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GOPALA KRISHNA ADE/400KV/APTRANSCO

Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power Evacuation Substation Transmission Substation Switching Substation Distribution Substation

Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System Components 1. Generators 2. Transformers 3. Transmission Lines 4. Feeders 5. Motors 6. Capacitor Banks 7. Bus Bars 8. Reactors

Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Why we need the Protection ?
To detect abnormalities (faults). To eliminate such abnormality by isolating smallest portion of the system in a shortest period of time. To prevent injury to personnel. To prevent damage to Equipment. Enable Continuous service in undamaged part of the network.

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protective Relay – What should it do ? Monitor system parameters continuously (V. P. I. F) Operate quickly when necessary (Dependability) Should not operate wrongly (stability. discrimination) To trip or not to trip ? .

Isolate only Faulty Section without disturbing Healthy Section. if a fault then occurs.Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protective System – What are the Requirements? Speed The relay must operate at the required speed. . Damage can be Minimised. the relays must respond instantly and correctly. Selectivity The relay must be able to discriminate (select) between those conditions for which prompt operation is required and those for which no operation. It should neither be too slow which may result in damage to the equipment nor should it be too fast which may result in undesired operation. The security in fault clearance is called dependability and the security against undesired clearances is called Security. The Operation Capability of the Protection System is summerised in “ reliability”. which includes both the security in fault clearance and the security against undesired clearances. or time delayed operation is required. Sensitivity The relaying equipment must be sufficiently sensitive so that it operates reliably when required under the actual conditions that produces least operating tendency and to detect all possible Shunt and series Faults. Reliability The most important requisite of protective relay is reliability since they supervise the circuit for a long time before a fault occurs.

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protective Relay Scheme – What is it ? A Protective Relay CT / CVT / PT(EMVT) Auxiliary Power Supply (24 V to 240 V AC/ DC) Switching Device ( Breaker/ Isolator / Contactor) Trip Coil Alarm / Trip contact Control Wiring .

Earth Fault Power Active power Reactive power Over power Under power Reverse power Voltage Over Voltage Under Voltage Voltage Unbalance Neutral shift Computed Over fluxing Loss of field Differential Over Current Restricted E/F Under Impedance Frequency Over Frequency Under Frequency dF/dT Control/Management Synchronising Load sharing Islanding Load shedding DC Relays .Faults Current Over Load Over Current Earth Fault Current Unbalance Dir. Over Current Dir.Power Systems Protection -Introduction Power System .

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protection – ANSI Codes Code numbers Used to denote Protections On a SLD .

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Power System – Fault Handling Trip & Isolate Breaker is tripped on fault Faulty section is isolated Control & Regulate Breaker is not tripped Corrective actions Generated on line .

If fault is outside zone. Relay should not operate. Relay should operate and isolate the faulted Zone. If fault is inside its Zone. Some other Relay should operate and isolate .Power Systems Protection -Introduction Relay operation when a fault occurs Each Relay should Protect a specific Zone in the System.

. these Relays will start to Only one Relay related to particular fault should trip and interrupt the fault current. Some of operate. Remaining Relays will reset after above.Power Systems Protection -Introduction What happens when a fault occurs Fault current flows through number of Relays.

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protection Relays – Inputs / Out puts Inputs Current Voltage Frequency Power CTs PTs PTs CTs + PTs Outputs Trip Contact .

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Protection Relays – Settings Pick up setting Low set Highset % of CT Rating Time delay setting Definite time Inverse time TMS Setting .

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Power System – Trip time characteristics t 1.3 or 3.4 LS 10 I/Is .0 sec 1.

0 sec 50 msec 1.4 LS 6 HS 10 I/Is .3 or 3.Power Systems Protection -Introduction Power System – Trip time characteristics t 1.

00 I/Is=2 I/Is=4 I/Is=6 I/Is=8 I/Is=10 I/Is=15 I/Is=20 Normal Inv 3 sec Normal Inv 1.50 5.28 3.03 2.87 1.13 04.20 .54 1.33 1.30 1.71 0.66 5.27 3.96 0.36 2.33 3.70 2.18 4.50 0.44 1.5 sec Extremely Inverse 10.Power Systems Protection -Introduction Typical Inverse Time Delays TIME MULTIPLIER SETTING – TMS : 1.3 sec Very Inverse 1.10 0.29 0.68 2.00 1.39 13.50 26.81 2.93 1.99 0.

Power Systems Protection -Introduction Things you should know Application SLD representation Front panel Controls Back Panel terminations Inputs / Outputs / Ratings Settings (Inside) Settings (on front panel) Installation & wiring Commissioning Testing (Front panel) Testing (SCITS) Cat . No. .

EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS PREPARED BY GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU ADE/MRT(PROTECTION) .

e EACH FUNCTION OF THE SCHEME HAVING A SEPARATE RELAY. AFFECTING BOTH OPERATION. DISADVANTAGES: ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS HAVE A LOT OF MECHANICAL PARTS. IT REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND ADJUSTMENT.1 ST GENERATION FIRST GENERATION RELAYS : THESE ARE ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS IN THIS NO OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS PROVIDED FOR ARRIVING A SPECIFIC FUNCTION i. NO OF RELAYS ARE MORE AND SPACE OCUPATION IS MORE AND INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM IS MORE. CALIBRATION AND MOVEMENT OF THE DISKS. WHICH MAY BECOME CLOGGED WITH DIRT OR CORRODED DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. . COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION.

1 ST GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS WITH STATIC COMPONENTS IN THIS SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. IT REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND ADJUSTMENT. IN THIS QUANTITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS ARE REDUCED. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. . DISADVANTAGES: THE PCBs ARE MADE WITH TRANSISTORS AND ARE BROUGHTOUT ITEMS WITH DIFFERENT MAKE. THE PCBs & COMPONENTS PERFORMANCE MAY BE AFFECTED DUE TO DIST & DIRT. QUANTITY OF RELAYS ARE REDUCED AND SPACE OCUPATION IS REDUCED SOME WHAT. AFTER SOME TIME THESE ARE TO BE REPLACED FOR CORRECT OPERATION WITHOUT DRIFT.

It requires periodical Maintenance. In this initially each function is derived with separate static relay. Inter connection wiring diagram is still not reduced. shunt. DISADVANTAGES: Static relays generally employ a lot of electronic components made by other manufacturers. . to electronically measure circuits has to be generated from available external power sources. Combining all is called one protection function.2 ND GENERATION SECOND GENERATION RELAYS : STATIC RELAYS WITH TRANSISTORS In this all of the functions are derived from static components provided on the PCB. A reliable DC power source within the relay. Most of the static relays employ series. Most of the static relays in use do not have the means to detect the failure of power supply and initiate an alarm. If these electronic components are not tested with rigorous quality control. the measuring circuits are inoperative and the relay is dead for any measurements. if these power supplies fail. Quantity of static relays are more but space occupation is less. For a variety of reasons. No protection is available to the network. the chances of failure of components during the relay life time may exist. or switched mode power supply designs.

.2 ND GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : STATIC RELAYS ON SINGLE PCB IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. NO INTER CONECTION WIRING. SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. THIS IS PART OF MAIN PCB. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. DISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES ARE SAME AS ABOVE. IN THIS ALL STATIC RELAYS ARE TAKEN TO ONE MASTER PCB AND EACH FUNCTION PCB WILL BE ADD ON CARD TYPE. SO TOTAL RELAY IS ONE BUT FOR EVERY FUNCTION IS PCB IS AVAILABLE AND CONNECTED TO MAIN PCB.

NO INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM. ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION ONLY ONE RELAY AND ALL FUNCTIONS ARE INTEGRATED. THIS ALSO BUILT IN ONE PCB. SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS.3 ND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION RELAYS : STATIC RELAYS WITH ICs IN THIS NO OF COMPONENTS ARE REDUCED AND BROUGHT OR BUILT IN ONE INTEGRATED CHIP. ALL ARE INTEGRATED IN ONE PCB. DUE TO THIS THE RELAY SIZE IS REDUCED AND SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ALSO TAKEN IN TO ONE INTEGRATED CHIP. IN THIS ONLY MASTER PCB IS AVAILABLE. ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. NO SEPARATE PCB FOR EACH FUNCTION . PROBLEMS ARE SOME WHAT REDUCED. .

SOME ICs ARE HAVING THE FACILITY TO INTERACT THROUGH COMMUNICATION PORT. IN THIS SOME FUNCTION CAN BE ENABLED AND DISABLED.3 ND GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : SEMI NUMERIC RELAYS IN THIS SOME FUNCTIONS ARE CAN BE PROGRAMMABLE AND INTERFACE THROUGH PC. BASED ON THE REQUIREMENT. IT IS SOME WHAT MODIFICATION TO IC BASED RELAYS. .

MOST OF THESE RELAYS HAVE AUTO TEST FEATURES WHICH TEST THE ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT FUNCTIONS AT REGULAR INTERVALS & AUTOMATICALLY. AND OTHER PATTERNS. .4 ND GENERATION MICROPROCESSOR BASED NUMERICAL RELAYS IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE BROUGHT ON ONE IC. WHICH FACILITATES THE CHECKING OF POWER SUPPLY FAILS. CLOCK FREQUENCIES. DO HAVE THE WATCHDOG FEATURE. THE FOURTH GENERATION PROCESSORBASED RELAYS.

MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS BACK GROUND WORK ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OPERATIONS & ALGORITHMS IN MICROPROCESSOR FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS & OTHER HARDWARE OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAY FILTERING TECHNIQUES TESTING OF MICROPROCESSOR RELAYS .

MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS . .BACKGROUND WORK 1960s A FEW CONCEPTS WERE PROPOSED HARDWARE WAS VERY EXPENSIVE BENEFITS OF MICROPROCESSORS FOR RELAYS WERE NOT CLEAR IEEE ARTICLE “FAULT PROTECTION WITH A DIGITAL COMPUTER” OUTLINED THE FEASIBILITY & PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED IN S/S PROTECTION WHEN A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS USED.

BACKGROUND WORK 1970s TWO PAPERS WERE PUBLISHED “DIGITAL CALCULATION OF IMPEDANCE FOR TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION” “ 3 PH TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION WITH A DIGITAL COMPUTER” PROMINENT MANUFACTURERS LIKE WESTINGHOUSE.MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS . IBM STARTED INVESTIGATING S/S COMPUTER SYSTEMS PHILADELPHIA ELECTRIC & GE INITIATED PROJECTS ON DIGITAL TECHNIQUES FOR PROTECTION VARIOUS ALGORITHMS WERE DERIVED FOR DIGITAL CALCULATION OF PROTECTION PARAMETRS EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS WERE BUILT BY GE & WESTINGHOUSE TO CHECK ALGORITHMS FIRST GENERATION OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS BUILT .

GE.MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS . SIEMENS START DESIGN & SALES OF BROAD RANGE OF PRODUCTS FOR POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION MICROPROCESSOR IMPROVES PERFORMANCE SPECS FOR OPERATION IN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT MANY PLC BASED SYSTEMS ARE COMMISSIONED IN INDIA BY L&T. SIEMENS. TOSHIBA. ECIL ETC.BACKGROUND WORK 1980s MAJOR MANUFACTURERS LIKE ABB. MANY ELECTRICITY BOARDS & PROCESS PLANTS IN INDIA START USING MICROPROCESSOR BASED INSTRUMENTS THE WORD SCADA GETS POPULAR IN INDIA PGCIL GOES IN FOR MICROPROCESSOR BASED DISTANCE RELAYS IN INDIA . GEC .

MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS . GE.BACKGROUND WORK 1990s ABB & GEC ALSTOM MICROPROCESSOR BASED PROTECTIONS INTRODUCED RANGE OF RELAYS FOR ALL UNIT MAJOR MANUFACTURERS LIKE ABB. GEC . . TOSHIBA STARTS DESIGN & SALES OF BROAD RANGE OF PRODUCTS FOR POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION MANY ELECTRICITY BOARDS & PROCESS PLANTS IN INDIA START USING MICROPROCESSOR BASED INSTRUMENTS PGCIL GOES IN FOR MICROPROCESSOR BASED DISTANCE RELAYS IN INDIA MICROCONTROLLERS / DSPs ARE INTRODUCED IN LATE 90s BY HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS WHICH HAVE IMPROVED THE SPEED OF OPERATION.

ADVANTAGES OF NUMERIC RELAYS PARAMETER ACCURACY BURDEN SETTING RANGES MULTI FUNCTIONALITY SIZE FIELD PROGRAMMABILITY PARAMETER DISPLAY SYSTEM FLEXILBILITY CO-ORDINATION TOOLS COMMUNICATION REMOTE CONTROL SPECIAL ALGORITHMS SPECIAL PROTECTIONS SELF DIAGNOSTICS NUMERIC 1% < 0.5 VA WIDE YES SMALL YES YES YES MANY YES YES MANY YES YES CONVENTIONAL 5% / 7.5% > 5 VA LIMITED NO LARGE NO NO NO TWO NO NO LIMITED NO NO .

DIS-ADVANTAGES OF NUMERIC RELAYS SOFTWARE INTENSIVE OBSOLESENCE RATE EMI / EMC PROBLEMS SERIAL NATURE .

PROTECTION ALGORITHM MEASUREMENMT METHOD TRIP TIME CALCULATION GOOD FILTERING CHARACTERISTIC (HARMONICS. DC SHIFT) FAST TRIP DECISION . NOISE.

FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS OF A NUMERIC RELAY ANALOG INPUT SU-SYSTEM D S P MICRO PROCESSOR RAM ROM EPROM FLASH DIGITAL INPUT SUB-SYSTEM DIGITAL OUTPUT SUB-SYSTEM POWER SUPPLY COMMUNICATION INTERFACE .

ANALOG INPUT SUB SYSTEM CT SURGE SUPPRESSION ANALOG FILTER MUX A/D CONVERTER MICRO PROCESSOR PT SURGE SUPPRESSION ANALOG FILTER .

MICROPROCESSORS Vs MICRO CONTROLERS Microprocessor Address Register C O N T R O L Data Register Arithmetic Logic Unit Accumulator C O N T R O L Micro controller Address Register Data Register Arithmetic Logic Unit Accumulator ROM Timers I/O RAM Counters EPROM UART .

MIN 24Nos SIGNAL OUTPUTS 3. MIN 4Nos MAX 8Nos COMMAND/TRIP OUTPUTS 2.RELAY HARDWARE 16 / 32 BIT PC MODEM IRIG-B RE/CC NORMALLY 400KV RELAYS SUPPLIED WITH CONFIGUARATION/HARDWARE 1. MIN 24 BINARY INPUTS FOLLOWING . MIN 14 LED INDICATIONS 4.

RAM A/D SETTINGS POWER SUPPLY . Checked by checksums or CRC values can be stored and compared.voltage. Often. Checked by monitoring power supply voltage values from A / D converter.TECHNIQUES USED RAM Checked by computing a checksum of memory contents and comparing it against a stored factory value.SELF DIAGNOSTICS . is software corrected. 2 or 3 copies of settings are stored and compared. Any off set at a given time. Checked by periodically writing a specific data and reading back the memory contents Checked by inputing a known value of + / .

. for decision making process. each value separately.TYPES OF SIGNALS REQUIRED FOR PROPER PROTECTION Current. All other signals will interfere with protection process. Voltage and Distance Relays : Require fundamental frequency component signals. Harmonic Restraint Relays : Require both the fundamental & the Harmonic components .

CAPACITOR PROTECTION . REACTOR PROTECTION 7. TRANSFORMER PROTECTION. 3. 4. GENERATOR PROTECTION 5. Example: 1. LINE PROTECTION.4 ND GENERATION 1ST DEVELOPMENT: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS APPLICATION BASED RELAYS i. BUSBAR PROTECTION.e EACH PROTECTION FUNCTION HAVING SEPARATE SOFTWARE & HARDWARE. MOTOR PROTECTION 6. 2.

RED 600 SERIES FLATFORM . REX 316 SERIES FLATFORM 3.4 ND GENERATION 2ND DEVELOPMENT: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS SOME GROUP BASED RELAYS i. RED 500 SERIES FLATFORM 5.e SOME PROTECTION FUNCTIONS ARE TAKEN IN TO ONE FLATFORM AND PROVIDED COMMON SOFTWARE. Example: ABB: 1. FROM THIS INBUILT FACILITY OF EVENT RECORDER AND DISTURBANCE RECORDER IS DEVELOPED. REX 5xx SERIES FLATFORM 2. REX 670 SERIES FLATFORM 4.

AREVA : MICOM S1 .e. SIEMENS: SIPROTEC SERIES – DIGSI 2. i. ONE SOFTWARE ONE MANUFACTURER.4 ND GENERATION 3RD DEVELOPMENT: UNIVERSAL SOFTWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER. Example: 1. GE MULTILIN: ENERVISTA 3.

BUT IT IS MODULAR DESIGN.4 ND GENERATION 4TH DEVELOPMENT: UNIVERSAL HARDWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER. PARTICULAR CARD IS ADDED. GE MULTILIN: UR SERIES & SR SERIES . RELAY IS COMMON HARDWARE BASED ON PROTECTION FUNCTION. ONE HARDWARE FOR ONE MANUFACTURER. Example: 1.

Example: 1. NETWORKING AND AUTOMATION. SPA 4. FIELDBUS 8. PROFIBUS 5. DNP 7.4 ND GENERATION 5TH DEVELOPMENT: EACH MANUFACTURER ADOPTING THEIR PROPERITIERY BASED PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNICATION. UCA – Utility communication architecture 2. INTERFACING. MVB 9. SOME UTILTIES ARE REQUESTED MANUFACTURERS TO SUIT THEIR ADOPTED PROTOCOL. MODBUS 6. IEC 60870 . LON 3.

Example: 1. i. INTERFACING AND NETWORKING IS DEVELOPED. IEC 61850 . ALL MANUFACTURERS ARE FORM A GROUP AND PROTOCOLS ARE STANDARDIZED.4 ND GENERATION 6TH DEVELOPMENT: BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE WITH DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS. NEED FOR UNIFORMITY AND KNOW – HOW FOR GLOBAL CONSIDERATION ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY ONE STANDARD A UNIVERSAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNICATION. ANY RELAY CAN BE COMMUNICATED FOR COMMON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL. THIS IS SPECIAL FOR AUTOMATION OF STATIONS.e INTEROPERATABULITY.

BENIFITS OF UNIVERSAL PROTOCOL One Protocol for all the needs in the substation flexible configuration no gateways required ETHERNET & TCP/IP Adopted worldwide Scalable technology Common use of infrastructure Quicker project execution comprehensive data model clear.objects and functions Interoperability is maintained . standardised projectand equipment description Configuration of substation in XML Separation from Application & Communication data and application stay secure independent from communication systems unconstrained further development of the technology Efficient maintenance robust data modelling self-descriptive equipment automation-configuration in XML Innovation & Expansion firm rules for the description of new data.

INTEROPERATABULITY WITH ABB. AREVA & SIEMENS .

Digital Signal Processors Analogue to Digital Conversion. Evaluation Trip Criteria Counters LEDs & LCD Display Trip Relays are Inbuilt Freely Configurable Timing Function Mechanical Clock works. Induction cups etc Electrical Quantities converted into Mechanical Force & Torque STATIC Discrete R L C. Comparators Level Detectors Comparison with Reference Value in Analogue Comparators NUMERICAL Microprocessors.TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION SUBJECT Measuring Elements & Hardware Measuring Method ELECTROMECHANICAL Induction Discs. Targets Trip Command Contacts & Assignments Additional Trip Relay Required Fixed Static Timers LEDs Additional Trip Relay Required Fixed . Dashpot Visual Indication Flags. Techniques. Digital ICs. Numerical Algorithms. Transistors. Analogue ICs. Electromagnets.

Compact Thumb Wheel. Dial Setting STATIC Not Possible Modular. Potentiometers.TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION SUBJECT Sequence of Events Hardware Size Parameter Setting ELECTROMECHANICAL Not Possible Bulky Plug Setting. DIP Switches Not Available Partially Available Required as settings drift due to ageing NUMERICAL Available Most Compact Human Machine Interface. Softwares Available & Freely Configurable Available Not required as settings are stored permanently in Memory in Digital Format Possible Possible Binary Input & Not Available Output Self Supervision Not Available Calibration Frequently Required as settings drift due to ageing Multiple Characteristics Multiple Integrated Protection func Not Possible Not Possible Not Possible Not Possible .

PTs & CVTs Protection Control & Monitoring Solution ELECTROMECHANICAL Limited Not Possible External Hardware Not Possible Higher STATIC Moderate Not Possible External Hardware Not Possible NUMERICAL Wide Possible Inbuilt Available Only Protection Lower Than Lower Electromechanical & Moderate Protection & Protection Control & Monitoring Monitoring Fixed Extension and New development Possible and Open Architecture Stored In Memory Fixed Fault History Not possible Not Possible .TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION SUBJECT Range of Settings Service value Indication Disturbance Recording Communication facility Burden on CTs.

Relay ANSI Numbers (IEEE C37.2) NUMBER 2 3 21 24 25 27 29 30 32 37 40 46 49 50 51 52 53 55 56 59 60 DEVICE Time delay relay Interlocking relay Distance Relay Volts per Hertz Relay Synchronism Check Relay Under Voltage Relay Isolating Contactor Annunciation relay Directional Power Relay Under Current / Power Relay Field failure (loss of excitation) Negative phase sequence Relay M/C or T/F Thermal Relay Inst Over-Current Relay AC IDMT Over-Current Relay AC Circuit Breaker Exciter or DC Generator Relay Power Factor Relay Field Application Relay Over-Voltage Relay Voltage / Current balance Relay NUMBER 61 63 64 67 68 72 74 76 78 79 81 83 84 85 86 87 89 91 92 95 99 Pressure Switch DEVICE Density Switch or Sensor Restricted Earth Fault Relay Directional Over Current Relay Blocking/Locking Relay DC Circuit Breaker Alarm Relay DC Over-Current Relay Phase Angle measuring or out of step Relay AC Auto Reclosure Relay Frequency Relay Automatic selective control or Transfer Relay Operating Mechanism Carrier or Pilot wire Receive Relay Lockout/Tripping Relay Differential Relay Isolator or Disconnector Voltage Directional Relay Voltage or Directional Power Relay Trip circuit supervision Relay Over-Flux Relay .

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