1 INTRODUCTION TO BANKING It has been seen that the origin of banking was from the ancient time. Although at that time the banking activities were not in systematic way but banking activities used to hold from that time. It has been said that the lending and borrowing are as old as money itself. The word bank has been derived from the Italian word "banco". The word banco means bench. As the different monetary transaction used to be held by sitting-up in the bench, it has been named as banco. Macleod has defined the word banco as the accumulation of money or stock. Bank in an organized form was first introduced in Italy in 1157 A.D. The Bank of Barcelona, Spain was the bank established in 1401 A.D. The first central bank was established in England, in 1844 A.D. But at present stage the bank has passed through different stage. It has been developing and modernizing its activities. Bank can be briefly defined as the financial intermediary between the depositor and credit seeker. The transaction can happen between the bank and depositor only when the depositors deposit certain amount in the bank and the bank has good relation with its customer. The Bank can make good relation with its customer only when it will be able to payback the amount deposited by the depositor at time. The intermediation takes place when bank accept deposit from general public, corporate bodies and private organization and invest those deposit for profitable purpose in form of loan and advances. The bank has started providing much more facility to its customer such as remittance of money, letter of credit, Bank guarantee, issue of money and many more. According to Kinley, "Bank is an establishment which makes to individual such advances of money or other means of payment as may be required & safety made and to which individual entrust money or means of payment when not required by them for use."


According to Cambridge International Dictionary of English "An organization where people and business can invest or borrower money changes it to foreign money etc. or a building where these services are offered." Thus, bank can be described as the custodian of savings of general people and established as well. It could have been quite impossible for the entrepreneurs to acquire the saving of general public for investment without the establishment of the bank. So, bank can be best described as the financial institution that accept deposit and provide the certain rate of interest and loan it to the needy person, charging certain rate of interest and earn some profit in the process of intermediation. 1.2 ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF BANK IN NEPAL The lending or borrowing process of money used to be held even at ancient time. The historical evidence shows the presence of some crude banking practice in the earlier period of time. But in case of Nepal it has a very short history. The development of bank in Nepal can be divided into two parts: a) Traditional Banking b) Modern Banking a) Traditional Banking Traditional Banking is related with the process of taking money with private money lender and not with a registered institution. Previously the people used to take money from the private money lender. Generally, people used to take such loan for meeting daily expenses. The lender used to charge high interest rate. In remote area till now there are different money lenders. There are the sayings that in 780 B.S. King Guna kam Dev took loan from the money lender and in B.S. 937 Shankadhar paid out the loan and started Nepal Sambat. In 14 th century King Jaysthity Malla divided the people in 64 different casts. And Tankdhari was also one of them. The main occupation of such cast people was to deal with monetary transition. After this the Tejrath Adda was established in government sector. They provide its services only to the civil servant to lower rate of interest. Private money lender following certain malpractice used to charge unreasonable rate of interest that caused inconvenience and difficulty to the people of country. The great need of a commercial bank was felt to eliminate


prevailing hindrances caused by private money lender to the general public. As a result, the "Tejarath Adda" was replaced by modern commercial bank.


Modern Banking As the banking transaction started to be in broad condition there felt the

need of modern banking system. So in 30th Kartik 1994 B.S the Nepal Bank Ltd. was established which was the first commercial bank in Nepal. Since then, the banking operation began to foster. After the establishment of NBL Ltd., Rastriya Banijya Bank was established in 2013 B.S. Different joint venture banks also started its operation in year 2041 B.S. Nepal Indosuez Bank Ltd. & Nepal Grindlays Bank Ltd. was established in 2042 B.S. and 2043 B.S. respectively. Himalayan Bank Ltd. was established with the joint venture with Habib Bank of Pakistan. Nepal SBI bank followed Himalayan Bank in 2051 B.S. The three new banks were opened in 2051 B.S., Nepal Bangladesh Bank Ltd., Everest Bank Ltd., and Bank of Kathmandu Ltd. Meanwhile there are 16 commercial banks in Nepal. 1.3 MEANING OF NEPAL BANK LTD Nepal Bank Ltd. was the first commercial bank. The banking history in Nepal began from 30th Kartik 1994 B.S. with the established of Nepal Bank Ltd. Under the privilege support from His Majesty King Tribhuvan. NBL commenced its operation of modern banking system by accepting and monitoring the saving of people and granting appropriate loan and monitoring the saving of people and granting appropriate credit facilities to people, hence removing the hindrance in the economic development of the people of the country. NBL was established with the establishment with 51% of share of government of Nepal and 49% was issued to general public. The authorized capital of this bank was 10 million. The bank initially started its banking operation with paid up capital of Rs 842 thousand of the issued price of Rs 2.5 million. NBL Ltd. has authorized capital of Rs. 1000 million, issued capital of 500 million and paid up capital of 38.04 crore. The present share percentage of Nepal Bank Ltd. is 40.49% of government and 59.51% of the general public. 1.4 EXPANSION OF NBL


As the main objective of commercial bank is to earn profit thus at the beginning NBL was centralized in those areas where their business affairs took place. NBL has opened its main branch in Kathmandu. As different financial activities were held at this place, the first importance was given to Kathmandu. NBL has its head office at New Road. Previously, as the main export & import activities used to be held from Birjung it was quite important to open branch office at Birjung so the first branch office was opened there at B.S. 1998. And as different business activities of eastern side was used to be done from Nepalgunj the most priority was given to it and at same year another branch office of NBL was opened in Bhadrapur, Janakpur, Gaur and Biratnagar. From the date of establishment of NBL within 5 years, 8 branch offices were opened and had started its services. In fiscal year 1999 to 2011 the more emphasis was given to the development of those banks. Till fiscal year 2046 the bank has got 234 branches at 67 district and the number of bank staff reached to 8721. Later on a study report of CBPASS (Commercial Bank Problem Analysis and Strategy Study) suggested that the non-performing branches as well as excess staff should be removed. As a result NBL accepted resignation of 800 staff and 15 branches were set collaborated. As a result NBL has 212 branch office having 5500 staff employed. At present NBL has 7 branch offices with fully computerized system and NBL is planning expand this number. NBL is further planning to expand its sector and its services in different sectors. 1.5 FUNCTIONS OF NBL NBL is a commercial bank with an objective of earning maximum profit. But it has also given priority to the economic development of the country. NBL supply the financial need of the business by various means. Although the main function of the bank is to earn maximum profit by providing different facilities to needy people or organization to obtain the procedure benefit here are some other main functions of NBL: a) b) c) To deposit money in saving, current and fixed deposit. To provide loan with or without considering legal procedure. To invest money in education, business, and agriculture sector for the economic development of country as it has certain responsibility towards them.


d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

To invest in government bonds and securities. To act as an agent. To act as bank of government. To provide safe custody of valuable goods. To issue letter of credit & credit instrument. To finance in foreign trade. To deal with foreign currency. To act as a referee and provide accurate information to the people.

Apart from the banking function, the act empowers NBL to do insurance and transport business. Further the main function of NBL that differ from other commercial banks is that it is especially empowered by act to grant loan to companies undertaking profitable business associated with agriculture, mining, road, railways, ropeway and so on. 1.6 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The main objective of the study is to get entire knowledge of fixed deposit and its chief feature in regards of NBL. The objective can be specified as follow: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.7 To analyze the share of fixed deposit out of total deposit of NBL. To analyze the trend of fixed deposit in NBL. To evaluate importance & utilization of fixed deposit account. To know opening & closing procedure of fixed deposit. To draw out different problems in fixed deposit management.

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The study is made in certain limitation they are as follows: a) b) This study concern only period of 6 years. There are number of factors that affect the banking policy of NBL. However only those factor, which are related with fixed deposit, is considered in study. c) Main focus is give only in the trend of fixed deposit of NBL.



PART 2 MEANING OF FIXED DEPOSIT 2.1 MEANING Fixed deposit constitutes a very important role for the bank. The amount deposited for the fixed period of time is fixed deposit. It is generally opened by such person who doesn't need money frequently. And as the money is kept in bank for certain period of time it is also called time deposit. As the money is withdrawn by the customers only after the maturity of date, pass book and cheque book are not given by the bank. Since bank can be certain about the withdrawl period of deposit, the bank gets the opportunity to utilize that money in productive sector so his amount of interest is provided. In Nepal the fixed deposit can be opened for 15 days, 1 month, 3 month, 6 months & 1 year and above. The bank provides interest from 4.00% to 9.5%. After the maturity time the customer can renew or withdraw the money. But before opening fixed deposit it is necessary to have saving or current deposit. 2.2 PROCEDURE OF OPENING FIXED ACCOUNT For opening fixed deposit account it is not necessary to have the identity of the person opening it. The person should only have to specify the amount to the deposited. The maturity date and other important documents as enquired by the bank must be provided. Here are some procedures of opening fixed deposit they are: a) The applicant have to fill up the application form in which an applicant should mention his name, address, the amount to be deposited and the time of maturity and the citizenship should be clearly mentioned. b) The applicant signature is very important for the bank. So, the signature should also be done clearly. c) After filling up the form the depositor have to deposit the desired money in the counter enough the voucher prepared by the bank’s employee for the fixed deposit account. d) After completion of all the process, the fixed deposit section open fixed deposit account in the name of applicant the bank provide receipt which is called fixed deposit receipt. The fixed deposit receipt is not negotiable, so only the person whose name is in receipt can take money after maturity.


e) To open the account in minor's name, the guardian name, cast and account number along with his/her own signature should be mentioned in the form. 2.3 PROCEDURE OF CLOSING FIXED DEPOSIT ACCOUNT The depositor may close the fixed deposit account after the maturity date. Because of different reasons the depositor may also close the account before its expiry date. So, for closing the fixed deposit earlier it is necessary for the bank to give pre-information. Thus the contract will be rescinded as well as the relationship between bank and customer will come to and with completion of due date. After the maturity date, the depositor may also renew his account if he doesn't want to take the money. For this he has to fill up the application form and submit to the bank.


CHARACTERISTICS OF FIXED DEPOSIT ACCOUNT The fixed deposit has its certain characteristics, which are mentioned as

follow: 1. Fixed deposit account is opened for the fixed period of time. The duration of the deposit period may be 7 days, 15 days, 1 month, 6 months, 9 months, 1 to 5 years or above. 2. Interest rate is provided according to the deposit period. Though the fixed deposit can be opened for more than 5 years, the maximum interest rate remains the same as that of 1 year. 3. 4. The interest is awarded every 3 months. The Fixed Deposit Account holder could not withdraw his deposit without completing the deposit period. However, the Fixed Deposit Receipt can be pledged for loan from the bank. 5. The Fixed Deposit Account can be renewed after expiry of the fixed time.


PART 3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The most valuable and crucial tool to evaluate the true and actual position of any organization is its past data. The strength and weakness of the organization can be appraised from the proper analysis of data. The part of the report focuses on presentation and analysis of data related to the current deposit of NBL to obtain the objective of study. 3.1 TOTAL DEPOSIT The deposit are said to be "life blood of the bank". The first and utmost important thing to know is the total deposit trend in NBL. Total deposit refers to the total deposit of the general public in various accounts during certain period of time. The following table shows the status of deposit of NBL during the financial year from 2055-056 to 2059-060. Table No. 1 Total Deposit of Nepal Bank Limited Fiscal Year Total Deposit (Rs. in million) Change in Total Deposit Amount Percentage 2486.1 (50.2) (1468.4) 677.3 1782.3 (585.5) 7.51% (0.14)% (4.13)% 1.99% 5.13% (1.60)%

2055-056 33092.6 2056-057 35578.7 2057-058 35528.5 2058-059 34060.1 2059-060 34737.4 2060-061 36519.7 2061-062 35934.2 Source: NBL Head Office.

From the above table we can say that the increasing trend of total deposit of NBL has been fluctuating in every fiscal year. In the fiscal year 2056-057 the trend of total deposits increased by Rs. 2486.1. Likewise in 2057-58 the change in total deposit is Rs. (50.2). Same as in 2058-059 the change in deposit is


(1468.4). And in 2059-060 the change in deposit is increase as 677.3.Likewise in 2060-061 changes in deposit increase by 1782.3, but in 2061-062 deposit is decreased by 585.50. So the data above shows both the increasing as well as decreasing rate. The variation in the total deposit may be because of the inflation caused by the increased of money supply in the country, which result in the decrease in the value of the money. The graphic presentation of total deport of NBL is shown in the figure below: Figure No.1 Total Deposit Trend
Total Deposit

Rs in Million

36000 35000 34000 33000 32000 31000
2055-056 2056-057 2057-058 2058-059 2059-060 2060-061 2061-062

Fiscal Year

3.2 TREND OF FIXED DEPOSIT OF NBL: Fixed deposit is the major source of working capital of any commercial bank. Thus NBL has been able to collect adequate fixed deposit by providing competitive rate of interest for investing alternatively in loans and advances and investment. The following table shows the trend of Fixed Deposit in NBL during fiscal 2055-56 to 2059-60. Table No. 2 Fixed deposit Trend of NBL (Rs. in Million) Fiscal year 2055-056 2056-057 2057-058 2058-059 2059-060 2060-061 2061-062 Fixed deposit 14154.7 12275.8 9921.7 9731.8 8396.9 7480.9 7216.9 Amount (1878.9) (2354.1) (189.9) (1331.9) (916.0) (264.0) Percentag e -13.27% -19.18% -1.91% -13.68% -12.24% -3.53%


Source: NBL head office From the above table it is apparent that the fixed deposit has been decreasing continuously form 2055-056 to 2060-061. In fiscal year 2056-057 it has decreased by 1878.9, in 2057-058 it again decreased by 2354.1, in 2058-059 by 189.9, in 2059-060 it decreased by 1334.9 and in 2060-061 & 2061-062 it is decreased by 916.0 and 264.0 respectively. The trend of six year is presented graphically if figure. Figure No. 2 Fixed Deposit
F e dps ix d e o it
100 60 Rs in million 100 40 100 20 100 00 80 00 60 00 40 00 20 00 0 2505 06 5 2506 07 5 2507 08 5 2508 09 5 F c lY r is a ea 2509 00 6 2600 01 6 2601 02 6

Fixed Deposit Trend
Fixed deposit
16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2055-056 2056-057 2057-058 2058-059 2059-060 2060-061 2061-062

Rs in million

Fiscal Year




This ratio measures the percentage of fixed deposit to total deposit ratio. This deposit is calculated by dividing fixed deposit with total deposit.
Fixed Deposit Total Deposit

Fixed deposit to total deposit =

Table 3 Fixed deposit to Total Deposit Ratio (Rs. in Million)
Fiscal Year 2055-056 2056-057 2057-058 2058-059 2059-060 2060-061 2061-062 Fixed Deposit 14154.7 12275.8 9921.7 9731.8 8396.9 7480.9 7216.9 Total Deposit 32755.9 35197.5 35210 33895 34620.9 36519.7 35934.2 Mean
Percentage of F.D. to T.D.

43.21% 34.88% 28.18% 28.71% 24.25% 20.48% 20.08% 28.54%

Source: NBL Head Office The Table No. 2 shows the high volume of Fixed Deposit in comparison to other deposit. The mean ratio of Fixed Deposit to Total Deposit is 28.54% for the previous seven years during the fiscal year 2055-056 to 2061-062. The highest percentage is 43.21% for the fiscal year 2055-056. The high volume of Fixed Deposit shows the high liquidity of capital in NBL. Figure No. 3

Comparative Fixed Deposit with Total Deposit
40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2055-056 2056-057 2057-058 2058-059 2059-060 2060-061 2061-062

Rs in Million

Fixed Deposit Total Deposit

Fiscal Year



Fixed deposit are considered to be the major source of capital and NBL has been able to collect the fixed deposit by providing competitive rate of interest to the account holder in order to fulfill the demand of capital for investing alternatively in Loans and advances and Investment. The following table shows the before and current rate of interest on Fixed deposit: Table No. 4 Interest rate of Fixed Deposit Period of Time 7 days 14 days 1 month 2 month 3 month 6 month 1 year 2 years & above Source: NBL Head Office Before Rate 2.00% 2.50% 3.50% 4.00% 5.00% 6.75% 7.00% Current Rate 2.50% 2.75% 3.00% 3.50% 4.00% 4.00%



Comparison of interest rate of fixed deposit of NBL with other banks
Name of bank 7 days 14 days 1 month 2 months 3 months 6 months 1 yr 2 yrs & above



2.30 3.00 2.50 3.00

3.25 3.30 3.50 3.00 3.50

3.50 -

3.75 3.75 4.00 4.00 4.00

4.25 4.00 5.00 5.00 4.25

5.7 5 5.2 5 5.5 0 6.0 0 5.2 5

6.00 5.75 6.00 6.25 5.506.00

Source: Banking & Financial Statistics So for the above table we can say that the interest rate of NBL and other bank are quite similar. The percentage of providing the interest rate has been increasing time to time. As the percentage of the deposit is also constantly


increasing it is quite important to make the changes in the percentage of providing the interest. Table No. 6 3.6 COMPARISION OF FIXED DEPOSIT OF NBL WITH OTHER BANKS (Rs. in Million) Name of Bank 2000 Nepal Bank Ltd. 12275.8 Himalayan Bank Ltd. 5109.4 Nepal SBI Bank 2420.3 Source of Banking and Financial Statistics 2001 9921.8 5668.1 2929.4 2002 9731.8 6044.9 3132.7 2003 8396.0 5880.7 3337.6

So from the above table it can be noticed that the fixed deposit trend of NBL is more than that of other banks. For example Himalayan Bank has got the fixed deposit of Rs. 2104.5 thousand in the fiscal year 1996-97 whereas NBL has got the deposit of Rs. 7001.0 thousand. In the same way from the above table it can also be noticed that the amount of fixed deposit has been increasing in every year, which is a quite good sign of the economic development of country. 3.7 KARL PEARSON'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT Karl Pearson's method, popularly known as Pearsonian coefficient of correlation, is most widely used in practice to determine the relation between two variables. It is denoted by "r" and defined by:


∑ xy ∑x2 ∑ y2

Where, r = Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient
x = X − x, y = Y − y

Value of r always lies between + 1 and -1, r = +1 denoted the perfect positive correlation between the two variable and r = -1 denoted the perfect negative correlation between the two variables.

Table No. 7 Correlation Between Fixed Deposit with Total Deposit
Yea r 205 6 Fixed Depos it (X) 14154. 7 Total Depos it (Y) 33092. 6

x = X −x

y =Y − y

x2 18250838. 41

Y2 3776026.2 4

xy (8301544.72 )



205 7 205 8 205 9 206 0 206 1 206 2

12275. 8 9921.7 9731.8 8396.9 7480.9 7216.9 Σ X= 69178. 7

35578. 7 35528. 5 34060. 1 34737. 4 36519. 7 35934. 2 Σ Y= 245451 .2

2393.2 39.1 (150.8) (1485.7) (2401.7) (2665.7)

542.9 492.7 (975.7) (298.4) 1483.9 898.4

5727406.2 4 1528.81 22740.64 22073044. 9 5768162.8 9 7105956.4 9 Σ x2= 58949678. 38

294740.41 242753.29 951990.49 89042.56 2201959.2 1 807122.56 Σ y2= 8363634.7 6

1299268.28 19264.57 147135.56 443332.88 (3563882.63 ) (2394864.88 ) Σ xy= (12351290.9 4)

∑ x 69178 .7 = = 9882 .6 N 7 ∑ y 245451 .2 y= = = 35035 .8 N 7 ∑ xy − 12351290.9 4 r= = = −0.55 58949678 .38 8363634.76 ∑ x2 ∑ y2 x=

Since Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) = -0.55 the two variables fixed deposit and total deposit has high degree of negative correlation. That means the increament/decreament in total deposit will not cause change in fixed deposit.

Estimation of Fixed Deposit of NBL For the year


2062 By least square method Time Series

Table 8: Trend line of fixed deposit
Year (X) 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 Fixed Deposit (y) 14154.7 12275.8 9921.7 9731.8 8396.9 7480.9 7216.9 Σ y = 69178.7 x = X-2058 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Σ x=7 xy -28309.4 -12275.8 0 9731.8 16793.8 22442.7 28867.6 Σ xy = 37250.7 x2 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 Σ x2 = 35

Let the straight line trend be represented by the equation. Y = a+bx...................................... eqn 1 The deviation is taken from the year. i.e. year 2058. Since, Σ x = 7

So, a =

∑ y 69178 .7 = = 9882 .6 N 7 ∑ xy 37250 .7 b= = = 1064 .3 35 ∑ x2

Substituting the value of a and be in eqn 1, the required trend line is Y = 9882.6+1064.3x.................equation 2 Again Calculation of trend values for the year 2063 X = year -2058, 2062-2058=4 When we substitute the value of x in equation 2, we get Y = 9882.6+1064.3x4 = 14139.8 ∴ The fixed deposit of NBL for year 2062 will be 14139.8



Bank is the most important institution for accelerating economic growth in the country. It is quite true that a strong financial institution is of a great need in the development of the developing country like Nepal. The Nepal Bank Limited is one of the oldest banks of the country which has got the history of 66 years. This bank is now in its advance stage. As being the first commercial Bank it has to pass through the different ups and down. NBL has been providing different services to its customers. NBL played a vital role in the over all development of the country. The bank only had authorized capital of Rs 842 thousand at its starting stage, which has now increased to 1000 million. NBL previously was started with the 51% of the government and 49% of the public but at present time the bank has got the 40.49% share of the government and 59.51% of the general public. So looking at this factor, NBL has developed a lot in this time. The Bank has high contribution in fulfilling the economic improvement by collecting the scattered resources through the network of 127 branches through out the country. The bank has the thought of computerizing the very branch. NBL at present has 7 branch offices which are fully computerized. Though commercial banks are profit oriented and invest these resources in those sectors from where they could gain maximum profit, NBL is initiated not only with profit oriented motive. It has always given preference to the economic and the financial development of the country. It provides credit facilities to the trader, agriculturist, industrialist, businessman etc. It can also be said that NBL acts as the pillar of the economic development. NBL facilitates international banking by being directly connected with major international banks. NBL has different functions but the main function is to provide the security to the wealth of the customers. NBL generally provide three different types of accounts i.e. saving, current and fixed deposit account. Although the interest is not provided in current account, people deposit in this account for its safety. Fixed deposit account is most common among the people because it has higher interest rate, can be pledged as collateral for loan and easier to open. The study provides the entire knowledge of getting Fixed Deposit Account opened, operated and closed. Fixed Deposit Account is opened for the fixed period of time but the account holder cannot operate it during its time period. The rate of interest on Fixed Deposit Account is provided according to the


duration of deposit period. The fixed Deposit Receipt is provided to the depositor, in lieu of passbook or cheque book. Once the deposit period mature, the interest and principal of the Account is credited to the depositor saving or current Account and thereafter, Fixed Deposit Account is automatically closed.


CONCLUSION So from the study and analysis of the data of the fixed deposit of NBL it

can be said that the percentage of depositing money in the fixed deposit has been decreasing day by day. It can be said that the bank has not been able to utilize the collected saving according to the borrower and nation requirement. Since in these few years economy is going through recession it has resulted in the drastic decrease in the interest rate provided by commercial banks including NBL. It will be profitable for NBL if it provides more amount of long term and medium term loan. Though full effort is given to make this study meaningful and weighty, some mistakes might have occurred due to time shortage. 4.3 RECOMMENDATION After the study of the different data provided by NBL and the data collected from different sources about NBL there are some recommendation referred to NBL which may help it in further development: a) As this is the modern competitive, customers want more improved services so bank should attract more depositors by providing improved and new services and facilities. b) c) d) The banks should use modern instrument to perform the banking activities. The bank must employ only required number of employees otherwise it may create a big problem in bank. The Bank should also provide more attention towards the priority sectors and also provide the industrial scheme for the development of the economic condition of the country. e) g) The bank must not invest only in one sector; different sector should be selected of the investment. Since it has certain responsibility towards the country, it must work for the economic development of the country.


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Vaidya Shakespeare: - Money & Banking (Published by Pratibha Joshi December 1997) 2. Nepal Rastra Bank: - Banking and Financial Statistic (Published Under Banking Operation Department) 3. Dr. Joshi Shyam Dr. Hari Prasad Shrestha: - Principle of Banking and Insurance (Published by Teleju Prakshan 2058) 4. Nepal Bank Limited: - Bank Patrika and Annual Report (Published by Nepal Bank Limited) 5. Pant R. Prem: - Field Work Assignment and Writing (Published by Veena Academic Enterprise Pvt. Ltd. Kathmandu)



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