SESSION 1 – PART 1

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Main Steam Flow at Superheater outlet. Auxiliary Steam Consumptions before stop valve. Main Steam Pressure at superheater outlet. Main Steam Temperature at superheater outlet. Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet.

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Main Steam Flow at Superheater outlet. Auxiliary Steam Consumptions before stop valve. Main Steam Pressure at superheater outlet. Main Steam Temperature at superheater outlet. Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet. Steam flow at reheater outlet. Steam pressure at reheater inlet. Steam pressure at reheater outlet. Steam Temperature reheater outlet. Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet.

The heat to be transferred to steam would change as per HP heater water outlet temperature If there are long term instances for HP heater – out of service- same to be specified.

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Steam coil preheating requirement Soot blower steam requirement. Drum coil preheating. Furnace coil preheating. Furnace oil heat tracing Steam atomization. Deaerator steam requirement Ejector steam requirement HP / LP gland sealing - generally taken care of turbine maker.

TAKE CARE OF THE PRESSURE DROP BETWEEN BOILER TERMINAL POINT TO THE FARTHEST TURBINE INCASE CROSS OVER PIPING / COMMON STEAM HEATER SYSTEM IS CONSIDERED.

Pr drop for ID<152

Delta P = 122.364 x 10^6 x F^1.85 x V x TEL / ID^4.97

Pr drop for ID>152 Delta P = 89.254 x 10^6 x {1 + (91.44/ID) } F^2 x V x TEL / ID^5

V - Specific volume, m3/kg TEL - total equivalent length, m F - flow in a circuit , kg/s ID - inside diameter of tube / pipe , mm

DARCY'S EQUATION Pr drop: (3.36E-6 x FF x F^2 x EL x SP.V / (ID^5) )
Tube ID Darcy friction factor(FF) Flow(F) Equivalent length(EL) Specific volume(SP.V) Pressure drop inch no lb/h ft cft/lb psi
Di mm 12.7 19.05 25.4 38.1 50.8 63.5 76.2 101.6 127 203.2 254 Friction Factor 0.028 0.025 0.023 0.021 0.02 0.018 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.014 0.013

length entry exit squeeze bend 180 bend 90 short rad bend (R<3d) 90 std radius ( r = 3d) 90 long rad bend ( R>3d) 45 short rad bend ( r<3d) 45 long rad bend ( R >3d) reducer expander Tee - entering run Tee- entering branch

metre no no no no no no no no no no no no no

No off ID 20 40 75 50 32 26 20 15 12 120 100 60 90

Generally 5 – 10 deg C drop is expected in main steam line. Selection and proper application of insulation is important to ensure not much temperature is dropped across the steam piping. Stepped over insulation and sagged insulation are causes for temperature drop.

HP turbine exhaust pressure – IP turbine inlet pressure

Generally the reheater pressure drop is designed for 50 % of allowable total pressure drop

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Fuels to be fired Fuel ultimate analysis. (Element Constituents.) such as – C,H,N,O,S etc., As fired fuel moisture Calorific value of fuel – as fired Ambient temperature Relative humidity Type of combustion system Boiler exit gas temperature as dictated by flue gas composition

Boiler Heat Output / Duty = Steam Flow x (Main Steam Enthalpy – Feed Water Enthalpy)

If the HP Heater is out then the Boiler heat output has to increase by 9.6% since the Feed Water temperature is lower.

Importance of GCV

Ways of Reporting Air Dried Basis  As Received Basis  As Sampled Basis  As Fired Basis  Bone dry basis  Dry mineral matter free basis

Samples received at lab are left open to lab ambient conditions (Usually Standardized Temp and relative humidity) for equilibrium moisture. Data reported on the air dried sample basis is called air dried basis (ADB).

This refers to data reported on the basis of as received moisture. Such samples are received at lab in properly packed containers.

At plant conditions, the samples may be delivered to lab just as sampled immediately. This is very much required to know the heat content in coal as received from suppliers. Surface moisture burden is usually deducted as per PO.

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Has relevance to boiler performance. The coal gets dried at yard, on handling, on crushing & screening before it reaches boiler terminal point. The moisture / ash / volatile matter / fired carbon can change considerably from receipt to firing.

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Data expressed on moisture removed basis is called dry basis. It is also called as “Bone Dry” basis.

• The mineral matter converts to ash on combustion. • Some of the minerals may also leave as vapor form. • Data expressed on DMMF basis is useful for coal rank classification.

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Calorific value is the heat produced by the combustion of a unit quantity of coal in a bomb calorimeter with oxygen under a specified set of conditions Calorific value is expressed as GCV or HHV Alternately expressed as LCV or LHV In GCV all the vapor produced in combustion process is full condensed. The latent heat is added to GCV and thus GCV is higher to LCV Net calorific value informs that the water is removed as vapor with the combustion products.

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In Bomb calorimeter, the fuel is burnt with oxygen and the heat is absorbed by water Correction to be given for formation of Nitric acid & Sulphuric acid The oxidation of nitrogen and formation of nitric acid does not occur in actual combustion equipment. This is an exothermic reaction Only 5% sulphur-dioxide is oxidised to SO3 in actual combustor. In bomb calorimeter all the SO2 is burnt to SO3 as sulphur oxygen is available and higher pressure Heat is liberated additionally when SO2 is oxidised to SO3 and in formation of Sulphuric acid

For a reaction carried out in a calorimeter, the heat evolved by a reaction is absorbed by the calorimeter and its contents. qrxn = – qcalorimeter qcalorimeter = mass x specific heat x △T By measuring the temperature change that occurs in a calorimeter, and using the specific heat and mass of the contents, the heat evolved (or absorbed) by a reaction can be determined and the enthalpy change calculated.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AIR DRIED BASIS GCV & AS FIRED GCV
At LAB, the fuel sample is powdered and dried. Portion of fuel moisture thus gone. The fuel GCV is thus called GCV on air dried basis. AS FIRED GCV = (100 – MAFR) x GCVADB

MAFR lab). MADB - Moisture air dried basis GCVADB - GCV air dried basis (from Lab report)

(100 – MADB) - Moisture as fired (To be done by plant

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AIR DRIED BASIS GCV & AS RECEIVED GCV
At LAB, the fuel sample is powdered and dried. Portion of fuel moisture thus gone. The fuel GCV is thus called GCV on air dried basis. AS RECD GCV = x GCVADB (100 – MADB) MAR - Moisture as recd (To be done by plant lab). MADB - Moisture air dried basis GCVADB - GCV air dried basis (from Lab report) (100 – MAR)

As fired GCV is used for boiler efficiency calculation. As sampled basis is used for paying the vendor. Air dried basis / bone dry basis is used for knowing the trend of GCV.

Efficiency

When we convert F l (F Wh t Fuel (Fossil) E il) Energy t St to Steam, there are losses Efficiency = Heat liberated by Fuel – Losses y y Heat liberated by fuel

Loss 1-Heat lost through unburned carbon particles 1in the ash removed from the boiler
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Depending upon th combustion mechanism th D di the b ti h i the unburned carbon particles are found in the ash. The fuel size, the combustor design, fuel moisture / fixed carbon / ash / volatile matter govern this loss. Measured as LOI ( loss on ignition or GCV of ash) g ) LOI is the weight loss of the ash sample when reburning is done at lab furnace.

Loss 1: Heat lost through unburned carbon particles in 1: bo e as boiler ash

LOI is different from heat lost through ash

Heat lost though unburnt cannot be calculated on LOI basis for high GCV ash such as the case of Petcoke ash
Fly ash collected per day Petcoke consumption per day Calorific value of fly ash Calorific value of carbon Fuel GCV = = = = = 60 Tons 230 tons 2500 kcal/kg 8050 kcal/kg 8010 kcal/kg

HLS1-1, unburnt carbon loss in fly ash

= =

100 x 60 x 2500 / (230 x 8010) 8.14%

Loss 2: Heat lost towards sensible heat of ash in 2: fuel

Depending upon the boiler arrangement the ash collection rate and ash temperatures vary at various ash hoppers hoppers. Some of the heat given by the fuel is used up for letting th ash at hi h the temperature th than th the l tti h t higher t t temperature at which it came into the combustor.

Loss 2: Heat lost towards sensible heat in ash 2:

Fly ash is let out of system at 140 deg C g  Bed ash is let out at 200 deg C in case a cooler is used.

Loss 3: Heat lost though heating up at atmospheric 3: moisture

The water vapor prevalent in atmospheric air also gets inside the furnace when the fan supplies combustion air air. Naturally, a part of the heat has to be given for heating th the water vapor f from atmospheric h ti t t h i temperature to boiler exit temperature.

Loss 3: Heat lost through heating up of 3: atmospheric moisture

Loss 4
Heat lost through the evaporation of fuel moisture and the moisture formed during combustion due to fuel constituents such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons (Methane / Ethane)

There is always some moisture in fuel In agro fuels such fuel. as bagasse, wood it could be as much as 50%  Part of the heat from the fuel is used up for evaporation of fuel moisture and the water vapor formed during combustion of hydrogen, hydrocarbons.  Depending on the exit temperature, the water vapor leaves the boiler at superheated condition.

Loss 4: Heat lost through evaporation of fuel 4: moisture & moisture formed during combustion

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As fired moist re is a ke parameter in this loss moisture key Manipulation of H2 content can vary the loss

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Since the heat lost through the flue gas through air moisture are separately estimated, the left out components is the heat through the dry flue gas. By designing the boiler for low exit gas y g g g temperature the loss can be kept minimum. Further the lower the excess air percentage Further, percentage, the loss will be lower.

Loss 6: Radiation heat lost to surrounding

Radiation losses occur due to heat flow from the hot insulated / uninsulated surface of th b il h ti l t d i l t d f f the boiler and accessories. A portion of the heat from fuel goes for this . The condition of boiler insulation will decide this. Heat loss is unavoidable, but it can minimized, by choosing to apply insulation in the proper manner to the required thickness. Standard radiation heat loss chart is available to estimate the heat lost surrounding. The % loss can be about 0.5%.

Loss 6: Radiation heat lost to surrounding

Boiler Thermal Efficiency

Heat loss due to limestone addition in a boiler
CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO heat required CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO‐ heat required kcal/kg 436.6 284.8 3620.48

MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO ‐ heat required kcal/kg SO2 to CaSO4‐ heat given by reaction
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kcal/kg

Calcination needs heat input. Sulfation gives heat. In addition there is moisture added by limestone which adds to additional heat loss

Heat loss due to limestone addition  CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO‐ heat required MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO  heat required MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO ‐ heat required SO2 to CaSO4‐ heat given by reaction Fuel fed Fuel fed Moisture fed in limestone Dry Lime stone fed Fraction of CaCo3 in limestone Fraction of MgCo3 in limestone F ti f M C 3 i li t Inerts in limestone GCV of fuel Heat loss due to calcination of CaCo3 &  MgCO3 Sulfur content in fuel % % SOX capture p Heat gain from sulfation reaction kcal/kg kcal/kg kcal/kg kg/h kg/h kg/h kg/kg kg/kg k /k kg/kg kcal/kg Kcal/kg of fuel = = = = = = = = 436.6 284.8 3620.48 100 1.8 15 0.75 0.15 0 15 0.4 7900 ( 15 / 100 )  x  ( 0.75 x 436.6) + (0.15 x 284.8) 55.5255 0.007 80 0.007 x ( 80 / 100 ) x 3620.48 20.27 ( 15 /  100 ) x 0.24 x 100 ( 15 / 100 ) x 0 24 x 100 3.6 (M / F )x [595.4+(Cp1 x Te) ‐Ta] x 100 / GCV 10.61 100*(55.5255 + 3.6 + 10.61 ‐ 20.27 )/7900 0.63

= kg/kg = % = kcal/kg of fuel fired = = = = = = = =

Sensible heat addition to limestone Sensible heat addition to limestone Moisture heat loss Efficiency loss due to limestone feeding

Kcal/kg Kcal/kg

%

Fuel Firing Rate

LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON  PARTICLES IN THE ASH PARTICLES IN THE ASH
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Smaller the fuel size more surface area is exposed size, for O2 reaction. reaction. However optimum fi H ti fines are th there f all coal. CBFC for ll coal. l accepts more fines as compared to BFBC. PF also BFBC. needs only specified f l size. d l ifi d fuel size. i

LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON  PARTICLES IN THE ASH PARTICLES IN THE ASH

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Three ‘T’s, namely, Time, Temperature and Turbulence are the factors for a complete combustion. combustion. The three factors vary with the combustion y technology. technology. FBC Technology with underbed fuel feeding arrangement ensures three ‘T’S are available. available.

LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON  PARTICLES IN THE ASH PARTICLES IN THE ASH

Overfed FBC boilers certainly fall behind in this respect, as the residence time for the fuel to stay p , y within the bed is less. less. CFBC technology with hot cyclone / cold cyclone / U beam separator + Cyclone provide adequate residence time for better combustion unless & until the size of the fuel / ash is below the cut off. off.

TIP FOR CFBC

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Poor cyclone efficiency can affect the boiler output due to less particle inventory. p inventory. y Particle size distribution at ESP first field ash CFBC. hopper should be monitored in CFBC. In case the percentage of 100 microns and above is seen, it implies deterioration in CFBC performance. performance.

TIP FOR AFBC

In AFBC  Bed temperature should be minimum 850 deg C C.  Shallow bed leads to high elutriation loss.  Denser bed leads to high elutriation loss.

TIP FOR PF

In PF boiler  High PA leads to more loss loss.  Unbalance in fuel piping leads to unburnt loss of carbon. b  Too less O2 leads to poor combustion.

TIP FOR TRAVELING GRATE

In travagrate boiler
 Grit refiring would help.  Proper secondary air turbulence will reduce loss.  Particle size control helps – more fines more loss. p

LOSS 2: HEAT LOST TOWARDS SENSIBLE  HEAT OF ASH IN FUEL HEAT OF ASH IN FUEL
 If it is practical, all the ash should be removed from the

flue gas at dust collector before chimney. Depending on the boiler configurations, ash hoppers are to be provided wherever the gas takes a turn.  Ash coolers are used to recover the heat from the ash particularly where the ash is removed from the furnace.

TIPS FOR CFBC / AFBC
 Stripper coolers separate finer particles and recycle

to furnace alone with hot air.  fluidized bed HX with condensate heating system can be used used.  Rotary ash coolers are widely used by Chinese, where only condensate is used for heat recovery from ash.

LOSS 3: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE EVAPORATION  OF FUEL MOISTURE & THE MOISTURE FORMED  OF FUEL MOISTURE & THE MOISTURE FORMED DURING COMBUSTION
 The main factor is the fuel moisture. Closed sheds to prevent e a acto s t e ue o stu e C osed s eds p e e t

rainwater entry into fuel storage yard would keep the loss minimum.  Solar drying of fuel would help in achieving overall economy. Flue gas drying is being adopted in the case of bagasse.

LOSS 4: HEAT LOST THROUGH HEATING UP  ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

 As explained earlier the loss is because of the earlier,

moisture in ambient.  One has to ensure the air is not drawn from closed rooms where the air is saturated with water vapor such as paper mills or near cooling tower mills, tower.

LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING

 THE BOILER MUST BE COMPLETELY INSULATED WITH    

PROPER INSULATION MATERIALS. HAND MADE MATTRESSES DO NOT HAVE UNIFORM DENSITY. RESIN BONDED MATTRESSES WOULD GIVE BETTER INSULATION OF THE BOILER. IT IS IMPORTANT TO PERIODICALLY CHECK AND REPLACE THE INSULATION AS AND WHEN NECESSARY. ALL VALVES AND CONDENSATE PIPING SHOULD BE INSULATED.

LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING

Some boiler companies maintain that the insulation of  airbox & valves are not their practice. 

LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE  END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
 Excess air is a must to complete the combustion. The

combustor design and fuel quality govern excess air required f complete combustion. d for l b  Each combustion technology dictates a set of parameters to be h k d b checked and t b maintained t ensure proper d to be i t i d to combustion and to keep the excess air minimum.

LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE  END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
 In the case of solid fuel fired boilers, inadequate air

will lead to black smoke and unburnt fuel in ash.  It is necessary to strike a balance between the unburnt in ash and the excess air based on the combustion technology.  The flue gas composition is decided by the fuel and excess air. Hence, it is customary to spell out the CO2 or O2 level in flue gas to be maintained to set the excess air.

LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE  END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
 In addition to excess air, Boiler outlet gas temperature will

decide the amount of heat lost to chimney.  Boilers are designed with heat recovery devices such as Economizer, air heater or feed water heater to bring down the gas temperature to 140 deg C to 170 deg C.  Chimney h to b suitably l d with refractory to protect h has be bl lined h f against corrosion. Corrosion occurs due to Sulfur‐di‐oxide condensation. condensation Sulfur‐di‐oxide is produced due to sulfur content in fuel.  Otherwise also the water vapor in flue gas which is due to gas, fuel moisture / air moisture also condense and lead to corrosion of steel.

LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE  END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER

 All i hi h exhaust temperature with choked air h Allowing high h i h h k d i heater,

fouled economizer leads to poor efficiency of the boiler. deposits. deposits  Honey combing of ash accumulations is seen in agro waste fired boilers.

BLOW DOWN

 Blow down loss is not listed in the estimation of boiler efficiency for efficiency,

reason the amount of blow down is governed by the feed water and the boiler water quality.  Continuous blow down helps to maintain a steady value of boiler water TDS, silica and the loss will be minimum in the process.  Intermittent blow down would lead to a higher heat loss since the rate is uncontrolled.

BLOW DOWN HEAT LOSS ‐ TYPICAL

CASE STUDY‐ PLANT WITH SEVERAL BOILERS

• • • •

COMPARE THE ASH OF DIFFERENT BOILERS BOILERS. COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT COALS. COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT PERIODS PERIODS. COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT OPERATORS

GCV ANALYSIS & REPORTING

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The GCV of the fuel was reported on ADB for p y payment purpose. Tonnage was taken as per p p g p actual. As sampled moisture was never reported reported. The lab reported the GCV on air dried basis. The purchase department was unaware of the total moisture and ended up in losing crores of rupees.

SAMPLING PROCEDURES & DELAY
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Taking samples was a very slow process. There was considerable time delay in sampling. y p g Codes specify better sampling procedures on line to avoid error in handling the samples samples. Low relative humidity, higher ambient temperature, temperature wind are the factors for drying drying. Mixing process (at the time of quarter coning) drives out the surface moisture moisture.

DIRECT FEEDING OF WET COAL TO BOILER
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Direct feeding of wet coal can result in more loss. Wet coal is to be stocked in yard for psychrometric drying. An efficiency difference of 0 85% due to direct feed 0.85% of 12% moisture coal means 255 tons of coal can be saved per month The plant consumed about 1000 month. tons a day.

BELT WEIGHER
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Empty running of belts cause errors in belt weigher reading. g Installation in inclined conveyor length is not preferred as the belt tends to lift off due to belt tensioning arrangement.

YARD MANAGEMENT

Mixing two different f l affects th combustion t some Mi i t diff t fuels ff t the b ti to extent. Manually rpm regulation is not practical when the GCV varies d e to improper f el mi aries due fuel mix. Separate hoppers are req ired for deciding the proportion required proportion. Regulated hopper feed is required. Multi fuel operating systems need multi bunker system system.

USE OF SHEDS

Loss of volatile matter from yard at high temperature. A study needs to be conducted for this this. Depending on the surface exposed and by the nature of coal, the extent varies. In the yard management rake wise coal should be consumed We can avoid loss of GCV consumed. GCV. Sheds prove useful Temporary covers are also usable for useful. less coal consumers. Lignites are very sensitive to this.

CALIBRATION OF DRAG CHAIN FEEDERS
Drag chain feeders have gate setting for controlling the fuel depth. This h ld be f l d h Thi should b set perfectly. f l Calibration is required for records and to calculate the fuel feed f d rates. Drag chain feeder discharge rates are practically linear with rpm. ih Non uniform feed result in poor combustion.

CALIBRATION OF DRAG CHAIN FEEDERS

RPM SETTINGS FOR FUEL FEED‐ AFBC BOILERS

There is a tendency to vary the rpm of feeders as per bed temperature indication indication. This is not a correct way. When the air flow is distributed, the fuel flow should set equally at all feeders feeders.

CALIBRATION OF BELT FEEDERS
BELT FEEDERS AT PF BOILERS ARE TO HANDLE COAL PARTICLES OF 50 MM AND BELOW BELOW. THE FRONT WINDOW OPENING CONFIGURATION DECIDES THE FUEL FLOW FLOW.

IMPROPER / INTERRUPTED FLOW IN TO FEEDER

UNBALANCED FLOW TO PF BURNERS

OFFSET HOPPER  INLETS ENSURE  SMOOTH FLOW  OF COAL

UNBALANCED FLOW TO PF BURNERS‐ EFFECT OF  ADJUSTMENT OF GATES ADJUSTMENT OF GATES

IMPROPER CONDITION OF MILLS LEAD TO UNBALANCE AT ELEVATIONS‐ ELEVATIONS‐ RPM OF FEEDERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS VARY DUE TO THIS. WORN OUT BALLS – SPRING SETTINGS – RING THIS. CLEARANCE LEAD TO POOR OUTPUT. OUTPUT.

Setting the auto combustion control parameters.

This is the trend of O2, steam flow, steam pressure & fuel feeder rpm (feeder no 6 & feeder no 1) in 90 TPH boiler. The cyclic pattern of O2 to repeat within a short span of 3 minutes. This cycle comes short because the feeder rpm is increased by 66% over the lowest rpm by the combustion control. When two feeders are on auto the net fuel flow variation is 22%. This fuel addition when dumped in two locations in the compartments may lead to poor combustion. Reducing the gain would help to remove such a cycle.

LOI feed back to boiler operators –in an hour after the shift commences • The plant laboratory is busy with routine tests required for the company product. Time delay between test and the interpretations l d t no i th i t t ti lead to improvement. t • An express laboratory for the analysis of LOI of ESP ash. • Some plants consume 1000 tons of coal a day. LOI p y should be the interest of the operators.

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