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Ch 1: Principles of Ecology

2.1 - Organisms and


their Environment

Section 2.1

Inside This Section...


What is Ecology?
Levels of Organization
Living Relationships

Section 2.1

What is Ecology?
The systematic study of
____________ and their
Interactions with the
_______________
Reveals the
relationships between
_______ and _____________
parts of the
environment
Section 2.1

What is Ecology?
Ecology is
Multidisciplinary. It
combines:
Geology
_________
Chemistry
______________
Others

Section 2.1

Organisms CANNOT
exist in ___________
They depend on
each other for
survival
They also depend
on _____________
things

Section 2.1

The Nonliving Environment


_________ Factors: All
of the ___________ parts
of the environment
Examples: Rocks,
Sand, Water,
Rainfall, Sunlight,
etc.
Section 2.1

The Living Environment


_______ Factors: All of
the Living things that
inhabit an ______________
Examples: Animals,
plants, insects, etc

Section 2.1

5 Levels of Organization
Biosphere
Ecosystems
Communities
Populations
Organism

Section 2.1

What is an Organism??
Section 2.1

Populations
A group of organisms
that live together and
_____________, living in the
same place at the same
time.
How organisms share
their ______________
determines how far apart
they live and how big the
population gets.

Section 2.1

Communities
A community is made up of
several _____________ that
interact.
A change in one
population of a
community will cause
changes in ___________
population.
Coyote and Antelope in
Yellostone Park

Section 2.1

Ecosystem
An ecosystem is made up of a
collection of interactions
among the populations in a
community and their abiotic
factors.
Three types of ecosystems
______________
______________
_____________
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Biosphere
The portion of Earth that
supports ______.
This portion extends from
the bottom of the ocean
to high in the
________________.
If you could shrink the
Earth to the size of an
apple the biosphere
would be the size of an
apple peel.

Section 2.1

What is a Habitat?
A habitat is the place
where an organism ______
_____ its life.
Grasslands, Deserts, the
ocean floor are examples
of ____________.

Section 2.1

What is a Niche?
A niche is the ______ and
_________ a species has in
its environment-how it
meets its needs for food
and ___________, how it
survives, and how it
reproduces.
It is an advantage for a
species to occupy a
different _______ than
another.
Section 2.1

Symbiosis (Living Relationships)


Some species enhance
their chances of _________
by forming relationships
with other species
There are three types of
Living relationships
(__________ relationships)
Tapeworm

Section 2.1

Symbiotic Relationships
__________________: A relationship in which one
organism benefits and the other is neither
harmed nor benefited
______________: When both species benefit from
the relationship.
_____________: When one organism benefits from
harming the other organism.

Ch 1: Principles of Ecology

2.2 - Nutrition and


Energy Flow
Section 2.2

Inside This Section...


The Source of Energy
Consumers and Producers
Cycles in Nature

Section 2.2

Where does Energy come From?


The power to run, to
wake up in the morning,
to think, and anything
else a living organism
does requires _________.
Ultimately we will see
that all energy comes
from the _____.
X-Ray of the Sun

Section 2.2

Producers vs. Consumers


Producers are able to
use energy from the
sun to make food
A.K.A. _____________
Examples are plants
and some weird
__________ that we call
chemosynthetic
Pyrachantha Berries autotrophs.
Section 2.2

Producers vs. Consumers


Consumers need to
Eat in order to get
energy
A.K.A. ________________
Examples are
Animals

Moose feeding on Fireweed

Section 2.2

Types of Heterotrophs
_______________: Rely on the efforts of others to
find their foods. E.g. Vultures
_____________: Eat only plants. E.g. cows
_____________: Animals that eat other animals. E.g.
Cats
____________: Animals that eat both plants and
other animals. E.g. Bears, humans.
_______________: Break down and use nutrients
from dead organisms. E.g. Fungi

Section 2.2

Food Chains
Food chains are the pathways of ________ and
matter through all organisms in an
ecosystem.
Matter is in the form of _____________ that
organisms require.
When one organism _______ another it receives
the nutrients and energy from the organism it
ate.
Section 2.2

How Food Chains Look


Nutrition and energy start with _____________ and
proceed to ________________ and eventually to
________________.
Every link in the chain only has about ____ of its
total energy available for the next link in the
chain. (3-5 links)

Section 2.2

Trophic Levels
Trophic levels are
_______________ in Top
Carnivores
the food chain.
A food chain
Secondary Consumers
represents only
one possible route
for the transfer Primary Consumers
of energy in an
_____________. Producers

Section 2.2

Food Webs
Food webs are models that are used to describe
all the possible feeding ________________ among
animals.
These are more realistic than food chains
because they show how animals rely on ___________
____ type of food.
Section 2.2

Section 2.2

Ecological Pyramids
An ecological pyramid
is a model that is used
to show the
_______________ of matter
and energy in an
ecological system.
Autotrophs are on the
bottom followed by
__________________ as you
move up.

Section 2.2

Cycles in Nature
There is a law in
science that says that
matter can never be
_________ nor
_____________.
Thus the atoms that
make up the nutrients
we need to live must be
___________.
Section 2.2

The Water Cycle


__________________: When water in the air
condenses on an object cooler than the air.
_______________: When water is turned into a
vapor.
_______________: Rain,snow, and hail are good
examples.
________________: When water passes through
plants into the air as water vapor.

Section 2.2

Section 2.2

The Nitrogen Cycle


Even though the air contains _____ Nitrogen,
plants can not use Nitrogen in that form.
_________ and certain ____________ convert
Nitrogen in the air into a more useable form
for plants.
_____________ is a useable form of Nitrogen for
plants.
SECTION 2.2