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Module 1: Ethernet Overview
1.1: What is Ethernet? 1.2: Ethernet Development Module 1 Exercise
Module 2: Ethernet Basics
2.1: Transmitting and Receiving Data 2.2: Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model 2.3: The Physical Layer 2.4: The MAC Sublayer 2.5: Repeaters, Switches and Bridges Module 2 Exercise
Module 3: Ethernet Operations
3.1: The CSMA/CD Algorithm 3.2: Maximum Distance between Stations 3.3: Exponential Backoff Algorithm 3.4: Collisions and Performance Considerations 3.5: Network Segmentation Module 3 Exercise
Module 4: Ethernet Frame Composition
4.1: Basic Ethernet Frame Composition 4.2: Preamble/SFD 4.3: Destination Address and Source Address Fields 4.4: Type/Length Field 4.5: Data Field 4.6: Frame Check Sequence 4.7: Interframe Gap Module 4 Exercise
Module 5: Ethernet Frame Types
5.1: Overview 5.2: Ethernet II Frame 5.3: IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.2 LLC Header 5.4: IEEE 802.3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation 5.5: Novell 802.3 Frame Module 5 Exercise
Module 6: Full-duplex Ethernet
6.1: Full-duplex and Half-duplex Compared 6.2: The Benefits of Full-duplex Ethernet 6.3: Full-duplex and Distance Limitations 6.4: Full-duplex Mode and Gigabit Ethernet Module 6 Exercise
Module 7: Ethernet Operation at 10Mbps
7.1: 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 7.2: 10Base-T 7.3: 10Base-FL 7.4: Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Module 7 Exercise
Module 8: Fast Ethernet
8.1: The Growth of Fast Ethernet 8.2: 10Mbps Ethernet vs. Fast Ethernet 8.3: 100Base-TX 8.4: 100Base-FX 8.5: Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines 8.6: Auto-negotiation Module 8 Exercise
Module 9: Gigabit Ethernet
9.1: Why Gigabit Ethernet is Needed 9.2: Gigabit Ethernet Defined 9.3: Implementation of Gigabit Ethernet 9.4: Gigabit Ethernet and CSMA/CD 9.5: Considerations for Early Adoption Module 9 Exercise
Module 10: Ethernet and Other Physical-layer Technologies
10.1: Overview: Ethernet and Other Technologies 10.2: Ethernet Compared 10.3: Specific Examples Module 10 Exercise
Module 11: Ethernet and the Upper-layer Protocols
11.1: The OSI Model Revisited 11.2: Running Multiple Protocols Module 11 Exercise Post-course Assessment Course Evaluation
Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology
Course Description This web-based course teaches the fundamentals of Ethernet networking. It contains eleven modules, which can be selected individually. Each module contains a number of lessons that discuss Ethernet concepts, generic implementation types, definitions and basic processes. The course does not include hands-on lab exercises, nor 'how to' directions for specific Intel products. This course begins with a brief overview about what Ethernet is and, also, describes the historical setting in which Ethernet was developed and delineates the reasons for the tremendous success of Ethernet products in the marketplace. The second module of the course serves as a comprehensive introduction to basic methods used by Ethernet to facilitate communication between computers. Following the high-level overviews of Ethernet that comprise the first two modules, the remaining modules of the course each focus on a specific aspect of Ethernet technology ranging from Ethernet's collision detection system and data transfer methods to specific types of Ethernet, including 10Base-T, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. General configuration guidelines for each Ethernet type are also discussed. Following a description of Gigabit Ethernet operations, the course discusses Ethernet's relationship to other physical-layer technologies, such as Token Ring, ATM and FDDI. The course concludes with an examination of Ethernet's relationship to the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet serves, reinforcing the concept of Ethernet as an Open Systems technology. Recommended Prerequisites Knowledge of networking fundamentals Course Goal After completing this self-study course, students should understand the fundamentals of Ethernet technology. Subsequent Intel certification courses are based on the assumption that students understand the basic concepts covered in this course. Certification courses will not attempt to cover these topics. This will minimize the amount of time students will spend outside of their work environment in advanced technical/sales training. Course Objectives
Identify the characteristics of the layers in the OSI layering model for data communications, with particular emphasis on the functionality included in OSI layers
as well as the differences between the Cat 3. Estimated time of completion is six hours. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . bridges and switches Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify each field in an Ethernet frame and its purpose. auto-negotiation of speed and duplex operation Identify Ethernet's relationship to other networking technologies Duration The course consists of an introduction and eleven separate course modules. hubs. 100Mbps and 1000Mbps Ethernet Identify the basic operation and characteristics of Ethernet over copper media and optical fiber media. depending on your reading speed and the level of detail you desire.q q q q q q q q q q q one (physical layer) and two (data link layer) Identify the communication process that Ethernet standards define Identify common terminology used in the IEEE set of Ethernet standards Identify the role of the Ethernet bus and the concept of collision domains Identify the function and characteristics of Ethernet NICs. repeaters. as well as the construction of specific Ethernet frame types Identify the similarities of and differences between Ethernet running at 10Mbps and 100Mbps Identify the basic specifications for Gigabit Ethernet and the basic configuration guidelines for 10Mbps. 4 and 5 UTP cabling certifications Identify the concepts of half-duplex and full-duplex Ethernet operation.
Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology Welcome! Welcome to the Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology course! Before you begin the course. and how to get the most out of the course. track your progress. When it is time to take a break. Registering allows you to participate in course exercises. Check out Before you get started If you have never taken an Intel webbased training course. Turn off the phone and consider using ear plugs to prevent unwanted noise. take one at a logical stopping point. Remove possible distractions. For more information on logging in. receive credit for completed courses and receive incentives that are associated with these courses. when you return to a course after a break. For more information about the system requirements. you can use the course syllabus to jump to the last module or lesson you were taking. allowing you to quickly reach the modules and lessons that contain the information that you want to learn. plugins and screen resolution. read the System Requirements/Troubleshooting FAQs. Ensuring Your System Is Set Up Properly Please ensure your computer is properly set up to take advantage of the interactive training at this site. Logging In Remember to log in each time you take a course. For more information. how to navigate through the course. read the Course Taking FAQs. Tracking Your Progress Use the Student Records to track your progress. Using the Course Syllabus to Navigate within a Course The course syllabus provides you with easy navigation through the course. including web browsers. please take a moment to review the following information. read the Registration/Log-on FAQs. It will be most beneficial to your learning experience to spend an hour or so at each session. . For example. Preparing Yourself for Training Before you begin. go through the webbased training tutorial before you begin this course. such as the end of a module. This tutorial explains how course content is organized. how the exercises and course assessments work. set aside some time to take this course.
Encountering Technical Problems Many of the most common technical issues are described in the System Requirements/Troubleshooting FAQs. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . parts of courses you’ve completed and your scores.courses you’ve enrolled in.
Lesson 1.2 focuses on the historical development of Ethernet. Module Objectives q q q q q q Identify Ethernet's basic role in computer networking Identify the components used on an Ethernet LAN Identify the key milestones in the historical development of Ethernet Identify the benefits of distributed processing Identify the benefits of Open Systems solutions Identify the reasons for Ethernet's success in the marketplace * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . this module also provides an historical perspective on the development of Ethernet. and concludes by identifying the reasons for Ethernet's success in the marketplace. Lesson 1.ETHERNET OVERVIEW Module Description In addition to providing a high-level overview of the role Ethernet plays in network computing.1 defines Ethernet's relationship to upper-layer network protocols and introduces some of the basic components of an Ethernet network.
IPX. Beyond the hardware-level. which makes Ethernet equally suitable for both small and large networks. to the hardware-level transfer of data from one point to another. Network operating systems. Ethernet technology can provide network speeds from 10Mbps (10 megabits per second) to 1Gbps (1 gigabit per second).What is Ethernet? Lesson Objectives q q Identify Ethernet's basic role in computer networking Identify the components used on an Ethernet LAN Ethernet Defined Ethernet is a highly popular and internationally standardized networking technology that enables computers to communicate with each other. NetWare* and others. or physical layer. such as Windows NT*. UNIX. data transport is handled by software protocols. to provide the broad range of networking services that people depend upon. however. along with the applications that run on them. of networking. DECnet and others. such as TCP/IP. Today. . which in turn use Ethernet. Ethernet equipment is manufactured by a wide variety of vendors. use these protocols. NetBEUI. nearly every brand of modern computer can be equipped to communicate on an Ethernet network. Ethernet's role in the landscape of network communication is limited.
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Like all inventions. hubs and switches. printers and other office devices possible. The basic concepts of Ethernet evolve directly from the basic concepts behind telegraph. telephone and radio technology. Ethernet originates from a series of innovations on older technologies. By the end of this course. The basic components of an Ethernet network include cabling. The figure on the previous page shows you these basic components of an Ethernet network and how they fit together. servers.What is Ethernet? (Continued) Course Introduction The basic concepts of Ethernet are very easy to understand. network interface cards (NICs). As you work through the modules of this course. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . you will understand how each of these components works and how the Ethernet standard as a whole works to make communication between computers. you will learn that just like the communication technologies that have come before it. clients. Ethernet is nothing more than a practical solution to practical problems.
Ethernet Development Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the key milestones in the historical development of Ethernet Identify the benefits of distributed processing Identify the benefits of Open Systems solutions Identify the reasons for Ethernet's success in the marketplace Overview Understanding a little about the history of Ethernet is important for two reasons: 1. now known as Open Systems. the demand for advanced word processors. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . 2. Second. the search for a decentralized. Both options are expensive. as technology improves). First. computer-aided design programs and statistical analysis tools requires an amount of computing power and quick response time that mainframes simply cannot not provide at any cost. It gives you the cultural background you need to feel competent when discussing network technology with advanced systems administrators and engineers. Companies must either plan to continually upgrade an entry-level mainframe. as well as other LAN technologies. mainframe computing began to present a number of significant limitations for large and small businesses alike. distributed and multivendor approach to data processing. once a company chooses a particular vendor. mainframes are not easily scalable. It gives you a foundation for understanding the practical and technical computing problems that Ethernet addresses. As an alternative to the mainframe-centric world of the 1970's. becomes the driving force behind the development and adoption of Ethernet. and finally. The High Cost of Mainframe Computing In the 1970's and 1980's. window-based graphical user interfaces. or they must make a significant. capital investment in a large mainframe (and later upgrade it as well. it is generally cost prohibitive to change vendors later on. Third. because most mainframe solutions from different vendors are incompatible with each other.
Digital. Provides a scalable network architecture at an affordable cost. it was generally not possible to network computers manufactured by different vendors. sometimes referred to as the DIX standard (D[igital] I[ntel] X[erox]). The widespread adoption of distributed computing and Open Systems (the concept of a modular. evolved directly from the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center's (PARC) experimental networks of the 1970's. This original Ethernet standard.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications. Open communications technologies like Ethernet provide the basis for a modular solution that: 1. Prior to the joint publication of this standard.Ethernet Development (Continued) The Development of Ethernet Standards In September 1980. 3. By publishing the first Ethernet standard jointly. Intel and Xerox jointly published the first commercial Ethernet standard for connecting computers together. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Distributes the processing load required for advanced applications. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the first internationally approved set of Ethernet standards under the somewhat obscure title IEEE 802. 2. and from whatever vendor they believe will deliver the best value for their money. Intel and Xerox made openly available an easy-to-understand. easy-to-implement and easy-to-maintain technology for high-speed communication between computers from either the same or different manufacturers. Shortly thereafter. this standard was adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO). 4. In 1985. Gives users mainframe-like access to shared information. vendor-independent set of "open" interoperability standards) offers companies an economical way to purchase additional computing power in the form of file servers and PC workstations on an as needed basis. Digital. Allows companies to network a mixture of hardware and software solutions from different vendors. which effectively positioned Ethernet technology in a way that enabled it to become the most widely used method for connecting Local Area Networks (LANs).
which was originally a software management and network maintenance strategy. The ether of Ethernet is a reference to the hypothetical element. the laser printer." which from the 18th century up until Einstein's theory of relativity. many physicists believe to permeate the entire universe. named the Alto Aloha Network. In the mid. The abstract concept of an Ethernet is. Ethernet. then. of a network of wires that can serve as a binding medium across which all the different parts of the computer universe can communicate.In 1973. the mouse. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . "lumeniferous ether. yet later became a prototype for the modern computer virus. Somewhere along the line. the desktop workstation and even something called the Worm. the name Alto Aloha (derived from the FM radio-based ALOHA Network System built at the University of Hawaii) was dropped in favor of the slightly more mystical sounding. the windowed display concept. while working for Xerox at the now famous Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). holding it together and providing a medium for electromagnetic (light) waves.to late 1970's a number of exciting things were happening at PARC. including the development of a graphics-based monitor. Robert Metcalfe (later founder of 3Com*) designed the first Ethernet network.
has been highly successful. relatively inexpensive. There are several reasons why: q q q q Ethernet interfaces are available for almost any type of computer. Since the first Ethernet components appeared on the market in the beginning of the 1980's. generally leaving consumers free to pick and choose from a variety of alternatives. Ethernet dominates the market today and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future.Ethernet Development (Continued) Ethernet Today Today. only recently introduced. Ethernet technology has achieved commodity status and is available from a wide range of manufacturers and distributors. and an IEEE standard for Gigabit Ethernet is expected to be finalized by the end of 1998. Ethernet has gone on to become the most successful LAN technology in the marketplace. Source: IDC 1997 PC NIC Market Forecast Summary. and as a result. 100Mbps Fast Ethernet. from laptops to mainframes. 1995-2001. Ethernet has proved capable of meeting demands for higher LAN speeds in a costeffective manner. As the figure above shows. keeping the cost of ownership down. maintain and troubleshoot. Ethernet devices are relatively easy to design and manufacture. Ethernet is easy to install. 1997 shipments of network interface cards by technology. .
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Lesson 2. Lesson 2.3 describes in general terms Ethernet cabling schemes.5 concludes Module 2 with an explanation of repeaters. Lesson 2.1 introduces the Ethernet Bus wire.4 identifies the role of the MAC sublayer and the Ethernet operations that take place at the MAC sublayer. and identifies the basic network services that Ethernet provides. switches and bridges play * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Lesson 2. Lesson 2.1 also describes Ethernet's method for controlling access to the shared broadcast medium by drawing an analogy between Ethernet and two-way radio.1 also introduces and explains the CSMA/CD algorithm. Lesson 2. and describes the roles that network interface cards (NICs) and data frames play in Ethernet communications. switches and bridges.2 describes the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI reference model.ETHERNET BASICS Module Description This module describes details of Ethernet operation and is the largest module of the course. and explains the difference between physical and logical topologies. Module Objectives q q q q q q q q q q q q Identify the basic characteristics of the Ethernet bus Identify the function of network interface cards Identify the basic components of the Ethernet frame Identify the fundamental process of Ethernet communication Identify the basic concepts of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the importance of configuration guidelines Identify the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI model Identify Ethernet's relationship to the upper layers of the OSI model Identify Ethernet bus and star topologies Identify the difference between physical network topology and the logical topology Identify the role of the MAC sublayer Identify the roles that repeaters. and illustrates the importance of configuration guidelines. Lesson 2.
called an Ethernet bus.Transmitting and Receiving Data Lesson Objectives q q q q q q Identify the basic characteristics of the Ethernet bus Identify the function of network interface cards Identify the basic components of the Ethernet frame Identify the fundamental process of Ethernet communication Identify the basic concepts of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the importance of configuration guidelines The Ethernet Bus Computers on an Ethernet network communicate with each other by broadcasting packets of data on a shared wire. a short drop line and a connector that taps directly into the bus-wire. the Ethernet bus winds through the entire office. passing closely by each computer. continuous length of wire that serves as a medium for packet broadcasts. The Ethernet bus is a single. Each computer that participates in the network must connect directly to the Ethernet bus. . In the hypothetical small office environment shown in the figure below. Each computer's physical connection to the network is composed of a network interface card (NIC).
When a communication technology.) Like sending a large letter in a series of envelopes. Upon receiving each frame. (For a standard frame. the routing information is discarded. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Furthermore. packages or frames.Bus-type. Ethernet frames can transport only a certain amount of data at a time. coaxial cabling scheme for a small office. it means simply that routing information is being added to the beginning and the end of the original data. like Ethernet. like postal envelopes. Each NIC is both a sender and receiver of packets of data called Ethernet frames. Ethernet transports larger amounts of data in multiple frames. the maximum size of the data field is 1500 bytes. just like a postal envelope is often discarded once its contents have been extracted. Once the data has been routed successfully. the receiving computer discards the routing data and puts the original data back in order. Network Interface Card (NIC) Addresses and Ethernet Frames Ethernet distinguishes one computer from another by a unique address assigned to each NIC. data.
the Ethernet frame includes the original data.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Unlike postal envelopes. an Ethernet frame arrives one bit at a time. the original Ethernet bus actually operates more like a two-way radio network of taxicab drivers. Ethernet bears many characteristics similar to common technologies such as telephone. The beginning of the frame The address of the intended receiver The address of the sender The type of data being sent Immediately following this information. Though recent advances in Ethernet switching technology have allowed Ethernet to operate more like a telephone system. however. or the "content" of the frame. Structure of a standard Ethernet frame. The figure below illustrates the structure of a standard Ethernet frame. As a result. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . which arrive all at once. Sending and Receiving Ethernet was designed to be a relatively simple communications protocol. Listening. or CRC) that the receiving NIC uses to verify the frame has been received correctly. 4. telegraph and radio. The frame ends with a mathematical value (called a cyclic redundancy check. 3. Each Ethernet frame contains a structured series of data fields that identify: 1. 2.
the network interface card (NIC) checks the frame's address information. the frame is broadcast over the entire length of the bus-cable. which all computers share. Whenever one computer sends a frame (or message) to another computer. or "processing. Pick-up at 144th and Broadway. A taxicab operator becomes accustomed. are intended for use by only one out of the many drivers. destinations and emergencies. There may be thousands of messages like this broadcast over the radio each day. Just like a taxicab driver. If the frame's destination address does not match the NIC's address. As the frame arrives at each computer. A typical radio message might sound as follows: "Message to Taxi 99. to overhearing all of the messages on his or her radio. Computers on an Ethernet network function essentially the same way. the NIC processes the frame by checking the data packet's integrity and removing the routing information. Sending and Receiving (Continued) Taxicab fleets often use two-way radios to share information about changing traffic patterns. This is Central") frames the core message (" Pick-up at 144th and Broadway")." Very much like an Ethernet frame. however." only those messages specifically addressed his or her taxicab. yet paying close attention. the routing data ("Message to Taxi 99. all computers connected to the Ethernet bus hear all broadcasts. Like the two-way radio network of taxicab drivers. All radio operators on the taxicab network hear all messages that are broadcast. If the destination address of the frame matches the NIC's address. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Most messages. the NIC does not process any of the information and waits for the next frame to arrive.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Listening. but only processes those messages specifically addressed to it. pick-up locations. however. Reply. This is Central. each NIC "listens" to all messages.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . all operators are free to contend for the open channel." which simply is a technical way to refer to the sense-to-see-ifthe-line-is-free-before-you-send method that the multiple computers on an Ethernet network use to share access to the broadcast channel. If there is a frame already being transmitted on the bus. CSMA/CD stands for "carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. If two operators begin to speak at the same time. if one driver is already speaking. One of the operators may not realize that his or her message was garbled. It is possible. The set of rules by which Ethernet handles collisions is called the CSMA/CD algorithm. the NIC waits until that frame is completed and the bus is free. When a computer's NIC has a frame ready to send. broadcast their frames simultaneously. that two or more computers with frames to send will listen to the network at the same time and thinking that the bus is free. both messages are garbled. a third operator will ask him or her to restate the message. The collision detection part of the CSMA/CD algorithm defines many of the physical limitations of Ethernet and directly affects how Ethernet networks must be configured. and the second computer will then wait until the first computer's broadcast is completed. Once again. it first listens to the network for any frames from other computers already being broadcast. sends out what is called a jam signal that informs all the computers on the network that a collision has occurred. The computer with the shorter wait time will gain access to the open bus first. if no one is currently speaking. however. The computers whose frames collided must then wait for a random time before trying again to resend their frames. The first NIC to detect the garbled transmission. every other driver must wait until that person finishes before broadcasting a message of his or her own.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) Collisions On the taxicabs' radio network. and each operator must stop speaking and wait until the channel is free. Ethernet communication takes place in essentially this same way. in which case. one computer's wait time will likely be shorter than the other. Because only one radio operator can be heard at a time. Collisions are a normal part of Ethernet operations. Because the time to wait is randomly chosen. The resulting garbled transmission is called a collision.
this means that the network connection between the two computers with the greatest distance between them must be short enough. and the frame transmission long enough. Basically. without having been interrupted by a jam signal. so that if one of these two computers happens to begin a transmission the instant before a transmission from the other computer arrives. the sending station will assume that the collision belongs to a set of stations elsewhere on the network. If a jam signal is received by a sending station after it has completed its transmission. the sending station has no way of knowing that it must retransmit its frame. Properly configured Ethernet networks ensure that the distance between the two stations farthest apart on the network is short enough that when a collision occurs neither of these two stations will have had time enough to finish its transmission before being interrupted by the jam signal. The importance of Ethernet stations being able to detect collisions before the completion of each frame transmission cannot be understated. If the jam signal that results from a collision is not detected by the sending station before the sending station completes its transmission. it assumes that the frame has been received intact and that it has been processed correctly.Transmitting and Receiving Data (Continued) The Fundamental Rule The fundamental rule of all Ethernet configuration guidelines is that collisions must be detected before a sending station completes the transmission of its frame. the consequent collision can be detected before either transmission is completed. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Once a sending station completes its frame transmission.
But as far as Ethernet is concerned. it will use Ethernet to resend the data. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . If the upper-layer protocol does not receive the expected reply within a certain time frame. Ethernet assumes the frame has arrived intact and has been processed correctly. once the Ethernet NIC has been able to transmit its frame without the interruption of a jam signal. the upper-layer protocol responsible for the frame's data packet will expect a reply from the same upper-layer protocol on the receiving station.Usually.
The OSI model defines seven separate and distinct layers of communication that together provide a comprehensive suite of network services. When you give the command to save your file. for example. this role is limited to a specific set of services that combine with upper-layer networking services to produce practical benefits such as network management. Let's say. According to Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards. you have created a document in a word processor. which employ Ethernet to help accomplish their work. including requests for directory information. OSI standards are explained graphically using the OSI reference model. Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model The International Standards Organization and the IEEE published the first Open Systems Interconnection standards in 1977. network management. in the hierarchy of network services. Technically. remote terminal access and network security are all facilitated by what are called upper-layer protocols. shown in the figure below. Though all of these communications are broadcast by Ethernet over the Ethernet bus. data security. . remote access and messaging. The OSI reference model provides a comprehensive and modular framework for interconnecting computer systems from different manufacturers. Ethernet works at the bottom as a servant to all the layers above it. in addition to the actual transfer of data from your word processor to the hard disk on the server. Ethernet neither initiates these kinds of network communications nor controls them in a substantive way. a variety of communications takes place between your computer and the server. file transfer. Ethernet is merely a taxi service for these upper layer protocols. access rights and file creation. Network services like file transfer. and you would now like to save this document to a file in a directory on your workgroup's server before you attach it to an e-mail message.Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model Lesson Objectives q q Identify the place Ethernet occupies in the OSI model Identify Ethernet's relationship to the upper layers of the OSI model Though Ethernet plays a critical role in network communications.
Though most networking solutions today do not strictly conform to the boundaries of the OSI model. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .The Open Systems Interconnection reference model. the OSI model still provides a solid framework for understanding how networking technologies interoperate. The OSI model does not define a specific technology for each layer. The OSI model requires only that every technology be able to accept data from the immediate layer below it and deliver data to the immediate layer above it using universally accepted methods.
This layer defines the electrical. This layer is responsible for routing packets between end stations in a network. This layer can provide error handling. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . flow control and arbitrates medium access. Presentation This layer describes how data should be formatted when presented to applications. This layer provides a reliable end-to-end connection across a network.Layers of the OSI Model Layer Function Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application This layer provides services to user applications. It can also provide services like encryption and compression. manages and ends connections between users and resources. Session Transport Network Data Link Physical This layer establishes. optical and mechanical characteristics of a network connection.
For example. Ethernet transports data packets from the network layer service on one computer to the network layer service of either one or a number of other computers. Ethernet connects computers together physically with cabling and network interface cards. Ethernet simply transports the fare. 2. when Ethernet receives a TCP/IP packet from the network layer. Ethernet and the OSI Model * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Like a taxicab. it does not ask for names. it treats the TCP/IP packet exactly the same as it would a NetBEUI or IPX/SPX packet. the physical layer and the lower half of the data link layer. Ethernet provides two general services: 1. only the destination. Ethernet does not specifically exclude any particular network layer technology. As an Open Systems technology.Ethernet and the OSI Reference Model (Continued) Ethernet and the OSI Model The Ethernet specification covers only the bottom layers of the model.
Today. or by connecting directly to the bus itself. The figure below shows the basic schematic of Ethernet bus topologies. Physical layer specifications also describe how Ethernet activates and deactivates connections. including the use of coaxial cable. a variety of specific cabling schemes can be used in the design of Ethernet networks. A series of T-connectors. Ethernet Bus Topology Originally. . and computers connected to the bus using coaxial drop cables. the lowest layer of the OSI reference model. optical fiber and connectors. Physical layer specifications describe how Ethernet represents data as either electrical signals sent over a wire or as light pulses sent through a fiber optic cable. disadvantages and limitations of each are discussed in more detail in Modules 7 through 9. as well as the electrical. twisted-pair wire. which cover operations. provide fixed tap points for individual computers. guidelines and specifications for Ethernet running at 10Mbps. In general. The advantages. the Ethernet bus-cable stretches from one end of the building to the other. the Ethernet bus was constructed using coaxial (10Base-5 and 10Base-2) cable. inserted along the length of the bus.The Physical Layer Lesson Objectives q q Identify Ethernet bus and star topologies Identify the difference between physical network topology and the logical topology At the physical layer. Ethernet specifications cover details about the cabling requirements for Ethernet. On these networks. mechanical and signaling characteristics of the physical medium. The bus winds though the building close enough to each computer's NIC that each computer can be connected to a Tconnector either directly or by using a short drop cable. Terminating resistors placed at each end of the bus ensure that each broadcast signal travels the length of the wire only once. 100Mbps and 1000Mbps. the physical configuration of an Ethernet network conforms to one of two basic network topologies: bus or star. Physical layer specifications also define data rates.
Bus Topology * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
for example. coaxial Ethernet bus. the basic operations of Ethernet are the same for both. the hub forms a central wiring closet that physically takes the place of the long. The evolution from bus to star topologies is perhaps best understood as simply a dramatic shortening of the Ethernet bus and an equally dramatic elongation of the drop lines that connect individual computers to the shared broadcast medium. Twisted-pair wiring can be used for other purposes besides Ethernet. Star network topology In the star configuration shown in the figure above. There are several reasons for this: q q q q Twisted-pair wiring is easier to install than coaxial cable. The star configuration makes data traffic easier to monitor and troubleshooting simpler by concentrating the location of physical network connections in a small space (the hub).The Physical Layer (Continued) Ethernet Star Topology Today. Ethernet LANs are built almost exclusively using twisted-pair wire to connect computers to a central hub (sometimes called a concentrator). to carry voice. Twisted-pair wiring is significantly less expensive than coaxial cable. Even though the star topology shown in the figure above looks radically different from the bus topology shown in the figure before it. .
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A Logical Bus Both Ethernet star and bus topologies connect computers in such a way that packet broadcasts from one station are received by all other stations on the network. the logical topology of Ethernet networks is a bus. The network cabling still forms a shared broadcast medium. this time cabled using a star topology. Regardless of the shape of the network cabling scheme (star or bus). twisted-pair wiring scheme for a small office. Star-shaped. . The logical scheme for the bus topologies shown in the previous figures is the same as depicted for the star topologies.The Physical Layer (Continued) The figure below shows the same office space shown in Lesson 2. A Physical Star.1.
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simply imagine a very short bus enclosed inside the hub and very long drop cables connecting the network stations to the bus. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .If you find the concept of a star being a bus difficult to grasp.
The MAC Sublayer
Identify the role of the MAC sublayer
The IEEE 802 series of network standards divides the second layer of the OSI reference model, the data link layer, into two sublayers called the medium access control (MAC) layer and the logical link control (LLC) layer. The IEEE 802.3 Ethernet specification covers the physical layer and the MAC sublayer, but not the LLC sublayer. The LLC sublayer uses the MAC sublayer to provide medium-independent link functions to the network layer above it.
When a computer transmits a frame, Ethernet operations at the MAC sublayer assemble the destination and source addresses for each Ethernet frame and calculate the frame's CRC checksum. At the receiving end, Ethernet operations at the MAC sublayer process the destination address and verify the integrity of the frame using the CRC checksum. Ethernet's collision detection and handling protocol, the CSMA/CD algorithm also operates at the MAC sublayer.
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Repeaters, Switches and Bridges
Identify the roles that repeaters, switches and bridges play in Ethernet networking
Repeaters, switches and bridges are physical networking components that will be discussed in some detail later in the course. They are introduced here, however, to provide a complete overview of the basic components of Ethernet networking. Repeaters Technically, an Ethernet hub is also a repeater because it regenerates the strength of all incoming signals and repeats them individually to each port. Because collisions on an Ethernet network must be detected before a station completes the transmission of its frame (IEEE 802.3 standards actually limit the minimum collision detection time to 512 bits), the maximum allowable distance between any two stations on an Ethernet network operating at 10Mbps is 2500 m (meters). Over a distance much less than this, however, electrical signals transmitted from an NIC lose their clarity and strength due to a natural weakening called attenuation. 10Mbps signals over twisted-pair wire, for example, become undecipherable at a distance of a little over 100 m. For thick coaxial cable, this distance is 500 m. Network hubs and repeaters work at the physical level to regenerate the strength of electrical signals so that distant segments of a network can share the same broadcast medium. Switches Ethernet switches operate like intelligent hubs that repeat incoming frames only to the computer (or computers) to which each frame is addressed. Thus, on a switched network with four computers (A, B, C and D), computer A can broadcast to computer B, and computer C can broadcast to computer D simultaneously, without a collision. In this simple example, Ethernet switching effectively doubles total throughput of the network by allowing computers A and C to broadcast at full network speed without having to wait for the first computer's broadcast to finish. As a result of their ability to significantly increase overall network throughput, switches are becoming an increasingly popular replacement for Ethernet hubs. Bridges Bridges operate at both the physical layer and the MAC sublayer and connect otherwise completely separate Ethernet networks. Bridges sit between each network and repeat only those frames that are specifically addressed to computers on the other side. By designing separate network domains connected with bridges, network traffic can be isolated without sacrificing system-wide connectivity. Bridges can also connect networks running at different speeds with different topologies or communication protocols.
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Lesson 3.1 covers the CSMA/CD algorithm and focuses particularly on the process of collision detection.4 discusses the effect of collisions and excessive collisions on performance. Module Objectives q q q q q q Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Ethernet network Identify Ethernet's distance limitation in bit times Identify the operation and purpose of the backoff algorithm used to control retransmissions on an Ethernet Identify how to determine whether an Ethernet network is experiencing too many collisions Identify some of the ways Ethernet networks can be segmented to reduce collisions * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . and discusses the role it plays in collision detection and retransmission process.3 defines the exponential backoff algorithm. also. Lesson 3. Lesson 3. explains in general how maximum distances are calculated. Lesson 3.2 explains the reason for Ethernet's maximum distance specifications and.ETHERNET OPERATIONS Module Description This module describes the details of data transmission and access control on Ethernet networks.5 concludes Module 3 by illustrating a number of ways that Ethernet networks can be configured to reduce collisions and increase performance. Lesson 3.
as well as how to manage situations in which two or more stations attempt to transmit at the same time. The CSMA/CD algorithm defines when stations are allowed to transmit and for how long. The following two flow charts illustrate the decision making processes that an Ethernet NIC completes when sending and receiving frames.The CSMA/CD Algorithm Lesson Objectives q q Identify the operation of the CSMA/CD algorithm Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Ethernet network Module 2 briefly introduced the CSMA/CD algorithm and how it works to control access to Ethernet's shared. physical medium. .
.Flow chart for Ethernet frame transmissions.
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Because an Ethernet network uses a shared broadcast medium. Multiple Access with Collision Detection. "Carrier Sense" . the transmissions collide and the signal becomes undecipherable as a result. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense. If more than one station transmits data at the same time.The CSMA/CD Algorithm (Continued) Flow chart for receiving Ethernet frame transmissions. network stations must take turns transmitting data across the medium.
means that network stations with data to transmit should first listen to determine if another station is sending data. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . "Collision Detection" refers to the process by which stations detect simultaneous transmissions. "Multiple Access" means that Ethernet provides a number of stations the opportunity to transmit on the single cable.
water or atmosphere. such as wire. the two signals collide on the wire immediately afterwards.The CSMA/CD Algorithm (Continued) Even though data signals travel near the speed of light. they still take time to travel over the network medium. where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. travel across a medium. stations must continue to monitor for collisions even after gaining access to the medium.5 µs multiplied by (x) 10.) Generally. or waves. Because station B believes that the cable is free. signal propagation speed through copper and fiber cable is 2/3c. collisions can occur even though each station must check first to see if the medium is free. depending on the cable type used. The speed of signal propagation through the cable varies slightly. Consequently. Now. (Propagation is a technical term for the process by which signals. Collision . As illustrated by the series of figures below. as shown in the figure below.640 ft [feet]). Station A transmitting The figure above shows two stations connected to an Ethernet bus and 500 m apart (about 1. As a result. After station A begins to transmit. it will take the transmitted signal about 2.5 µs (microseconds) to travel 500 m. the signal travels away from station A in both directions. Hence. this means that station A will have transmitted 25 bits (2. it will begin to transmit.000 bits/second) by the time the first of the bits reaches station B.000. assume that station B decides to begin a transmission immediately before the first bit from A's transmission has traveled the 500 m distance between the two stations. On a 10Mbps Ethernet network.
5 µs have elapsed and.5 µs before the jam signal has traveled 500 m from station B to station A. Station A detects the collision It takes another 2. By the time station A discovers the collision and stops the transmission. A jam pattern is a sequence of bits that is put together in such a way that the signal cannot be mistaken for a valid transmission. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . station A has already transmitted 50 bits.Station B discovers the collision right away and transmits a jam pattern to ensure that all stations on the network detect the collision.
500 m (about 8. Third. Ethernet standards require transmitting stations to monitor the cable for collisions throughout the first 512 bits of every transmission. when station A receives the jam signal. The Ethernet standard contains several specifications that ensure collisions will be detected before a station finishes its transmission. One of the significant assumptions of Ethernet operations is that once an Ethernet station is able to finish its transmission without being interrupted by either a jam signal or a collision.Maximum Distance between Stations Lesson Objectives q q Identify the reasons there is a limit to the distance between stations on an Ethernet network Identify Ethernet's distance limitation in bit times If the distance between station A and station B increases. If this happens. First. station A will transmit more and more bits without discovering a collision. assume that the collision belongs to some other set of computers. On a 100Mbps Ethernet network. Usually. If the stations are placed too far apart. After that. the upper-layer protocol on the sending station will use Ethernet to resend the original data. that station assumes that its transmission has been received successfully. Second. stations are free to assume that a collision will not occur. When the expected reply is not received within a specified time unique to each protocol. the maximum distance is much shorter because data is transmitted ten times faster. stations have less time to discover collisions. instead. station A will complete its transmission before the collision is discovered. the maximum distance between two stations cannot exceed 2. Station A will. but they are also unnecessary. These kinds of retransmissions. not only result in unacceptable delays and network inefficiency. On a 10Mbps Ethernet network. the standard specifies that an Ethernet frame must always be at least 512 bits (64 bytes) long. it will not assume that its transmission was involved in the collision. . however. the upper-layer protocol responsible for the frame's data packet expects a response from the same upper-layer protocol on the receiving station. thus. the standard limits that the maximum distance between two stations in such a way that a station will not have transmitted more than 512 bits before a collision is discovered.200 ft).
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) * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The first signal is assumed to be a data transmission and the second a jam signal. repeaters are used to regenerate the strength of electrical signals so that distant segments of a network can share the same broadcast medium. (Technically. however. The maximum allowable distance between any two stations on an Ethernet network operating at 10Mbps is 2500 m.) What about the remaining 262-bit times? Some of it is there to allow a small delay in electronics circuits such as repeaters and network interface cards. such as wire. travel across a medium. an Ethernet hub is also a repeater because it regenerates the strength of all incoming signals and repeats them individually to each port. (Propagation is a technical term for the process by which signals. electrical signals transmitted lose their clarity and strength due to a natural weakening called attenuation. the rest is a safety margin. The phrase "round trip propagation delay" refers specifically to the time it takes for a single Ethernet transmission to travel the length of the wire twice. or waves. Thus.The round-trip propagation delay at 2.500 m is about 25 µs or only 250-bit times at 10Mbps. water or atmosphere. Over a distances much less than this.
called a slot time. all stations must then wait until the transmission is completed before once again contending for access to the network.Exponential Backoff Algorithm Lesson Objective q Identify the operation and purpose of the backoff algorithm used to control retransmissions on an Ethernet After checking the broadcast medium and finding it is free. however. all stations involved in the collision will wait for an amount of time. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . On Fast Ethernet networks. The station which randomly chooses the shortest backoff time will. then. If after a collision. After a collision has occurred.2 µs. once a collision occurs. before transmitting again. The slot time depends on the transmission speed. it is 51. there are always at least two stations on the network with frames to send. the sending station assumes that no other station has frames to send. Once the transmission from the station which randomly chose the shortest backoff time has been recognized by all other stations on the network.12 µs. Ethernet uses an exponential backoff algorithm that requires each station affected by a collision to wait a randomly selected amount of time before retransmitting. the affected stations were to simply retransmit their frames immediately after the jam signal has finished. According to Ethernet's exponential backoff algorithm. it is only 5. the exact same collision will occur again. and so begins to transmit. be able to transmit its frame without interference from the station that contributed to the prior collision. On 10Mbps Ethernet networks. To avoid repeated collisions.
Each time the station tries to retransmit and encounters a collision.2 µs. If a first transmission attempt fails due to a collision. all stations involved in the collision will wait between 0 and 2 slot times before attempting to transmit the frame a second time. After that.023. Transmission Attempt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Minimum Wait Slot Times N/A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maximum Wait Slot Times N/A 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1023 1023 1023 1023 1023 1023 . this means that the waiting time will be either 0x51. the transmissions will collide again. the waiting time will be between 0 and 4 slot times. On 10Mbps Ethernet.2 µs. on the fourth attempt between 0 and 8 slot times and so on. Thus. On the third attempt to transmit the frame. it will give up and discard the frame. An Ethernet station will attempt to transmit the same frame up to 16 times. After eleven successive collisions. 1x51. maximum number of slot times stays at 1. there is a range of slot times from which stations must randomly choose after each unsuccessful transmission. Specified ranges for slot times are shown in Table 3-3 below.Exponential Backoff Algorithm (Continued) If two stations both wait for the same number of slot times. the maximum waiting time is doubled.2 µs or 2x51. if the transmission has not been successfully completed.
Backoff algorithm slot times Give up * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .17 Give up Table 3-3.
users and management may be willing to accept a poorer quality of service from the network. you must. Another way to measure if an Ethernet network is experiencing too many collisions is to calculate the number of successive collisions that a transmitting station experiences. subjective. of course. performance.) In other words. A good rule of thumb is that the following inequality should hold true: (Number of deferred transmissions + number of retransmissions) / Total number of transmissions < 5 percent.Collisions and Performance Considerations Lesson Objective q Identify how to determine whether an Ethernet network is experiencing too many collisions It is important to understand that collisions are a normal occurrence on an Ethernet. To determine whether a network is experiencing too many collisions. decrease network is not an error. a collision Too many collisions will. a 95 percent average availability may not be sufficient. In general. among other things. To decrease the number of collisions. a transmitting station should experience a collision no more than two times before it successfully transmits data. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . and in other situations. a network administrator must first determine the quality of service he or she expects to maintain. limit the number of stations that share an Ethernet collision domain. if 95 percent of all transmissions are not deferred (have to wait because another transmission is already taking place) and do not have to be retransmitted because of a collision. The definition of "acceptable limits" is. In some cases. however. the delay experienced by users is probably within acceptable limits.
Giant. Short. that is the CRC information in the FCS field does not match the CRC value computed by the receiving station. Frames with CRC errors are discarded by the receiving hardware. If they occur often. It should be found and removed from the network. remedial action should be taken. The station transmitting the oversized frames has a hardware or software error. switches and routers. A frame which is shorter than the minimum 64 bytes. that is. Correcting the problem usually means replacing defective cables or equipment. Alignment Error. have a bad CRC and are not an integral number of bytes in length. A frame that is longer than 6. such as dedicated troubleshooting equipment like network monitors and probes as well as from network equipment such as bridges. Correcting the problem usually means replacing defective cables or network interface cards Long.000 bytes. The station transmitting the oversized frames . CRC Error. the number of bits in the frame is not divisible by 8. A frame that is longer than the legal maximum length of 1518 bytes but shorter than 6000 bytes. Alignment errors are usually caused by cable faults or problems with network interface cards. A CRC error is registered when the 4-byte checksum is invalid. cable faults and faults in network hardware. Correcting the problem usually means replacing defective cables or equipment. Short frames can be caused by noisy connections. Frames with alignment errors are discarded by the receiving station because they have an invalid CRC. Longs can have a negative impact on general network performance and may result in users being disconnected. CRC errors are usually caused by cable faults and other faults in the network. Frames with alignment errors are frames that are longer than 64 bytes.Common Ethernet Errors The following is brief description of the most common errors on Ethernet networks and their most likely causes. Error statistics can be obtained from several different sources. A frame which has been corrupted during transmission.
It should be found and removed from the network. Excessive Collisions. Late collisions should never occur in a healthy Ethernet network or segment. "Jabbers" are usually caused by a malfunctioning network interface card or external transceiver. As previously described. Occurs after the first 512 bits have been transmitted by the sending station. A long frame with a CRC or alignment error. such as having too long cable distances or by having more than 4 repeaters between one or more network stations in a 10Mbps environment. the network should be redesigned to relieve the congestion.has a hardware or software error. If all transmission attempts fail due to collisions the frame is discarded by the sending station. A late collision can cause severe performance degradation because it cannot be detected by the sending station. Late collisions are typically caused by misconfiguration. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The problem must be solved by changing the network configuration so it complies with the guidelines. This situation is called an excessive collision. The faulty equipment should be replaced. Late Collision. If this occurs frequently due to heavy network traffic. Jabber. an Ethernet station will try up to 16 times to transmit a frame.
Collisions and Performance Considerations (Continued)
The figure below shows an example of how collision statistics might look on an Ethernet segment that is performing well. Notice that most transmissions succeed after only two successive collisions. The number of transmissions that experience more than six successive collisions is too small to be visible on the chart.
An Ethernet segment that is performing well. The total of all blue bars in the graph represents the total number of collisions on the network.
By contrast, following figure shows collision statistics on a heavily loaded Ethernet segment. Note that more of the transmissions experience multiple collisions on this segment.
A heavily loaded Ethernet segment. The total of all blue bars in the graph represents the total number of collisions on the network. Most of the retransmissions on this network experience two or more successive collisions. Network congestion is so great that some transmissions reach the excessive collision limit and are dropped by the sending station's NIC.
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Identify some of the ways Ethernet networks can be segmented to reduce collisions
Network managers can decrease the total number of collisions on a network in several ways. Network managers can:
q q q
Create multiple, small collision domains by segmenting network traffic. Increase network efficiency by using switches in the place of hubs. Increase network speed by implementing Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet on hightraffic backbones, links between servers and clusters of power workstations.
Bridges Between Segments Later courses in advanced network design and management will discuss these solutions in detail. The lesson focuses only on the general concept of network segmentation. The figure below shows a basic network configuration that uses a single collision domain.
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As a general rule.Network Segmentation (Continued) The figure below shows a segmented network configuration that includes multiple collision domains. The bridge functions as a selective repeater that retransmits the frames it receives only when they are specifically addressed to devices on the other side. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . a bridge is used to connect segments. network engineers try to keep at least 80% of all traffic generated by a collision domain within that same domain. In the figure above.
each NIC in the server functions as a separate network segment. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Network Segmentation (Continued) Separate Domains on a Single Server Some network operating systems allow a single server to use multiple NICs to create segmented networks. Using segmented collision domains on a single server not only decreases the number of total collisions on the network. but also allows the server to receive packets from two or more segments simultaneously. The server reads the destination address of each frame and repeats only those frames addressed to devices on the other segment. Software running on the server performs the function of a bridge. In this situation. The figure below illustrates a network configuration that includes two collision domains and only one server.
data and FCS fields Identify the structure of MAC addresses Identify the difference between unicast. multicast and broadcast addresses Identify the purpose of having an interframe gap * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . type/length. Lesson 4. Module Objectives q q q q q Identify the fields found in an Ethernet frame Identify the purpose of the preamble/SFD.7 each discuss in detail the content and purpose of each of the Ethernet frame's six fields.ETHERNET FRAME COMPOSITION Module Description This module discusses the composition of the Ethernet frame. Lessons 4.1 gives a general overview of the contents of the Ethernet frame.2 through 4.
source address and typeIlength fields together form what is commonly referred to as the Ethernet header. perhaps. Announcing the arrival of each frame. The checksum is the result of a calculation of bit values derived from of all other fields in the frame. however. Each field. The destination address. The data field immediately follows the header fields and varies in length between 46 and 1500 bytes. is precisely defined both in length and content. Following the preamble a 1-byte start-of-frame delimiter signals to the receiving station that the substantive portion of the frame is about to start. A frame check sequence field marks the end of the Ethernet frame and contains a checksum value that can be used to verify the frame has not been corrupted in transit. The Ethernet header contains control information used by Ethernet to identify the source. a 7-byte preamble serves to synchronize the sending station's and the receiving stations' clocks. All other fields in the frame have fixed lengths. All of them. Lessons 4. .6 describe in detail the six basic fields of an Ethernet frame. destination. a number of variant Ethernet frame types have been developed and are now in common use.2 through 4. best be thought of as a container for safely and efficiently transporting data packets from one station to another. Since the original Ethernet standard was published in 1980. with the exception of the data field. ensuring that each frame is received at the same speed it was sent. size and protocol of the upperlayer data packet contained in the data field. follow the basic structure shown in the figure above. Ethernet frame composition Ethernet frames contain six fields in total.Basic Ethernet Frame Composition Lesson Objective q Identify the fields found in an Ethernet frame The Ethernet frame can. The general format of an Ethernet frame is shown in the figure below.
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The steady alteration of 1's and 0's in the preamble constitutes a simple way to encode clocking information in the signal itself. except for the last two bits which are "11." The binary "11" sequence alerts the receiver to the fact the preamble has ended and the Ethernet header will now begin. synchronous transmission facility. the frame is said to be misaligned. In such instances. The phrase synchronous transmission refers to the fact that the clocks in both the sender and receiver must be synchronized in order for each bit to be correctly detected. However. are interpreted as digital 0's or 1's. Start of Frame Delimiter The start of frame delimiter (SFD) is also an alternating binary 1's and 0's pattern. and vice versa. An unsynchronized clock will time the signal incorrectly and will either not be able to interpret the signal at all or will misinterpret the signal by reading high-to-low sequences as low-to-high sequences. Like a drum roll used to synchronize the feet of soldiers in a very fast march. the SFD appears unnecessary. Bit-serial means that frames are transmitted and received one bit at a time across the medium. Synchronization The Ethernet frame enables the receiving station to synchronize its clock with the sending station by using a 7-byte (56-bit) series of alternating 1's and 0's. because it may seem that the receiver could simply count bits until 8 bytes (64 bits) have been received and then start copying the frame to memory. At a first glance.Preamble/SFD Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the preamble/SFD field Ethernet frame composition: preamble/SFD field Timing Ethernet is sometimes described as a bit-serial. the sender and receiver clocks may be so far out of synchronization that . Clock synchronization is important because Ethernet uses precisely timed changes in signal strength to create recognizable high-to-low and low-to-high patterns that. the preamble's 56-bits of alternating 1's and 0's allow the receiving station to adjust its clock until the steady alterations of the preamble are timed correctly. called a preamble. upon receipt.
thus allowing an indeterminable portion of the preamble to pass by unrecognized. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .the receiver will not be able to synchronize on the signal immediately.
each station's unique destination address (DA). 00-A0-C9. (Although. Ethernet actually reverses the bit-ordering of each byte when it is transmitted." the first three bytes. When a station recognizes its own MAC address in the destination address field of an Ethernet frame. Illustrated in the figure below.) MAC address structure Technical manuals usually record the bytes of the MAC address using hexadecimal notation. multicast and broadcast addresses Ethernet frame composition: destination address and source address fields The Structure of MAC Addresses Every NIC attached to an Ethernet network must have a unique 6-byte hardware address. (On certain first and second generation NICs. the MAC address consists of two parts: a 3-byte manufacturer ID and a unique 3-byte NIC ID number. the station copies the rest of the frame to memory for further processing by the CPU. When a station recognizes that the destination address is not its own. So. represent the NIC ID. the same two bytes would actually be transmitted as 00000000-00000101. Using this same example. to make things somewhat interesting. as opposed to writing out the binary digits. the second three bytes. the MAC address can be manually set using a series of jumper connections on the circuit board. CE-20-03. represent the manufacturer ID (Intel). The source .) Destination Address The MAC address is. Source Address The source address (SA) field contains the MAC address of the sending station. the first two bytes written using binary notation would read 00000000-10100000.Destination Address and Source Address Fields Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of MAC addresses Identify the difference between unicast. of course. In an example MAC address such as "00-A0-C9CE-20-03. assigned by the manufacturer. usually called a MAC address. that station simply disregards the rest of the frame.
and by servers responding to client-specific requests. The unicast address for a particular destination is simply another name for an NIC's unique MAC address.address field gives a receiving station the opportunity to respond to the originating station either by confirming receipt of the frame. An Ethernet frame sent to a unicast address is intended for one station only. Unicast transmissions are used by clients requesting application or file services from a particular sever. Multicast and Broadcast Frames In addition to Ethernet's ability to send individual frames to a single workstation (sometimes called a unicast). Unicast. Ethernet also has the ability to send frames either to a group of stations on a single segment (a multicast) or to all Ethernet stations on the network (a broadcast). Unicast Addresses. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . requesting the frame be resent or answering a particular request.
Each network has only one broadcast address. Ethernet LAN services such as address resolution and service advertisements that rely on recurrent transmissions to all stations frequently send packets to the broadcast address. Other examples of the use of multicast addresses are video distribution and bridge packets used by the spanning tree algorithm. is composed entirely of binary 1's. The broadcast address. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . All stations on the network are expected to copy Ethernet frames sent to the broadcast address and pass them to the CPU for further processing. So that NICs instantly recognize a multicast address. as it appears in the destination address field. Multicast and broadcast addresses can appear only in the destination address field. are often sent to a multicast address. A multicast address identifies an entire group of stations attached to the same Ethernet segment. Specific examples include. but it will always be sent from a specific station on the network. the first bit of a multicast address is always a binary 1.Destination Address and Source Address Fields (Continued) Multicast Addresses. for instance. Routing information updates. the services provided by Address Resolution Protocol (ARP [a component of the TCP/IP suite]) and NetWare* SAPs. Routers on the network copy these frames from the wire. Broadcast Addresses. while other stations disregard them. A frame can be intended for a group of stations. never in the source address field.
Most switches and bridges keep track of the layout of a network by building a table of address information. and. as a result.The spanning tree algorithm is an IEEE 802 standardized method of communication between bridges and switches. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . frames can become trapped in an endless loop of bridges and switches. Sometimes bridges and switches contain conflicting address information. The table tells the bridge or switch which packets to forward and which to not forward. The spanning tree algorithm works to help bridges and switches communicate in order to both avoid loops and operate efficiently. In this case a group of bridges or switches mistakenly forwards the packet in a circle among themselves without ever forwarding the packet to the actual segment to which the packet is addressed.
Identify the purpose of the type/length field
Ethernet frame composition: type/length field
Ethernet frames come in slightly different variants, with the main difference being the type of information that is placed in the 2-byte field following the source address field. Generally speaking, this portion of the frame is used to designate either the size of the data field or the upper-layer protocol to which the contents of the data field should be delivered (i.e., IPX, IP, DECnet, AppleTalk, etc.). The contents and purpose of the type/length field are discussed in detail in Module 5, which discusses four of the most common Ethernet frame types.
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Identify the purpose of the data field
Ethernet frame composition: data field
Minimum Length Requirements The data field contains the data packet that will be delivered to an upper-layer protocol, such as TCP/IP, IPX or DECnet. To ensure correct detection of collisions on the network, the total length of an Ethernet frame cannot be less than 64 bytes. The destination and source address fields, the type/length field and the frame check sequence field together account for 18 bytes. So the data field can never be less than 46 bytes long. Frames received that are less than 64 bytes long are usually the byproducts of collisions and are called runts. Switches and bridges, which examine an entire frame before forwarding it, immediately discard all runts, preventing them from propagating throughout the rest of the network. NICs, as well, immediately discard all frames that do not meet the 64-byte minimum length requirement. Transmitting Small Amounts of Data What happens, though, if a station has less than 46 total bytes to transmit? In a Telnet session, for instance, a single keystroke may be the only data a station needs to transmit. In this case, the upper-layer protocol that requests Ethernet to transmit the data simply pads the remaining portion of the data field with extra bytes until the 46-byte minimum requirement is met. At the receiving end, the same upper-layer protocol is then required to remove the extra bytes before passing the content of the data field (in this case, a single keystroke) to the application.
Transmitting small amounts of data.
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Though smaller upperlimits on frame size can substantially decrease wait times for access to the network. and now 1000Mbps. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . cannot exceed 1518 bytes. however. meaning that the total length of an Ethernet frame. of say. 65. they unfortunately increase the overall amount of overhead on the wire. with a minimum 46 bytes for data packets. For maximum-sized. While it is true that certain applications would benefit from a larger maximum Ethernet frame size. 1518-byte Ethernet frames. from 10Mbps to 100Mbps. By computer standards 52 ms is a long time and could lead to unacceptably long wait times for other stations. and thus decrease the total amount of data throughput that the network can provide. It would take. The 1500byte data field limit denotes Ethernet's compromise between transmission efficiency on the one hand and network availability on the other. SA. As Ethernet speeds continue to increase. type/length and FCS fields. overhead falls to 11% of the total transmission. including the DA. many other applications would benefit equally as well from a smaller frame size. Striking a Balance If Ethernet were to allow the transmission of very large frames. approximately 52 ms to transmit a frame of this size at 10Mbps. overhead for small packets is 28% of the total transmission.Data Field (Continued) Transmitting Larger Amounts of Data The upper-limit size of the data field is 1500 bytes. the relative efficiency or inefficiency of Ethernet compared to other possible networking schemes continues to diminish in importance. however. Using Ethernet's minimum 64-byte frame size. Ethernet's 18-byte overhead for each frame becomes comparatively insignificant to the datapacket portion of the frame.536 bytes or more.
A sophisticated user with malicious intentions and the appropriate tools could change the frame. . If the two values do not match.Frame Check Sequence Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of the FCS field Ethernet frame composition: frame check sequence The frame check sequence (FCS) field contains a checksum called a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) that can be used to verify that the frame has not corrupted in transit. the receiving station assumes the frame has been corrupted. When the frame is received. Note that the FCS field does not constitute a security mechanism. If the two values match. and consequently discards it. recalculate the CRC value and place it in the FCS field. The transmitting station calculates the CRC value as the frame is transmitted and places the result in the FCS field. the receiving station performs the same calculation and compares the resulting CRC value with the one found in the FCS field. the receiving station accepts the frame. The FCS is intended only to protect against errors caused by noise on the transmission medium or by malfunctioning network equipment. The receiver would then be unable to detect that the frame has been tampered with. The frame check sequence is simply the result of a complex division problem applied to the contents of the frame.
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3 standards. At Fast Ethernet speeds. the 96 bit-time interframe gap specification is still a part of the official standard.6 µs interframe gap is to allow enough time for station that last transmitted to cycle its circuitry from transmit mode to receive mode.Interframe Gap Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of having an interframe gap After a frame has been successfully transmitted and received. and. which in turn results in upper-layer protocol initiated retransmissions. Even though modern Ethernet devices are capable of cycling from send mode to receive mode in a shorter time than the 9. The reason for the 9. Ethernet specifications require that an interframe gap of at least 96 bit-times pass before any station on the network can transmit the next frame. and is included in the specifications for Fast Ethernet as well. cause client stations to lose their connection to the network. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . By shortening the interframe gap. 96 bit-times translates to 9. when devices that meet the 9. however. it is possible for a station that has just completed a transmission to miss a frame destined for it because it has not yet cycled back into receive mode. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. manufacturers can claim an increased overall network throughput compared to their competitors. Mixing devices that use different interframe gap times increases the potential for 'dropped' packets.6 µs allowed. Dropped packets can significantly reduce overall network performance. Without the interframe gap. 96 bit-times translates to 960 ns (nanoseconds). Some Ethernet manufacturers currently market NICs (and Ethernet switches.6 µs specification are combined with devices that use a shorter interframe spacing. At 10Mbps. however. in certain instances. as well) that use an interframe gap that is smaller than 96 bit-times specified by IEEE 802. Network administrators must be cautious. one-tenth of the time for 10Mbps Ethernet. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of an Ethernet Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields and sizes.6 µs.
Drag the components of an Ethernet frame into their correct positions. the field sizes go in the empty black squares. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The field names go in the empty blue squares.
a variety of Ethernet frame types have been developed. This module identifies these variant frame types and in what situations they are most commonly used. Module Objectives q q q Identify the structure of variant Ethernet frame types Identify the reasons behind the development of each variant frame type Identify naming conventions for variant Ethernet frame types * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .ETHERNET FRAME TYPES Module Description Since the publication of the original DIX Ethernet standard in 1980.
Overview Lesson Objectives q q Identify the concept of data overhead Identify the use of multiple frame types From the point of view of a network-layer protocol. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Though the Ethernet II frame provides a more efficient use of network bandwidth. on the other hand. IPX and AppleTalk. includes only 26 bytes of overhead information (counting the preamble) for each data packet. Many networks support several frame types at the same time. A network using TCP/IP. and reasons why particular information is included in some frames and excluded in others. excluding the data field. The Ethernet SNAP frame. Generally speaking. the amount of overhead a frame uses is directly related to the sophistication of the services it can support. for example.3 for IPX. including AppleTalk. everything in an Ethernet frame. The Ethernet II frame. includes 34 bytes of overhead information (counting the preamble) for each data packet. and Ethernet SNAP for AppleTalk support. for example. the Ethernet SNAP frame is able to support a broader range of upper-layer protocols. may support up to three different frame types: Ethernet II for TCP/ IP. The purpose of this module is to describe the overhead information unique to each Ethernet frame type. Novell 802. must be considered overhead. Each of the frame types covered in this module attempts to strike a useful balance between efficiency and sophistication.
TCP/IPbased networks use the Ethernet II frame almost exclusively. By assigning a unique value to each upper-layer protocol. and for AppleTalk the value is 0x809B. If the data field contains IP data.Ethernet II Frame Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of Ethernet II frame Identify the reasons behind the development the Ethernet II frame The original Ethernet standard published by Digital. which serves to distinguish Ethernet II frames from IEEE 802. the EtherType value is set to 0x0800. All EtherType values are equal to decimal numbers greater than 1500. the type field indicates to the receiving station which protocol (i. . the Ethernet II frame is the most commonly used frame-type. etc.. Many Novell networks. IPX.) As illustrated in the figure below. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.) should handle the contents of the data field. as does DECnet. for example. Intel and Xerox defines the format for the Ethernet II frame.e. the Ethernet II frame includes a 2-byte type field that immediately follows the source address. DECnet. IP. If the data field contains IPX data. Ethernet II Frame The type field is used to contain a value called an EtherType that identifies the type of data in the data field. are configured to use Ethernet II frames.3 frames. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of an Ethernet II Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields. AppleTalk. which replace the type field with a size field (which is always less than 1500). as well. the EtherType value is set to 0x8137. Generally speaking. (What might be called the Ethernet I frame was used only in the developmental stages of Ethernet and was not published as part of the jointly developed standard.
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Drag the fields of an Ethernet II frame into their correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
3 frame is the officially recognized international standard. Novell networks now use the IEEE 802. is highly dependent upon the particular circumstances and is often a matter of mere preference.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.3 frame by default for IPX/SPX packets and the Ethernet II frame for TCP/IP packets.2 LLC header .IEEE 802.3 frame Identify naming conventions for variant frame types Most networks can be configured to use either Ethernet II or IEEE 802. the Ethernet II frame is still the most widely implemented and widely supported frame type. or vice versa.3 frame Identify the 802. For example.3 frame with IEEE 802.2 LLC header Identify the reasons behind the development of the IEEE 802.3 frame. The IEEE 802.3 frames.3 frame replaces Ethernet II's 2-byte type field with a 2-byte length field and adds a 3-byte LLC (logical link control) header to the data field. though some network administrators prefer to use the Ethernet II frame for both. The figure below illustrates the format of the IEEE 802.2 LLC Header Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the structure of the IEEE 802. even though the IEEE 802.3 frame. Generally speaking. Ethernet IEEE 802. A network administrator's decision to support the Ethernet II frame but not the IEEE 802. and sometimes both.
thus. The value of the length field will always be equal to a number between 46 – 1500.3 standard specifies operations for the physical layer and the MAC sublayer. and 802. and thus support both types of frames running on the same network. While the IEEE 802.You will remember that the IEEE 802 standard breaks up the OSI model's data link layer into the MAC (medium access control) sublayer and the LLC sublayer. Since EtherType values always equal a number greater than 1500. the IEEE 802. the source service access point (SSAP) and the control field. The LLC header. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The LLC header is actually comprised of three 1-byte fields: the destination service access point (DSAP).3 length values always equal a number 1500 or less. it is possible for most network hardware and software to distinguish between Ethernet II and IEEE frame types. Length Field The length field identifies the combined length of the LLC and data fields in number of bytes.2 standard specifies operations for the LLC sublayer. contains information that enables the LLC layer to hand off the contents of the data field to the appropriate network layer protocol.
the DSAP field's hexadecimal value is set to 0xEO.2 header and Sub-Network Access Protocol encapsulation Technical Description Novell 802. such as Novell.3/802. .IEEE 802. the corresponding values for the SSAP and DSAP fields are.3/802. commonly-used naming conventions for both the IEEE 802. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of an IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.3 frame and its variants can be confusing. while other vendors.3 frame simply as the IEEE 802. Ctrl Field The ctrl field's value distinguishes between different types of LLC headers.2 header IEEE 802.3 frame without 802.2 frame.3 frame as the IEEE 802. refer to the IEEE 802. also.3 frame with 802.2 frame SNAP frame Ethernet II frame IEEE 802. specified by Ethernet standards. however.3 frame A frame type that uses the structure of the IEEE 802.2 header. For instance.3 raw the 802.2 frame 802. Because the source protocol and the destination protocol are typically the same for each data field. For example. if the data field contains a NetWare* IPX/SPX packet.2 LLC Header (Continued) DSAP and SSAP Fields The DSAP (destination service access point) field serves the same purpose as the EtherType used in the Ethernet II frame. The following table correlates commonly-used naming conventions with technically correct terminology. The DSAP field identifies which protocol should handle the contents of the data field.3 frame.3 frame with 802.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.2 LLC Header! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields. The SSAP (source service access point) field identifies the upper-layer protocol that sent the data packet. The operation of the LLC layer is not. typically the same. IEEE 802. Common Name DIX frame 802. certain networking vendors refer to the IEEE 802.2 frame. It is used only on Novell networks.3 Naming Conventions Because a number of frame types are based on the IEEE 802.
**This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Drag the fields of an IEEE 802.2 LLC Header into their correct positions.3 Ethernet Frame with IEEE 802.
The SNAP ID is divided in two parts: a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI). In order to provide support more than 64 protocols. and a 2-byte type field (equivalent to the EtherType field in the Ethernet II frame). the hexadecimal value of both the DSAP and SSAP fields equals 0xAA. Optional Exercise** .2 frame are only eight bits (one byte) long. however.3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of the SNAP frame Identify the reasons behind the development of the SNAP frame Driven largely by the TCP/IP community. or code. field is to give individual vendors the ability to assign their own unique values for protocols running on their own equipment. Ethernet SNAP Frame On networks that support multiple frame types. the content of the code field is always set to "0000-00" and the value in the "type" field is the same value that is used in the Ethernet II type field. with two of the eight bits reserved for other purposes.2 frame can assign unique values to only 64 protocols. the IEEE 802. For Ethernet SNAP frames. Ethernet SNAP frames are recognized by the content of the DSAP. implemented SNAP on even a modest scale. with the exception of certain Apple protocols. the Ethernet SNAP frame is most commonly used to support Ethernet Macintosh* clients running AppleTalk. the addition of sub-network access protocol (SNAP) to the IEEE 802. Today. In practical use. Manufacturers have not. however.3 frame was designed to expand the number of upper protocols that Ethernet can support. The SNAP ID Fields The purpose of the OUI. the Ethernet SNAP frame includes an additional 5 bytes of header information. usually called the SNAP ID. and the value for the ctrl field equals 0x03. sometimes called a code field. Expanding Protocol Support Because the DSAP and SSAP fields of the IEEE 802. SSAP and ctrl fields.IEEE 802.
3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Check your understanding of an IEEE 802. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin.
Drag the fields of an IEEE 802. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 Frame with SNAP Encapsulation into their correct positions.
3 frame contains less overhead than either the IEEE 802. Because of its low overhead.Novell 802.3 Frame! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of frame fields.3 frame is often called "802.3 frame Novell Ethernet 802.3 frame differs from the Ethernet II frame by using a length field in the place Ethernet II's type field. and is used for Novell IPX data only. the Novell 802. however. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Because the Novell 802.3 raw" because it does not use the 802.3 frame.3 frame is used exclusively on Novell networks. As the figure above shows.3 frame does not provide a "type" or "DSAP" field for encoding protocol information. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. the Novell 802.3 frame cannot support upper-layer protocols of different types.3 Frame Lesson Objectives q q Identify the structure of Novell 802.3 frame or the SNAP frame and the same amount of overhead as the Ethernet II frame.3 frame is extremely efficient. the Novell 802. The Novell 802. the Novell 802.3 frame Identify the reasons behind the development of the Novell 802. has caused even many Novell network administrators to resist its use. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of a Novell 802.3 frame Like the IEEE 802.2 LLC header in the data field. The Novell 802. Its lack of sophistication.
Drag the fields of a Novell 802.3 Frame into their correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
and Lesson 6. Lesson 6.FULL-DUPLEX ETHERNET Module Description This module explains how full-duplex Ethernet works.4 concludes the module by briefly identifying the role full-duplex plays in the use of Gigabit Ethernet.2 explains how full-duplex links can be used to increase overall network throughput. Lesson 6. Module Objectives q q q q q Identify how full-duplex Ethernet works Identify the benefits and limitations of full-duplex Ethernet Identify how full-duplex Ethernet affects distance limitations Identify connection limits of full-duplex Ethernet Identify use of full-duplex with Gigabit Ethernet * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .1 compares full-duplex and half-duplex operation by using analogies that include telephone and two-way radio communication models. Lesson 6. where it is commonly implemented and what its benefits are.3 explains how distance limitations are affected by full-duplex operation.
Full-duplex mode allows one person's transmission channel to function exclusively as the other person's receive channel.Full-duplex and Half-duplex Compared Lesson Objective q Identify how full-duplex Ethernet works To understand the difference between full-duplex and half-duplex communication modes. of course. consider the difference in convenience there is using modern telephones versus using twoway radios. where all communicants share a single broadcast channel and when one person speaks. all must listen if anybody is to be heard at all. operate in full-duplex mode using two broadcast channels simultaneously. works in a similar way and uses the CSMA/ CD algorithm to establish rules for sharing the same broadcast channel. Using full-duplex communication. Modern telephones. Two-way radio operates in half-duplex communication mode. and vice versa. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . on the other hand. Ethernet. both parties can speak and listen at the same time without encountering garbled transmissions that would otherwise result from simultaneous broadcasts.
Full-duplex Ethernet and Fast Ethernet links are particularly useful for server-to-server. . since there are no collisions on a full-duplex link. packets arriving from a fullduplex port can be forwarded as soon as the destination is determined. however.The Benefits of Full-duplex Ethernet Lesson Objectives q q Identify the benefits of full-duplex Ethernet Identify connection limits of full-duplex Ethernet Using twisted-pair. or fiber optic cabling and full-duplex compatible NICs. Full-duplex operation allows Station A to transmit on Station B's receive channel at the same time Station B is transmitting on Station A's receive channel. as soon as it has determined that the incoming packet on the half-duplex port has not been damaged by a collision. only half-duplex operation is possible. however. In actual usage. but also eliminate collisions. limited to a single connection between two devices (for example. two computers are directly connected using a medium type that has two separate channels. between a server and a switch). Full-duplex links not only double potential throughput. twinax. data throughput can be doubled. bandwidth improvements are more modest. full-duplex Ethernet allows two stations to transmit and receive data simultaneously. With both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet. In this case. Full-duplex Ethernet operation. On a switch equipped with a full-duplex port. Additionally. server-to-switch and switch-to-switch connections. full-duplex segments are. For three or more devices attached to the same segment. If reads and writes on a full-duplex link are symmetric. a packet arriving at a half-duplex port can be relayed on the full-duplex port. as well as the need for each station to wait until the other station finishes transmitting.
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* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Due to UTP cable's higher rate of attenuation. the maximum distance between devices for UTP cable is 100 m. with Fast Ethernet running on multimode fiber the maximum distance between devices is extended from about 400 m to approximately 2000 m.Full-duplex and Distance Limitations Lesson Objective q Identify the distance limitations of full-duplex Ethernet Because full-duplex operation eliminates the need to detect collisions. For example. the same as for half-duplex. distances between devices can be extended to the full length that the medium is able to transmit a recognizable data signal.
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . all Gigabit Ethernet devices manufactured will support full-duplex operation.Full-duplex Mode and Gigabit Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify use of full-duplex with Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet has been developed to use full-duplex mode almost exclusively. Initially. Running at Gigabit Ethernet speeds a switch-like device called a buffered distributor will connect multiple full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet devices.
Module Objectives q q q q q q q q Identify the characteristics of 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Identify the topology and limitations of 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks Identify the differences and similarities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 10Base-T and 10Base-FL Identify twisted-pair (UTP) wiring categories Identify UTP connectors Identify important guidelines to follow when building 10Mbps Ethernet networks Identify rules specific to 10Base-FL * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 covers the designation 10Base-FL. Lesson 7. Lesson 7. unshielded twisted-pair and fiber optic cabling. Lastly. which specifies the use of unshielded twisted-pair cabling. which specifies the use of fiber optic cabling. which specify the use of coaxial and thin coaxial cable. Lesson 7. the most widely used medium for new Ethernet implementations.4 reviews a number of configuration guidelines for 10Mbps Ethernet implementations.3 specification designates Ethernet implementation types according to the cabling used and the speed of data transfer.2 covers the designation 10Base-T. This module covers the specifications for Ethernet operating at 10Mbps over coaxial.ETHERNET OPERATION AT 10MBPS Module Description The IEEE 802. Lesson 7.1 covers Ethernet designations 10Base-5 and 10Base-2.
intended to be easier to use. . On 10Base-5 networks. and can carry a signal a maximum distance of 500 m without the use of a repeater. causing each transmission to collide with itself. however. The figure below shows how computers are attached to the bus cable on 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. Both 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks use a physical bus topology. workstations attach to the bus cable using drop cables over distances up to 40 m (about 130 ft) long. using a T-connector. signals are reflected back into the medium from the end of the bus cable. 10Base-2 cable is cheaper to buy and to install than 10Base-5. Because it is thinner. difficult to work with and expensive to install. Both types of coaxial bus cables require terminating resistors placed at each end of the cable. On 10Base-2 networks. cabling used for 10Base-5 is rigid. 10Base-2 was. a computer’s network interface card attaches directly to the bus. Without terminators. 10Base-5 designates a network that is implemented at 10Mbps. Unfortunately. 10Base-2 cable segments can only be 185 m (about 600 ft) long. uses baseband transmission.10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Lesson Objectives q q q Identify the differences and similarities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 10Base-FL Identify important guidelines to follow when building 10Mbps Ethernet networks The 10Base-5 designation was the first Ethernet implementation type to be defined by Ethernet standards.
10Base-5 and 10Base-2 bus * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
the users on that cable segment lose access to the network. the bus cable must be moved to accommodate that workstation. these implementations present a number of limitations. Adding a new user to a 10Base-2 cable requires that the cable be cut to insert a new T-connector. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . the users on that cable segment lose access to the network. If a workstation on a 10Base-5 network must be moved more than 40 m from the cable. If a user on a 10Base-2 cable segment breaks the bus by removing his or her workstation’s T-connector. including the following: q q A cable or connection problem anywhere on the network’s bus is likely to cause problems for all users. There is no central location from where users can be added to or removed from the bus without disrupting the entire network. if a user on a 10Base-2 cable segment breaks the bus by removing his or her workstation’s T-connector. For instance. as shown in the animation below.10Base-5 and 10Base-2 (Continued) Because the 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 specifications require networks to use the physical bus topology.
on the other hand. but it also specifies the use of a star topology which makes both the implementation and maintenance of Ethernet 10Base-T networks significantly easier compared to 10Base-2 and 10Base-5. In appearance. unshielded twisted-pair cabling (which is similar to telephone wire). allow only half-duplex operation. which currently include 5 categories for UTP cable. The definitive advantages of 10Base-T over coaxial-based networks have made it the most widely implemented Ethernet standard. UTP cabling categories are defined in the Electronic Industry Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) 568 cabling standards. The figure below shows a Category 5 UTP cable. Category 5 Unshielded twisted-pair * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . 10Base-2 and 10Base5. because 10Base-T uses two wire pairs. or the speed at which reliable communication can take place. 10Base-T networks use Category 3. Categories are distinguished by the quality of the cable. unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable. The 10Base-T designation not only includes the use of inexpensive. In addition. all UTP cables look similar to telephone wire. one for transmitting data and one for receiving data.10Base-T Lesson Objectives q q q q Identify the differences and similarities between 10Base-T and 10Base-5/10Base-2 Identify the characteristics of 10Base-T Identify twisted-pair (UTP) wiring categories Identify UTP connectors The IEEE addressed the implementation and maintenance difficulties of Ethernet bus topologies with specifications for Ethernet 10Base-T. 10Base-T makes full-duplex operation possible. or higher.
RJ-45 jack and connector .10Base-T (Continued) The table below lists all five UTP cabling categories and their associated performance standards: UTP Category Rated Performance Applications Category 1 (cat 1) No performance criteria Used in some older telephone systems. Computers are attached to the UTP cable by an RJ-45 style connector. leaving 10 m for the connection between the computer and the wall plate and for the patch cables used in the wiring closet. especially in older installations. Used for 10Base-T. Widely deployed. On 10Base-T networks each computer is attached to a central hub using UTP cables over distances up to 100 m (328 ft) long. Used for 10Base-T and Token Ring. Category 2 (cat 2) Rated to 1MHz Category 3 (cat 3) Rated to 16MHz Category 4 (cat 4) Rated to 20MHz Category 5 (cat 5) Rated to 100MHz Used for telephone wiring. and other high-speed network technologies. When the maximum 100 m distance is used. the cable running from the wall plate to the cable closet should be no longer than 90 m. 100Base-T (Fast Ethernet). Used for 10Base-T. shown in the figure below.
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1. so if there is a problem on a cable. administrators can add or remove computers from the network without disrupting other computers. 3. With a hub. it affects only the workstation directly attached to the cable. The hubs repeat only valid signals. On 10Base-T networks. both hubs and NICs show whether a connection is active or not by using green LEDs that give users live feedback about the status of the connection. as shown in the animation below. 10Base-T networks provide several advantages over 10Base-5 and 10Base-2. This makes troubleshooting a 10Base-T network much simpler than troubleshooting 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. A signal from one station enters the hub on one port and is repeated on all the other hub ports as illustrated in the figure below. . 2.10Base-T (Continued) The hubs at the center of a 10Base-T network are actually multiport repeaters. Repeater hub operation Because 10Base-T networks use a star topology with hubs at the center.
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optical fiber cable can span much greater distances than UTP cable.5/125 fiber. on 10Base-FL networks. Fiber optic cabling is most commonly used to connect hubs to other hubs.10Base-FL Lesson Objective q Identify the characteristics of 10Base-FL The 10Base-FL specification resembles 10Base-T in several respects. Moreover. The fiber used is multimode 62. the transmitters and receivers designed to work with fiber) is more expensive than UTP cable. However. 10Base-FL can operate in fullduplex mode. Thus. optical fiber cable can potentially support future data transmission rates of several hundreds of megabits per second. In addition. The main difference between 10Base-T and 10Base-FL is 10Base-FL's use of optical fiber cable instead of UTP. Each fiber connects to networking equipment using a bayonet-type connector known as an ST connector. Each computer on a 10Base-FL network connects to a central hub. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Optical fiber cable (specifically.560 ft).000 m (about 6. full-duplex links between hubs can be up to 2.
Multimode fiber has a relatively large core diameter and uses inexpensive light emitters and receivers. It is the type of fiber optic cabling most often used on LANs. It can be used over longer distances than multimode fiber cable. monomode fiber has a narrow core diameter and uses expensive transmitters and receivers. with an outer cladding of 125 microns. By contrast.62.5 microns in diameter. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .5/125 means that the fiber's core is 62.
Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet's faster wire speeds reduce the maximum allowable distance between stations. may be populated with network stations. there are a number of general guidelines that must be followed when implementing a 10Mbps Ethernet LAN. The 5-4-3 Rule All 10Mbps Ethernet networks must follow the 5-4-3 rule. The longest distance between any two stations is between the PCs on the left and the servers on the right. This configuration consists of 5 total segments of 100 m each. however. 4 repeaters. (The 5-4-3 rule applies only to 10Mbps Ethernet. Only three of the cable segments.) The 5-4-3 rule states that a single 10Mbps collision domain can consist of five cable segments connected by four repeaters. The total network diameter is 500 m. with only 3 of the segments populated with network devices. The figure below shows one possible configuration that the 5-4-3 rule allows. . and also reduce the number of repeaters that can be used in a single collision domain.Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Lesson Objectives q q Identify important guidelines to follow when building 10Mbps Ethernet networks Identify rules specific to 10Base-FL In addition to the Ethernet specifications described in the previous lessons.
this means that one of the four repeaters must serve only to connect one repeater to another.Because only three of the five Ethernet segments are allowed to be populated with network devices. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . this repeater may seem unnecessary. as the third repeater from the left does in the figure above. Why couldn't you simply connect the second and fourth repeaters to each other directly? The simplest answer is that the second and fourth repeaters are too far apart (200 m) to hear each other. At first.
. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Only three of these segments can be multistation segments (e. Repeater use on 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. The last two segments must connect only a station to a hub or a hub to a hub. On 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 networks. they diminish in strength until they are no longer is the technical term recognizable as valid data transmissions.g. chaining the cables together. 10Base-2 or 10Base5).Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) As Ethernet signals travel across the wire. The resulting topology is shown in the figure below. The two following figures (on this page and the next) illustrate the diminutive effect of attenuation. the following simple configuration rules apply: q q There cannot be more than five cable segments and four repeaters between any two stations in a collision domain. all stations must contend for access to the shared medium. For networks that have a router or a switch. Attenuation used to describe this natural degradation in signal quality as signals travel across the network medium. Inside a collision domain. Collision domains are bounded by switches and routers. 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 Ethernet segments that are connected using repeaters form a single collision domain. Repeaters serve to restore data signals to their original strength so that they may be heard at distances that would otherwise not be possible. as well as the restorative effect of Ethernet repeaters. repeaters are inserted between the individual cable segments. Inside a single collision domain. Even fiber optic transmissions are affected by attenuation. each of the network segments that connect to a switch or router port belong to their own collision domain.
The word attenuation comes from the Latin word attenuatus.' * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . which means 'made thin.
280 ft). 10Base-FL segments can be up to 2.000 m (6. All the servers and workstations in this figure are in the same collision domain. 10Base-FL networks must be built according to the rules listed below: q q q With four repeaters and five cable segments. 10Base-FL-Specific Rules In addition to following the 5-4-3 rule described above. With three repeaters and four cable segments. there can be no more than four 10Base-T repeater hubs between any two stations on the network. With two repeaters and three cable segments. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . sharing the same half-duplex transmission medium.640 ft). the 5-4-3 rule is not violated because there are no paths between stations in the network that involve more than three repeater hops. 10Base-FL segments must not exceed 500 m (1.000 m (3. Network with multiple repeater hubs Even though there are six hubs in the network in the figure above. 10Base-FL segments must not exceed 1. A typical configuration is shown in the figure below.Implementation: 10Mbps Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) The same rules apply to 10Base-T networks.561ft).
Lesson 8.5 concludes this module by describing how Fast Ethernet's auto-negotiation feature enables 10/100Mbps devices to automatically configure themselves for either 10Mbps or 100Mbps operation.2 and 8. Fast Ethernet will soon surpass 10Mbps Ethernet in sales. Lesson 8.2 discusses some of the basic differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet operations. and Lesson 8.FAST ETHERNET Module Description Fast Ethernet operates at a data transfer speed of 100Mbps. Lessons 8.1 explains that because of upward trends in network growth. Module Objectives q q q q q q q Identify reasons for the development of Fast Ethernet Identify the similarities and differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Identify the basic characteristics of 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX Identify and use simple Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines Identify advanced Fast Ethernet configuration calculations Identify how the limitations to the size of a Fast Ethernet network can be avoided through the use of Ethernet switches Identify the purpose of auto-negotiation * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .3 cover Ethernet types 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX.4 includes a comprehensive discussion of Fast Ethernet implementation guidelines. Lesson 8.
however. organizations can install high-speed LAN segments at a very reasonable cost. it is clear that 10Mbps Ethernet implementations are not fast enough for many larger networks. they represent. for many companies. Network backbones. In 1995. .The Growth of Fast Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify reasons for the development of Fast Ethernet In the early 1990s. With Fast Ethernet. As shown in the figure below. with sales of 100Mbps network interface cards expected to surpass sales of 10Mbps cards in 1998. a significant challenge to implement and maintain. And because it uses the same basic technology as 10Mbps Ethernet. in particular. Fast Ethernet equipment is easy to install and manage. Many network interface cards already support both 10Mbps and 100Mbps transmission rates and the prices of Fast Ethernet hub and switch ports are dropping rapidly. with the IEEE publication of the 100Mbps Fast Ethernet specification. are becoming clogged with traffic. technologies such as FDDI and ATM are simply too expensive. for most companies. and. Fast Ethernet will soon become the most widely used Ethernet implementation. companies soon had a relatively inexpensive way to significantly increase the speed of their high-traffic links. While other high-speed LAN technologies. such as FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) exist.
Source: IDC * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .IDC World-wide adapter market forecast.
yet since the data transmission rate is ten times as fast.6 µs. Fast Ethernet is simply Ethernet scaled by a factor of ten. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . but because transmission speeds are multiplied by ten. the interframe gap is still 96 bit times. there can be only one or possibly two repeaters or hubs between transmitting stations. the interframe gap is only 960 ns instead of 9. stations must still be able to detect collisions within the first 512 bits transmitted. On Fast Ethernet networks. 10Mbps maximum distance of 2500 m between stations is reduced to 250 m for Fast Ethernet. Like Ethernet.10Mbps Ethernet vs. Fast Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD algorithm to control access to a shared broadcast medium. The major difference between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet is that the maximum diameter of Fast Ethernet networks is smaller than the maximum diameter of 10Mbps Ethernet networks. Fast Ethernet Lesson Objective q Identify the similarities and differences between 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet In almost all respects. With Fast Ethernet. Ethernet frame types are also the same 10Mbps and Fast Ethernet networks. Another difference between the two technologies is that on Fast Ethernet networks. stations on an Ethernet network must be ten times as close in order to detect collisions within the same number of bit times as for 10Mbps.
100Base-TX provides separate transmit and receive channels. it must either recable or implement a 100Base-T4 network. Servers and other high-performance network stations attached using 100Base-TX can transmit at 100Mbps and receive at 100Mbps at the same time. Like 10Base-T. however. The maximum distance between the workstation and the hub is 100 m (328 ft). Stations on 100Base-TX networks are connected to a central hub using UTP cable. However.100Base-TX Lesson Objective q Identify the basic characteristics of 100Base-TX 100Base-TX is very similar to 10Base-T. all four wire pairs are required. so if an organization wants to upgrade a 10Mbps Ethernet network using Category 3 cable to Fast Ethernet. The RJ-45-type connector is also used. and 100Base-T4 equipment is much less common than 100Base-TX equipment. effectively boosting the bandwidth on the link to 200Mbps. A 100Base-T4 network enables an organization to run Fast Ethernet over Category 3 or 4 cables. so full-duplex operation is possible. 100Base-TX requires Category 5 cable. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . 100Base-T4 supports only half-duplex operation.
10Base-T uses a Manchester encoding scheme that results in a digital signal with a fundamental frequency of 10Mhz. Cat 3 is certified for 16Mhz. which requires a cable that is certified for at least 46. meaning that the signal that can be transmitted in a cable certified for 15Mhz signals or better.25Mhz.875Mhz. This makes Cat 5 as the only option for 100Base-T. 100Base-TX uses a different encoding scheme that results in a signal with a fundamental frequency of 31. Cat 4 for 20Mhz and Cat 5 for 100Mhz. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . so each of these can be used.
000 m (6. it might install optical fiber cable. The connectors can be ST connectors.561 ft) is possible on full-duplex links. which are also used on 10Base-FL networks.100Base-FX Lesson Objective q Identify the basic characteristics of 100Base-FX The specification for Fast Ethernet over optical fiber cable is known as 100Base-FX. up to 2. Like 10Base-FL. 2. but more commonly.5/125 fiber. Optical fiber cable can support much higher bandwidths than UTP cable. so if an organization anticipates upgrading to an even faster LAN technology in the future. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . 100Base-FX is typically used for one of two reasons: 1. the cheaper SC connector is used. The SC connector is keyed to reduce the risk of accidentally swapping the transmit and receive fibers. Optical fiber cable spans greater distances than UTP cable. 100Base-FX uses two strands of multimode 62.
Simple Configuration Rules Hubs and repeaters add a small delay (or latency) when an Ethernet frame is received and retransmitted. The length of each cable segment is also restricted: q q A UTP segment can be up to 100 m long. Simple configuration rules are summarized in Table 8-1. A (half-duplex) fiber segment can be up to 412 m long. the timing requirements cannot be met. but only one Class I hub is permitted. Because Class II hubs are faster.Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines Lesson Objectives q q q Identify simple Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines Identify advanced Fast Ethernet configuration calculations Identify how the limitations to the size of a Fast Ethernet network can be avoided through the use of Ethernet switches At 100Mbps. collisions must be detected within 5.7 µs of latency. If stations are too far apart or have too many repeaters between them. Class II hubs add less than 0. Both simple and advanced configuration rules can be used to verify that a particular Fast Ethernet network meets configuration requirements.12 µs. two Class II hubs are allowed between stations in a single collision domain. Using simple configuration rules. hubs are placed in two groups depending on the length of this delay: q q Class I hubs add less than 0. Hub Type Single Segment One Class I Hub UTP Fiber (FX) UTP and Fiber (FX) N/A 260 m (100 m UTP) 100 m 412 m 200 m 272 m .46 µs of latency.
. With one Class II hub. With two Class II hubs. plus one 111 m fiber segment). you can have 100 m of UTP and 160 m of fiber. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . If you combine UTP cable and fiber optic cable. The maximum distance using fiber is 228 m. you will notice the following: q q q With a Class I hub. Simple Fast Ethernet configuration rules.g. The maximum distance using fiber and UTP is 216 m (two UTP segments of 100 m and 5 m. you can have a maximum distance between any two stations on the repeated segment of 200 m using UTP cable and of 272 m using fiber optic cable.One Class II Hub 200 m 320 m 308 m (100 m UTP) 216 m (105 m UTP) Two Class II Hubs 205 m 228 m Table 8-1. you can have 205 m of UTP cable (e. The maximum distance increases to 320 m when fiber is used because the Class II hub adds less latency than the Class I hub. the maximum distance using UTP is unchanged since no UTP segment can exceed 100 m. In Table 8-1. two 100 m segments and a 5 m segment between the hubs).
the following inequality must hold true: 2 x Total delay < 5. 0. based on the exact specifications for network interface cards. Component Two Network Interface Cards UTP cable Fiber cable Class I hub Class II hub(s) Total delay Round-trip delay (Sum of the above) Total delay x 2 Must be less than 5. you must ensure that this requirement is fulfilled between any two stations in the network.25 µs x 2 0. network cables and hubs. Sample values are given in the right column.12 µs.7 µs Less than 0. In some cases. 100m maximum. these guidelines allow a greater network diameter than the configuration rules given above. 412m maximum. fill in the delay values in the center column in Table 8-2 with the actual values that apply to your network. To comply with the Fast Ethernet configuration guidelines. Calculating round-trip delays. The delay between two stations in a network can be calculated using the following formula: Total delay = Hub delay + Cable delay + Network interface delay. To perform this calculation. Less than 0.46 µs Table 8-2. To enable a station at one end of the network to detect a collision with a station at the other end. The advanced configuration rules rely on calculating the exact delay between any two stations in the network.12 µs Delay Typical value 0.0050 µs/m.0055 µs/m.Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) Advanced Configuration Guidelines Rather than relying on the "canned" configuration rules given above. the exact delay between any two stations can be calculated using the following guidelines. .
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . for instance if a network component is exchanged for another with a slower response time. While performing the exact calculation of round-trip delays using the exact specifications of network adapters.To be on the safe side. If you get very close to the limit you may have problems later on. cable and hubs used in the network may in some instances allow you to go beyond the distances specified in the simple configuration rules. you must repeat the calculations above to verify that the maximum delay is still within the specified limits. this approach cannot in general be recommended because it adds a significant extra administrative burden to network maintenance. Every time a network component or cable is exchanged for another. you should add a safety margin to your calculations.
but the total size of a switched 100Mbps network can grow much larger. The network segments attached to each switch port must still conform to the configuration guidelines. Each port on an Ethernet switch forms its own collision domain. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Implementation: Fast Ethernet Configuration Guidelines (Continued) Fast Ethernet Switches By using switches on a Fast Ethernet network. you can have a network much larger than would be allowed normally.
a company that cannot afford to upgrade their entire network all at once can pursue an incremental migration by purchasing 10/100 NICs for all new machines. Determine what capabilities the network devices have. the 10/100 hub will automatically configure itself to achieve the highest possible performance for the devices attached to it. and then upgrading the NICs of older machines over a period of time. such as the speed and duplex mode at which they operate. and perhaps a 10/100 hub or switch as well.Auto-negotiation Lesson Objective q Identify the purpose of auto-negotiation The Fast Ethernet specification defines a process called auto-negotiation that enables Ethernet devices to exchange information about their capabilities. Auto-negotiation also provides a method that enables network administrators to: 1. Discover the reason a connection has been refused. Making Migrations to Fast Ethernet Easier Many recently manufactured Ethernet devices. use dualspeed interfaces that allow a single device to operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps. hubs and switches. 2. Autonegotiation enables an Ethernet device. 3. to automatically configure itself for either 10Mbps or 100Mbps mode depending upon the capabilities of the device on the other end of the connection. Using auto-negotiation. including NICs. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Change connection speeds. such as an NIC. For example. without having to perform manual configurations for each device. Perhaps the most significant benefit of auto-negotiation is that it allows network administrators the ability to incrementally upgrade their network hardware easily.
8 µs intervals (the same interval as for the normal link pulses used by 10Base-T and 10Base-FL). Auto-negotiation advertises a device's abilities by encoding a 16-bit data packet. 4. a 10Base-T device that does not have auto-negotiation capabilities sees fast link pulse bursts simply as a link test signal. FLP bursts have an approximate duration of 2 µs and are transmitted in 16. 2. For example. At the other end of the link. 3. 5. 100Base-TX full-duplex 100Base-T4 100Base-TX 10Base-T full-duplex 10Base-T half-duplex Once the greatest common denominator of settings is determined. a 10/100-capable device will recognize normal link pulse and choose 10Mbps mode operation. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . The link code word contains two fields (called the selector field and the technology ability field). It may seem that because the fast link pulse and the normal link pulse use the same interval at the same frequency. within a burst of 17 to 33 link pulses. however. each device equipped with auto-negotiation will configure itself automatically. which together serve to identify a device's capabilities. older devices may not be compatible with auto-negotiation.Auto-negotiation (Continued) How Auto-negotiation Works Auto-negotiation is an extension of the link test methods used by 10Base-T and 10Base-FL to verify the integrity of the link between devices. This is. called a fast link pulse (FLP) burst. A 10Base-T device will respond to the fast link pulse burst with its usual normal link pulse signal. Auto-negotiation attempts to find the greatest common denominator for the two devices on the link in the following order of preference: 1. called a link code word (LCW). In certain cases where automatic configurations are not desired. not the case. auto-negotiation provides a way for these settings to be overridden manually.
GIGABIT ETHERNET Module Description The first two lessons in this module identify the basic operations of Gigabit Ethernet and some of the reasons that Gigabit Ethernet is needed in the marketplace.4 discusses Gigabit Ethernet's use of the CSMA/CD algorithm. -CX and -T Identify possible migration strategies for Gigabit Ethernet Identify how the buffered distributor works Identify Gigabit Ethernet's use of full-duplex mode Identify modified specifications for Gigabit Ethernet running in half-duplex mode Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Module Objectives q q q q q q q q Identify factors contributing to the need for Gigabit Ethernet Identify the key characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Identify Gigabit Ethernet types 1000Base-SX. Lesson 9. -LX.5 concludes the module by identifying certain issues that network administrators must consider when implementing first-generation Gigabit Ethernet equipment.3 covers Gigabit Ethernet implementation strategies. and Lesson 9. and also introduces a device new to Ethernet technology. Lesson 9. the buffered distributor.
Compared to the alternative solutions for high speed networking. average file size is expanding. highresolution imaging and three-dimensional engineering applications. Gigabit Ethernet offers the advantage of using protocols directly compatible with currently implemented Ethernet standards. incremental migrations from Ethernet and Fast Ethernet possible. Mission critical mainframe applications continue to be replaced with distributed solutions. High-traffic document management. q q q q q q Intranet and Internet traffic is growing at an exponential rate. workflow. scientific modeling. imaging and other information management and distributed database applications are becoming integral parts of core business strategies. making lower-cost. such as ATM and FDDI. the extension of Fast Ethernet to the desktop reintroduces the congestion that Fast Ethernet backbones were originally designed to eliminate. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Increasingly popular applications like multimedia computer-based training. Finally. desktop video conferencing and interactive whiteboarding require high-bandwidth connections that can deliver a constant and reliable data stream. Due to the increasing complexity of desktop publishing.Why Gigabit Ethernet is Needed Lesson Objective q Identify factors contributing to the need for Gigabit Ethernet The growing need for network bandwidth in excess of the 100Mbps delivered by Fast Ethernet is driven by several factors.
International Data Corporation (IDC). The upcoming IEEE 802. testing interoperability standards and fostering open communications between potential suppliers and consumers.3z. The IEEE specification for Gigabit Ethernet will be IEEE 802. including Intel. leaving unchanged as much of the original Ethernet specification as possible is a core strategy for making Gigabit Ethernet successful as well. However. At the MAC layer.3z standard is expected to define Gigabit Ethernet running over multimode fiber and. many Gigabit Ethernet products are currently available.3ab) will specify Gigabit Ethernet operation for Cat 5 UTP cabling over distances up to 100 m. -LX. Gigabit Ethernet is equivalent to Fast Ethernet scaled by a factor of ten. -CX and -T The growing need for network bandwidth in excess of the 100Mbps delivered by Fast Ethernet is driven by several factors. on shielded copper wire. currently participate in the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance by contributing technical expertise. Because Fast Ethernet's success can be attributed largely to its compatibility with 10Mbps Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet uses the 802. The IEEE Standards Board expects to achieve final ratification of the 802. over short distances. Gigabit Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method with support for one repeater per collision domain. Gigabit Ethernet Alliance The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance is an open forum that promotes industry cooperation in an effort to accelerate the development and standardization of Gigabit Ethernet.Gigabit Ethernet Defined Lesson Objectives q q Identify the key characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Identify Gigabit Ethernet types 1000Base-SX. Over 120 Ethernet vendors.000Mbps – 100 times that of Ethernet. q q q q q q q The transmission speed for Gigabit Ethernet is 1. expects the value of the market for Gigabit Ethernet products to exceed USD 1 billion by the year 2000.3z standard in either June or September 1998.3 Ethernet frame format. since many vendors are developing products concurrently with the standardization effort. A separate standards effort (IEEE working group 802. a commonly referenced research firm. .
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. multimode. In order to minimize the time-to-market for new products. 1000Base-SX and 1000Base-LX. server farms and power workgroups. a 150-Ohm balanced. 1000Base-SX works best as a short-distance (up to 260 m) backbone and utilizes low-cost. Gigabit Ethernet incorporates optical signaling components and encoding and decoding schemes borrowed from Fibre Channel. Designed for longer-distance connections. SC fiber optic connectors SC connector cross section 1000Base-CX 1000Base-CX designates Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over twinax. 62. 1000Base-SX and 1000Base-LX use the same SC connectors (shown in the figures below) used for 100Base-FX systems. 1000Base-LX uses multimode fiber to allow connections over distances up to 440 m and single-mode fiber for distances up to 3000 m. 1000Base-CX's distance limitation of up to only 25 m makes 1000Base-CX best suited for interconnecting switching closets.Gigabit Ethernet Defined (Continued) 1000Base-SX and 1000Base-LX Two physical-layer standards. 1000Base-CX supports two kinds of connectors: standard 9-pin D connectors (below) and HSSC (High Speed Serial Card) connectors. designate Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over fiber optic cabling.5 micron fiber optic cabling. specialty cable. shielded. also referred to as 8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2 connectors (also below).
HSSC/8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2 Connector * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .
IEEE 802. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. Under the IEEE 802. 1000Base-T will be designed to take advantage of existing UTP cable already widely deployed for Ethernet and Fast Ethernet.3ab standard. will specify a way to use encoding schemes other than the Fiber Channel encoding scheme used by 1000Base-SX. Specification Medium Maximum Distance 260 m 440 m 3000 m 25 m 1000Base-SX Multimode Fiber 1000Base-LX 1000Base-LX Multimode Fiber Single-mode Fiber 1000Base-CX Twin-ax copper 1000Base-T Four Pairs of Category 5 UTP 100 m Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of Gigabit Ethernet! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of Gigabit Ethernet specifications.Gigabit Ethernet Defined (Continued) 1000Base-T 1000Base-T designates Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over Category 5 UTP cable. -LX. The table below summarizes Gigabit Ethernet media types and their distance limitations. The standard for 1000Base-T comprises the second phase of the Gigabit Ethernet standards process and falls under the purview of the IEEE 802. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . and -CX.3z. 1000Base-T connections can run up to 100 m. To accommodate the use of cost-effective UTP cabling. which is designed primarily for fiber cabling. The IEEE Standards Board does not expect to ratify the 1000Base-T standard until early 1999.3ab task force.
drag the medium and maximum distance into the correct positions. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .For each Gigabit Ethernet specification.
The buffered distributor is a full-duplex. Migration and Rollout Strategies The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance identifies five. many network managers will initially implement Gigabit Ethernet in lowerrisk segments of the network. NICs and router interfaces. including: 1. introduce one new device. As the general availability of Gigabit Ethernet products increases. where. 5. however. uplink/downlink modules. Early implementations of Gigabit Ethernet may. multiport. called a buffered distributor. server links and wiring closets will become more natural. 3. repeaters and servers. at the same time. 4. Gigabit Ethernet does. switches. most likely upgrade scenarios for Gigabit Ethernet. Like a standard repeater. rather than jeopardizing missioncritical applications. however. the buffered distributor . expanding the implementation of Gigabit Ethernet to mission-critical backbones. non-mission-critical targets such as the server-to-router and server-to-switch connections of power workgroups.Implementation of Gigabit Ethernet Lesson Objectives q q q Identify possible migration strategies for Gigabit Ethernet Identify how the buffered distributor works Identify Gigabit Ethernet's use of full-duplex mode For the most part. hubs. Upgrading switch-to-switch links Upgrading switch-to-server links Upgrading switched Fast Ethernet backbones Upgrading shared FDDI backbones Upgrading high-performance workgroups Due to the inherent risk of any first generation technology. They include: switches. they will be able to clearly measure a return on investment. The Buffered Distributor Most Gigabit Ethernet products are simply faster versions of the Ethernet components you already know quite well. 2. Gigabit Ethernet implementation scenarios will mirror those for Fast Ethernet. Once companies have been able to deploy Gigabit Ethernet successfully on a limited scale. include lesser-risk. hub-like device that interconnects two or more Ethernet links operating at 1000Mbps. the most likely targets for Gigabit Ethernet implementation will be links between routers.
however. thus avoiding collisions. enable fullduplex network to be created using a hub-like star configuration for server farms and power workgroups. comparable to an Ethernet collision domain. All first generation Gigabit Ethernet devices currently slated for production by major manufacturers are full-duplex devices. Adding a third device to full-duplex Ethernet and Fast Ethernet links is not possible.forwards all incoming packets to all connected links (except the original incoming link) creating a shared broadcast domain. **This exercise requires the Macromedia Shockwave* plugin. the buffered distributor is permitted to buffer one or more incoming frames on each link before forwarding them. Unlike a standard repeater. Optional Exercise** Check your understanding of Gigabit Ethernet! This interactive exercise allows you to apply your knowledge of migration and rollout strategies. The switching capabilities of the Gigabit Ethernet buffered distributor. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet and Fast Ethernet support full-duplex operation only as a single link between two devices.
click on the Done button to find out how you did. select the links that are the most likely candidates for upgrading to Gigabit Ethernet. according to the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Once you have completed the exercise.On the following network diagram.
a 64-byte frame would need to be extended with a 448-byte-size non-data carrier signal.500 m for 10Mbps Ethernet. By replacing non-data carrier extensions with additional packets. However. Gigabit Ethernet will allow servers. and not the maximum distance for UTP cabling itself. For example. For example: Fast Ethernet uses the same the minimum frame size of 64 bytes (512 bits) that is used for 10Mbps Ethernet. Fast Ethernet still allows for a reasonably-sized maximum network diameter. and as a result. Even so. To offset the inefficiency of transmitting small packets individually. Fast Ethernet's smaller maximum distance limitations directly affect only the number of repeaters that may be used between stations. switches and other devices to use a method called packet bursting to send multiple small packets in a single transmission event. extends the minimum CSMA/CD carrier event time from 64 bytes to 512 bytes. half-duplex Gigabit Ethernet devices may not ever be manufactured. . If. Gigabit Ethernet were to use the same 64-byte minimum frame size. the maximum allowable distance between stations for Fast Ethernet is only 250 m. 512-byte Minimum Carrier Event As transfer speeds increase. Gigabit Ethernet. Even with its restrictions on the total number of repeaters. The minimum Ethernet frame length of 64 bytes remains the same. Gigabit Ethernet adds a non-data carrier extension to the end of the packet transmission. the maximum allowable distance between stations also decreases. As a result. For packets shorter than 512 bytes.3 frame structure. the maximum allowable distance between stations for Gigabit Ethernet would be less than 25 m. because the maximum allowable distance for UTP cabling is much shorter than 250 m (100 m for both 10Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet). compared to 2. extending minimum carrier event time decreases the ratio of data to nondata by as much as eight. in order to support a distance limitation comparable to Fast Ethernet (100 m from a repeating hub to each device). effectively increasing the overall speed of the network by utilizing bandwidth more efficiently. Packet Bursting For small packets. the time that each frame is on the wire decreases. on the other hand. allowing stations to occupy the wire long enough to detect collisions without modifying the 802. packet bursting increases the ratio of data to non-data for each transmission.Gigabit Ethernet and CSMA/CD Lesson Objectives q q Identify modified specifications for Gigabit Ethernet running in half-duplex mode Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation Depending upon the market success of the buffered distributor. the Gigabit Ethernet standard has preserved the CSMA/CD algorithm so that Gigabit Ethernet half-duplex operation is at least possible.
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and Gigabit Ethernet switches will likely be priced between USD 2000 and USD 4000 per port. Initially. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Considerations for Early Adoption Lesson Objective q Identify considerations for early Gigabit Ethernet implementation Compatibility Some vendors are already shipping Gigabit Ethernet devices even though the 802. for example. for under USD 100. it is possible to purchase Fast Ethernet NICs. early adopters of Gigabit Ethernet technology run a slight risk that the equipment they buy may not conform to the final standard. Fast Ethernet switches have decreased in price approximately 36%. Gigabit Ethernet components are expected to follow a similar trend. Despite the fact that exhibits at the Fall 1997 Networld+Interop in Atlanta demonstrated interoperability between Gigabit Ethernet equipment from different vendors. however. and Fast Ethernet switches for under USD 200 per port.3z standard is not yet finalized. Gigabit Ethernet NICs may be priced as high as USD 1700. Pricing Pricing for first generation Gigabit Ethernet devices may present a barrier to entry for many companies. Over the past two years. Currently.
ETHERNET AND OTHER PHYSICAL-LAYER TECHNOLOGIES Module Description This section describes Ethernet's relationship to major networking technologies. FDDI and ATM. that either provide alternatives to or work in conjunction with Ethernet. ATM and FDDI Identify the advantages Ethernet has in comparison to these technologies * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Module Objectives q q Identify the relationship between Ethernet and other networking technologies such as Token Ring. such as Token Ring.
is it reasonable that they should consider using Ethernet? (Specific answers for each of these questions appear in Lesson 10. If you were told that Company X has already implemented FDDI and ATM. Ethernet helps to illustrate the basic concepts of modularity and hierarchy from which the OSI reference model was born. and Module 11. does that mean Company X has also decided against using Ethernet? Or to use a slightly different situation. The purpose of this module. Having a clear understanding of the relationship between Ethernet and other popular technologies will help you to more quickly understand what your customers are saying. is to deepen your understanding of the place Ethernet occupies in the overall landscape of computer networking. and they ask you about upgrading the engineering department's network to accommodate a new document imaging and workflow application. and has decided against using Frame Relay. more intelligently address their concerns and more competently provide solutions to their problems.Overview: Ethernet and Other Technologies Lesson Objective q Identify real-world situations in which understanding the relationship between Ethernet and other networking technologies is useful As an Open Systems technology.) * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . if you know that Company Y uses Token Ring in their order processing center.3.
distributed networking solutions are implemented on Token Ring networks. 3. Companies do not. or a customer service department that uses workflow and document imaging to process customer complaints and access customer account information. Ethernet's contention method works best on networks that transmit large amounts of data intermittently. however. Such situations would include engineering groups using CAD/CAM applications and three-dimensional modeling tools. overall Ethernet performance has generally kept pace with Token Ring and. . with the introduction of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Token Ring generally works best for networks with a large number of workstations that must constantly exchange data with a centrally located resource such as a distributed database or mainframe application. Ethernet segments can be connected to existing Token Ring networks (as shown in the figure below) using a router that serves to bridge the two networks together. Today. 2. many IBM-based. ATM and FDDI Identify the advantages Ethernet has in comparison to these technologies Token Ring IBM first adopted Token Ring technology as a core networking strategy in the early 1980s. Even though token passing uses bandwidth more efficiently than the contention method used by Ethernet. Only the computer possessing the control frame has the right to send data. Token Ring controls access to the physical medium by passing a control frame from one computer to the next. only 10% of total network components sold in 1997 were Token Ring. always have to choose to implement only Token Ring or only Ethernet throughout the enterprise. Ethernet components are simpler relatively and. has outpaced Token Ring. Compared to Token Ring. In contrast. less expensive to manufacture. As is often the case. the reasons for Ethernet's success include: 1. thus. Compared to Ethernet's approximately 85% market share. Ethernet networking is less complex than Token Ring and easier to troubleshoot.Ethernet Compared Lesson Objectives q q Identify the relationship between Ethernet and other networking technologies such as Token Ring.
Ethernet's recent advances in speed have made the slim performance advantages of Token Ring over 10Mbps Ethernet virtually disappear. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Token Ring's market share will likely continue to decrease. In the future.Token Ring network connected to an Ethernet network using a router.
equipped with one or more FDDI interfaces. connects Ethernet workstations to the FDDI backbone. In general. the economic advantages of 100Mbps Ethernet over FDDI are two-fold: 1.Ethernet Compared (Continued) FDDI Companies usually implement FDDI as a high-speed. The figure below illustrates a typical FDDI configuration. bridges and routers. Consequently. FDDI operates at 100Mbps and uses a token passing access control method on fiber optic cabling configured as a dual ring (the second ring serves a backup in case the primary ring is broken). which is substantially less expensive than fiber. 100Mbps Ethernet NICs are less expensive than FDDI NICs. 100Base-T and 100VG AnyLAN. shared backbone connecting servers. with the introduction of Ethernet switches. Network configuration using an FDDI ring for the network backbone. switches. 100Mbps Ethernet can run on copper wire. FDDI is one of the most expensive networking solutions to implement. most network managers consider 100Mbps Ethernet backbones viable and economical alternatives to FDDI. . An Ethernet hub or switch. 2.
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Ethernet 100Base-FX and Gigabit Ethernet also provide cost-effective solutions compared to FDDI. and on average cost up to eight times more per port. Switched Ethernet configurations. but uses switched Ethernet instead of FDDI on the backbone. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .Ethernet Compared (Continued) For companies interested in migrating to fiber optic cable for either security or future bandwidth needs. Network configuration using switched Fast Ethernet in place of the FDDI ring shown in the previous figure. Network engineers should keep in mind that it takes only ten 10Mbps Ethernet clients transmitting files at the same time to reach FDDI's 100Mbps maximum throughput on a shared ring. can provide multiple 100Mbps pipelines by routing each packet only to the station addressed. thus allowing multiple stations to transmit and receive simultaneously. however. The figure below shows the same basic network configuration used in the figure above. Though switched FDDI solutions are available. in general FDDI switches have proven less efficient than Ethernet switches.
high-speed data streams that audio. Lack of standards 2. ATM has failed to achieve widespread adoption for three reasons: 1. Much of the original lure of ATM was its potential to become a single. video and imaging applications require. Most Ethernet component manufacturers will market Gigabit Ethernet as an alternative to ATM . even ardent supporters of ATM have given up hope for success against Ethernet at the workstation. Network configuration using ATM for both backbone and WAN connectivity. ATM can be used with a variety of transmission media including twistedpair and fiber optic cable. In general. backbone connectivity and workstation connectivity as well. High price 3. widely supported protocol for wide area networking. Complexity ATM uses fixed-sized packets (53 bytes) called cells and provides data transfer rates from 25Mbps to 2400Mbps (OC-3 = 155Mbps and OC-12 = 622Mbps). however. The figure below depicts a network configuration that uses ATM on the backbone.Ethernet Compared (Continued) ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is both a LAN and a WAN technology. Recently. Using standard-sized cells enables ATM to provide constant.
Gigabit Ethernet will provide QoS connectivity by working in combination with upper-layer QoS protocols such as RSVP and 802. like those required for real-time video. more cost-effective and more compatible with existing LANs. the future of ATM will likely remain at the WAN level of connectivity. such as e-mail. If Gigabit Ethernet becomes successful as quickly as Fast Ethernet has. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation . Compared to ATM. QoS protocols enable individual packets to be prioritized so that high-priority. medical imaging and video conferencing.1Q. network managers have looked to ATM as the only reliable way to achieve Quality-of-Service (QoS) grade connectivity for applications such as real-time databases. are not interrupted by lowerpriority. In the past. non-time-sensitive applications. timesensitive data streams.backbones. Gigabit Ethernet promises to be simpler to implement.
Ethernet Compared (Continued)
Summary For workstation-level interconnectivity, Ethernet and Token Ring should generally be thought of as competitors. FDDI and ATM, on the other hand, have in the past filled particular needs that Ethernet running at 10Mbps could not. With the advent of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, however, Ethernet technology can now meet the bandwidth needs of high-traffic backbones and in many instances compete directly with FDDI and ATM solutions. Currently, Ethernet is not often thought of as a WAN technology. Though Ethernet-based satellite communications systems have been researched, solutions like Frame Relay and ATM running over public, telecommunications networks will continue for some time to be the WAN technologies of choice for linking local, Ethernet-based networks.
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Identify answers for the hypothetical questions posed in Lesson 10.1
In reference to the questions posed at the end of Lesson 10.1, Company X who has chosen to implement ATM as opposed to Frame Relay for wide area connectivity, and who has implemented FDDI on their backbone, must still choose a physical-layer technology to link individual workstations to the backbone. More often than not, their preferred workstation-level connection strategy will be Ethernet. Later on, as Company X grows and its backbone becomes saturated with traffic, extending Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet solutions to the backbone, as opposed to implementing ATM or a new switched FDDI solution, will likely be the most cost-effective strategy for Company X to adopt. In the case of Company Y, implementing Ethernet, or Fast Ethernet, in the engineering department and using a router as a bridge to the order processing center's Token Ring network is both technically and economically a reasonable option. Because network traffic between the engineering department and the order processing department is likely to be very low, bridging the two networks is not likely to produce a bottleneck. In the final analysis, Ethernet's better performance for large-file-size transactions, lower cost of implementation and easier management makes considering Ethernet highly reasonable, even for companies that currently support Token Ring.
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ETHERNET AND THE UPPER-LAYER PROTOCOLS
Module Description This section explains Ethernet's practical relationship to the technologies it serves. Lesson 11.1 returns to a consideration of the OSI layer and Ethernet's role in the OSI reference model. Lesson 11.2 completes the course with a consideration of Ethernet as an Open Systems technology. Module Objectives
Identify some of the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet supports directly and indirectly Identify the role Ethernet plays in relationship to a number of specific and popular network protocols
* Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation
Clarifying Ethernet's relationship to upper-layer protocols will help you to quickly understand many practical. X. ATM Twisted-pair. NetBEUI. NCP.1Q Ethernet. Fast Ethernet. LAYER 7 – Application EXAMPLE PROTOCOLS NetWare*. FDDI. IPX. MAP. twinax and fiber optic cabling Table 11-1 * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .The OSI Model Revisited Lesson Objective q Identify some of the upper-layer protocols that Ethernet supports directly and indirectly Module 10 focused on Ethernet's relationship to technologies that operate at OSI layers 1 and 2. RIP TCP. the same layers at which Ethernet operates.25. SMB 5 – Session 4 – Transport 3 – Network 2 – Data Link 1 – Physical NetBIOS. SNMP IP. 802. RSVP. The table below reproduces the OSI model and categorizes a number of example technologies according to the OSI layer services they provide. Gigabit Ethernet. This module focuses on Ethernet's relationship to network technologies that operate at OSI layers 3 and above. Token Ring. NTAS. DECnet. SNA 6 – Presentation NAPLPS. real-world situations. coaxial. Vines*.
on the other hand use TCP/IP and/or NetBEUI. At the network layer. Upper-layer protocols are covered in more detail in other courses. This allows individual Windows 95* stations to establish client-server connections with NetWare* servers (over IPX/SPX) and peer-to-peer connections to other Windows 95* workstations (over TCP/IP) at the same time. Can a single Ethernet network. the answer is yes. works only at layers 1 and 2 to provide the physical transportation of data packets from one network client to another. the TCP/IP packet is handled by the Microsoft client software. the terms Novell network and Microsoft network refer only to layer 3 networking services and higher. Windows 95* workstations are configured to handle both Novell IPX/SPX packets and Microsoft TCP/IP packets. In the example above. entirely separate networks: a Novell network and a Microsoft network. Microsoft networks. most Novell NetWare* networks use a protocol called IPX/SPX at the network layer and above. though it is possible to use a bridge to link separate Ethernet and Token Ring networks. When the data field of the Ethernet frame includes an IPX/SPX packet. nor is it reasonable. but in many cases advantageous. Often times. For example. At layer 3. it is not possible. it is not possible (nor would it ever be desirable) to connect a room of computers together using both Ethernet and Token Ring hardware at the same time. it is not only possible. This lesson attempts merely . When the data field of the Ethernet frame includes a TCP/IP packet. the IPX/SPX packet is handled by the Novell client software. however. Ethernet as an Open Systems Solution In the example above. in relationship to each networking protocol. using only Ethernet cabling schemes and Ethernet NICs support both the Novell network and the Microsoft network described? Of course. Ethernet. how does Ethernet fit into the picture? It almost sounds as if the example refers to two. the software programs Client for Novell Networks and Client for Microsoft Networks run simultaneously on each computer and accept data packets from the data link layer and processes packets according to the rules of the layer 3 protocol the client supports. to implement multiple protocols and run them at the same time. to implement simultaneously two different technologies on a single network segment.Running Multiple Protocols Lesson Objective q Identify the role Ethernet plays in relationship to a number of specific popular network protocols Two Networks in One At the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. For example.
but also other combinations of network layer protocols as well. * Legal Information © 1998 Intel Corporation .to reinforce the fact that by limiting Ethernet operations to a clearly defined network space. Ethernet can not only support networks running both Novell and Microsoft networking protocols simultaneously. Ethernet is capable of supporting a wide range of specific networking technologies.
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