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Consider Z 2

1

dx = ln 2.

1 x

We will use this integral to illustrate how Romberg integration works. First, compute the trapezoid

approximations startingwith n = 2 and doubling n each time:

n = 1 : T10 = 1 + 12 12 = 0.75;

1

n = 2 : T20 = 0.5 1.5 + 0.5 1

2 (1 + 2 )

= 0.708333333

n = 4 : T3 = 0.25 1.25 + 1.5 + 1.75 + 0.25

0 1 1 1 1

2 (1 + 2 ) = 0.69702380952

0

n = 8 : T4 = 0.69412185037

n = 16 : T50 = 0.69314718191.

Next we use the formula:

4i Tki−1 − Tk−1

i−1

Tki =

4i − 1

The easiest way is to keep track of computations is to build a table of the form:

T10

T20 T21

T30 T31 T32

T40 T41 T42 T43

T50 T51 T52 T53 T53

Starting with the first column (which we just computed), all other entries can be easily computed. For

example starting with T10 , T20 we find

4T20 − T10

T21 = = 0.694444

3

4T 0 − T20 16T31 − T21

T31 = 3 = 0.693253; T32 = = 0.69317460

3 15

and so on. Every entry depends only on its left and left-top neighbour. Continuing in this way, we get the

following table:

0.75000000000

0.70833333333 0.69444444444

0.69702380952 0.69325396825 0.69317460317

0.69412185037 0.69315453065 0.69314790148 0.69314747764

0.69339120220 0.69314765281 0.69314719429 0.69314718307 0.69314718191

The correct digits are shown in bold (the exact answer to 15 digits is given by ln 2 = 0.693147180559945).

Here is the table listing error Tik − ln 2.

5.7e-02

1.5e-02 1.3e-03

3.9e-03 1.1e-04 2.7e-05

9.7e-04 7.4e-06 7.2e-07 3.0e-07

2.4e-04 4.7e-07 1.4e-08 2.5e-09 1.4e-09

Note that each successive iteration yields around two extra digits (why?). The final iteration only required

n = 16 function evaluations, plus O (ln n) arithmetic operations to build the table.

R1 4

Exercise. Use four iterations of Romberg integration to estimate π = 0 1+x 2 dx. Comment on the

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