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Leadership Styles & Theories

Leadership Styles & Theories

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Published by: Shubham Singh on Sep 12, 2010
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Chapter 13

Leading and Leadership Development
Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 1

Planning Ahead ² Chapter 13 
What is the nature of leadership?  What are the important leadership

traits and behaviors?  What are the contingency theories of leadership?  What are current issues in leadership development?
Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 2

Figure 13.1 Leading viewed in relationship to the other management functions.

Chapter 13

Principles of Management (Schermerhorn)

3

± The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. ± Complex.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Leadership. ambiguous. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 4 . and multidimensional problems. ± Expectations for success on the first attempt.  Contemporary leadership challenges: ± Shorter time frames for accomplishing things. ± Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term demands.

Managers Rational ‡ Complexity ‡ Planning & Budgeting Targets/Goals ‡ Organizing & Staffing ‡ Controlling & Problem Solving vs. Leaders Intuitive ‡ Change ‡ Setting Direction -Visions ‡ Aligning People ‡ Motivating ³Inspiring/Moving´ Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) Kotter 5 .

What is the Nature of Leadership?  Power. ± Personal power.  Two sources of managerial power: ± Position power. ± Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 6 .  Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction.

± Based on a manager¶s official status in the organization¶s hierarchy of authority. ‡ Capability to punish or withhold positive outcomes. ‡ Capability to offer something of value. ± Legitimate power.  Sources of position power: ± Reward power. ‡ Organizational position or status confers the right to control those in subordinate positions. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 7 .What is the Nature of Leadership?  Position power. ± Coercive power.

 Sources of personal power: ± Expert power.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Personal power. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 8 . ‡ Capacity to influence others because of one¶s knowledge and skills. ‡ Capacity to influence others because they admire you and want to identify positively with you. ± Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation. ± Referent power.

Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 9 .Figure 13.2 Sources of position power and personal power used by managers.

± Vision ‡ A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Visionary leadership. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 10 . ± Visionary leadership ‡ A leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully.

± Set the example. ± Show enthusiasm. ± Celebrate achievements.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership: ± Challenge the process. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 11 . ± Help others to act.

‡ Feel capable of carrying out the directive. the other person must: ‡ Truly understand the directive. ± For a leader to achieve true influence. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 12 .What is the Nature of Leadership?  Acceptance theory of authority. ‡ Believe the directive is in the organization¶s best interests. ‡ Believe the directive is consistent with personal values.

± ³Other centered´ not ³self-centered´. ± Power not a ³zero-sum´ quantity. ± Followers more important than leader.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Servant leadership ± Commitment to serving others. ± Focuses on empowerment. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 13 . not power.

Authority. ‡ The process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence. Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 14 . ± Effective leaders empower others by providing them with: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Chapter 13 Information. Trust. Responsibility.What is the Nature of Leadership?  Servant Leadership and empowerment. ± Empowerment.

What are the Important Leadership Traits and Behaviors?  Traits that are important for leadership success: ± Drive ± Self-confidence ± Creativity ± Cognitive ability ± Business knowledge ± Motivation ± Flexibility ± Honesty and integrity Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 15 .

Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 16 . ± Leadership styles are recurring patterns of behaviors exhibited by leaders. ‡ Concern for the people doing the work.What are the Important Leadership Traits and Behaviors?  Leadership behavior « ± Leadership behavior theories focus on how leaders behave when working with followers. ± Basic dimensions of leadership behaviors: ‡ Concern for the task to be accomplished.

± Is sensitive to followers¶ needs. ± Shows trust in followers. ± Assigns task responsibilities.  People concerns ± Acts warm and supportive toward followers. ± Monitors performance results. ± Develops social rapport with followers. ± Respects the feelings of followers. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 17 . ± Urges task completion.What are the Important Leadership Traits and Behaviors?  Task concerns ± Plans and defines work to be done. ± Sets clear work standards.

What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid¤ ± Team management. ‡ High task concern. ‡ High people concern. ‡ High task concern. ± Middle of the road management. ‡ Non-committal for both task concern and people concern. low people concern. ‡ Low task concern. ± Authority-obedience management. ± Country club management. ± Impoverished management. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 18 . high people concern. low task concern. low people concern.

Figure 13. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 19 .3 Managerial styles in Blake and Mouton¶s Leadership Grid.

and acts with a ³do the best you can and don¶t bother me´ attitude. ± Laissez-faire style. ‡ Emphasizes task over people. and helping people develop skills and competencies.What are the Important Leadership Traits and Behaviors?  Classic leadership styles: ± Autocratic style. ‡ Committed to task and people. ‡ Shows little concern for task. getting things done while sharing information. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 20 . and acts in a unilateral command-and-control fashion. lets the group make decisions. ± Democratic style. encouraging participation in decision making. keeps authority and information within the leader¶s tight control.

has courage to let it happen Discovers talents Builds the habitat for creativity Instills ownership Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 21 .WHAT LEADERS DO. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Chapter 13 Recruits.. provokes Is intellectually stimulating Doesn¶t interfere.. doesn¶t just hire Breathes vision into people Models positive behavior Challenges.

Fielder¶s Contingency Model 2. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model 3. Vroom-Jago LeadershipParticipation Model Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 22 .Contingency Approaches to Leadership 1. House¶s Path-Goal Leadership Theory 4.

Contingency Theories of Leadership Fielder Model Leadership style must be fit to the situation Leadership style is part of one¶s personality and is difficult to change Key to success is to put existing style to work in situations with best ³fit´ Hersey-Blanchard Model Adjust styles depending on the maturity of the followers Depends on followers readiness to perform in a given situation Believes that the leader's style can and should be adjusted as followers mature over time Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 23 .

Contingency Theories of Leadership House¶s Path-Goal Leadership Theory Effective leader clarifies paths through which followers can achieve both task-related and personal goals Leaders should be flexible & move back & forth among 4 leadership styles to create positive ³path goal´ linkages Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Model Helps a leader choose the decision-making method that best fits the problem being faced Key is on the amount of decision-making participation allowed followers Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 24 .

Figure 13. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 25 .4 Matching leadership style and situation: summary predictions from Fiedler¶s contingency theory.

Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 26 .Figure 13.5 Leadership implications of the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model.

Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 27 .

Figure 13. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 28 .7 Leadership implications of Vroom-Jago leader-participation model.

What are current issues in leadership development?  Superleaders.  Charismatic leaders. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 29 . ± Persons whose vision and strength of personality have an extraordinary impact on others. ± Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways.

What are current issues in leadership development?  Transactional leadership ± Someone who directs the efforts of others through tasks. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 30 . and structures  Transformational leadership ± Someone who is truly inspirational as a leader and who arouses others to seek extraordinary performance accomplishments. rewards.

± Intellectual stimulation. ± Symbolism. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 31 . ± Charisma. ± Empowerment. ± Integrity.What are current issues in leadership development?  Characteristics of transformational leaders: ± Vision.

Motivation.What are current issues in leadership development?  Emotional intelligence. Social skill. ± Components of emotional intelligence: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Self-awareness. Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 32 Chapter 13 . Empathy. Self-regulation. ± The ability of people to manage themselves and their relationships effectively.

What are current issues in leadership development?  Gender and leadership. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 33 . ± Both women and men can be effective leaders. ‡ A style that shares qualities with transformational leadership. ± Men tend to use transactional leadership. ± Interactive leadership provides a good fit with the demands of a diverse workforce and the new workplace. ± Women tend to use interactive leadership.

What are current issues in leadership development?  Gender and leadership ± Future leadership success will depend on a person¶s capacity to lead through: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Openness. Positive relationships. Support. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 34 . Empowerment.

Drucker¶s ³Old Fashioned´ Leadership ‡ Define & Establish a Sense of Mission ‡ Accept Leadership as a Responsibility rather than a Rank ‡ Earn & Keep the Trust of Others Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 35 .

± Integrity involves the leader¶s honesty. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 36 . ± Long-term. credibility. sustainable success requires ethical behavior.´ ± All leaders are expected to maintain high ethical standards.What are current issues in leadership development?  Moral leadership. and consistency in putting values into action. ± Ethical leadership adheres to moral standards meeting the test of ³good´ rather than ³bad´ and ³right´ rather than ³wrong.

What are current issues in leadership development?  Moral leadership ± Leaders with integrity earn the trust of their followers. and resilience. hope. and serving as ethical role models. ± Authentic leadership helps in clearly framing and responding to moral dilemmas. optimism. ± Leaders have a moral obligation to build performance capacities by awakening people¶s potential. Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 37 . ± Authentic leadership activates performance through the positive psychological states of confidence.

Chapter 13 Review  What is the nature of leadership?  What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  What are the contingency theories of leadership?  What are current issues in leadership development? Chapter 13 Principles of Management (Schermerhorn) 38 .

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