeans in Mrs. They can also be used to compare characteristics of groups. Scott’s class on Monday J = Set of students wearing jeans C = Set of students wearing colored socks S J 19 C 8 35 4 According to the diagram. Add: 19 + 4 = 23. Scott’s class were wearing on Monday. Example: The following Venn diagram shows the kinds of socks and pants that students in Mrs. This circle contains the numbers 19 and 4. Ask yourself: Does one of these events cause another? How does each event relate to an earlier or a later event? Venn Diagrams Venn diagrams are used to show how things are similar and different. Scott’s class who were wearing jeans on Monday. Ask yourself: What other events were going on during this time? Think about how the events are related to one another. Key: S = Set of all students in Mrs. how many students in Mrs.

The answer is 27. So add 19 + 8 = 27. you need to add the number of students who wore either jeans or colored socks. Example: Look at the Venn diagram again. There were 31 (19 + 4 + 8) students wearing jeans and\or colored socks. . To answer this question. When people talk about Venn diagrams. or total. Scott’s class on Monday? The box labeled S represents all the students present. Scott’s class on Monday. Scott’s class on Monday. Scott’s class who wore colored socks on Monday. or the total number of students. Example: Look at the Venn diagram one last time. but not both. The part of the two circles that overlaps represents students who were wearing both jeans and colored socks on Monday. You know there were 35 students in class. you need to subtract the number of students wearing jeans and\or colored socks from the total number of students in class that day. Scott’s class on Monday. The circle labeled C represents all the students in Mrs. they often call this box The Universe. There were only four students wearing neither jeans nor colored socks in Mrs. Scott’s class? To answer this question. being discussed in the diagram is. How many students were in Mrs. in Mrs. Scott’s class who wore jeans on Monday. How many students were wearing neither jeans nor colored socks on Monday in Mrs. How many students were wearing either jeans or colored socks but not both jeans and colored socks? The key tells you that the circle labeled J represents all the students in Mrs. Subtract: 35 − 31 = 4.222 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts Example: Look at the Venn diagram again. There were 35 students in Mrs. It tells you what the largest set.

d. Answer the following questions using Malia’s timeline.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 223 PRACTICE 5. Martin Luther King. Woodstock Music Festival takes place. 1968 1969 Martin Luther King. Malia is studying for a history exam. The 1960s 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 John F Kennedy becomes President. e. What period is covered by the timeline? During what year was President Kennedy assassinated? Who was assassinated ﬁrst: President Kennedy. is assassinated. Jr. Jr. The Berlin Wall is built. She made the following timeline to help her study. . Civil Rights Act passed.. Russian Yuri Gagarin makes first manned flight into space. Cuban Missile Crisis begins. b. National Organization of Women founded. c. a. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson. Malcolm X is assassinated. or Malcolm X? Did Kennedy sign the Civil Rights Act? Was the ﬁrst person in space an American? . Kennedy is assassinated.

Which food group should you eat the most servings of each day? c. How many servings of vegetables are recommended each day? b. Oils & Sweets KEY ● Fat (naturally occurring and added) ▼ Sugars (added) USE SPARINGLY Milk. You can check your answers that the end of the lesson.Getting Information from Tables and Charts LESSON 15 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 225 7. Department of Agriculture/U. Fish. Department of Health and Human Services a. The U.S. Rice & Pasta Group 6-11 SERVINGS Source: U. The Food Guide Pyramid—A Guide to Daily Food Choices Fats. Dry Beans. Cereal.S. Based on the key. Yogurt & Cheese Group Meat. Department of Agriculture puts out the following Food Guide Pyramid to help people choose a healthy diet. Use this chart to answer the following questions. Eggs & Nuts Group 2-3 SERVINGS 2-3 SERVINGS Vegetable Group Fruit Group 3-5 SERVINGS 2-4 SERVINGS Bread.S. which group of foods has the most added fats and sugars? . Poultry.

Morrison Middle School had the following basketball scores last month: 101 82 111 122 89 104 109 93 112 88 85 108 120 91 Draw a Venn diagram similar to the one shown below. Then write the scores where they belong in the diagram. Basketball Scores Morrison Middle School—January Scores < 90 Scores > 105 Scores > 90 and < 105 . You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.226 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 15 Getting Information from Tables and Charts 8.

As you work through these problems. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. They are important skills for ordinary questions that come up every day. REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 227 . TEST TA NG TIP KI I Look at the labels on tables and charts to help you find the information you are looking for. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.Real World Problems ÷ x IMPROVE YOUR MATH These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 6 to everyday situations.

Tennille operates a drink stand at the zoo. Drinks Sold on a Typical Summer Day at the Zoo Hot drinks 6% Milk shakes 22% Fruit smoothies 28% Bottled water 13% Soft drinks 16% Fruit juices 15% a. The graph below shows the types of drinks she sells on a typical day. If Tennille sells 325 drinks one day. This summer.228 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 1. What is the most popular kind of drink Tennille sells? c. how many fruit smoothies is she most likely to sell? b. What is the least popular kind of drink she sells? .

TRI-COUNTY REGION JUNE 2002 NUMBER OF DATE June 2 June 3 June 7 AREA Burgaw Grove Fenner Forest Voorhees Air Base Training Site June 12 Murphy County Nature Reserve June 13 June 14 June 17 June 19 June 21 June 25 June 28 June 30 Knoblock Mountain Cougar Run Ski Center Fenner Forest Stone River State Park Burgaw Grove Bramley Acres Resort Hanesboro Crossing Stone River State Park 200 160 120 526 499 1. What period does the table cover? Where did a ﬁre occur one week after the Voorhees Air Base ﬁre? Which ﬁres were probably caused by arson? Which ﬁre burned the most acres? . FOREST FIRES. c.200 320 167 Miscellaneous Unknown Campﬁre Arson Smoking Arson Lightning Campﬁre 495 Children ACRES BURNED 115 200 400 PROBABLE CAUSE Lightning Campﬁre Equipment Use a. d. b. The table below lists the ﬁres in the Tri-County Region for the month of June.REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 229 2.

230 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 3. What kind of solid waste makes up the largest portion of garbage? What percent of solid waste comes from yards? Where does most of our garbage go? If you were to go to a landﬁll. what kind of garbage would you probably see the most of? What percent of garbage is being recycled? . c. d. e. Solid Wastes in Our Garbage 41% 18% 6% 8% 8% 9% 10% Plastic Food Glass Metal Other Yard Wastes Paper WHERE OUR GARBAGE GOES METHOD OF DISPOSAL Landﬁll Recycled Converted to energy Burned PERCENTAGE OF GARBAGE 80 11 6 3 a. Ivan found the following information in a pamphlet from his local waste disposal center. b.

the greater potential for ﬁre.REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 231 4. HURST COUNTY TOWNS. What is the status of the town with the fewest number of days without signiﬁcant precipitation? b. Which town has the most days without signiﬁcant precipitation? c. Use the table to answer the following questions. How many more days without signiﬁcant precipitation does the town with the most days have than the town with the least days? . **The higher the level. NUMBER OF DAYS WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT PRECIPITATION* TOWN Riderville Adams Parkston Kings Hill West Granville Braxton Chase Crossing Livingston Center NUMBER OF DAYS 38 25 74 28 50 23 53 45 STATUS** level two level one level three level two level three level three level four level three *At least half an inch in a 48-hour period. Which towns are Status Three? d. a.

700 gallons of water this month and paid \$74. TX 75229 Your Water Use History (in hundreds of gallons) 365 292 Water used 219 146 73 0 This month Last month This month last year a.232 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 5. how much were they charged per gallon? . c. d. During which month shown in the graph did the Garcia family use the most water? How many gallons of water did the Garcia family use this month last year? How much more water did the Garcias use this month last year than they did last month? If the Garcias used 35. Marissa’s mother received the following information along with her water bill this month.00 for water. Utilities and Services City of Dallas Juanita García For services at: 216 Lancelot Dr Dallas. b.

Growth Chart: Boys (from birth to 36 months) Age (months) 42 40 38 36 0 3 6 9 12 16 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 95th 90th 75th 50th 25th 10th 5th Height (in inches) 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 95th 90th 75th 50th 25th 10th 5th Weight (in pounds) 0 3 6 9 12 16 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 birth Age (in months) a. the doctor checks the toddler’s weight and height against the following growth charts. His little brother weighed 28 pounds and was 34 inches tall. Alex’s little brother weighed 6 pounds at birth. What percentile was his little brother in for weight and height? b. Every time he goes to the doctor. How tall is a 33-month-old child in the 95th percentile? c. A child in the 95th percentile is bigger than about 95% of other children the same age and sex.REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 233 6. What percentile was he in? . Alex’s little brother went to the doctor for his two-year check-up.

she tallied the responses. How many people said that the concession stand did an excellent or very good job? b.234 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 7. What percent of customers said the service was poor? . Below is Connie’s frequency table after one football game. Tiger Stadium Concession Stand Customer Satisfaction Survey Excellent Very Good Average Below Average Poor a. Then. What is the ratio of customers who said the service was excellent to those who said the service was poor? c. Connie worked at the football concession stand this season. She randomly asked customers to ﬁll out a card about the concession stand’s service.

Transportation and clothing combined make up 13% (9% + 4%) of the budget. a. According to the graph. 4% c. Voters said they wanted money to go to health and environment. 22 − 13 = 9. According to the graph. So. Energy: voters say they’d like about 10% of the budget spent on energy and about 11% is spent on energy.000). Oxygen makes up 46% of the Earth’s crust. 10% is spent on savings. these two elements make up 74% (28% + 46%) of the Earth’s crust. Ten percent of \$2.1 × 2. Silicon makes up 28%. Oxygen makes up 46%. Together. 9% more money is spent on food than on transportation and clothing combined. c. 22% of the budget is spent on food. Defense and health received the most money. So. Aluminum makes up 8%.Answers & Explanations = SECTION 6 LESSON 14 1. Together. these two elements make up 14% (6% + 8%) of the Earth’s crust. Section 6 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 235 . a. National defense d. Housing. the Johnsons save \$200 each month. 3. Health c. b.000 is \$200 (0. Iron makes up 6%. b. Thus. 30% b. d. 2. a. Clothing.

. you call the insurance company. c. 3–5 servings per day b. Then. 8. she most likely sells about 91 fruit smoothies. and sweets have the most added fats and sugars. Find the smallest slice of the pie chart. Fruit smoothies make up 28% of her sales. a. It’s 6%—for hot drinks. Fats. you ﬁrst go to the hospital. Basketball Scores Morrison Middle School—January Scores < 90 Scores > 105 82 88 85 89 111 93 101 104 91 122 112 109 108 120 Scores > 90 and < 105 REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 1. The largest slice of the pie chart is 28%—fruit smoothies. c. The car is repaired last—after you receive a check for the repairs from the insurance company. Multiply: 0. 7. you receive a check for the repairs. Fruit smoothies are the most popular drinks Tennille sells. oils. If you are injured. If you’re not injured. b. If Tennille sells 325 drinks in one day. b. rice. cereal.28 × 325 = 91. and pasta c. a. a. Hot drinks are the least popular kind of drinks Tennille sells. First. your car is inspected.238 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 6 6. Bread.

Count the tally marks beside “Excellent” and “Very good”: There are 27.240 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 6 7. The answer is 27 people.” So the ratio is 15:15. which 1 reduces to 4 . . 1 or 1 . Count the number of customers who said the service was poor: 15. Count the number of marks beside each category. b. Write a fraction using these two numbers: 60 . There are 15 marks beside “Excellent” and 15 marks beside “Poor. The answer is 1:1. c. which reduces to 1:1. a. The answer is 25%. Then count the total 15 number of customers surveyed: 60.

You may work with a “solve for x” question. This section will give you a basic introduction to algebra.= 7 SECTION Introduction ÷ world. You can interpret a sentence and translate it into algebra. There are many faces of algebra. You can take an algebraic expression and turn it into words. so you understand how you can use it to solve problems in the real . to Algebra ALGEBRA IS THE branch of mathematics that denotes quantities with letters and uses negative numbers as well as ordinary numbers. or a “simplify the equation” question.

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LESSON

Algebraic Expressions
LESSON SUMMARY This lesson will introduce you to the basic vocabulary of algebra. You will learn what an algebraic expression is. You will also learn how to evaluate and simplify algebraic expressions. In short, this lesson will prepare you for the next lesson on solving algebraic equations.

lgebra is a branch of math that uses letters to represent unknown numbers. A letter that represents an unknown number is called a variable. You often use algebra to translate everyday situations into a math sentence so that you can then solve problems.

A

WHAT ARE ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS?
An algebraic expression is a group of numbers, variables (letters), and operation signs (+, −, ÷, and so on). Variables are usually written in italics. For example, the x in the following algebraic expressions is the variable: 5x + 2 3x − 8
4x 9

Any letter can be used to represent a number in an algebraic expression. The letters, x, y, and z are commonly used. Algebraic expressions translate the relationship between numbers into math symbols. The following are some examples.
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MATH RELATIONSHIP IN WORDS

TRANSLATED INTO AN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

A number plus six Five times a number Three less than a number The product of seven and a number A number divided by eight A number squared

x+6 5x x−3 7x x ÷ 8 or x2
x 8

When multiplying a number and a variable, you just have to write them side by side. You don’t need to use a multiplication symbol.
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OUT IT AB

Notice that the value of an algebraic expression changes as the value of the variable (here, x) changes. Let’s look at the first algebraic expression listed above: x + 6. If If If If If x x x x x = = = = = 1, then x + 6 = 1 + 6 = 7. 2, then x + 6 = 2 + 6 = 8. 3, then x + 6 = 3 + 6 = 9. 100, then x + 6 = 100 + 6 = 106. 213, then x + 6 = 213 + 6 = 219.

Example: Translate the following math relationship into an algebraic expression: the quotient of three divided by a number plus the difference between three and two. Step 1: You know that the word quotient means to divide, so you write 3÷ Step 2: The word number represents your variable, so you write 3÷x Step 3: The word plus means to add, so you write 3÷x+ Step 4: The word difference means to subtract, so you write 3 ÷ x + (3 − 2) Remember from Lesson 1 (the order of operations), that parentheses are used to indicate an operation that should be performed ﬁrst. So, the answer is 3 ÷ x + (3 − 2).

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When translating a math relationship into an algebraic expression, keep these key words in mind.
TRANSLATING MATH RELATIONSHIPS INTO ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS THESE WORDS added to sum plus increased by combine altogether subtracted from difference decreased by minus take away less multiplied by product times divided by quotient per equals is are a number OFTEN TRANSLATE INTO THESE MATH SYMBOLS +

,• ( ) Parentheses can also indicate multiplication. 3(5) is the same as 3 5 or 3 • 5 ÷

=

x

Remember that when dividing and subtracting the order of the numbers is very important. Here are some examples. ■ The difference between three and two means 3 − 2 (which equals 1). ■ Three less than two means 2 − 3 (which equals −1). ■ The quotient of four divided by two means 4 ÷ 2 (which equals 2). It’s the same when variables are used. ■ The difference between three and a number means 3 − x. ■ Three less than a number means x − 3. ■ The quotient of four and a number means 4 ÷ x ■ The quotient of a number divided by four means x ÷ 4.

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LESSON 16 Algebraic Expressions

Example: Translate the following math relationship into an algebraic expression: one-fourth a number is decreased by nine. Step 1: You know that the word one-fourth is a fraction, so you write
1 4

Step 2: The word number represents your variable, and when you are talking about fractions, the word of indicates that you should multiply, so you write
1 4x

Step 3: The words decreased by mean to subtract, so you write
1 4x

−9
1

Thus, the answer is 4 x − 9.

PRACTICE
Translate each math relationship into an algebraic expression. You can check your answers at the end of the section. 1. ten minus twice a number 2. the difference between six and a number 3. eleven less than the sum of ﬁve and a number 4. seven times a number plus three 5. four times a number increased by two 6. the quotient of a number divided by two 7. eight times a number minus one 8. ten minus the sum of fourteen and a number 9. the product of three and x and y 10. ﬁve divided by the product of x and y

EVALUATING ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
Algebraic expressions have speciﬁc values only when the variables have values. Finding the value of an algebraic expression by plugging in the known values of its variables is called evaluating an expression.

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Example: Evaluate 5 ÷ (x + y), when x = 2 and y = 3. Step 1: Plug the numbers into the algebraic expression. 5 ÷ (2 + 3) Step 2: Solve by following the order of operations. Add the numbers in parenthesis: 5 ÷ (2 + 3) = 5 ÷ 5 Divide: 5 ÷ 5 = 1 The answer is 1.
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Whether you are working with numbers or variables, the order of operations is the same. Remember the order of operations from Lesson 1—Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction)
THE ORDER OF OPERATIONS

STEP 1:

Do all the operations in parentheses. Then solve for exponents.

STEP 2:

Multiply and divide numbers in order from left to right.

STEP 3:

Add and subtract numbers in order from left to right.

You might want to review Lesson 1, if this isn’t familiar to you.

Example: Find the value of 5 + x, when x = −2. Step 1: Plug the numbers into the algebraic expression. 5 + (−2) Step 2: Solve. 5−2=3 Thus, the answer is 3.

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Variables can represent any quantity. A variable might be a whole number, a decimal, or a fraction, for example. A variable can also represent a signed number—a number with a positive (+) or a negative (–) sign in front of it. Any number can have a sign in front of it. If a number has no sign in front of it, it is + (positive). Signed whole numbers and zero make up a group of numbers called integers. Integers are often represented on a number line like the one shown below. Zero (0) is in the center of the line, and numbers to the left of the zero are negative, while the numbers to the right of zero are positive.
−10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

You can use a number line to add and subtract signed whole numbers. Here’s how it works. EXAMPLE: 8 + (−4) Step 1: 8 is positive since there is no negative sign in front of it. Step 2: Start at zero. Then, move 8 units in the positive direction (to the right), as shown below.
−10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Step 3: The sign in front of the 4 is − (negative). So you need to move 4 units in the negative direction (to the left) as shown below.
−10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Thus, the answer is 4. On the next page are some basic rules to help you add, subtract, multiply, and divide signed numbers.

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continued from previous page WHAT SIGN IS THE ANSWER? RULE EXAMPLE

If the numbers have the same sign, just add them together. The answer has the same sign as the numbers being added. If two numbers have different signs, subtract the smaller number from the larger one. The answer has the same sign as the larger of the two numbers. If you are adding more than two numbers, add the positive numbers and the negative numbers separately. Then, follow the rule above.
When subtracting

5 5 1 1 5 5

6 2 3

11 ( 6) ( 2) 11 6 ( 3) 1 1 6

( 6) 6

2 2 9 4 ( 5)

( 5) 3 ( 7) ( 12)

( 7) 9 12 3

4

3

Change the sign of the number that follows the minus sign. Then, add. (Notice that two negative signs next to each other make a positive sign.)
When multiplying

3 3 3

5 5

3 ( 5)

( 5) 3 3 ( 5)

2 8 8 ( 5)

If you are multiplying two numbers and the numbers have the same sign, then the answer is positive. (This also applies to any even number of numbers being multiplied together.) If you are multiplying two numbers and the numbers have the opposite signs, then the answer is negative. When multiplying more than two numbers together, two negative signs make a positive sign.
When dividing

2 2

6

12 ( 6) 12

2 2

6 ( 6)

12 12

2 1 1

( 6) ( 2) ( 2)

12 ( 3) ( 3) 6 ( 4) 24

If the numbers have the same sign, then the answer is positive. If the numbers have the different signs, then the answer is negative.

15 15 15 15

3

5 ( 3) 3 5 5 5

( 3)

It can make a difference if the negative sign is inside parentheses or outside them. when x = 5 and y = −1 15. when x = 12 and y = −12 TEST TA NG TIP KI 2y I Notice where a negative sign is in an algebraic expression. 3x + 3 a. when x = −1 and y = 1 b. You can check your answers at the end of the section. when x = 5 and y = −3 c. x + 2x + 10 a. when x = −1 b. when x = −1 and y = 1 b. when x = 3 14. 5(x − 3) + 2y a. when x = 3 13. 11. when x = 3 and y = −2 c.250 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 16 Algebraic Expressions PRACTICE Evaluate each algebraic expression using the numbers given. Compare these expressions. 2(x − 1) a. when x = 1 b. when x = −1 c. when x = 1 b. when x = −1 c. x2+ 10 a. when x = 5 12. when x = −2 c. ( 2)2 = ( 2)( 2) = 4 (2)2 = (2)(2) = 4 .

the terms in an algebraic expression are separated by + and − signs. OUT IT AB THIN K Still not sure how to break an algebraic expression into its terms? Try these. 20x2 . 1. For example. Three terms: 4x2.Algebraic Expressions LESSON 16 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 251 SIMPLIFYING ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS The parts of an algebraic expression are called terms. 2x2 6x 5 2 3xy x 5xyz 17 2 4x 3x 6y2 12 20x2 Answers: 1. 6x. −5x. 3. 6y2 5. the following algebraic expression has three terms: Algebraic expression: 5x2 − 5x + 1 Terms: +5x2. 5. Notice that the sign in front of each term is included as part of that term—the sign is always part of the term. 3x. Three terms: 2x2. 2. 4. x2 3. then the term is positive (+). Two terms: 12. If no sign is given. +1 As you can see. 17 4. Break each algebraic expression into its terms. 5 2. Two terms: 5xyz. Two terms: 3xy. A term is a number or a number and the variables associated with it.

There are no like terms in this expression. It’s already simpliﬁed. Example: Simplify the following algebraic expression: 2x2 + 3y + 9xy + 3y2 Step 1: Write the like terms next to each other. Therefore. The simpliﬁed expression is 14x + 3y. Example: Simplify the following algebraic expression: 5x(2x − 1) + 9x Step 1: Write the like terms next to each other. Here are some examples of like terms. Add the like terms: 5x + 9x + 3y = 14x + 3y You can’t simplify the 3y because there are no other terms in the expression with the variable y. . Step 2: Combine the like terms. So write them next to each other: 5x + 9x + 3y Step 2: Combine the like terms. This makes it easier to evaluate the expression later on. Multiply: 5x(2x − 1) 10x2 − 5x So now your equation is 10x2 − 5x + 9x Now you can see that −5x and 9x are like terms because each contains the x term. Example: Simplify the following algebraic expression: 5x + 3y + 9x. Add the like terms: −5x + 9x = 4x Now your equation is simpliﬁed to 10x2 − 4x You can’t simplify further because there are no other terms in the expression with the same variable. So you leave it alone. Like terms are terms that use the same variable and are raised to the same power. You know that 5x and 9x are like terms because they both have x.252 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 16 Algebraic Expressions Simplifying an algebraic expression means to combine like terms. Begin by distributing the 5x so that you can remove the parentheses. you group all the terms that are alike together. the simpliﬁed expression is 10x2 − 4x. Step 1: Write the like terms next to each other. LIKE TERMS 5x and 9x 3x2 and 8x2 xy and −5xy BOTH TERMS CONTAIN x x2 xy When you combine like terms.

−x(2x − 5) + 7x 18. If a negative sign comes in front of a set of parentheses. 2x(3x − y) + 4x 19. PRACTICE Simplify each algebraic expression. 12 + 2(6x − 2y) − (2 − 3x) 20. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Here’s an example. you get the following: 2x + 6y 4 Notice that the negative sign ( ) affects each term inside the parentheses.Algebraic Expressions LESSON 16 NG TIP KI IMPROVE YOUR MATH 253 TEST TA I When combining like terms. begin by solving to remove the parentheses. 4x +8y + 6x + 3y 17. 16. it affects every term inside the parentheses. 4(4x − yx) + 5(x + yx) + 2x( y − 5yx) . EXAMPLE: 2(x 3y +2) When you multiply each term inside the parentheses by 2.

This is sometimes called isolating the variable. You will also learn how to solve one-step and multiple-step algebraic equations. Algebraic equations say one quantity is equal to another quantity. you will learn what an algebraic equation is. It always has an equals (=) sign. you ﬁrst need to get it alone on one side of the equals sign. A n algebraic equation is a math sentence. 254 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 17 Solving Algebraic Equations . 5 + x = 25 x − 5 = 25 5x = 25 HOW TO SOLVE ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS Solving an algebraic equation means that you have to ﬁnd the value of the variable. Here are a few examples of algebraic equations. To solve for the value of the variable.= 17 LESSON Solving Algebraic Equations LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson.

Step 1: Ask yourself: What operation is used in the equation? Division. x = 24 2x 2 . Example: Solve the following algebraic expression: 5r = −25. So. r = −5. z − 3 = 8. What is the inverse operation of this division? Multiplication. Step 2: Combine like terms on both sides of the equals sign =x and 12 × 2 = 24 Therefore. So. What is the inverse operation of this multiplication? Division. You know that 8 = 8. so 11 − 3 = 8. Check your answer by going back to the original equation and plugging in your answer. divide each side of the equation by 5 in order to isolate the variable: 5r 5 = −25 5 Divide each side of the equation by 5 Step 2: Combine like terms on both sides of the equals sign 5r 5 =r and −25 5 = −5 Therefore. so your answer. z = 11. Example: Solve the following algebraic expression: 2 = 12. 2× x 2 x = 12 × 2 Multiply each side of the equation by 2 to isolate the variable. Step 1: Ask yourself: What operation is used in the equation? Multiplication. z−3= 8 +3 +3 z + 0 = 11 All like terms have been combined. multiply each side of the equation by 2 in order to isolate the variable. z = 11 is correct. and z = 11. Step 2: Combine like terms on both sides of the equals sign. z = 11 Therefore.256 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 17 Solving Algebraic Equations z−3= 8 +3 +3 Add 3 to each side of the equation.

subtract 5 from both sides of the equation. 5 is added to the 2m. Then. When solving multiple-step algebraic equations. 5q = −45 9. Step 1: First. . 2m 8 Divide both sides of the equation by 2 to isolate the variable. In other words. the answer is m = 4. 2x = 12 7. so you must divide each side of the equation by 2 in order to isolate the variable. you should ﬁrst add or subtract. 2m = 8 Step 2: Perform the inverse operation for any multiplication or division. look for numbers that are being added or subtracted to the term with the variable. −3t = −21 8. 10. To simplify.Solving Algebraic Equations LESSON 17 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 257 PRACTICE Solve each algebraic equation. x 4 x 3 =3 =2 SOLVING MULTIPLE STEP ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS The algebraic equations you’ve solved so far in this lesson have almost all required one inverse operation. 2 = 2 Therefore. You can check your answers that the end of the lesson. a − 7 = 12 3. x + 10 = 14 2. In this equation. Example: Solve the following algebraic expression: 2m + 5 = 13. s − 9 = 3 6. y + (−2) = 15 4. −r + 3 = 21 5. 2m + 5 = 13 −5 −5 Subtract 5 from either side of the equation. The variable in this equation is multiplied by 2. But some algebraic equations require more than one inverse operation to isolate the variable and then solve the equation. 1. multiply or divide. you follow the order of operations in inverse order! Another way to look at it is to solve for the number attached to the variable last. Let’s look at some examples.

4q + 12 = 16 19. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson. 3a + 4 = 13 12. 3x − 4 = 2x + 4 15. 2p + 2 = 16 13. 4b 16 Divide both sides of the equation by 4. your answer is b = 4. 3( y − 9) − 2 = −35 18.Solving Algebraic Equations LESSON 17 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 259 Step 3: Perform the inverse operation for any multiplication or division. 4 = 4 Therefore. Divide each side of the equation by 4. 4(c − 1) = 12 14. 11. 5(b + 1) = 60 17. t 5 − 3 = −9 20. PRACTICE Solve each algebraic equation. 6(2 + f ) = 5f + 15 . 10w + 14 − 8w = 12 16.

” Write any other unknown amounts in terms of x. You can do this by writing “Let x = . 245 if you need to refresh your memory. Here are some tips for solving these types of problems. . 260 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS . set up the algebraic expressions in an equation with an equals sign and solve for the variable. you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests. They are important skills for questions that come up every day that you need to solve. . Don’t forget to use all the skills you’ve learned in previous chapters translating word sentences to math sentences. ■ First. As you work through these problems. TEST TA NG TIP KI I Algebraic expressions and equations are very useful in solving the types of word problems you are likely to find on math tests. . ■ Lastly.Real World Problems ÷ x These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 7 to everyday situations. too. write the amount you are looking for in terms of x (or whatever letter you want to use). read the problem to determine what you are looking for. Also. ■ Then. refer to the table Translating Math Relationships into Algebraic Expressions on p.

Peter got a raise on his after school job. 2. Ten times 40% of a number is equal to 4 less than the product of 6 times the number. How much did Peter make before he got his raise? How much was his raise? 2 .REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 261 1. How many sit-ups did Jeremy do? 3. how many are red jellybeans? 5. Jeremy and Mai wanted to see who could do the most sit-ups in one minute. The total number of sit-ups both Jeremy and Mai did was 66. He now makes \$10 per hour. Mai did 12 more sit-ups than Jeremy did. 6. If there are 12. If 60 girls and boys are signed up for the camp. An adult ticket to the cinema costs twice as much as a child’s ticket. Timothy paid \$28 for two adult tickets and three children’s tickets.000 jellybeans total. Write an algebraic expression you could use to ﬁnd the price of an adult’s ticket to the cinema. how many boys are signed up? 4. There are 12 fewer girls than twice the number of boys signed up for Rolling Hills Tennis Camp. which is \$4 more than 3 his original hourly rate. The ratio of blue jellybeans to red jellybeans to yellow jellybeans is 3:2:1.

8. solve. 10. 2. Begin by replacing the variable with 5: 5 + 2(5) + 10. solve. 3. Then. 6. 10 − 2x 6−x (5 + x) − 11 7x + 3 4x + 2 x 2 or x ÷ 2 8x − 1 10 − (14 + x) 3xy 5 xy or 5 ÷ xy Begin by replacing the variable with the number 1: 1 + 2(1) + 10. −1 + 2(−1) + 10 = −3 + 10 = 7 The answer is 7. 9. 11. ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 7 262 IMPROVE YOUR MATH . 4. solve. b.Answers & Explanations = SECTION 7 LESSON 16 1. Begin by replacing the variable with −1: −1 + 2(−1) + 10. 5 + 2(5) + 10 = 5 + 10 + 10 = 25 The answer is 25. 5. c. Then. 7. a. Then. 1 + 2(1) + 10 = 13 The answer is 13.

Then. distribute to eliminate the parentheses. 2(−12) 3(12) + 3 = −24 36 + 3 = 36 + −8 = The answer is 28. combine the like terms. 18. 2(−12) c. add the like terms together. 19. 12 + 2(6x − 2y) − (2 − 3x) 12 + 12x − 4y − 2 + 3x Then. −x(2x − 5) + 7x = −2x2 + 5x + 7x Then. Begin by replacing the x with 12 and the y with −12: 3(12) + 3 . 16. 17. 2(1) . First. 2(1) 3(−1) + 3 = 2 1 −3 + 3 = −2 3 1 The answer is −2 3 . 2(−3) b. a. write the like terms next to each other. Then. Begin by replacing the x with 5 and the y with −3: 3(5) + 3 . solve.264 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 7 15. First. 4x + 6x + 8y + 3y Then. 2(−3) 3(5) + 3 = −6 15 + 3 = 15 + −2 = 13 The answer is 13. distribute to eliminate the parentheses. solve. Then. Begin by writing the like terms next to each other. combine the like terms. solve. Begin by replacing the x with −1 and the y with 1: 3(−1) + 3 . so the answer is 6x2 − 2xy + 4x. 10 + 15x − 4y The answer is 10 + 15x − 4y. −2x2 + 5x + 7x = −2x2 + 12x The answer is −2x2 + 12x. 10x + 11y The answer is 10x + 11y. distribute to eliminate the parentheses. 2x(3x − y) + 4x = 6x2 − 2xy + 4x There are no like terms to combine. First. 12 − 2 + 12x + 3x − 4y Finally.

x+0=4 x=4 Thus. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: subtraction. perform the inverse operation (subtraction) to both sides of the equation: x + 10 = 14 x + 10 = 14 − 10 − 10 Finally. distribute to eliminate the parentheses. yx and xy are the same term. a + 0 = 19 a = 19 The ﬁnal answer is a = 19. 16x + 5x − 4yx + 5yx + 2xy − 10yx2 Finally. combine like terms and solve for the variable. combine like terms and solve for the variable. 4(4x − yx) + 5(x + yx) + 2x(y − 5yx) = 16x − 4yx + 5x + 5yx + 2xy − 10yx2 Then. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: addition. perform the inverse operation (addition) to both sides of the equation: a − 7 = 12 a − 7 = 12 +7 +7 Finally. write the like terms next to each other. First. 21x + 3yx − 10yx2 The answer is 21x + 3yx − 10yx2. combine the like terms.265 Section 7 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 265 20. the ﬁnal answer is x = 4. Then. Note that because multiplication has the commutative property (two or more factors can be multiplied in any order without changing the product). Then. 2. even though they are in different order. . LESSON 17 1.

combine like terms and solve for the variable. x = 12 The ﬁnal answer is x = 12. combine like terms and solve for the variable.267 Section 7 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 267 6. Then. q = −9 The ﬁnal answer is q = −9. perform the inverse operation (division) to both sides of the equation: 5q = −45 5q 5 8. t=7 The ﬁnal answer is t = 7. Then. perform the inverse operation (multiplication) to both sides of the equation: x 4 =3 4× x 4 9. Then. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: multiplication. x=6 The ﬁnal answer is x = 6. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: multiplication. = −45 5 Finally. =3×4 Finally. . combine like terms and solve for the variable. combine like terms and solve for the variable. perform the inverse operation (division) to both sides of the equation: 2x = 12 2x 2 = 12 2 Finally. = −21 −3 Finally. Then. perform the inverse operation (division) to both sides of the equation: −3t = −21 −3t 3 7. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: division. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: multiplication.

12. = 2 p =7 2p 2 14 3a 3 9 11. The ﬁnal answer is a = 7. perform the inverse operation (multiplication) to both sides of the equation: x 3 x 3 3× =2 =2×3 Finally. x=6 The ﬁnal answer is x = 6. =3 a =3 The ﬁnal answer is a = 3. 2p + 2 = 16 2p + 2 = 16 −2 −2 2p = 14 Then. Begin by asking yourself what operation is used in the equation: division. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for a.268 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 7 268 10. . Then. combine like terms and solve for the variable. Begin by performing the inverse operation for addition: 3a + 4 = 13 3a + 4 = 13 −4 −4 3a + 0 = 9 3a = 9 Then. Begin by performing the inverse operation for addition. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for p.

4(c − 1) = 12 4c − 4 = 12 Then. = 4 c=4 4c 4 16 14. x−4= 4 +4 +4 x = 8 Thus. eliminate the parentheses by multiplying (distributing the 4). 3x − 4 = 2x + 4 3x − 4 = 2x + 4 − 2x − 2x x−4= 4 Then. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for c. First. Begin by grouping like terms together. perform the inverse operation for addition.269 Section 7 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 269 13. 10w + 14 − 8w = 12 10w − 8w + 14 = 12 Combine the like terms. . perform the inverse operation for subtraction. group the variables on one side of the equation by subtracting the smaller of the two variables from both sides. 4c − 4 = 12 +4 +4 4c = 16 Finally. 2w + 14 = 12 − 14 − 14 2w + 0 = −2 2w = −2 15. the ﬁnal answer is x = 8. perform the inverse operation for subtraction and solve for x. First. 10w − 8w = 2w 2w + 14 = 12 Then. The ﬁnal answer is c = 4.

= 2 w = −1 2w 2 −2 16.270 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 7 270 Finally. = 5 b = 11 5b 5 55 17. eliminate the parentheses by multiplying (distribute the 3). = 3 y = −2 3y 3 −6 The ﬁnal answer is y = −2. 3y − 29 = −35 Then. 3y − 29 = −35 + 29 + 29 3y = −6 Finally. The ﬁnal answer is w = −1. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for y. First. First. perform the inverse operation for addition. . 5(b + 1) = 60 5b + 5 = 60 Then. 5b + 5 = 60 −5 −5 5b + 0 = 55 5b = 55 Finally. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for b. The ﬁnal answer is b = 11. 3(y − 9) − 2 = −35 3y − 27 − 2 = −35 Combine the like terms. perform the inverse operation for subtraction. eliminate the parentheses by multiplying (distributing the 5). perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for w.

eliminate the parentheses by multiplying (distribute the 6). perform the inverse operation for division and solve for t. First. perform the inverse operation for addition and solve for f. Begin by performing the inverse operation for addition. =4 q=1 The ﬁnal answer is q = 1. perform the inverse operation for multiplication and solve for q. − 3 = −9 +3 +3 = −6 Then. t 20. 12 + 6f = 5f + 15 − 5f − 5f 12 + f = 15 Finally. group the variables on one side of the equation. . 6(2 + f ) = 5f +15 12 + 6f = 5f +15 Then. 4q + 12 = 16 − 12 − 12 4q = 4 Then. Begin by performing the inverse operation for subtraction.271 Section 7 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 271 18. 12 + f = 15 − 12 = − 12 f= 3 The ﬁnal answer is f = 3. t 5 − 3 = −9 t 5 t 5 4q 4 4 19. 5 × 5 = −6 × 5 t = −30 The ﬁnal answer is t = −30.

Section 7 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 273 4. or 4N = 6N − 4.” This can be expressed as = 6N − 4. We can express this mathematically as 10 × . Peter’s original hourly rate was \$9. the 2x represents the red jellybeans. N = 2.” Looking at the statement. we have 10 × . solve the equation as you would any other algebraic equation. thus. is equal to 4 less than the product of 6 times the number. Let x = Peter’s original hourly rate. so we have: 3x + 2x + 1x = 12. 6.40N. and the 1x represents the green jellybeans. The next part of the statement is “ . Remember that 40% is the same as .000. . we want “red jellybeans” = 2x = 2 × 2. = 6 3 Multiply both sides by 2 : × 3x = 6 × x=9 3 2 2 3 2 So. Next. subtract 4N from both sides to yield 4 = 2N.000 Remember. First. His raise was \$10 − \$9 = \$1 per hour. the ﬁrst part says “Ten times 40% of a number . ”. .40 and “of” means multiply. Putting it all together. . Subtract 4 from both sides: 2 4 + 3 x = 10 −4 −4 2 3x 5. We add 4 to both sides to get 4 + 4N = 6N. We know that the total number of jellybeans = 12. The 3x represents the blue jellybeans. .000 x = 2. . We can apply the 3:2:1 ratio to an algebraic formula: 3x + 2x + 1x = total number of jellybeans.000 6x = 12.40N = 6N − 4.000 = 4. translate the words into an algebraic equation. Let’s call our number “N.000. Set up the equation: 2 4 + 3 x = \$10 Now.

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= 8 SECTION Introduction ÷ day life. you can see geometric shapes—buildings. Everywhere you look. cars. and other objects around you are combinations of shapes such as squares. rectangles. You’ll also learn important facts to help you see how geometry fits into your every- . triangles. and circles. to Geometry THIS SECTION WILL introduce you to the basics of geometry. You’ll learn important geometry vocabulary in this section so that you’ll understand the language of geometry.

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you’ll learn some basic words in the language of geometry. circles. Rays. and Angles LESSON SUMMARY This lesson introduces the basic vocabulary of geometry. and your desk are all rectangular. Lines. Let’s begin with the basics—the pieces that make these shapes up. and angles. Line Segments. In this lesson. Line Segments. Rays. Keep looking around and you’ll ﬁnd triangles. ake a moment to look around you. Points. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 277 . Lines. and you’ll see geometry everywhere. You will learn about points. line segments. rays. lines. and other geometric shapes.= 18 LESSON Points. but geometry involves more than squares and cubes. your computer screen. The pages of this book. T BREAKING THINGS DOWN You are probably already familiar with many two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes.

Lines. Rays. you know that this is a line because it has an arrow on each end. and Angles SOME BASIC GEOMETRY VOCABULARY NAME Point FIGURE •A SYMBOL •A READ AS point A PROPERTIES ■ ■ ■ EXAMPLES ■ ■ has no size has no dimension indicates a deﬁnite location pencil point corner of a room ■ named with an uppercase letter Line A B AB or BA line AB or BA ■ ■ is straight has no thickness an inﬁnite set of points that extends in opposite directions ■ highway without boundaries or line ■ ■ hallway without bounds ■ one dimension is part of a line has only one endpoint an inﬁnite set of points that extends in one direction ■ ■ Ray A B AB ray AB (endpoint is always ﬁrst) ■ ■ ■ ﬂashlight laser beam ■ one dimension is part of a line has two endpoints one dimension ■ ■ Line segment A B — AB or BA segment AB or BA ■ ■ ■ edge of a ruler base board Example: Write a symbol to represent the following ﬁgure.278 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 18 Points. There are two ways to represent this line in math symbols: ST ↔ TS ↔ . S T After examining the table. Line Segments.

2. refer back to the table on page 278. Rays. G H 4. Line Segments. M Q R N 3.Points. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 279 Example: How many different line segments are shown in the ﬁgure below? (If you don’t remember what a line segment is. R Q . D E F There are three line segments here.) Write a symbol to represent each line segment. They are DE EF DF PRACTICE Write a symbol to represent each ﬁgure. 1. W Z 5. Lines.

Lines. Rays. T A J b. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 281 THIN K OUT IT AB Let’s quickly review how to name an angle. X 1 Z Y . Line Segments. Write the vertex and rays in symbols. Break each angle into its vertex and rays. NAMING ANGLES RULE Use the angle symbol with three letters Use the angle symbol with the vertex letter HOW TO USE THE RULE The middle letter should represent the vertex Only if the angle you are naming does not share its vertex point with another angle Use the angle symbol with a number Only if the number isn’t the measurement of the angle ∠1 EXAMPLE ∠ABC ∠CBA ∠B PRACTICE 8.Points. a.

Step 1: Place the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on the vertex of the angle you wish to measure. trace the length of the angle’s other ray out to the curved part of the protractor. Lines.) This is the measure of the angle in degrees.) Step 3: Keeping the protractor in place. The symbol for a degree is °. You can use an instrument called a protractor to measure an angle. It doesn’t matter which one you use. K 2 T B MEASURING ANGLES Angles are measured in a unit called the degree. 10 0 90 80 70 110 60 0 90 10 0 110 50 0 8 12 0 7 01 13 60 30 50 0 12 40 160 15 01 10 2 40 03 0 40 0 14 30 0 15 10 0 20 170 180 160 180 170 Here’s how to use a protractor to measure an angle. Make sure you are measuring from zero. Line Segments. Example: Measure the following angle using a protractor. (Notice that there are two rows of numbers on the protractor. Step 4: Read the number closest to the ray. and Angles 9. Rays. Step 2: Line up one of the angle’s rays with one of the zero marks on the protractor. A 0 B C .282 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 18 Points. Give four different names for the following angle. (Note that there are two zero marks on the protractor. Most protractors look like a clear plastic ruler with a rounded edge like the one shown below.

If you keep the rays straight. Rays. → Step 4: Read the number closest to BA as shown below. use a ruler to carefully extend the lines of the rays. trace the length of BA out to the curved part of the protractor. .Points. → Step 3: Keeping the protractor in place. → Step 2: Line up BC with the zero mark on the right side of the protractor. NG TIP KI TEST TA I When measuring an angle whose rays are shorter than the distance to the numbers on your protractor. A 100 90 80 70 110 60 0 12 0 90 100 110 50 0 8 0 12 7 01 13 60 30 50 40 160 15 01 10 2 40 03 0 40 01 14 30 50 20 160 180 170 170 180 10 C 0 0 B ∠ABC is 70°. Lines. Line Segments. The length of the rays does not affect the measure of the angle. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 283 Step 1: Place the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on the vertex B. your measurement will be accurate.

284 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 18 Points. and Angles PRACTICE 10. Lines. . Line Segments. Use a protractor to measure the following angles. a. b. Rays.

d. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 285 c. . Rays. Lines. Line Segments.Points.

d. Rays. First. b. Find the degree of the angle you wish to draw along the curved edge of the protractor. and Angles 11. draw a ray. OUT IT AB 0° O A ∠AOC ∠AOF ∠BOD ∠COE THIN K You can also use a protractor to draw angles of a certain size. . Make sure you are measuring from zero. D 100° E 135° C 70° B 20° 180° F a. place the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on the ray’s endpoint. Then. Line Segments. Mark the point on your paper next to the number of degrees you want your angle to be and. connect the first ray’s endpoint to the dot. Lines. c. Give the measure of the following angles in the ﬁgure.286 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 18 Points. using a ruler.

straight.Points. A right angle is exactly 90°. Here are some examples of these different kinds of angles. Types of Angles An acute angle is less than 90°. This symbol means the angle measures 90° An obtuse angle is greater than 90° but less than 180°. . and reﬂex. Lines. right. They can be acute. A reflex angle is greater than 180° but less than 360°. Rays. Line Segments. and Angles LESSON 18 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 287 CLASSIFYING ANGLES Angles are classiﬁed by their measures. obtuse. A straight angle is exactly 180°.

288

LESSON 18 Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles

Example: Classify the following angle using the terms in the table on page 287.

91°

Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. It’s 91°. From the table, you know that an angle that measures more than 90° and less than 180° is called an obtuse angle. So the angle is obtuse.

PRACTICE
Classify each angle as either acute, right, obtuse, straight, or reﬂex. 12.

89°

13.

180°

14.

15.

45°

16.
150°

Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles LESSON 18

289

17.

90°

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LINES AND ANGLES
Lines have different relationships with one another depending on whether and how they intersect to form angles. Here are some examples of different relationships lines can have with one another.

LINE RELATIONSHIPS
NAME DEFINITION EXAMPLE

Parallel lines

Two lines on a ﬂat surface (also called a plane in geometry) that never intersect The symbol indicates that two lines are parallel.

p q

p k

q

Perpendicular lines

Two lines that intersect and form right angles The symbol indicates that two lines

are perpendicular.

m k m

Transversal lines

A line that cuts across two or more lines at different points

t m n

transversal

290

LESSON 18 Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles

When a transversal line intersects two parallel lines, eight angles form as shown in the ﬁgure below.

Outside 1 4 3 Inside 5 8 7 Outside 6 2

n

m

t
We call these angles different names, depending upon their relationships both to each other and to parallel lines. For example, some pairs of angles formed by a transversal and two parallel lines are said to be congruent. Congruent angles are equal in measure. Some pairs of angles formed by a transversal and two parallel lines are said to be supplementary. The measures of supplementary angles add up to 180°. Here is a summary of these relationships.
ANGLES FORMED BY PARALLEL LINES AND A TRANSVERSAL
NAME Vertical angles DEFINITION Angles directly across or opposite from each other RELATIONSHIP Vertical angles are congruent
4 1 3 2

EXAMPLE

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 1 and 3 Angles 2 and 4 Angles 5 and 7 Angles 6 and 8

Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles LESSON 18

291

NAME Corresponding angles

DEFINITION Angles on the same side of the transversal and either both above or both below the parallel lines

RELATIONSHIP Corresponding angles are congruent

EXAMPLE

1 4 3

2

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 1 and 5 Angles 2 and 6 Angles 3 and 7 Angles 4 and 8 Alternate interior angles Angles inside the parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal Alternate interior angles are congruent
4 1 3 2

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 4 and 6 Angles 3 and 5 Alternate exterior angles Angles outside the parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal Alternate exterior angles are congruent
4 1 3 2

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 1 and 7 Angles 2 and 8 Same side interior angles Angles inside the parallel lines and on the same side of the transversal Same side interior angles are supplementary
4 1 3 2

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 3 and 6 Angles 4 and 5

292

LESSON 18 Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles

NAME Same side exterior angles

DEFINITION Angles outside the parallel lines and on the same side of the transversal

RELATIONSHIP Same side interior angles are supplementary

EXAMPLE

1 4 3

2

n

5 8 7

6

m

t

Angles 2 and 7 Angles 1 and 8

You can use this information to solve many kinds of problems in geometry. Let’s look at an example. Example: Look at the ﬁgure below. If the measure of ∠1 is 115°, what is the measure of ∠6?

1 4 3

2

a

5 8 7

6

b

c

a b

Step 1: Find an angle that is related to both angles. You know that ∠1 and ∠5 are congruent because they are corresponding angles. You also know that ∠5 and ∠6 are supplementary because they form a straight line (180°). Step 2: Find the measure of the angle that has a relationship to both ∠1 and ∠6. You know that ∠1 and ∠5 are congruent because they are alternate exterior angles, and you know that ∠5 and ∠6 are supplementary angles (so, together, they add up to 180). Because you know that ∠1 is 115°, you also know that ∠5 is 115°. Step 3: Find the measure of the unknown angle. ∠5 + ∠6 = 180° So, ∠6 = 180° − 115° = 65° Your ﬁnal answer is 65°.

Points, Lines, Rays, Line Segments, and Angles LESSON 18

293

PRACTICE
18. Look at the ﬁgure. Then answer the following questions.
a b

1 2 5 6

3 4 7 8

c

9 10 13 14

11 12 15 16

d

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

List the interior angles for each pair of parallel lines. List the exterior angles for each pair of parallel lines. Which angles correspond to ∠1? Which angle is an alternate interior angle with ∠5? Which angle is an alternate exterior angle with ∠5? List ﬁve pairs of vertical angles. List ten sets of supplementary angles. Tell how you know each angle pair is supplementary.

19. Look at the ﬁgure again. If the measure of ∠12 is 70°, what is the measure of ∠16? 20. Look at the ﬁgure once more. If the measure of ∠1 is 120°, what is the measure of ∠4?

= 19
LESSON

Finding Perimeter, Circumference, Area, and Volume
LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson, you will learn how to measure different parts of geometric shapes. You’ll learn how to find the perimeter, circumference, area, and volume of shapes.

S

tandardized tests often expect you to be able to measure different parts of geometric shapes. But this is not a skill you need to know only to pass a test. You need to know the perimeter of your yard if you want to enclose it with a fence. You need to know the area of your room if you want to carpet it. This lesson will not only help you pass any math test, it will also help you improve skills you will use for many different practical tasks.

FINDING PERIMETER AND CIRCUMFERENCE
Perimeter is the distance around a ﬁgure. You can calculate the perimeter of a ﬁgure by adding up the length of each side.

294

LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter, Circumference, Area, and Volume

TEST TA NG TIP KI I When you are solving problems with units. be sure to always include the unit with your measurement. where s = the length of one side of the square. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 20 So. You know that each side of a square is equal. Numbers are not very useful or meaningful measurements unless you know the units in which your measurements are being made. S RTCUT HO Another way to calculate the perimeter of a square is 4 × s. add up the length of all four sides. So. Circumference. 22 + 3 + 5 + 15 + 45 + 4 + 5 + 18 = 117 The perimeter of the ﬁgure is 117 meters. if you know that one side of a square is 5 cm. the perimeter of a square whose side measures 5 cm is 20 cm. Area. 18m 22m 3m 5m 5m 15m 4m 45m Add up the lengths of each side of the ﬁgure.Finding Perimeter. then you know that each side of the square is 5 cm. . To calculate the perimeter. the perimeter of a square whose side measures 5 cm would be 4 × 5 = 20 cm. So. and Volume LESSON 19 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 295 Example: Find the perimeter of a square whose side is 5 cm. Example: Find the perimeter of the following ﬁgure.

use the formula that include the diameter: C = πd. Any line that begins at the center of a circle and ends on a point on the circle is called a radius. d is the circle’s diameter.14)(5) = 15. and r is the circle’s radius: C = πd C = 2πr Example: Find the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 5 inches. Area. and Volume The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. you can easily ﬁnd the other. The endpoints of the diameter are on the circle. where π = 3.7 inches. C = π (5) = (3. if you know either the radius or the diameter. Circumference. and pronounced pie).296 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter. . So. To calculate circumference. TEST TA NG TIP KI I If you’re not allowed to use a calculator on a test.14 (π is a Greek symbol. A circle’s diameter is twice as long as its radius. ius rad diameter The diameter is a line segment that goes through the center of a circle. you can estimate the circumference of a circle by substituting 3 for π. Since you know the diameter. spelled pi.7 The ﬁnal answer is 15. You can calculate a circle’s circumference using either its radius or its diameter. use either of these formulas.

Circumference. Area. The following table shows how to calculate the area of different ﬁgures. and Volume FINDING AREA Area is a measure of the surface of a two-dimensional ﬁgure.298 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter. CALCULATING AREA FIGURE Square AREA CALCULATION side × side or base × height AREA FORMULA A = s2 or A = bh height = 5 cm EXAMPLE base = 5 cm A = bh A = (5)(5) A = 25 cm2 Rectangle base × height A = bh height = 8 cm base = 5 cm A = bh A = (5)(8) A = 40 cm2 Parallelogram base × height A = bh 9 in height base = 12 in A = bh A = (12)(9) A = 108 in2 .

14 × 10 × 10 A = 314 ft2 OUT IT AB THIN K A figure’s base is the side that forms a right angle with the height of the figure. and Volume LESSON 19 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 299 FIGURE Triangle AREA CALCULATION 1 2 AREA FORMULA A= 1 2 bh EXAMPLE base × height height 6 in base = 10 in A = 1 bh 2 A = 1 (10)(6) 2 A = 30 in2 Trapezoid 1 2 × base1 × height 1 2 A = 2 h(b1 + b2) 1 base 1 = 7 cm + × base2 × height height = 6 cm base 2 = 17 cm A = 1 h(b1 + b2) 2 A = 1 (6)(7 + 17) 2 A = 1 (6)(24) 2 A = 72 cm2 Circle π × radius squared A = πr 2 diameter = 20 ft A = πr 2 r = 1d 2 r = 1 (20) = 10 feet 2 A = 3. Notice that a trapezoid has both a top and a bottom base. Circumference. Area. The base does not have to be the bottom side of a figure.Finding Perimeter. . for example.

So. OUT IT AB 1 1 1 1 THIN K Notice that to calculate the area of a figure.) Examples of square units are: square miles or mi2 square meters or m2 square centimeters or cm2 square feet or ft2 square inches or in2 . That’s why area is measured in square units. you need two measurements. Area.300 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter. A = 2 h(b1 +b2) A = 2 (12)(7 + 16) A = 2 (12)(23) A = 2 (276) A = 138 So the ﬁnal answer is 138 m2. From the table you know that this ﬁgure is a trapezoid. (Perimeter was measured in linear units. Multiplying the units of each measurement together gives you square units. Circumference. you need to use the following 1 formula: A = 2 h(b1 +b2). Step 2: Plug in the measures for the variables in the formula and solve. 7m 12 m 16 m Step 1: Choose the correct formula. and Volume Example: Find the area of the ﬁgure.

you need to use the following formula: A = bh. and Volume LESSON 19 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 301 Example: The ﬁgure below has an area of 40 cm2. Circumference. 10 mm 12 mm .Finding Perimeter. Find the height of the ﬁgure. Area. You can check your answers at the end of the section. A = bh 40 = 10h 40 10 = 10h 10 4=h So the ﬁnal answer is 4 cm. So. 9. 7 cm 6 cm 10. From the table you know that this ﬁgure is a parallelogram. Step 2: Plug in the known measures for the variables in the formula and solve for the height. PRACTICE Find the area of each ﬁgure. h 10 cm 5 cm Step 1: Choose the correct formula.

Check your answers at the end of the section.) T = 1 ft . and Volume 11. 10 cm A= 16 cm 130 cm2 b1 13. Area. How much greater is the area of circle A than the area of circle B? A 2 cm B 3 cm 14. 12. Find the measure of b1. 0 Solve each problem. Circumference. (Hint: the sides of the square are equal to the diameter of the circle. diameter = 16 in. Find the area of the shaded portion in the ﬁgure below.302 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter.

Circumference. cube sphere cylinder pyramid In this lesson. and Volume LESSON 19 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 303 15. Area. Three-dimensional shapes are sometimes called solids. V = Ah Where V is the volume A is the area of the base h is the height . What is the length of side AB? (Hint: Don’t forget that 2r = d ) A B D C FINDING VOLUME Volume is a measure of the amount of space inside a three-dimensional shape. and a cylinder. a cube. Examples of three-dimensional shapes are shown below.Finding Perimeter. The area of the circle shown below is 100π cm2. you will learn how to calculate the volume of a rectangular solid. The formula for calculating the area of these solids is the same.

and Volume Let’s see how it works. Step 1: Choose the correct formula. you need three measurements. FIGURE Rectangular solid VOLUME FORMULA V = Ah V = lwh EXAMPLE V= V= (area of rectangle) h (length x width) x height = lwh Cube V = Ah V = s3 V= V= (area of square) h (edge x edge) x edge = s3 (edge = side) Square V = Ah V = πr2h height V= V= (area of circle) h (π x radius2) x height = πr 2 h THIN K OUT IT AB Notice that to calculate the volume of a figure. Area. You know from the table that the formula for the volume of a cube is V = Ah or V = s3. The problem tells you that you are measuring the volume of a cube. You can imagine a cubic unit as a cube with one unit edges.304 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter. Multiplying the units of each measurement together gives you cubic units. Example: Find the volume of a cube that is 3 inches long on each edge. Circumference. .

V = 33 V=3×3×3 V = 27 So the ﬁnal answer is 27 in3. 16. 9 in 4 in 12 in . Circumference. 3 cm 6 cm 6 cm 17. You know from the table that the formula for the volume of a cylinder is V = Ah or V = πr2h. Step 2: Plug in the known measures and solve. The problem tells you that you are measuring the volume of a cylinder. Area. Example: Find the volume of a cylinder that has a height of 10 cm and a radius of 5 cm. and Volume LESSON 19 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 305 Step 2: Plug in the known measures and solve. V = πr2h V = π(5)2(10) V = π(25)(10) V = π(250) V = 785 So the ﬁnal answer is 785 cm3.Finding Perimeter. Step 1: Choose the correct formula. PRACTICE Find the volume of each ﬁgure.

5m 19. 3 m 12 m 20. If the water is 4 cm high. Circumference. what is the volume of the water in the cylinder? r = 5 cm 8 cm .306 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 19 Finding Perimeter. Area. and Volume 18. The shaded portion of the cylinder is ﬁlled with water.

Congruent ﬁgures are often used in constructing buildings. Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 307 .= 20 LESSON Congruence and Similarity LESSON SUMMARY This lesson introduces the concepts of congruence and similarity. their sides are in proportion to one another. quilt patterns. Instead. they are congruent. but they are not always the same size. In this lesson. wo ﬁgures that are exactly the same shape and the same size are said to be congruent—they are exactly identical to one another. and other things. In contrast. similar ﬁgures are the same shape. you’ll learn about congruent and similar triangles. You will also learn how to use these concepts to solve basic geometry problems. You will learn how to tell if two triangles are congruent or if they are similar. you could cut out one of the triangles and see if it ﬁts exactly on top of the other one. Or. If so. T CONGRUENT TRIANGLES Triangles are congruent if they are exactly the same size and the same shape. You might look at two triangles and guess whether they are the same—you’re probably a pretty good judge as to whether two triangles are the same size and shape. You can use similar ﬁgures to determine measures that would otherwise be very difﬁcult to measure—such as the height of a tall building.

such as theorems (formulas or statements in mathematics that can be proved true) to show that two triangles are congruent. you just need to know that you must follow certain steps to prove that two triangles are congruent. Notice that the symbol ≅ means congruent. (Note: The lines on each side of both triangles corresponds with the side of the compared triangle that is equal. you need to be able to use basic geometry rules.308 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity However. not guessing about them. So.” PROVING THAT TRIANGLES ARE CONGRUENT RULE NAME Side-Side-Side (SSS) WHAT IT SAYS If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another triangle. Postulates are statements that are accepted without proof. When you see this symbol. they can be generally understood as statements that all mathematicians have agreed to accept as true or that can be proved true. then the two triangles are congruent. Though geometry rules come in different forms. geometry is largely about proving things. In fact. For now. say the word “congruent. You will learn more about these principles when you take a geometry course. Theorems are statements that can be proved true. there are three rules for proving that two triangles are congruent to one another.) WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE B A S C R ΔABC = ΔRST T .

then the two triangles are congruent. then the two triangles are congruent. You’ll want to compare the hypotenuse (the side of a right triangle that is opposite the right angle) of one right triangle with the hypotenuse of another triangle. You’ll want to compare the 75° angle of one triangle with the 75° angle of the other triangle. Notice in the table on pages 308–309 that the parts with the same relative position (the same number of marks on the side) in each triangle are always compared. So. WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE F G P H Q ΔFGH = ΔPQR Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) If two angles and the side in between them of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle. . if you are comparing two triangles.Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 309 RULE NAME Side-Angle-Side (SAS) WHAT IT SAYS If two sides and the angle they form are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle. R E D F S R T ΔDEF = ΔRST OUT IT AB THIN K What does corresponding part mean? This term refers to the part that is being compared in both triangles. you’ll want to name the parts in the same order in each triangle.

Example: Is ΔPQR ≅ ΔZYX? Q P 65° 15 40° Y 75° 65° R X 15 Z Step 1: Ask yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles does the problem tell me are congruent? You know from the symbols on the triangles that PR ≅ ZX and ∠P ≅ ∠Z. the two triangles are congruent. the given information matches the rule for Side-Angle-Side. Example: Is ∠ABC ≅ ∠FED? (The ≅ symbol means congruent. Therefore. the two triangles are congruent: ΔABC ≅ ΔFED. Since the criteria for Side-Angle-Side are met. Step 3: Answer the question.310 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity Here’s how it works. .) B E A C D F Step 1: Ask yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles does the problem tell me are congruent? You know from the symbols on the triangles that AB ≅ FE BC ≅ ED ∠B ≅ ∠E Step 2: Ask yourself: Is one of the rules needed to prove that two triangles are congruent met? Yes.

1. You know only one side and one angle so far. Step 3: Figure out what information you still need to know to make a decision. Step 4: Answer the question. F G H 1 2 J I . So you can determine the measure of ∠X as follows: 180° − 75° − 65° = 40° The measure of ∠X is 40°. PRACTICE Prove that each pair of triangles is congruent.Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 311 Step 2: Ask yourself: Is one of the rules needed to prove that two triangles are congruent met? Not yet. M S L N O T 3. ΔPQR ≅ ΔZYX. Now you know that Angle-Side-Angle is true. You know that the sum of the angles in a triangle is 180°. so the two triangles are congruent. You need to know the measure of ∠X. A D B C 2.

You can prove that two triangles are similar using one of the three rules listed on the following table. L 3 4 1 2 M K N X 5. . Notice that the symbol ∼ means similar. W Z Y SIMILAR TRIANGLES Triangles are similar if they have the same shape and their sizes are proportional to one another.312 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity 4.

Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 313 PROVING THAT TRIANGLES ARE SIMILAR RULE NAME Angle-Angle (AA) WHAT IT SAYS If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. then the two triangles are similar. then the two triangles are similar 8 10 25 X 6 Y M 15 Z N 6 15 10 25 6 15 8 20 20 8 20 10 25 L 6 × 25 = 15 × 10 150 = 150 6 × 20 = 15 × 8 120 = 120 ΔXYZ ΔLMN 8 × 25 = 20 × 10 200 = 200 . 60° WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE D 70° F A E 60° 70° C ∠A ≅ ∠D ΔABC ∠C ≅ ∠F ΔDEF B Side-Side-Side (SSS) If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional.

) N K 50° 50° 70° J 70° M O L Step 1: Ask yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar? You know from the symbols on the triangles that ∠N = ∠K ∠M = ∠L Step 2: Ask yourself: Is one of the rules needed to prove that two triangles are similar met? Yes. . then the two triangles are similar. ΔMNO ∼ ΔLKJ. Step 3: Answer the question. two angles are congruent.314 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity RULE NAME Side-Angle-Side (SAS) WHAT IT SAYS If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding angles in between those two sides are congruent. the ∼ symbol means similar. the two triangles are similar. Since Angle-Angle is true. WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE K S 12 4 16 3 4 12 16 L J R T 3 × 16 = 4 × 12 48 = 48 ΔRST ΔJKL Example: Is ∠MNO ∼ ∠JKL? (Remember.

you might have redrawn the second triangle as shown below to make the problem easier. quickly redraw one of the triangles so it’s oriented the same way as the other one. To ﬁnd out if the sides of the triangles are in proportion.Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 315 TEST TA NG TIP KI I If two triangles you are comparing are turned in different directions and it’s hard to keep track of which parts correspond. as shown below. in the last example. N K 50° 50° 70° M O L 70° J Example: Is ΔABC ∼ ΔXYZ? A 9 3 C 7 B Y 8 10 4 Z X Step 1: Ask yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar? You know from the shapes of the triangles that AB corresponds with X Y BC corresponds with YZ AC corresponds with XZ Step 2: Ask yourself: Is one of the rules needed to prove that two triangles are similar met? Since you do not know the measures of the any of the angles of either triangle. you will have to compare the sides of the triangles. you need to set up a proportion and see if it is true. 3 4 9 10 . For example.

a tree makes a 21-meter shadow. Example: At 3 P. Length of the pole’s shadow Pole’s height Tree’s height = Length of the tree’s shadow Step 2: You are looking for the height of the tree. So you can set up a proportion to solve for the missing length (the height of the tree). 5 x = 3 21 Cross multiply to solve for x. plug in the measures and solve for x. Step 1: You know from the problem that the triangles are similar. You started with the following possible proportion. you know that the proportion is not true. Side-SideSide is not true. you can cross multiply: 3 × 10 4 × 9 30 ≠ 36 Because the two sides of the equation are not equal. the sides are not proportional.M. Can 190 3 be reduced to lower terms? No. Since 4 ≠ 190 . RTCUT HO S Another way to tell if a proportion is correct is to reduce both ratios to lowest terms. Let’s look again at the last problem to see how this works. you can conclude that the two triangles are not similar.316 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity To test whether the proportion is true. ΔABC and ΔXYZ are not similar triangles. Step 3: Answer the question. so let x = the height of the tree. At the same hour. the two triangles are not similar. So again. Then. . Since none of the rules that prove two triangles are similar are met. a ﬁve-meter pole makes a shadow that is 3 meters long. then they are equal. 3 4 9 10 3 You know that 4 is already reduced to lowest terms. If they reduce to the same ratio. How tall is the tree? Assume that the two triangles are similar.

5m 21 m shadow of tree 3m shadow of pole PRACTICE Solve each problem using the principles of similarity. 6. You can check your answers at the end of the section. Explain your answer. you might have begun by drawing the following diagram.Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 317 5 × 21 = 3x 105 = 3x 105 3x 3 = 3 35 = x So the tree is 35 meters tall. B E 20 A C 21 D F . For example. Tell whether these two triangles are similar. in the last example. TEST TA NG TIP KI I It’s often very helpful to begin a word problem by drawing the figures.

318 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 20 Congruence and Similarity 7. Explain your answer. I H J L K 9. Explain your answer. Tell whether these two triangles are similar. Explain your answer. Tell whether these two triangles are similar. N R 110 10 6 M 110 T 8 S 15 L 8. Tell whether these two triangles are similar. A C B 1 85° E D 75° 2 20° .

M. 6 ft 4 ft shadow 20 ft shadow . At the same hour. At 2 P.Congruence and Similarity LESSON 20 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 319 10. a ﬂagpole makes a shadow that is 20 feet long. a 6-foot tall person makes a 4-foot long shadow. How tall is the ﬂagpole? Assume that the two triangles are similar.

In this lesson. you will learn about one of those relationships. As you know. The hypotenuse is always the longest side of a right triangle. You will also learn what the Pythagorean Theorem is and how to use it to calculate the unknown lengths of the sides of right triangles. which is called the Pythagorean Theorem. It is directly across from the right angle. Here are some examples of right triangles. A triangle that has a right angle is called a right triangle. THE PARTS OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE Before you can use the Pythagorean Theorem. a right triangle has three sides. These two sides are called legs. In Lesson 18. you need to know the basic parts of a right triangle. 320 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 21 The Pythagorean Theorem . Two of the sides come together to form the right angle. Y ou know that a triangle is a ﬁgure made up of three sides that come together to form three angles.= 21 LESSON The Pythagorean Theorem LESSON SUMMARY This lesson introduces the parts of a right triangle. you learned that an angle measuring exactly 90° is called a right angle. The sides and angles of right triangles have special relationships. The third side of the triangle is called the hypotenuse.

The hypotenuse is the longest side and is directly across from the right angle. the Pythagorean Theorem says the following: In a right triangle. In ΔABC. the legs are AB and AC . and c is the hypotenuse. the hypotenuse is CB. a2 + b2 = c2 In the equation. 2. . A right triangle has two legs. 3. the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. PRACTICE Use the right triangles above to answer the following questions. Let’s see how this works in a few examples. In words.The Pythagorean Theorem LESSON 21 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 321 A Leg Right angle C Leg B H o yp t en e us X o Hyp us ten e Y Leg Z H Leg P Hypotenuse Leg ΔHTP T Leg ΔXYZ ΔABC Example: Name the legs and the hypotenuse of ΔABC. THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM The equation below summarizes the Pythagorean Theorem. Name the hypotenuse in ΔHTP. In ΔABC. Name the legs of ΔHTP. 4. a and b are the legs of the right triangle. Name the hypotenuse in ΔXYZ. 1. Name the legs of ΔXYZ.

Let b = the length of RQ. b. a2 + b2 = c2 42 + 32 = c2 Step 4: Solve. You can review squares and square roots in Lesson 2.322 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 21 The Pythagorean Theorem Example: Find the missing length. 42 + 32 = c2 16 + 9 = c2 25 = c2 25 = c2 5=c So. Step 2: Match up the variables a. The legs are PR and RQ. Let c = the length of PQ. . The hypotenuse is PQ. TEST TA NG TIP KI I It’s a good idea to know basic squares and square roots by memory. Let a = the length of PR. Here are some common squares and square roots you might want to learn. R 4 3 P ? ΔPQR Q Step 1: Find the legs and the hypotenuse in the right triangle. the length of the hypotenuse is 5. Step 3: Plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem. and c with the parts of the right triangle.

The Pythagorean Theorem LESSON 21 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 323 TEST TA NG TIP KI I continued from previous page Squares to Know Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Square 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 Square Roots to Know Number 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 Square Root 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Example: Find the missing length. . H 12 L ? 15 ΔHLM M Step 1: Find the legs and the hypotenuse in the right triangle. The hypotenuse is H M. The legs are H L and LM.

5). Let a = the length of HL . OUT IT AB THIN K You can also use the Pythagorean Theorem to determine if a triangle is a right triangle or not. small numbered groups of triples (such as (3. and (9. If a2 + b2 = c2 is true for that triangle. You can also memorize some common. b. 4.324 IMPROVE YOUR MATH LESSON 21 The Pythagorean Theorem Step 2: Match up the variables a. and c with the parts of the right triangle. Let b = the length of LM. Step 3: Plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem. a2 + b2 = c2 122 + b2 = 152 Step 4: Solve. then you know it’s a right triangle. 122 + b2 = 152 144 + b2 = 225 144 + b2 = 225 − 144 − 144 2 = 81 b 2 = b 81 b = 9 So the length of the missing leg is 9. 15)) to help you solve problems more quickly and easily. (5. 13). 12. Let c = the length of H M. 12. You must know the length of all three sides for this to work. Plug in the lengths of the sides of a triangle. .

8. A triangle with sides 3. R 6 10 T ? S Determine if each triangle is a right triangle. 5. A triangle with sides 6. D ? 8 E F 15 15 6.The Pythagorean Theorem LESSON 21 IMPROVE YOUR MATH 325 PRACTICE Find each missing length. 8. and 10 10. and 9 . Let a = 5 Let b = 6 Let c = 9 9. 5. J K ? 12 L 7.

As you work through these problems.Real World Problems ÷ x These problems apply the skills you’ve learned in Section 8 to every day situations. drawing a figure is often the most helpful tool you can use. How many feet of ribbon will a theatrical company need to tie off a rectangular performance area that is 34 feet long and 20 feet wide? 2. Pony rides at the local zoo include three trips around a wheel. Each side of the room is 9 feet long. How many garlands will she need to buy? 3. when solving geometry problems. 1. They are important skills for the kinds of questions that come up in daily life. Bridget wants to hang a garland of silk ﬂowers all around the ceiling of a square room. The garlands are only available in 15-foot lengths. TEST TA NG TIP KI I Geometry is logical. The wheel around which the ponies walk has a 10-meter spoke (in other words. its radius measures 10 meters). When solving a geometry word problem. Remember. always look for logical ways to reason your way through the problem. How far does a pony travel during one pony ride? 326 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS . you’ll see that the skills you’ve learned in this section aren’t only important for math tests.

What is the box’s volume? 10 7 2 8. He starts with a 10 × 7-inch rectangle of cardboard. as shown below. What is the total search area in square miles? 6. rolls of wallpaper are 100 square feet. and is 10 feet tall. To ﬁnish. Georgio is making a box.REAL WORLD PROBLEMS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 327 4. How long is the sidewalk? 7. what is the minimum number of rolls that she will need? 5. Simon needed some cardboard boxes to store some of his things in. Louise wants to wallpaper her bedroom. Then. The concrete must be poured 6 inches deep. he cuts 2 × 2-inch squares out of each corner. A moving company sells boxes in different sizes. and no partial rolls can be purchased. How much more storage does the large box have than the smaller box? 16 in h 20 in 18 in l w 9. The room is 12 feet by 12 feet. A group of volunteers is searching for a lost camper within a 45-mile radius of the forest ranger’s station. Plattville is 80 miles west and 60 miles north of Quincy. If only the walls are to be covered. A builder has 27 cubic feet of concrete to pave a sidewalk whose length is 6 times its width. he folds each side up to make the box. How long is a direct route from Plattville to Quincy? . It has one window that measures 3 feet by 4 feet and one door that measures 3 feet by 7 feet. Each dimension of the larger box is two inches greater than the same dimension of the smaller box (shown below).

Macy saw a climber high on a rock wall. climber Macy 125 m 24 1m . Macy was standing 120 meters from the vertical rock face. Use the diagram below to ﬁnd out the height of the climber above ground. At the time.328 IMPROVE YOUR MATH REAL WORLD PROBLEMS 10. During her trip to Yosemite National Park.

Begin by ﬁnding AO. ﬁnd OC. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. → → → → b. → → → → . 15. Then. line up one of the angle’s rays with one of the zero marks on the protractor. → → → → d. trace the length of the angle’s other ray out to the curved part of the protractor. 14. The angle measures 75°. Then. ∠TBK. Begin by ﬁnding BO. you know that an angle that measures less than 90° is called an acute angle. you know that an angle that measures 180° is called a straight angle. Begin by ﬁnding AO. Keeping the protractor in place. Then. To measure the angle. ﬁnd OF. From the table. begin by placing the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on angle’s vertex. a. Then. From the table. you know that ∠AOF measures 180°. → → → → c. Read the number on the protractor closest to the ray. It’s 45°. begin by placing the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on angle’s vertex. c. It’s 89°. Keeping the protractor in place. you know that an angle that measures less than 90° is called an acute angle. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. From the table. So the angle is acute. So the angle is acute. From the table. trace the length of the angle’s other ray out to the curved part of the protractor. and ∠2.330 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 8 9. Read the number on the protractor closest to the ray. Since AO is at 0° and OF is at 180°. Keeping the protractor in place. The angle measures 45°. To measure the angle. It’s 180°. Since BO is at 20° and OD is at 100°. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. line up one of the angle’s rays with one of the zero marks on the protractor. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. line up one of the angle’s rays with one of the zero marks on the protractor. you know that this angle has four different names as follows: ∠KBT. Then. So the angle is right. ﬁnd OD. To measure the angle. 10. trace the length of the angle’s other ray out to the curved part of the protractor. you have to subtract (135 − 70 = 65). To measure the angle. you know that an angle with this symbol measures 90° and that a 90° angle is called a right angle. 13. ﬁnd OE. you have to subtract (100 − 20 = 80). So ∠BOD measures 80°. Since AO is at 0° and OC is at 70°. Then. The angle measures 100°. Then. line up one of the angle’s rays with one of the zero marks on the protractor. Begin by ﬁnding CO. The angle measures 125°. Keeping the protractor in place. So the angle is straight. begin by placing the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on angle’s vertex. Since CO is at 70° and OE is at 135°. Read the number on the protractor closest to the ray. Read the number on the protractor closest to the ray. you know that ∠AOC measures 70°. From the table in Think About It. So ∠COE measures 65°. trace the length of the angle’s other ray out to the curved part of the protractor. b. a. d. ∠B. 11. begin by placing the cross mark or hole in the middle of the straight edge of the protractor on angle’s vertex. 12. Then.

15. Corresponding angles on the same side of the transversal line and either both above or both below the parallel lines. When line a is considered the transversal line. For lines c and d. 10. You know that ∠12 and ∠16 are supplementary. 10 and 11. The following angle pairs are supplementary because they are same side exterior angles: 1 and 13. the exterior angles are 1. and 12 and 15. 14 and 15. The following angle pairs are supplementary because together they form a straight line: 1 and 2. the exterior angles are 1. and 16. 3 and 15. 8. 13. ﬁnd the measure of the angle that both angles have in common. f. 11. and 16. It’s 150°. When line a is considered the transversal line. 4 and 7. 3 and 4. The ﬁgure includes the following vertical angle pairs: 1 and 6. b. 9. 5 and 6. 3 and 8. c. 17. 9 and 13. ∠5 and ∠4 are alternate exterior angles. 7. 4. So.Section 8 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 331 16. When line c is considered the transversal line. There are two sets of parallel lines in the ﬁgure: a and b and c and d. the interior angles are 2. 1 and 5. 11 and 12. You know that ∠1 and ∠3 are congruent because they are corresponding angles. 10 and 14. 20. 8. e. 3 and 7. 9. So the angle is obtuse. From the table. From the table. a. ∠5 is an interior angle. 14. 2. You also know that ∠1 is 120°. 5. 7 and 11. For lines c and d. 8 and 12. 4 and 16. you know that an angle that measures 90° is called a right angle. 4 and 8. Begin by ﬁnding an angle that is related to both angles 1 and 4. For lines a and b. 7 and 8. It’s 90°. ∠1 corresponds to ∠9. d. There are two sets of parallel lines in the ﬁgure: a and b and c and d. 180 − 70 = 110. You know that ∠1 and ∠3 are congruent. So. 6 and 7. 6. 2 and 14. ﬁnd the measure of ∠4 by subtracting: ∠4 = 180° − 120° = 60°. 10 and 13. 9 and 14. When line c is considered the transversal line. you know that an angle that measures more than 90° and less than 180° is called an obtuse angle. Alternate exterior angles are outside the parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal line. When line a is considered the transversal line. 7. Supplementary angles add up to 180°. 3. 2 and 6. 13. 11. 13 and 16. 2 and 5. . ∠1 corresponds to ∠3. g. 6 and 10. Lastly. ∠3 is also 120°. 6. the interior angles are 5. 2 and 3. so together they must add up to 180°. So. The following angle pairs are supplementary because they are same side interior angles: 5 and 9. 11 and 16. Vertical angles are directly across or opposite from each other. You can ﬁnd the measure of ∠16 by subtracting the measure of ∠12 from 180. Your ﬁnal answer is 110°. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. and 12. ∠5 and ∠10 are alternate interior angles. Alternate interior angles are inside the parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal line. 18. 5 and 8. 9 and 10. 13 and 14. When line c is considered the transversal line. 14. 3. Interior angles are those inside the parallel lines. 9 and 12. Begin by looking at the measure of the angle. ∠5 is an exterior angle. and 15. 11 and 15. 19. 12 and 16. 12. You also know that ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary because they form a straight line (180°). 15 and 16. 4. For lines a and b. So the angle is right. your ﬁnal answer is 60°. 10. Exterior angles are those outside the parallel lines. Then. 1 and 4.

So. plug in the known measures and solve. . keep in mind that the height of the volume of the water (4 cm) should be used instead of the height of the entire cylinder (8 cm). the ﬁnal answer is 339. the ﬁnal answer is 125 m3. An easier approach might be to directly calculate the volume of the water. V = Ah = s3 V = 53 V=5×5×5 V = 125 So. you could calculate the entire volume of the cylinder and divide by 2. Then. Then. Plug in the known measures and solve. From the table you know that this ﬁgure is a rectangular solid and that the formula for its volume is V = Ah = lwh. From the table you know that this ﬁgure is a cube and that the formula for the volume of a cube is V = Ah = s3. the ﬁnal answer is 432 in3. Begin by choosing the correct formula.12 So. the ﬁnal answer is 108 cm3.12 m3. The water ﬁlls half the cylinder. Then.334 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 8 So. From the table you know that this ﬁgure is a cylinder and that the formula for its volume is V = Ah = πr2h. Begin by choosing the correct formula. plug in the known measures and solve. 19. 20. To calculate the volume of the water directly. 17. V = Ah = lwh V = (12)(4)(9) V = 432 So. Begin by choosing the correct formula for the volume of a cylinder: V = Ah = πr2h. plug in the known measures and solve. the ﬁnal answer is 314 cm3. Begin by choosing the correct formula. 18. V = πr2h V = π(5)2(4) V = π(25)(4) V = π(100) V = 314 So. V = πr2h V = π(3)2(12) V = π(9)(12) V = π(108) V = 339.

Side-Angle-Side is true. this side must also be congruent with itself. Since Angle-Side-Angle is true. Side-SideSide is true. which is supplementary to the angle formed by XZ and Z W.Section 8 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 335 LESSON 20 1. you know . You know from the symbols on the triangles that F G ≅ IG ∠F ≅ ∠I You need to know the measure of ∠1 is congruent to the measure of ∠2. In order for the triangles to be similar ∠A ≅ ∠D and ∠B ≅ ∠E. you still need one piece of information. 6. Thus. 2. From the shapes of the triangles. 4. Since both triangles share a side (AC ). Since both triangles are right triangles. You know from the symbols on the triangles that W Z ≅ YZ . it’s not possible for these two triangles to be similar. Begin by asking yourself which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar. Begin by asking yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are congruent. 5. the two triangles are congruent. Using this information. AngleSide-Angle is true. You know from the symbols on the triangles that ∠1 ≅ ∠4 ∠3 ≅ ∠2 In order to prove that the triangles are congruent. this side must also be congruent with itself. you know that ∠1 is congruent to ∠2. Begin by asking yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are congruent. 3. 7. The two triangles are congruent. Begin by asking yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are congruent. So these two angles must also be congruent. Since both triangles share a side (K M ). Recall from Lesson 18 that angles directly across from each other (also called vertical angles) are congruent. You also know that XZ and Z V form a 90° angle. you know this side is congruent with itself. Since ∠A is 20° and ∠D is 21°. You know from the symbols on the triangles that AB ≅ CD BC ≅ DA In order to prove that the triangles are congruent. Thus. the two triangles are congruent. Because the two triangles share a side. The two triangles are congruent. Begin by asking yourself which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar. Begin by asking yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are congruent. the two triangles are not similar. You know from the measurements given that ∠T ≅ ∠L. Begin by asking yourself: which corresponding parts of the triangles are congruent. you still need one piece of information. Since Side-Angle-Side is true. you know that ∠C ≅ ∠F. Therefore. You know from the symbols on the triangles that MN ≅ S T N L ≅ TO ∠N ≅ ∠T The given information matches the rule for Side-Angle-Side. so the two triangles are congruent.

Person’s height Length of the person’s shadow Flagpole’s height = Length of the ﬂagpole’s shadow Since you are looking for the height of the ﬂagpole. Therefore. . the two triangles are not similar. You know from the problem that the triangles are similar.) Because Angle-Angle is true. Since ∠1 and ∠2 are vertical angles. Begin by asking yourself which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar. Since none of the rules that prove two triangles are similar are met.) Then. 6 x = 4 20 Cross multiply to solve for x. the two triangles are similar. 9. 6 × 20 = 4x 120 = 4x 120 4x = 4 4 30 =x So. you need to set up proportions and see if they are true. 8. plug in the measures and solve for x. you know that ∠C is equal to 85° (180 − 75 − 20 = 85). you that they are congruent and are both equal to 75°. You also know that ∠H ≅ ∠L and ∠J ≅ ∠K. you can cross multiply: 8 × 10 15 × 6 80 ≠ 90 Because the two sides of the equation are not equal. ask yourself: if one of the rules needed to prove that two triangles are similar is met. In order for the triangles to be similar you have to show that either ∠A ≅ ∠D or ∠C ≅ ∠E. Since ∠2 is 75° and ∠D is 20°. let x = the height of the ﬂagpole. as shown below. the triangles are similar according to Angle-Angle. the ﬂagpole is 30 feet tall. you know this triangle is congruent. 10. 8 15 6 10 To test whether the proportion is true. Then. the sides are not proportional. Since they share ∠I. So you can set up a proportion to solve for the height of the ﬂagpole. (Remember that corresponding angles formed by a transversal and two parallel lines are congruent. To ﬁnd out if the sides of the triangles are in proportion. Begin by asking yourself which corresponding parts of the triangles are likely to be similar. This proves that both ∠A ≅ ∠D and ∠C ≅ ∠E. and SideSide-Side is not true. (Redrawing one of the ﬁgures would make this easier to see.336 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 8 that RT corresponds with M L and ST corresponds with LN .

Next. plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem and solve. you might Let a = the length of J L . b. The legs are DF and F E . XY HP and P T Y Z and X Z HT Begin by ﬁnding the legs and the hypotenuse in the right triangle. and c with the parts of the right triangle. 6. you might Let a = the length of DF . The legs are J L and LK .Section 8 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 337 LESSON 21 1. 5. b. 3. a2 + b2 = c2 a2 + 122 = 152 a2 + 144 = 225 a2 + 144 = 225 − 144 − 144 2 a = 81 2 a = 81 a =9 So. Let c = the length of JK . match up the variables a. the length of the hypotenuse is 17. . Let b = the length of F E . Then. The hypotenuse is JK . Begin by ﬁnding the legs and the hypotenuse in the right triangle. match up the variables a. 4. 2. The hypotenuse is DE . a2 + b2 = c2 82 + 152 = c2 64 + 225 = c2 289 = c2 289 = c2 17 =c So. the length of the missing leg is 9. Let b = the length of LK . and c with the parts of the right triangle. Then. Let c = the length of DE . For example. Next. For example. plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem and solve.

8. b. a2 + b2 = c2 62 + 82 102 36 + 64 = 100 Because the legs follow the Pythagorean Theorem. Next. its sides will follow the pattern of the Pythagorean Theorem where a2 + b2 = c2. 8. you know that it’s a right triangle. the triangle is not a right triangle. a2 + b2 = c2 62 + b2 = 102 36 + b2 = 100 36 + b2 = 100 − 36 − 36 b2 = 64 b2 = 64 b =8 So. and 10 is a right triangle. So you plug the variables into the equation and solve: . 5. Then. its sides will follow the pattern of the Pythagorean Theorem. where c is the hypoteneuse. So. the length of the missing leg is 8. 5. and 9 is a right triangle. where c is the hypoteneuse. Begin by ﬁnding the legs and the hypotenuse in the right triangle. You just need to plug the given variables into the equation and solve: a2 + b2 = 92 52 + 62 92 25 + 36 ≠ 81 61 = c2 Because the legs do not follow the Pythagorean Theorem. Let c = the length of R S . If the triangle with sides 6. its sides will follow the pattern of the Pythagorean Theorem. you plug the variables into the equation and see if the math works out. and c with the parts of the right triangle. 10. match up the variables a. 6. If the triangle with sides. 9. The legs are RT and TS . If the triangle with sides 3. plug the known lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem and solve. and 9 is a right triangle. The hypotenuse is R S . Let b = the length of TS .338 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 8 7. where c is the hyponteneuse. For example. where a2 + b2 = c2. where a2 + b2 = c2. you might Let a = the length of RT .

340 IMPROVE YOUR MATH ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 8 So. The formula for the volume of a rectangular solid is V = Ah = lwh.920 cubic inches. V = Ah = lwh = (6)(3)(2) = (18)(2) = 36 So. Let x = the width of the sidewalk. V = Ah = lwh 27 = (6x)(x)(0. The formula for the volume of a rectangular solid is V = Ah = lwh. Begin by calculating the volume of each box shown. or 10 − 4 = 6 inches long. or 7 − 2 − 2 = 3. The sidewalk is a rectangular solid and you are asked to determine its length. Then. 8. To calculate the volume of the smaller box. the box’s volume is 5. To calculate the volume of the larger box. You know that the length is six times longer than the width. the total search area is 6. The length is 10 minus 2 inches on each side. You are looking for the volume of a rectangular solid.358. The height is 2 inches.5) 27 3 = 3x2 3 9 = x2 3=x This tells you that the width of the sidewalk is 3 feet.5) 27 = (6x2)(0. .760 cubic inches. plug in the dimensions shown in the ﬁgure. So.920 So. The length of the sidewalk is six times longer. use the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid to solve for the sidewalk’s length.5 square miles. the box’s volume is 7. the box’s volume is 36 cubic inches. 6. So. or 18 feet long (3 × 6 = 18). V = Ah = lwh = (22)(20)(18) = (440)(18) = 7. The width is 7 inches minus 2 inches on each side. The formula for the volume of a rectangular solid is V = Ah = lwh. your ﬁnal answer is 18 feet long.760 So. add 2 inches to each dimension shown in the ﬁgure. Both boxes are rectangular solids. 7. V = Ah = lwh = (20)(18)(16) = (360)(16) = 5.

The distances given form a right triangle. so you can use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for the missing distance. Now. .160). 9.681 So. 10. your ﬁnal answer is b = 209.Section 8 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS IMPROVE YOUR MATH 341 The difference in the two volumes is 2. The hypotenuse of the triangle in the diagram is 241 m. So your ﬁnal answer is 2.600 + 6.081 − 14.400 2 = 43. The missing distance will form the hypotenuse of the triangle because it comes directly across from the right angle. a direct route from Plattville to Quincy is 100 miles.681 b Then. plug the variables into the equation and solve for c: a2 + b2 = c2 602 + 802 = c2 3. solve the equation for b: b2 = 58.400 = c2 10. The distances form a right triangle.400 + b2 = 58.160 cubic inches greater storage volume.081. So.160 cubic inches (7. The climber was 209 meters off the ground. so a = 120. so you can use the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2).920 − 5. The distance from Macy to the rock wall is 120 m.000 = c2 100 =c So.000 = c2 10. so c = 241. you take the square root of both sides: b2 = 43.760 = 2. Using these values yields the equation 14.

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19. 4. 12. 15. 22. 8. 5. 20. 17. 6. 13. 14. 18.344 IMPROVE YOUR MATH CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Posttest POSTTEST ANSWER SHEET 1. 10. 23. 21. 24. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 7. 25. 11. 2. 16. 9. 3.

3 ft × 4 ft × 2.8 ft × 3. 2 ft × 2 ft × 8 ft 2.9 ft c. He measured the dimensions of the hutch and got a volume of 31. 2. c. Pedro wanted to ﬁnd the volume of his rabbit’s rectangular hutch. Convert 1 7 to an improper fraction. 2. What fraction of the ﬁgure is shaded in? a.9 ft × 4 ft b. Which of the following could be the dimensions of the rabbit’s hutch? a. a. 3 2 teaspoons c. 4 teaspoons d.4 ft × 2. c. If Heather wants to serve the recipe to 24 people. d. 6 teaspoons 1 .Posttest CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING IMPROVE YOUR MATH 345 1.7 ft × 2. A recipe calls for 2 teaspoon of coriander and serves four people.5 ft d. b. how much coriander will she need? a. 12 7 6 7 2 14 5 14 1 4. b. d. 3 teaspoons b.32 cubic feet. 5 16 1 2 3 8 3 4 5 3.

4. To the nearest cent. 12 c. 1. \$360 . d. 6.275 100 23 80 11 40 7 20 8. Which of the following is 400% of 30? a. b. \$220 b.565 6.4565 d. \$120. Use this information to answer Question 9.5%? a.000 per month.7 − 2. If Liam’s total expenses are \$2. \$300 c. \$120. 0. Car 15% Other 13% Food 20% Rent 32% Utilities 20% 9. The amount \$480.656 b. how many dollars will each person get? a. Which of the following is another way to write 27.2 b.135 = a. 1.21 d.20 7. \$122.4656 c.346 IMPROVE YOUR MATH CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Posttest 5. \$125.85 is to be divided equally among four people. 0. 0.25 b.200 The pie chart below shows Liam’s monthly expenses. how much does he spend on his car each month? a. 120 d. 4. c. \$320 d.23 c.

30° 45° 90° 180° K Q . b. three less than eight times a number is 25 b. What is the original number? a. 62 d. 23 b. three more than eight times a number is 25 d. 19 d. Which of the following means the same as 3x − 8 = 25? a. then decreased by 13. 1. A number is decreased by 5. resulting in 41. 59 c. Which of the following is equal to 412? a. 70 12. eight more than three times a number is 25 c. eight less than three times a number is 25 11. 41 d. 29 13. d.600 c.Posttest CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING IMPROVE YOUR MATH 347 10. 8 × 3 + 20 ÷ 4 = a. 41 × 41 b. 41 × 41 14. c. 11 b. What is the measure of ∠ROQ? P O S a. 13 c.

d. 10 feet d. 10 c. Approximately. What is the ratio of males to females on the Debate Team? ACTIVITY Drama Journalism Science Club Debate Team MALE 11 12 9 12 FEMALE 13 10 11 15 a. 8 16. Jr. The table below shows the how many male and female students participate in each activity at Martin Luther King.. 12 d. The height of the Statue of Liberty from foundation to torch is 305 feet. 3 feet b. A 10-foot ladder is leaning against a building as shown in the ﬁgure below. 8 b.348 IMPROVE YOUR MATH CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Posttest 15. 11 13 12 10 15 12 12 15 . 5 feet c. c. Middle School. b. 12 feet 17. A mini-golf park has a 1:60 scale model of the statue. how tall is the scale model? a. How many feet off the ground is the top of the ladder? 10 ft x 6f ft a.

93. 86. 1 5 1 16 1 32 1 64 19. 91. 2 24 c. 85. 29 24 17 5 5 1 b. 2 8 d. What is Malaika’s average in Math? (Round your answer to the nearest whole number. 86 d.) a. If one marble is drawn from the bag. d. 5 cm 10 cm 20 cm 32 cm y 8 cm 2 cm 4 cm N . Triangles RST and MNO are similar. what is the probability it is a white marble? a. b. 75. They are 83. c. b. 82. There are 36 blue marbles. 90. 82 b. 88. c. d. Malaika has ten grades of equal weight in Math. 13 12 21. 9 6 − 7 8 = a. and 85. 88 20.Posttest CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING IMPROVE YOUR MATH 349 18. 16 white marbles and 28 green marbles in a bag. 84 c. What is the length of MO ? O T 5 cm R 4 cm S M a.

There were no tied games. 3 b. 6 c. 12 24. 39 pounds d. 8:9 . If there is a ratio of boys to girls of 3:4.350 IMPROVE YOUR MATH CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Posttest 22. 10 pounds b. 55 pounds 23. Amount of Dog Food Eaten by Different Dog Breeds in One Month 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 Dog food eaten (in pounds) Shih tsu Mastiff Pug Beagle Great dane German shepherd Siberian husky Breed of Dog How much more food did the Great Dane eat than the beagle? a. 15% b. 9 d. 4:32 c. Emmanuel used data from a local pet store to compare the amounts of dog food different breeds eat in one month. how many boys are in Mao’s History class? a. 1:9 d. There are 21 people in Mao’s History class. the Bulldogs won 32 games. Last season. 23 pounds c. They lost only 4 games. He recorded his data in the following graph. What is the ratio of games won to games played? a.

85° c. 60° b. 105° . Which of the measures represents an obtuse angle? a. 90° d.Posttest CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING IMPROVE YOUR MATH 351 25.