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I, …………….., B Tech (3rd year) of ……….. college here by declare that the training Report entitled “Heavy Fabrication Block”, is an original work and the same has not been submitted to any other Institute.
Signature of the candidate
It gives me immense pleasure to present my Project Report before you. I thankfully acknowledge the staff of BHEL, Haridwar for giving me so much co-operation and taught lots of new things to me, which I am sure will help me in my war future. A special thanks to Mr. ……… for his support during my Industrial Training. I pay my sincere regards to him. Without his support I was not able to accomplish my training. I also thanks to all the working staff of fabrication block for their helpful guidance and support during the period. I extend my thanks to my college for giving me such an opportunity under the supervision of ……………….. (Training and Placement Officer) who is also an experienced person.
ABC MECHANICAL (3rd YEAR) UNIV. ROLL NO. -……….
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
BHEL – AN OVERVIEW
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India a dream which has been more than realized with a well recognized track record of performance it has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72.
BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, Defense, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power Sector regional centers, over 150 project sites, eight service centers and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services – efficiently and at competitive prices. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001 certification for environment managemen
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 64737 MW or 73% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW in the country, as against nil till 1969-70.
BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects from concept to commissioning, it possesses the technology and
5 .capability to produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW unit rating. The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement through renovation modernization and up rating of a variety of power plant equipment besides specialized know how of residual life assessment. orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal. In all. gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on date. health diagnostics and life extension of plants. Cogeneration and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies to make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available in India. Pelton and Kaplan types for different head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally competitive. hydro. The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets. Custom made hydro sets of Francis. BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants.
series – and stunt reactor. co-generation plants DG power plants. BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines).POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D) BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. gas turbines. refinances. A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation). seamless steel tubes. INDUSTRIES BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. oil and gas. Water heat recovery boilers. industrial boilers and auxiliaries. vacuum – and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators. shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). instrument transformers. centrifugal compressors. Products manufactured include power transformers. 6 . capacitor tanks. dry type transformers. Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution. The range of system & equipment supplied includes: captive power plants. cement. sugar. paper. pumps. heat exchangers and pressure vessels. petrochemicals. metallurgical and other process industries. electrical machines. industrial steam turbines. valves. fertilizer.
. chemical recovery boilers and process controls. In the area of rolling stock. BHEL is the only company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants. BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers of electric locomotives. overhead equipment cars. fluidized bed combustion boilers. marketing. electrical multiple units and metro cars. reactors. Special well wagons. production. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz. BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP. It also supplies digital distributed control systems for process industries. both for mainline and shunting duly applications. The Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help augment the supply of drinking water to people. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port handing 7 .. Rail-cum-road vehicle etc. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems. The company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems. engineering. fabric filters.electrostatic precipitators. Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. TRANSPORTATION BHEL is involved in the development design. light rail systems etc. defense and other applications. installation. diesel-electric locomotives. and maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP. and control & instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial applications.
substation projects. solar photovoltaic systems. medium and large switching systems. like transformers. ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles. photo-voltaic 8 . heat exchangers. switchgears. TELECOMMUNICATION BHEL also caters to Telecommunication sector by way of small. INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS BHEL has. centrifugal compressors. well-head equipment.equipment and pipelines transportation system. The Company has taken up R&D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells and fuel based systems. besides a wide variety of products. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL. insulators. over the years. covering turnkey power projects of thermal. castings and forgings. established its references in around 60 countries of the world. rehabilitation projects. RENEWABLE ENERGY Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting nonconventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators. hydro and gas-based types. valves.
Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia. The success in the area of rehabilitation and life extension of power projects has established BHEL as a comparable alternative to the original equipment manufactures (OEMs) for such plants. Libya. be it captive power plants. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia. BHEL possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and complement with International companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished products. TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION AND RESEARCH & 9 . associated O&M. Greece. Saudi Arabia. In addition to demonstrated capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own. financing packages etc. and execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman. Azerbaijan. The company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry. Bangladesh. Executing of Overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned Consulting Organisations and inspection Agencies. Malta. utility power generation or for the oil sector requirements. Cyprus.equipment etc. quality and other requirements viz extended warrantees. The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological. Egypt. Sri Lanka. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. Iraq etc.
BHEL has introduced. leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range. The Human Resource Development Institute and other HRD centers of the Company help in not only keeping their skills updated and finely honed but also in adding new skills. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role.6% to the revenues in 2000-2001. BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. spread over a 140 acre complex. Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8. in the recent past. a positive work 10 . and development of new products. circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers. The Company has also transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for commercialization. BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous upgradation of products and related technologies. 36 kV gas-insulated sub-stations. The Company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world. positive. petroleum depot automation systems. several state-of-the-art products developed in-house: low-NQx oil / gas burners. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE The most prized asset of BHEL is its employees. Continuous training and retraining. The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad. whenever required. high-efficiency Pelton hydro turbines.DEVELOPMENT To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations. etc.
is committed to protecting Environment in and around its own establishment. customers and 11 . and to providing safe and healthy working environment to all its employees. as an integral part of business performance and in its endeavour of becoming a world-class organization and sharing the growing global concern on issues related to Environment. HEALTH.culture and participative style of management have engendered development of a committed and motivated work force leading to enhanced productivity and higher levels of quality. • Enhancement of Environmental awareness amongst employees. Occupational Health and Safety. For fulfilling these obligations. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BHEL. Corporate Policies have been formulated as: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY • Compliance with applicable Environmental Legislation/Regulation. • Continual Improvement in Environment Management Systems to protect our natural environment and Control Pollution. • Promotion of activities for conservation of resources by Environmental Management.
• Periodic review of OH&S Management System to ensure its continuing suitability.suppliers. • Appropriate structured training of employees on Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) aspects. The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in the "Fortune International-500" and is ranked among the top 12 companies in the world. adequacy and effectiveness. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY • Compliance with applicable Legislation and Regulations. • Formulation and maintenance of OH&S Management programmes for continual improvement. the best of its kind in entire South East Asia. • Setting objectives and targets to eliminate/control/minimize risks due to Occupational and Safety Hazards. 12 . 8 Service Centres and 4 Power Sectors Regional Centres besides a large number of project sites spread over India and abroad. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited has emerged as world class Engineering and Industrial giant. BHEL has now 14 Manufacturing Divisions. manufacturing power generation equipment. Its business profile cuts across various sectors of Engineering/Power utilities and Industry. HEEP: AN OVER VIEW Over the years.
transportation. Loyality and pride in the company. innovative. Respect for dignity and potential of individuals. VISION World-class. Integrity and fairness in all matters. Foster learning creativity and speed of response. competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions.The Company is embarking upon an ambitions growth path through clear vision. infrastructure and other potential areas. Team playing. Zeal to excel. mission and committed values to sustain and augment its image as a world class enterprise. HEAVY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLANT (HEEP) 13 . MISSION The leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and services in the fields of energy. VALUES • • • • • • • Meeting commitments made to external and internal customers.
1967. construction started from October '63. 2 important manufacturing units of BHEL are located viz. Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) & Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). The hum of the construction machinery woke up Shivalik Hills during early 60s and sowed the seeds of one of the greatest symbol of Indo Soviet Collaboration – Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant of BHEL.At Hardwar. ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES: * Established in 1960s under the Indo-Soviet Agreements of 1959 and 1960 in the area of Scientific. Following is the brief profile of Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant:- 1. * Major construction / erection / commissioning completed by 1971-72 as per original DPR scope. * DPR – prepared in 1963-64. Technical and Industrial Cooperation. 14 . * Stamping Unit added later during 1968 to 1972. * Annual Manufacturing capacity for Thermal sets was expanded from 1500 MW to 3500 MW under LSTG. extensible to 1000/1300 MW unit sizes with marginal addition in facilities with the collaboration of M/s KWU-Siemens. Germany. against the picturesque background of Shivalik Hills. Project during 1979-85 (Sets upto 500 MW. * Initial production of Electric started from January.
21 Crores). 355.* Motor manufacturing technology updated with Siemens collaboration during 1984-87. 113. * Longitude 78o3' East. Technological / operational balancing. Relative humidity 20% during dry season to 95-96% during rainy season. 2.95 is Rs.63 Crores (Plant and Machinery – Rs.3. 3. 15 . 285. * Height above Mean Sea Level = 275 metres.3.32 Crores).81 Crores (Plant & Machinery – Rs. Latitude 29 o55'5" North. * Facilities being modernized continually through Replacements / Reconditioning-Retrofitting. * Net Block as on 31.95 is Rs. INVESTMENTS: * Gross Block as on 31. CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL: * Hardwar is in extreme weather zone of the Uttarakhand of India and temperature varies from 2oC in winter (December to January) to 45oC in summer (April-June). 76.
4. Delhi.* Situated within 60 to 100 KMs of Foot-hills of the Central Himalayan Ranges. Railway Siding for goods traffic connected to Hardwar Railway Station. Dehradun and other major cities. 16 . * COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION: Telegraphic Code – "BHARAT TELEC. 5. * HEEP is located around 7 KMs on the Western side of Hardwar city.6 KV) (Connected load – around 185 MVA) - 26 deep submersible Tube Wells with O.H. Ganges flows down within 7 KMs from the Factory area. Bombay. - A 12 MW captive thermal power station is located in the factory premises. Tanks for water supply. HARDWAR" * TLX Lines: 05909-206 / 207 * Telephones: P&T / STD – (01334) 427350-59. 423050-423954 FAX: (0091) (1334) 426462 / 425069 / 426082 / 426254 * Direct Board gauge train lines to Calcutta (Howrah). Lucknow. - POWER & WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM: 40 MVA sanctioned Electric Power connection from UP Grid (132 KV / 11KV / 6.
MANPOWER: Total strength is 9904 as on 31. Generators. 8. Condensers and Auxiliaries of unit capacity upto 1000 MW) * HYDRO SETS INCLUDING SPHERICAL AND DISC VALVES (Kaplan.6. HEEP PRODUCT PROFILE: * THERMAL AND NUCLEAR SETS (Turbines. FIRE PROTECTION: Managed by CISF with around 40 personnel and a host of latest fire fighting equipment and fire tenders.96 which includes around 3000 qualified Engineers and Technicians (including substantial number of Post graduates).3. pump drives & power station auxiliaries. 5200 skilled artisans and the rest in other categories. Unit capacity upto 20000 KW AC / DC) 17 . Francis. Pelton and reversible Turbines of all sizes and matching generators and auxiliaries’ maximum runner dia – 6600 mm) * ELECTRICAL MACHINES: (For various industrial applications. 7.
Stamping Unit Project. EDP projects. 6. Blade shop. Quality Facilities Augmentation. computerized numerically controlled machine-tools.* CONTROL PANELS For Thermal / Hydro sets and Industrial Drives * LARGE SIZE GAS TURBINES (Unit Rating: 60-200 MW) 9. The Over Speed Vacuum Balancing Tunnel created for rotors upto 1300 MW (32T. After initial setting up of the plant during the year 1964-72. machining centers and many more. the plant facilities and infrastructures have since been continuously upgraded under various investment projects viz. Today the Plant has unique manufacturing and testing facilities. Governing Components Project.9 M – dia bladed rotor. boring machines. Facilities have also been added and establishments have been created for new projects in Defense and Aviation Project. HEEP: FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE Modernisation and regular upgradation / up gradation of facilities and other infrastructure is a continuous endeavour at HEEP. 6 rpm upto 4500 rpm) is one of the 8 of its kind 18 . heavy duty lathes. BHEL. Motor Project. LSTG Project. TG Facilities Modernisation. milling machines. Gas Turbine Project. Additionally. R &D facilities have also been created under Generators Research Institute. Pollution Control Research Institute. in collaboration with the Soviet Union. HTL modernization and other such schemes. TG Facilities Augmentation.
gas cut blanks and finished products. Hardwar are the state-of-the-art in manufacturing processes and can be utilized for a variety of products' manufacture. hydro turbines. electrical machine. hydro generators. IV of sizes 24*192. acetylene and carbon-di-oxide gas pipe lines. apparatus and control gears. This block has facilities for compressed air. Heavy Fabrication Block Details of facilities: The fabrication block in block-2 which is the domain of our study is the feeder block for various products. gas turbine. II. 36*192. III. Here. oxygen. steam turbine. I.in the entire world. and navel guns. the brief description of manufacturing processes and facilities is given below: 19 . The total spectrum of sophisticated. 24*192 and 24*192 meters respectively and is provided with over head crane facility for movement of plates. unique and other facilities at HEEP. Block-2 consists of 4 bays. turbo generators. namely Bay no.
c) Press section (400T and 800t. • Press section: In this section mainly bending operation is done. d) Shearing machine section. The various machines that are used in different section in this Bay are followed: • Marking section: First of all marking is done on the work piece according to the drawing given and then it is send to next section or machine for operation. cutting and straightening section. The machine used and their introduction is given below: 1. b) Gas cutting section including CNC flame cutting section and CNC Plasma section.Manufacturing facilities: Preparation. CNC brake press machine (340 EHP) This is a CNC machine. In which data is given to machine by the operator 20 . brake press). Bay-I It has following sectionsa) Marking.
S. Description: Material handled: usually S. 400EHP hydraulic press machine This is a manual control machine. Description: Material handled: usually all metal Job handled: bending of 2mm to 25mm thick plate at any angle EHP (estimated horse power): 340 2. EHP (estimated horse power): 800 3. In this machine hydraulic pressure is used for bending operation. In this machine hydraulic pressure is used for bending operation. 800EHP hydraulic press machine This is a manual control machine. Job handled: bending and straightening of plate up to 130mm thick at angle according to the job requirement. and M.according to the drawing and after then the bending operation is done automatically by the machine through hydraulic pressure.S.S.S. Job handled: bending and straightening of plate up to 130mm thick at angle 21 . Description: Material handled: usually S. and M.
cutting operation is performed on various machines according to the job requirement. And when machine is start. The machine used and their introduction is given below: 1. this is a computer numerical control machine. it cuts work piece automatically. CNC flame cutting machine As the name given. data is given by the operator.according to the job requirement. 22 . EHP (estimated horse power): 400 • Cutting section: In this section. A program is feed in the machine and then according to the job requirement.
S.S. Consumable electrode is used to produce arc and air is used to provide pressure for cutting. Description: Operating voltage: 240-260V Operating current: 55-60A Material handled: mild steel (M.Description: Gas used: Oxy-acetylene Material handled: mild steel Cutting thickness: up to 220mm Cutting speed: vary according to work piece thickness 2. In this machine consumable electrode works as positive electrode and work piece as negative. CNC Air-plasma cutting machine This is also a CNC cutting machine.).) Cutting thickness: up to 150mm for M. 23 . stainless steel (S.S.S. and 50mm for S.
S. Non-consumable electrode is used to produce arc and gas is used to provide pressure for cutting.S.) Cutting thickness: up to 50mm Cutting speed: vary according to work piece thickness Gas used: Argon with pressure up to 8Kg 4.) 24 . Mainly various cross-sections are cut by this machine.In this machine nonconsumable electrode works as positive electrode and work piece as negative. Description: Material handled: mild steel (M. Manual plasma gas cutting machine This is a manual control machine. Description: Material handled: stainless steel (S.Cutting speed: vary according to work piece thickness Gas used: oxygen 3. Universal gas cutting machine (UGC machine) This is a manual control machine.
.S. and 3-8mm for S.. CNC shearing machine This is a semi-automatic machine.Cutting thickness: up to 150mm Cutting speed: vary according to work piece thickness Gas used: Oxy-acetylene 5. Straightening machine: Various materials’ plate can be straightened through rolling pressure produced by 50hp motors. Description: Material handled: usually M. Cutting speed: vary according to work piece thickness Tool material: High carbon steel (HCS) • Other machines: 1. stainless steel (S. Thickness and length of cutting is provided by the operator through manual programming according to the job requirement.) Cutting thickness: 5-16mm for M. And the pressure is varied by a gear box.S. Cu and other Straightening Thickness: 3-50mm plate are handled 25 .S.S.S. S.S. Description: Material handled: mild steel (M.). Cutting is done through a blade.
Number of motor used: 2 2. Edge planer machine: In this machine edge planning operation (V-shape. fitting. For these operations hydraulic and manual jack pressure is used to hold the job and one tool is used for cutting as in lathe machine. This section includes of operations like grinding. Bay-II It has following sectionsa) Assembly and welding section for large size units up to 75 tons. • Fettling section: In this section the various operations are performed on the job. 3. Assembly and welding section. cleaning etc. Furnace: The jobs are heated into the furnace for easy working and to give desired shape usually rolled section. chamfering) can be done up to 10 meter length with 6-80mm thick or deep shape at any angle. 26 .
b) Heat treatment section. 3-roll bending machine: This is a manual control machine. The various machines that are used in different section in this Bay are followed: • Rolling section: 1. The machine rollers are run through a gear mechanism powered by a heavy motor. Description: Maximum working length: 8000mm Minimum working length: 1300mm Maximum thickness of plate that can be roll: 32mm Upper roll diameter: 750mm Lower roll diameter: 680mm Speed of forming: 5meter per minute 2. c) Shot blasting and cleaning section. 4-roll bending machine: This is a manual control hydraulic pressure based machine. The machine rollers are run through a gear mechanism powered by a heavy motor. 27 .
aircraft and naval applications. or tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a manual welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode. an inert or semi-inert gas mixture. such as in bicycle. sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding. but constant current systems. It is often used when quality welds are extremely important. as well as alternating current. GTAW can be used on nearly all weldable metals. direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW. A constant voltage. is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun. TIG welding: Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Especially useful for welding thin materials. and a separate filler material. though it is most often applied to stainless steel and light metals. this method is characterized by a stable arc and high quality welds. MIG welding: Gas metal arc welding (GMAW).Description: Maximum working length: 3800mm Bending is done through side roller No end bending required • Welding section: 1. can be used. 2. 28 . but it requires significant operator skill and can only be accomplished at relatively low speeds.
and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. higher currents are needed for thicker materials. Electro slag welding: Electro slag welding (ESW) is a highly productive. Submersed arc welding: 29 . This process uses a direct current (DC) voltage usually ranging from about 600A and 40-50V. 4. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas. Additional flux is added until the molten slag. Because the arc is extinguished. reaching the tip of the electrode. single pass welding process for thick (greater than 25mm up to about 300mm) materials in a vertical or close to vertical position. Electric arc welding: These processes use a welding power supply to create and maintain an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt metals at the welding point. Electro slag welding is used mainly to join low carbon steel plates and/or sections that are very thick. It can also be used on structural steel if certain precautions are observed. this is not an arc process.3. (ESW) is similar to electro gas welding. known as a shielding gas. 5. An electric arc is initially struck by wire that is fed into the desired weld location and then flux is added. and filler material is sometimes used as well. The wire and tube then move up along the work piece while a copper retaining shoe that was put into place before starting (can be water cooled if desired) is used to keep the weld between the plates that are being welded. extinguishes the arc. The wire is then continually fed through a consumable guide tube (can oscillate if desired) into the surfaces of the metal work pieces and the filler metal are then melted using the electrical resistance of the molten slag to cause coalescence. but the main difference is the arc starts in a different location.
the weld deposition rate is high. The equipment is relatively inexpensive and simple. 2MW Furnace: This is an electric coil furnace with 12 zones. The slag that forms on the weld generally comes off by itself. These balls are pressurized by a motor blades running with 200rps. This increases arc quality. Shot blasting machine: Basically this is a cleaning machine where scale formation is removed from the work pieces through the manual shot of steel spherical ball of 1mm diameter.Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high-productivity welding method in which the arc is struck beneath a covering layer of flux. since the flux hides the arc and almost no smoke is produced. since contaminants in the atmosphere are blocked by the flux. also known as oxy fuel welding. Oxy-acetylene welding: The most common gas welding process is oxyacetylene welding. The process is commonly used in industry. which can lead to greater residual stresses and weld distortion. causes slower weld cooling. since it is less concentrated than an electric arc. though it eases the welding of high alloy steels. • Other machines: 1. 6. these blades forces the shots towards the work piece. and combined with the use of a continuous wire feed. In this furnace the jobs are heated up to 1200 ͦ C so that all the impurities present over the surface of the job removed. The flame. generally employing the combustion of acetylene in oxygen to produce a welding flame temperature of about 3100 °C. Description: 30 . especially for large products and in the manufacture of welded pressure vessels. Working conditions are much improved over other arc welding processes. 2.
These welding are same as used in Bay-II but the difference is that here it is done one the small size jobs. The various machines that are used in different section in this Bay are followed: • Welding section: In this section the various types of welding is done on the jobs.Length of furnace: 10meters Width of furnace: 4/5meters Height of furnace: 4meters Furnace zone: 12 Power: 1960KW Sections in Bay-III It has following sectionsa) Assembly and welding section of small size units up to 1 tons. b) Pipe sections. • Fettling section: 31 .
and some finishing operations. The machine rollers are run through a gear mechanism powered by a heavy motor. After the cleaning the painting is done on the jobs. The painting provides resistance to corrosion and improves visual properties.In this section mainly fitting operation is done. 3-roll bending machine This is a manual control machine. • Cleaning and painting section: In this section mainly the cleaning operation is done on the finished jobs. • Other machines: 1. This includes the operation like grinding etc. But this machine is small as used in BayII. cleaning. Also some other types of operation like grinding. finishing are also done on the jobs. Description: Maximum working length: 2100mm Maximum thickness of plate that can be roll: 16mm Upper roll diameter: 250mm Lower roll diameter: 225mm Minimum bending radius: 220mm Speed of forming: 6 to 8 minute 32 .
Manual pipe bending machine: This is a manual control machine. HP: 15 4. Saw: This is a power saw which uses the mechanical power for cutting. Description: Max bending radius: 500mm Length over mandrel: 2meters Max capacity: 114mm outer diameter and 7mm thick pipes. This machine can bend the pipes at various angles. 33 . Here. This machine is used for the bending of pipes of large radius and of large thickness. 3. Single axis CNC pipe bending machine: It is an automatic machine which uses the hydraulic pressure for bending operation.2. mainly pipes are cut.
These furnaces are used to heat the pipes which are going to be bent. 6. condenser main to plate and support to plate are worked. CNC 6-spindle drilling machine: It is an automatic machine. This machine is also known as CNC multi spindle drilling machine. 7. this machine consist of 6 drilling spindle which have computerized control. These drill can work independent of each other by means of different rpm. Both boring and counter boring operation are performed on this machine. This machine uses the single point tool for operation.5. Here. Furnace: There are two furnaces both the furnace are electric coil furnace with maximum temperature of 1300 ͦ C. Horizontal ram boring machine: It is a numerical control machine. Description: Tool material: HSS Spindle diameter: 250mm Max boring depth with spindle: 2000mm Max extension of ram: 1500mm 34 . As the name suggest. different pressure etc. In this machine mainly drilling and reaming operation are performed.
casings. water boxes etc. b) Diaphragm section: Welded diaphragms of steam turbines are assembled.Vertical feed: 4150mm Spindle centre from bed: 670mm RPM: 1 to 800 Total power I/P: 150KW Floor area: 6400mm * 14300 mm Sections in Bay-IV It has following sections- a) Machine section: It is designed for machining parts and units during fabrication stage. then turned and thereafter winding and soldering of spirals on tubes is carried out by 35 . This section supplies small parts and units of steam turbine. c) Coolers section: In this section tubes of coolers are cut to the required size. CNC multi spindle drilling machines and horizontal ram border are installed to help in machining of various components like drilling of tube plates of different types apart from machining of assemblies such as front wall. welded and stress relieved in this section. The unique machines viz. hydro-turbines etc. generators.
Radial drilling machines : Here. These machines can do the hole from 5mm diameter to approx 150 mm diameter holes. The various machines that are used in different section in this Bay are followed: • Drilling section: 1. All the machines differ from each other due to their power.automatic machine. These are then assembled to form coolers which are then assembled and hydraulically tested. Mainly taping and drilling operations are performed on these machines. 36 . these machines are five in numbers.
44mm Wire diameter: 0.9mm for 33mm diameter coiling. and then pipe is cooled by water. The main purpose of coiling is that when water flow through these pipes at very high pressure and high speed. Tinning machine: This machine is also called as polishing machine. 2. 0. Also this process increases the surface area for cooling of gas as it is used in coolers.• Coiling and cooler section: 1. In this machine. Coiling machine: This is a manual machine which performs the coiling operation. thus this process improves the strength of pipe.69mm for 39mm and 44 mm diameter coiling 37 . firstly pipe cleaned with Zn-acid by washing then pipe is heated and send to tinning bath where the temperature is about 400 ͦ C. after then it is send to buffer where extra tinning is removed. Description: Pipe material: copper Wire material: copper Pipe diameter: 19mm Coil diameter: 33mm. Here tinning is done on the copper pipes which are going for coiling. 39mm.
Milling machines: There are two type of milling machines are used first horizontal milling machine and second vertical milling machine. • Other machines: 1. Choke is painted on the work pieces to improve the visual condition of work pieces. Calipers 2. 38 . Here mainly the surface cutting operation is done on the small size work pieces. The tools used in this section are following: 1.• Marking section: In this section. very accurate marking is done on the work pieces that are going to be worked. Dividers 5. Punches 4. Template plate Etc. Hammer 6. Vernier height gauge 3.
During operation the job is fixed and tool is moved in this machine. This machine uses the single head tool. Description: Tool material: carbide 39 .Description: Tool material: carbide Metal worked: mainly mild steel and stainless steel Max rpm: 518 to 635 for vertical and 1075 to 1270 for horizontal Min rpm: 35 to 40 for vertical and 68 to 80 for horizontal 2. Horizontal boring machines: These machines are two in numbers. Mainly boring operation is performed in this machine.
rpm. Lathe machines: All the lathe machine that are used here are central axis lathes. In this machine tool is fixed and job is moving. This machine can do all the operations that can be done on a lathe machine. are also done. different power and also their table is different. slot cut. The tool is double head and the cutting can be done at any angle. groove cut etc. These machines are of different size. 4.Table movement: horizontally. 5. Vertical boring machines: These machines are three in numbers. vertically and circular Cutting speed: according to working material and machine tool. Here these machines use the carbide tool for cutting and other operations. 40 . These machines use the one direction cut with quick return mechanism. taper cut. Planer machines: Mainly the planning operation is done on these machine but some other operations like taper planning or chamfering. feed 3. These machines use both the single point tool and multi point tool. During operation the tool is fixed and the job is move in this machine. surface finishing.
circular saws and bar shears are used for cutting angles. in Bay-I. a) The metal is first marked and cut by the following machines: • Guillotine shearing machine for cutting and trimming steel sheets and plates up to 25mm thick with straight contours.Manufacturing processes: Manufacturing starts with preparation of individual parts before assembly. Combination punch. • • • • b) Straightening rollers are used for straightening plates and large sized blanks and a160 ton friction press for straightening small sized blanks. shear and bar cutters. A unique flame cutting machine is used for cutting steel plates by CNC programming. Stationary and portable oxy-acetylene cutting machines for cutting parts out of steel plates. CNC plasma cutting M/c for cutting stainless steel & higher alloys. flats and rods. A roll bending 41 . shapes.
d) Finished parts are inspected at the working place. c) An 800 ton hydraulic bending and 400 ton press and a 250 ton friction press are used for cold and hot bending from rolled sheets and shapes. All assembly work is carried put on bed plates. GTAW and Argon Carbon-di-oxide shielded arc welding are also used for increased productivity and better quality. Heat treatment is carried out in electric furnaces of bogie hearth. bell and pit types after welding is completed. Small size structures are welded with the help of manipulators.machine is used for straightening and bending rolled beams and angles. Parts to bend are pre heated in a 700 KW electric furnace. when ever needed. b) Manual arc welding is employed in restricted and inaccessible places or where semi-automatic or automatic welding is not possible or has not been established. Welding of high pressure cylinders of steam turbine is carried out after preliminary heating up to 250 ºc. c) Semi-automatic submerged arc welding. After preparation is complete the next step is: Assembly and welding: Processes used in Bay-II and III is as follows: a) Components of units are assembled and tack welded for subsequent welding as per drawing and instructions on process cards. In multi layer welding the roots of seams are gouged and then cleaned by 42 .
c) Facing of pipe and beveling for welding is carried out on a horizontal boring machine with portable type pipe chamfering machine. condensers. f) Surface finishing is done manually or by shot blasting. d) For assembly and welding of pipes bed plates and manipulators are used.mechanical means. e) Heat treatment of pipes is done in electric furnaces mentioned earlier. Weld quality inspection is adopted in accordance with the relevant specifications. Inspection of weld quality and flow detection is carried out by means of X-ray machines. All assembly and welding sections have connections for compressed air. Kerosene leakage test is also done in case of thin walled vessels. boilers.e. Pressure vessel i. oxygen& acetylene as well as Argon carbon-di-oxide mixture and water for semi automatic welding. 43 . Process being followed in pipe section is mentioned below: a) Pipes with diameter of 10-60mm and 38-108mm are cut on pipe cutting machine and oxy-acetylene cutters. Gammagraphy machines of Cobalt and Iridium isotopes and ultrasonic flaw detectors. Bending of carbon and alloy steel pipes of 114mm diameter and above is performed by heating them in electric furnaces and then by hot bending. b) Cold bending of pipe is carried out on a pipe bending machine. heaters and coolers undergo hydraulic test on special test beds meant for hydraulic testing.
b) Pre-weld machining for large sized parts for steam turbine and hydro turbines are carried out in block-III.com 44 . forging. Painting section: Process involved in painting section is as follows. b) Owing to different operating conditions and decoration requirements of units and parts of turbine sand electrical machines. BIBLIOGRAPHY www. high speed cutting with maximum utilization of machine tool capacity and rapid section locating and clamping fixtures.google. a) Painting materials used and painting processes adopted. conform to the standards for tropical climates. c) Provision is made for the application of highly productive cemented carbidetipped cutting tools. rolled section and welded structures are delivered to sections where assembly and welding are done in accordance with specifications set forth in drawings. different processes for painting are adopted.Pipe assemblies are dimensionally checked and quality of welds is tested by X-ray and Gammagraphy. Process being followed in machining section is as follows: a) Casting.
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