PERSPECTIVE D WING HANDBOOK

JOSEPH D~MELIO

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Illustrations by Joseph D'Amello and Sanford Hohauser

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P.RAcrICAL GU~DE TO ETCH1N'G AND OTHER INTAGLIO :PRINTMAKlNG TECHNIQUES; Manly Banister, (251 6.5-9)

ILLUSTRATING .NATURE: How TO PAIDNT AN[) DRAW Pl.ANlfS AND .ANIMAl.S.t Dorothea Barlowe a.nd Sy Barlowe. (2'9921-X)

.PA~NT[NG G,ARDlENS; Norman Battershill. (Available in. U~S.. a.nd Canada

only.) (284.0 1-8) .

ACRYL]'C PAINT~Nn: A. COMPLETE GU~DE,; Wendon Blake, (295,8:9-3) ACRYL~C WATERCOLOR PA~NTING." Wendon Blake. (29912-0)

FIGURE DRAWING STEP BY STE:P~ We:ndo.n Blake. (40200~2) UNDSCAPE, DRAWING STEP BY STEP,- Wendon Blake." (4-0201..0)

OIL 'PORTRAITS STEP BY StEP" Wendon Blake .. (40279--'1) WATEROOLOR LANDSCAPES STEP BY ST.EP; Wendon Blake ... (40280-0)

TEXTURE AND DETAJL IN WATEROOLOR" Richard Bolton .. (Available in U~S~ and

Canada only.) (29IS09~5)

BRIDG.MAN'S .LIFE DRA'W1NG, George B~ Bridgman. (22710-3) CONSTRUCTfVE ANAT 01 MY, George B~ Bridgman. (21104-5) DRAWING 'THE DRAPED FIOURE~ George B~ Brtdgman. (4]802-2)) ANIMAL SKETCHING, AJexander Calder. (201.2'9~5)

'CH~NESE PAlJNTING 'TECHN~QUES, Alison Stilwell Cameron .. (4070~X) CARLSON;S GUIDE TO' LANDS CAP E, :PMNTINO,.. John F~ Carlson .. (2292'7-0) PATTERN DESIQNt Archlba d H~ Christle. (22.2.21~7)

THE ARTISTIC ,ANAT'OMY OF TRE[S;. Rex Vtcat 'Cole .. (21475-3) PERSPECT~VE FOR ARTlSTS~ Rex Vlcat Cole .. (2'2'487-,2)

ART STUDENTS" ANATOMY, Edmond J~ Farris. (20744-7) ABSTRACT DESlGN .A_ND' How TO· CREATE .IT~ Amor Fenn, (2'76731"'.2)

PAINTING MATlERIALS: A S:HORT E,NCYCL-OPEDIAt Rutherford J.., Gettens and

Geo:rge L. Stout... (215.97 .JO)

F~GURE PA~NT.lNG IN OH .. t Douglas R" Graves .. C2932.2-).Q

L[FE :DRAWlNG ;~N C,HARCOALt Douglas ,R .. Graves .. (28268-6) ABSTRACTION IN ,ART ,AND N.AJURE, Nathan Cabot Hale, (27'·482 ... 9) CREATING WELDED SCULPTURE, Nat.han Cabot Hale .. (28135-.3) :PIG.URE DRAW~N'G~ Richard G. Hatton. (21377 .... 3)

GE,OMETRI'C PATI.ERNS .AND' How TO, CREATE THEM; Clarence P. Hornung, (41733-6)

THE ART OF ANlM'AL DRAWIN',G: CONSTRU'CTlON., ACT[O.N ANALYSJS~, C.ARJeATUREt Ken

Hultgren, (27426~)

Paperbound. unless otherwise indicated. Available at your book dealer, online at www.;·doverpu.blicati.o·ns ... co:m.orby·writing·t.oDept~23.Do·ver Publications, Inc., 31 East. 2nd Street; Mineola, NY ] 1501 .. For current price Information or for free catalogs (please lndlcate field of Interest), wrtte to Dover Publications or log o',n to www.d.ove·rpubll-cations .• com. and. see every Dover book in print. Each year Dover publishes over 500 'books on fine art, music, crafts and needlework, antiques, languages, literature." children's books, chess, cookery, nature, anthropology, sclencecmathemattes, and other areas,

Manufacture.d tn tne ,US .. A ..

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JOEPH .. ······· ... ···.··.ll_--=LIO

1,lIustrations by

joseph D",ARlel'i'o, and S,a,nford Hohauser

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D'OVE,R PUBLICATIONS" I:NC.

Mine;ola, New York

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To My Mother and Father

Copy righ. t Copyright © 1964 by Tudor Publishing Company

Copyright. © 1992 by The Trustees of the late J'oseph D'Amelio -All rights reserved.

Bibliographical Note

This Dover edition, first published in 2004" is an unabridged republication of the work originally published by Tudor Publishing' Company, New York" in 19'6,4,+

Library a{ Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data D'Am.re]io,- Joseph.

Perspective drawing handbook I -Ioseph D'Amelio ;, illustrations by Joseph, D'Amelio and Sanford Hohauser,

p. c·m ...

O'riginal]y published: New York: Tudor Pub. Co", 1.964., 18B,N 0-486-4,3.208;.,4 (pbk.)

1. Perspective. 2 ,. Drawing-« Technique. I; Title ,.

NrC750~.D3 2004 7,42=dc,21

2003.048061

Manufactured in the U nited States of America

Dover Publications, Ine., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N"Y. 11501

'C,O.NT'ENT·S

INT'RODUiCT'IO,N .; '. , ' ~ ; , ~ .. ~ .. '.' 4 4 , •• ' ~ ~ ••• ' .' ~ ~ •• ' ' •• , • ~ ' •• ~ ' ' ~ '. 4 ' a. 8

Chapl'er' 1,: ,F:UND,A,ME,NT,ALS Diminution, 9

Foreshortening, 10

Convergence, 11

Overlapping " ... Shades and Shadows, 12

Color and. Value Perspective ~ " ~ 'Detail and Pattern Perspective ..... Focus Effect, 13 Professional Applications of Fundamentals, 14

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Ch a,pter 2: REA L,I TV A.N D A PP EA RA.N' C E ~ ~ .. .' . '. 4 .. .. ~ .. • '. ~ 4 ~ .. ~ 4 ~ ~ ,. ~ ~ 4 " ~ • • ~ " •. .' ~ ~ ~ • • ~ ~ '.' • '. ~ ~ .' ~ 1.5, In Perspective Drawing You Draw What You See, Nat Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 Reality and Appearance-i-Example: United Nations Buildings from Different Viewpoints, 16

R "II" d-- A- E I P k B h f n!a 'V'· '.' -7 eality an Appearance=naamp e: ;~ .. ar . ;: encn : .rom Different Viewpoints, 1

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Chap,ter 3: HOW W'E, SEE FOR PER,SPE:C.'TIVE DRAW'ING . '. 4 ~ ~ .' • ~ ~ " •. ~ '. '.' • ~ ~ ~ ~ .' ~ ~ ~ ~ • " ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.' '18 Cone of Vision . ~ .. Central 'Visual :Ray ." .. ~ PIcture Plane, 18

Basis of Perspective--Lfnee of Sight Through a Picture Plane, 19

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Chapter 4: W'HY AP'PEARAN"CE DIF,F:ER,S FR'OM REA,LITY - TH,EORY' ~ ~ ~ .' . ~ ' .. ~ ~ .. ~ ..... ~ . ~ .. "' 20 "Lines of S"ight 'Through Picture Plane" Applied to Diminution, ,20

"Lines of Sight Through Picture: Plane" Applied to Diminution and Convergence, 21 "Lines of S,ight Through Picture Plane" Applied to Foreshortening and Overlapping, 22

C'hapte,r 5: PRINC:IPAL AI;DS: V,ANISHING POINTS AND EYE L,EVE,L (HOR,11Z'ON LINE) .' .. ,' 23 Aid No, 1.: Vanishing Pointa=All Lines which:in Reality are

Parallel will Converge toward a S,ingle Vanishing Point, ,23

Vanishing Points (eont.) ,-When There: are, Many Sets of Parallel Lines going' in Diti'eren t Direetions, Each will Converge toward its own Vanishing Point; 24

Professional Examples, 25

Aid No. 2: Eye, Level (Horizon Line)~AIl Horizontal Lines:

Converge to a Single Horizontal 'Vanishing Line, 26

Wha t Locates the 'Vanishing Line for All Horizontal Ljnes?, 27

Why the Observer's E,ye Level Dictates the Horizontal Vanishing Line -, Theory, 28

Wh t Lo - th V · hin Poi - f P-- ti . ....,...,.,1 .... - S f P 11-- '11 L· ?- 29 an Lc cates the Vanishing ,omt or a '-ar .. acinar : .. et 0. Para ,19Jl .m,es~,. .'>

Why the: "Parallel Pointing" Method of Locating 'Vanjs,hing Points is Important, ,30 Nature's Horizon Always Appears at Ob server 's :Eye Level, Therefore; it Can be

Used as the Vanishing Line for Horizontal Lines, 81

Why Nature's Horizon Appears at Observer's Eye Level=Theory, ,32

What Happens to Eye Level (Horizon Line) When You Look Straight Out" Down or 'Up?'" 33 Professional Examples, 34

'What: Happens 'to Eye Level (Horizon Line) 'When You Look Straight Out, Down or Up (cant.)?~ 35 Reasons :Eor Choosing a Particular Eye, Level (Horizon Line), 36

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C·ha.pt·er6: DRAWING THE CUBE-;PREREQU!ISITE TO U,N:~ERSTAN:DING P·ERSPECTIV·E~.,., 37' Introduction, 37'

Looking Strai.gh"t Out at the Cube, 38 Professional Exa:mples~ 89i

Locking Down at the Cube, 40 Professional Bxamples, 41

Looking Up B,t the Cube, 42

P f "i'E' I 3 ... ~ rofesslonal Examples 4,

'Cube, Studies Applied to Drawings of United Nations Build in,gs " 44

Cube S:tudies Applied to Drawings of' United Nations Buildings (eont.) , 45

Many Cubes, Oriented in the Same Direction, Results in Only Two Sets of Converging Lines, 46 Cubes Oriented in Many Directions Results in Many Sets of' Converging Lines, 47

Why a 'Thorough Knowledge of Simple Shapes is Important, 48

,Ap'plications ,of' the Basic 'Cube and Brick Shapes", 4'9

Chapter 7:: "~ONE~PO'INT~' AND "'l'WO-POIN'T" PERSPECTIVE-WHE,N: AN:D WHY'? ~ ~.,.,.,,'. ~. 501 Introduction 50

Profc ... I E' -'. I 51

,-esslona. ". x.am,p"es~ '.'. '

Distorted and Correct One-Point Perspective, 52

C'hapter 8: MOR,E ON L,QOKING U,P,1 DOWN, AN·O STRAI'GH'T' A,H'EAD .. ~ ~ .. ~ .. ~ '. ~ ~ ~ ~ .... ~ .. ~ ~ '. 5,3 Introduction" 53

'Things Seen by Looking Straight Out and Things Seen by Looking Up, 54 Things Seen b,y Looking Down, 55

Rev.ie,w: Lo ok in g' Up, Straight Out, Down" 66, Looking Straight Out, 57

'Related, to Vanis,hing- Points and to Cone of Vision, 58

Observer-Cone of V'is1on= Vanishing Points Relations"hip (Horizontal Distortion) , 59 V anishing Points Too ,Far Apart, 60

C"h ".. g. ,I P·ER·' SipEC'-'T-; ·V·· E' D'i"S"'TO' ··R··TIO- 'N'" 58

_I_ ap ,er i - .. , ,_ .:' .... ,... II '.': . ~ . ' . I •• " ,', ,...... ~ ~ " '.' '. '. ~ ~ " .' '. '. ~ .. ,. ~ '. ~ .. .. .. .. ~ -a. .. ~ .. .. .. ~, .. .. ~ ... " '.' ~, ~ ~ .. " " '.' '. .. .... .... .1

C'ha,p,ter 10: D'ET'E:RMINI'NG H'EIGHTS AND WIDTHS .' '. ' ..... ' . '. ' ..... ~ .. ~ .' " ~ ~ ~ ~ ;, ; ~ .... , ~ '. '. ' ... ~ ~ .' '.,' 61 Height Lines, 6,1

Heights Related to Eye Level=L: Heights When Observer is Standing, 6,2 ,2,: Heights When Observer Is in Elevated Position, 63

3,: Heights When Observer is Sitting ~ " ," 4,:: Heights Wh,en, Observer is. Lying Do'WD" 64 Heights, Outdoors ... " and Indoors 65-

Professional Examples, 66

Determining' 'Widths in Perspective= Width Lines, 67

Ch apter 11:' 0 ETE R MIN ~ N G D 'E PT H 5 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . .' , ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ . . .' ~, ~ ~ ~ ., .. ' ~ ~ . . '. ,~ '~ '.' . ~ ~ ~ ,~ '. ~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~. 68 Fm,ding Center Points by' Diagonals, 68

Equal Spacing' by Diagonals 69

,S'ubdiv.id'mg' ,8 Surface b,y Diagonals . ~ . Dividing a Surface into. Equal Spaces ,

'by U'sing a Measuring Line and, a Special Vanishing Point, 70

Dividing a Surface into Unequal Spaces. with, a Measuring Line and Special 'Van i shing Point, 71

Determining Depths, and 'Widths of' Room Interiors by' the Measuring Line Method, 72 Another 'Way of Getting' Depths: The Sliding Ruler and Diagonals Method, 73

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Drawing Equal-Sized but Unequally-Spaced Elements-. Vanishing Point of' Diagonals Method" 74

Diagonals as an Aid m Drawing Concentric and Symmetrical

Patterns on Rectangles and Squares, 7.5

Any Design o:r Pattern can be Reproduced in Perspective by' Means of' a Grid that Locates its Important Points, 76

C ha p,te'r 12: INC LI NED PLAN ESI .. ~ ., ~ • . . ~ ., ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j"., • ~ ~ • • '~ ~ ;. • • ~ ,. • ;. ,. • • ~ .. • ~ • • • ,~ .. + ~ ~ • • • • '.' ~, ~, •• 77 Introduction, '77

Vertical 'Vanishing Line and H-orizon Line are Based on Same Theory and Serve Similar Purposes 78 Uphill and Do\VJlhiII (Inclined Planes) ; 79

Some Applleatkms of Inclined Plane Perspective, 80

Ch'· ',. ,t' 13,:·,·'" C·,llR,C··· .. LE-'·S····· C'Yll:NDER,S·"·· ,AND' C:O N: ES··

_ a p er _" ~. . ... . __ . . "' _ . _.

Cirel d am 8··1

' 1··.· ... es, an,, __ 'e . .!I.lPSes;.t .. ,',

Drawing 'the Ellipse, 82

The Center- of a. Circle Drawn in Perspective: Does, Not Lie on the Corresponding :Ellipse's, Major Axis, 83

Cylinders .. 84

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C 85'

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ones",_

P·' " ::f·· .,~" '11 A" i-: -- Iic .ti ' .. ,' I'· ,8: ·6'··· ... ,ro, ,esmo.nall . PP lca.lo.ns~, ' ..

C,hap,t'er 14,:: ,SHADlE, AND ,S:HADOW ~ ~ .' .. ~ ~ ~ .. ' ~, ~ ..... , '. ~ ~ ~ '."" ~ . ;. ;. ~ 'I, t t ;. • ;. ~ :i"" ;. t ... ~ ,~ • ;. ;. ,. .' '.' •.. ,. 87 Introduction, 87

Parallel Light Rays (Sunlight) Parallel to Observer's Face, 88 Application Sketches, 89

Parallel Light Rays (Sunlight) Oblique to Observer's Face, 90 Parallel Light Rays Ohljque to Observer's Face (cont.) , 91

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Application Sketches, 92 Professlonal Examples, '93

Shade and Shadow Created by Local Point Sources of Light} 94 A,ppli.cation Sketches, 95,

P· rro fl:e·g·Sl···'·o ....... ":"",ll E'·'~·'xam· mpl ..... 9·:6~, '- _.. . lim "-,-... . ,fe" '_

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IN!TR,Q,DUC,TI,QN

A ..... 1'1' ,', ',""'" ""I"" ~- --- idat ,,-,- -f"'- ali"-' .. -t, dent: md rofessionals involved with

.t'LN U,NDERSTAN,DING Q,P' PERSPECTIVE IS man, 1 oryor" _' S. u:-,en Ban; pro ,'esSl, 'R_]; ,i "" ",'.,,_-"_'_'f'~_"

representational drawing, This includes a wi-de variety of fields", such as: Illustration", Interior Design; Architecture, Industrial Design, Engineering Design" Scenic Design and, even, Fine Arts, While each of these areas applies perspective techniques for different purposes and to varying

d f- h h .' ... all f h t b k 1 dg bl dl I - sd t, - b ,', egrees 0.-, -, t ioroug bness, artists m at 0'- -~ t em must " e - mow e I-ea me an _. experience ,-, , m nasic

perspective fundamentals and principles. This 'book provides those essentials.

For those concerned with mechanical (T-square and triangle) perspective it explains and

~' li f-' t' 11 th th t· hi h hani 1- tive i b d

gIve,s. : : e ' -.0 ,a .. 1 ':': e : ..• ·eOfles upon W' . ; er mee I' B'nica , pers.pec, Iv'e lsase_ ~

F-, ','" th ,"" -,' '- ,'--,', -, "I" ", - d vith freeha dl ' ., '- ,t' '~""-,, "'t, -,",C' ,,', ,t'd"-' - all' ,--, th 'I' I····· rt ',' t -,' to.-, inles

. or .' .·08e co,n,carne .. Wl·-.·~ Lree ··an~_ ,perspec Ive ]., prO'Vil ., es. .... '. "e lIDpO .:B.n_, p,rmap .,.,

in sights and "sho utcuts ,,', ne cessary " , fo "r' effective dr -'-a' win g'" an" ',' d life a ketchin g"

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Furthermore, this volume has been planned, as a practical reference 'book for the experienced artist or delineator who finds that passing time, has rendered, certain 'techniques or principles vague; and the draftsman who immersed in a maze ,of mechanical perspective guidelines, feels, the need to review certain fundamentals,

Dogmatic rules for memorization, are avoided, fair they' tend to be forgotten or, eve:n worse, stultify the im . gin ti or Instead, p., rinciples are developed ~n step- by-step fashion accomp anied

. _ .._ .. 1 a Ina I nil _.. .. J ., __ . __ , .s. _. _ _ _, ], _ I .. _ ,__ '. __ , _ _ " +. .

b Y':- explan - ...• tions 0: f th .. ·f~'--- origin 'V,- al Iu e .:·D" d a pplica iti ion and o .. ofte en by th e· dr more o-r less rigorous

',' at 1 . vlr~,J.,LL~". .. . . a ',1. Q,J,J. ", __ . _ __ . _ .. ._ _ _ _

proofs, Such a presentation hopefully will breathe vitality' into these concepts and thereby result in a clearer, more intimate understanding.

It must be emphasized, though, that for the beginner these principles will 'have little value unless they are tested and experienced, This means continually observing perspective phenomena in real life and --.. more important -- constantly sketching variations 0,£ each. As in swimming, golfing or piano playing, proficiency is achieved only' by total involvement,

Practice should, result in a sound knowledge 'of, (1.) the actual form and structure of: scenes and objects, and (2,.) how these objects and scenes change appearance from. different 'viewpoints and under different lighting conditions. Essentially, perspective drawing deals with this appear-

ance of thin g" . ith hot three-dim e "'0 al rsalit "looks' d ho it is best dr n on two

.' .016:, .r ', ,S" z'. e." wr . ow - ,'- -,e... -, nsion :ra 1 Y' rooi S' ana now r ]8 nest .' awn on -w ...

dimensional surfaces such as a canvas, sketch pad or illustration board,

Once these fundamentals are understood and thor oughly mastered, they might be used either in extremely "realistic" drawings or in more abstract or suggestive ones, In either case, a 'work,

ill b ital d at'''' f 10t ill' 'i b b d ~ ual tr th

w. .ne 'more vr at anc errecnve, . or 1 'W u ne nasec on V1S:,- "'-U"S"

It might be worth noting, however, that all pictures are a form of abstraction or symbolism.

Perspective drawing neither claims nor is able to, simulate what the human eye sees, Our eyes constantlymove about, change focus, see depth and color; change according to light intensity and, see things with time and therefore motion, Drawings are static, flat and of a limited size.

. Perspective drawing is nevertheless concerned with achieving a, sense ,of space, of depth and,

f- h hi d d 'Ii< • ithi t th limit f th fl d '"' f Th al oIi' ual

o t ie third dimension wmrnn tne ,-- ts ot the tlat drawing surface, .rnere are, severs I VIS '~;,

principles which serve this end, such as DIMIN'UTION, FORES:HO,RTEN.ING" CO.N'VERGENCE, SHADE, AND SHADOW', etc, The following chapter and much of what follows explain and explore these basic concepts,

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C,ha,pter 1:, FUND,AMEN'TA,LS

Di:mi'nuti,on, - Ob,jects ,A,p'pear Smaller As Thalr Dist:a,n:ce F,rom, The Observer Increases

For instance, someone across the stree ·t", a" ippea ,,~~ smaller ~1L,.';<'I""" th e P" ier ,-

I.. •. ' ' ... ', •......... ,~c.' ,~1.H..l ,.lL U~l _"_ ,-_' ._ .. __

son next, 'to you" someone down the street ap"p - ,~~ still ... Iler and co o' n

!Q!I '~ ': ",,'8w..-::t 16" 1 ,;sma""" c4a..L!1 ~, . '.' ~

A d to thisl to t d ,goo' way' ',"" see '. ,'"'8 .Ji-S ' .. ,,' ex. ,en,:'.

. , , .. ... fo .... _..3 '~th" , "I' h· d h'"· . ld'

your' arm, IOrwruU WI,"" your anr nero

.. ht N '~ 1... el b

upng I '" :' ottce now someona e ose 'Y

(sa,Y 20 f't~ away') stands about equal

t hand" h .' 'ht hil

o yournann ,81g;'\ W: I:e someone

,50 It" away approximately equals the Iength of your thumb, someone 200 ft~ aw ::ay"'" equals your thumbnail and

. '_ : • -,_", ... ,". • • '1"','" ", """""'.""", "I,". , '_" !, '.' I' ,

finally, someone 1000 ft" away (sev-

," ""1 blo .. " 'kg',' ,).: .~.'.',' ··,1:',· ' .. " .. ~b;··I"" :~ han;' 'I' " .. '-

era .. " o-e .' '.' aqua S POSSI .y a, :_" ~g

n .... ,.:'f 0" 'n' tha ',i .. ' t th um ib,

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'_ ,:,,9 eross-nes 0' ra .roa tracks autos rn a" parking '0", neacs m a tneatre, ane , :€!: cars or a rauroad . ram are JUS: 9"

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(10)' F'o'resh:ortening - Lines O·r SUlrfaces Parallel T'o The Observer"'s Face Show Their Max·mum Size ..

As They Ar·Q 'Revo'ived A.W,8.y From The Observer' They App·e,ar Increasing;ly ·S·holier

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1. For instance, a pencil held parallel to observer's face will show its true and maximum length,

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2. .As it is slowly pivoted its Iength ap·pears smaller ... ~

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4,. . .. .. till 'fina]ly the pencil points directly at observer; and only the end is seen.. This could be called 100% foreshortening"

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5. This tube or oatmeal box [seen end ... · OD willappear as a 'full circle .. 'None of the sides are visible ..

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6. When. :it is pivoted sli.ght'Jy the circle "foreshortens" and appeal'S as an ellipse. The sides (which were ·totally foreshortened) now 'begin to appear ..

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7. The ellipse fereshortens even more (it becomes flatter) while the sides E'iP ,', I . 'g'-r'

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Conv·erge1nc,. _, Li'n,e:s O'lf EdiBles of Objs'cts Whi'ch In 'R,e,a, i:t,' Air,., P'ar,a,llel Appear' [11] 'To Com,e, T,ogeth'er ,(i\ie'~lJ COlnlvergle), As 'They Reclede ,Fr.M Ob:serve,r

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Wh~ '~,-,'- ;-, briek w-':-:""'II .jj'Ii::!' i5A ..... n hea d-on (" '. - n '!r.i, '''"a' "-1'=1 to observe ,}, 'f' _-, "" ') th ',,- t' "" " ,'- ,', 'd' b "'~'tr" -- Iines and a-I-I h oriaon ,:1-,"11;]" J~o"'m.o;'I'- tsI ,c!~n a ,'" ,~:_ ,a, .J!i;Ii ''''~,-_ "~" _=v " ,,~,!,e~,~,.- Ie' _u ,," I "'~ ',l' ,(l S , ace" e op an .01.1 ,om,., I-,e~, ~ '_"~,' '!V'" .~,"u,' ,il..(i_', , ,,' ~,'

ap,pear truiy parallel. and horieontal (level with, the ground) ~

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'CON'VI!R'GE!INCE I!Q'UALS D'IMIINI'UTION P'LIUS, IP'ORESHORTENiING: The pi,ckets of a fence, when vi.!e'wed head .. on, appear equal in, be.i.gh,t and spacing. Also, the top and bottom lines, are parallel and level,

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But if the observer turns his head and looks "down" the fence) then the top and bottom lines 'appear "1) converge, :Noti'CE:l' that this convergence relates directly to the diminution of' the pickets as they recede, Furthermore the, true: length of th.e :fen,ce no Ionger appears, but instead is foreshortened,! (NOlte! how' the spacing ,llnd w.i,d,th of the p:ickets, a:p'pear' narrower in 'the! distanee.)

Tb' refore '. _-"--" ','" """, ,""',,' L, thouaht of as the d""~·,-,~·"·,- ,'-1:-/.-','" ",I' ... i .... ,' " .. eed .. :~'.,. ·"'t-' "",,""-"-'''='l,Q!''', ,- And It '"_.- ,·111t.",,'

, eve',.oF'9; con,v,er.gml,ce 'can u8 ~O'U~'. 0", as-_.Je ,_~,.mU1,u~"on 0, Ic"o,se,~:v, ... sp,u=,e, e"e,men,s 0: equa~ ,~,~ze~ . ' ... ' ll. Im.p.,IJ,lBS

:£:'0' resh "r·-~t:!Iift~n,[f ,am" ,",n.,n ,,,"L-', surfs -:- '~', ll:~iIi::I, 'DO' ,t ''t~llj':e'''iw: ed head ,', ,

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[12]

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'VER, -IP'Pill ,,', ., •• ~" :'i 'I , U;, oovious ane ver,Y' Is,nnp, e teenmque not e , ; y ,S, . OW'S WlfU n O:JOO~ are m : ron' : ana WW',C .', are ,m

b'·' -:1\r ,_ '~t,"~l:~ '~'''''l'-' 01."1',- ',-:' ~'.,-, ,,;,,£~""'-t ':,:~ '",-'if achieving Q, 1i:'i18fl,lli:i!ft ,c f' 'd·' cn~1l- ~'1Aild·': ,1iZ!,ng~ ,"" -:- ~'~'.' ..... , .. ,!f1Q N:'J:-ti:,:"AA th,' '." ds "fb'l ,.-".,-:-,1;", .. """,':,--

1,_tlCJ1Si. ][1_ D 8mO Q very unpDrlW;:Y;l,_ way 0.1 Q,l;(Ue" " , .' ~ ~~~ 0 ,.:er,w ~&! g,t"",a",,~ ,m UI-a,w,me~" '--' o'-~ 1 __ 0" ep ,II OOIllWiJon

'w:hen, overlapping ,does not exi'£i!t (right);j,

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SHA,DES, ,AND ,SHlA,D'OW':S: :N:aturally the shape and stmeture 0;1 three~dimensioBal objects 'can be: und,erstood ollly 'when viewed, In some form of Iight, Bo,t :it's, :~eaJly 'the shades and shadows created 'by' this :Iig'ht that render the shapes "readable' and discernahle, ISo working with, Ijgb.t" shade and shadow' will drama'tical]y' help to ,1,iVI€; ,8, dr,Qwing form

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a a. sense 0 ~_~- e tmrc . 'LimeDSlon.

CDIliar ,And Value Pe,r,spectiv8:

Val'ues (black to white range) and colors are b'f,ight, and clear when seen close, U;PI but become: ,I,rayer,~ weaker,

d .... ,11-1 i-.. '11 th ,"

18'D ;ge:n,erwy more n,s!U"W;;8,1 as '_=:eU"

distanca from the, observer inclleases,.,

[13]

Dat !iiI A d -P-" p' .,Ii

_,.81 " 'n' ,:_ •. "e,rn 'e,r,lp.~idv,e

De- ta '·;11 tutor 00' ttems ,....',L

I' '~_"', ans, "~', --, res a n ", nanams C!!U,(a.,

"_" __ I!bi , , ~_. _,. I];J. _.

as 'blades! of' Irass~ the bark 0:1 trees,

I, C ',-' ;iLL" d'~' ,i-:_, - "'''_L!_,,, le' atures 0' if,--

reaves, zne c lSdW,l-iLgUl~I.U]l., ll:: ',~U)JL-'-,-~_,

:peopl'9" ete., ar-e' also, clear and disc-

eemab ;'11,g 'w-"':h;Q1II'iIi close b ut beeom e' - ~~".I\."!7 .. ,

1II..i-'~&,&"'QL_·,JI.~ '_""~~~;&J "")~." ~ "".' Il.! IJ~ . _" I.U,ii!4

-e , '.,',' ,.-'" ,C,', d I' -, sharp w" rh en A ... ,,...J.Le- '-'I.'

zier an,-,ess, mJ.ii:l!',,' __ '_"~Co lLlIt(-Yl_

away.

Th ,",!ii, 1- 1 dl

,'ese ,prmCI,p'_ce8 are rare y ,' .• lS~

cussed in ,perspective books yet the,Y suggest useful techniques for Increa s~, ing 'the' sense of' depth and space In

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F'OICUS, E,ffe,d

Thls principle is worth noting despite the fact 'that only a fe'w a rt"ists, a:p,piI.y

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The eye looking at a distant object wi].llocus B't that object's range; tbinls .in the foreground, eensequently, will b,e "out of focus" and therefore blurred,

F10r example, a distant steeple ,Seell, through a window might appear something' Iike this, Such a 'blurred, foreground-clear background, eft'ect mi.gh.t be, used, to emphasize the center 0'£ interest as, well as, the sense of depth,

Conversely J} wbe'n th,e: ,eye focuses, on fo-re,ground objects, the background will ap,pear blurred and unclear.

IT I ·h, is P'I r·tn .j ·1," ~'-~j '~- ' ',I", ,',1- "d'~ b

" .c _c._~ .' 11 . _CIP, e: IS ra~e Y USE!·· .. e""'

4-'" ;l""", drawl .. b

cause arnsts o 'ra'wtng a view suen as

this lll f- baek d f' thi -

- I_'~- wiu ~:OCUS.'.'I~'''' ani or _,, m order

to see and draw all parts, clearly .. 'y'et If emehasis "i.it" a "sno t liaht" ~a'e'--c"- t

l "_-_ I-' . --'.--~-' _l1~ V·iL J (:",r " , B .!~ ~~,I: '

were desired th .• "truth" of seeing could well be apptiect)

[14]

TI,.."''r':, :",' " ,£",", "i" ,- ,) OVO,'H"'\ oles a,: pain t'-,_

wO protessiona ~u,pJ;, , I, ','

ing and a land seap 'e' drawing employ-

.' ~:. . __ .. _. _! '. I ! .' _ :' '.- :._, . J _ •• - • _ ~. 'I) . '_', .... .". I.,:.

ing 'the fundamentals of' DIMINU,-

T'IO" N':: 'FO"";R"~'S:,HO'- 'R-:"TE' ',- N-:":"'-I-Ni:G"" C" "0"" N'" _

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V,ERG'E,N'CE~ OVERLAPPING, SHA'Ei AN,n ISHADOW, VALUE

P' "RS"'P"E""C"'T'IV'" 'E' PI-"'A"'~'R"'N" PDR'

.. ,_',~,,_' " ' ~ _-___:::, -, ",', J. ,.l·,E:i"I,::,:' ,-'rl."'-

SPECTIVE" etc., to achieve ,8 sense,

r dd th

.-'. r < .~ l '-'-'J - :r'[ :-. _';': ,'-- '~'.: . _'

o space an .nepi ~

NO' Passing, by Kay Sage .. Collection o( 'Whitn,ey Museum of American Art, New York

Project for Frank:lin D, Roosevelt ,M- Le ','~I,o,r;n_l"na' :'r~'~' J" 'oseph D'Am le- lio.

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A- ",ll..,i ......... it.Don Leen Asso late R":'-'-'d,1

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e WIJI,lU,A 0-, a IWL 8; geneE,a~, as

bein - €I 'p-:o_.,ii.., ... - uular '1Hl.'~ i.1I... pa'llal-I-1 'i::ii-!I<d - -'/' . ~- i.I:";:UILC:UIIt·:~_ ,w, 'HJl,p,..I.;_: .. ,~ ~l- es,

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an ,0 _. ," a.al0S, as rounc Ii

C- --h !i'lidre-, be .. d

",l.l"_,en,_~::lmners" ,an:~, some so ... ,

n',bm't - 'til!' eat ed ar·tll!"m ....... WI'!! II dra . 'w j!.L,o'il"i"ii .",'il.. ~ -

~i' "". ~ ..... ': :',1.-.' r_gl~l .... ·.--.· "0': _--: .1· .• · !U-I~_;I;_. :WlSl

way' re,ga:rdless of 'vj.e~int (t'ef,t) ,_,

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enuoren eeeause .~_~Y' ,Bca, VISual per ..

~:..... ,;,;Ii ts b th··- ;0; h t

ceP'WLUD, ar:~1S _: _' ,_'ec8'use '.~ ,-,ey WlEt'_O

ex.press the true essence and pf,imary natur '.' '-. ,nf'-' th e- ~D·b~·'- ct---l 80- th,· - th'. ". - -----·bl

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- ._.' _. ,.,.. '-- -" '._'- _.--.._ v· _ _ ' -. . :!" . _. ''-i&Dc '"

are: doing the same thinl - they are ...l' ..... a··w--:-j"'Il"'ila th""'n,~'!(!II! lJ."d~'---.gn or men ... Al .;"~'if'ii'I·-···

U-I-' _ _:,< _. ;iLIL~~ _ )1I;i~ _._.~, ~.,,~ :. __ .,:~_!IW1._: ~IQ -e ·":e

of 'the. s1lbject.

The- - ;1._, .. ,- s- "p. ··pea···''W!!an· . I; ~ o· .: ·.f·~ ~,:, ... ;!I...~a, '0-: -n" iI!:II

w: u.c '_ ,. ..' . .,11, . • .'"'~ ,,~.l!II;;;'!Q '.' _ u

table would be: oDin,tical shap es, on a.

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"QDII"e" r,a,ina' f~'o res -h' Art' Ann d surtae

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(Tight), ..

The beai dr '. f'-;;

,e~,:gmne,r,~ · ... I~awmg a rent Vjlew'

,of the face" would tend to draw the ~d- -. - .'- '1- _. ,--.- - -. (leit) '!itt- . de- f- ~;l.;.., lJ: eo 0., ,a ,nose " W.' IDS, :sa' '. 0' I",

fo' .'II!'!iOiI:!II'h: ortened a p, ~',.ilfilft';i'i,~'_

.. & ~g ul; ~JIJ~=- ' .. ,r~a..lJI~V!F

The same 'tendency created this un!-

al ij; -. '"' ~d ,"' ·0 "1. -

re ,mtl,c eye. m SJ, __ e 'V]ew' (rl'.rj;t)~

Ag-'~m th .'~ idea ftN:liC d rawn instead o-'f'

_ ~ ,g __ __~ _~. 'wy.'gg;, _ in'~;I" __ ",_~,_,_ ."

the true! ap pearanee,

'_ 1 _ ,_. '. " . ,_,._ _ '_ _ ~" ,!III

Wave your fist at someone across the

room" 1'-'5--'- o-r-' 20~' f',t away'" A:· b -OI'~',--,-- .-

. Ji "' .. • " I.~ "... ,..,e~,mner ,.

th ,::: .... '11,.,.! ...... (f 0" 011' 'y 0- ·:f: ,&.1L.. ~ "__"''ii,a, iIO!'; ~d-CI .nf'

,-IJ.H.IJt!I.JJ.II$,'-" ,': . e, IU,I'¢' U U~ !;;!I'JI;~~ .y

bands and people, would. probably

~-nd": "-,..J-nl' t",L.e--:· seene t· ','1..:',,,,", h'Ja-"-Y"'- (·...'l:ef't·)·

I~ ... ~' 1VlJ.! ~." ,-~I, ~,~ ,. ,~-E1LGS Qi _, ' _ '.' .. I .. '-!

But the careful observer would,

.g- .... " . tha ' ... t' tho. har d- ---' "1-" t .. -.,- - -

I,' I' .. J'. . . - ,- r -, ,',.. - I .. -. _. _ ....

n,O ,ce .... Ie, I ,an _ was, amos.. one-'

third the he.igh.t of the flgure, and so draw it~ Over:la:p:p1ing and, value perspective. help to dramatize the resnee-

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till' d f f' .,;,1.." .... , ... ,

'lye nearness an rarness 0" u&e!

elem ·C. ents ' ..

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T - - ted' bs ch'"':-ld" cl b

_ 0 a sea,· ... · .•• o· .. · .• erv8r:ll' a. '.1:1 il' I .. _ I·ose ... ·Y'

and ~ 'I"Iii ad: ult f· i1i1i~th-~' - A'P c=- '.. -' .. ,,' " .. j ',. ·h'';' ,,' ' ..

o.:LJI. - a,u" c. ..1_ .. !!,;ILL: _\VI" ,away mlg 'I!. ,a,p

P- ear' ,this, 'w,~y", and should be drawn

-- - ,- - , ---- .. 1!O;i!I;;:- " . . - . - --' -' • '---

th"" Your I t II tu I ld f' the-

, , .'. ' . ..... 1 'I " - - ., -. , ....

:ts, way ... our m.e ··,00,. ,R, 1.'00,0 .... ' "

relative he,ig'hts of' children and.adults might suggest differen'tly',~

A- ift~ .. - ,,. t d dire tl t

',..' I - '- " ,'.' ":, .. '. - -- ,- .. ' ~ c • '-:'" .'.' ,,' . ."'.'c' I

r e pom ,e - ., .' c,y 81' your eyes

- ~; "h- t . t . -- - - - --- f- .. ht '';' t rmg .', .~' no _ ap:pea.;r 'v~rlg 'I'e,rung at' ,

firlst, fOl' you hardly see the ]iethal~

, , ',.' - d- 1 '11 . -, - -.. ,. ..

y,ar-~-'Long weapon~

(11)'

R,ealit,v An,d ,Ap'.·p· .: 'e,arance _, ,ExaJmp·.' Ie,: U,ni'led Nations Buildinlg,'ls From D'!'He--enl 'V~ewp·a'·--ts

--- -----'. --. - - ,--' ----. - --- - ',I - .. - -- - .. ,., ',> - .1 _r ,,__ I" _ ,.Inr

;a, ... e OlIO

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'Iii We, all know that the U~N~ tower is a SDnp]ie rectangular prism whose facades, are ,all pure rectangles, 'When it, is viewed directly from a distance" say from 3'ClO,S,S, the ,river" ,this pure

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3 If we 'DO'W' come closer. and look

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str.aig"h,t ahead" we see 'the bottom of ,""L,D; b', "'''I,~~ld' m" I"'" th - 'e I ::. ntran . ,ii'!!! , -. , and 'th," ",

11loJl.l~ u..u. . , , I 0' I . .' .' e., toJ[i . - , ....... e.." cU..I., , '.' Ie

f' d Fro this' 'II' 'II' 'II' t th

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__ Qra,glOIJn_'I' '"I"m .:, '~,,' .. ' Vlewpom,~: _~_e'

ho .. '-i'I'j!'.t"'i;'iIIlf\ .... I W· In ., ...l)1 ..... ,W, ,'ll'!-ec still ·C·. ·onv.o;"'I!'!'0e

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andfa d tan I ...

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, acac e ~ec_,- gies 8l,gam, converge

and f:o:r',esbo'rte:n,~ But here vertical Iines ~OD'vn'rg' e d 0' ull'IiI1i;n:ro'[-3i..... W' hil e" horl

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river or the avenue", its facades, a,ppeal'

foreshortened and, the roof' and, windO'w lines seem 'to converge, 'Only the verriea I Ilnes main tain th,e,ir true

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4,. Upon looking' up 'we notice that for the: first time th,e 'Vl@,rticaJ lines, appear

to converge (upwards) ", Also", the roof

and w,i-n=- d o ·w-· ,;-' 1-]1-n'=- es n-- Fi;i'W',' eon verge

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downwards. to the left and rilh,t

6.. From, directly' above, only the rectangle of' the tower's :roof is, seen .. T,his, barely expresses, the building's form"

A, d-:I-"',Q -C:¥.!Iit 1l...-, ~'lld.""n'g -- , .. ,·t' h - n· - - tI."'no", jaeen -' IlJU~.Jj,ll'JJ,J,,',S, WI,,' ICO: tvergi : E!;

facades are more comprehendible,

Reality ARid A'ppeara'nce - Exa.,ple':: PI,ark Ben,'ch From Di,ffe:rem Vilewpai'nts

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'1'~ In realiWt this bench :is, composed of simple rectangular' prisms. A, 'boy' ellmbing a tree would have this rare view of its true ,g.eometry.

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see it still dillerentiy~, The 'verticals

no' 'w" QP" p.iflii!lili., tr~ ..... ,]I'y. vertica 11' . - - h ~'-I;O; th···.a.

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2. His parents at, ground level migh,t have this v,ierw,,, Tbe horizontal and vertical Iines appear to converge and, all surfaces are foresho,rtened~ (Tile

1i: rer , tical I-m'"' ... 'O'~ g= 1~'V~.~fi '~I Ii:i!\O''i"li11Ci;!! :··a of vertical-

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ity but they' are not actually 'parallel to the edge of th,e Plf:le'~,) Note thait this viewpomt is more revealing than 'the first~

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'-' "d' I" "'ked-c'~ at ,,,:t.. __ . end t.." ........ ,·d·· . ,-- 4l.L.'fi ani .. , oO~..:.--.~·· 8. ... ~ ~.II,'., ,I.~'- -ODtII, '14I1~

true loometry' Oil the end rectangle'

W· d appea 'Tb bench to thoueh

wo':. '~-~iy-r .. , - • 'e::- :' ..... "p,~~-. P,' ~.,~

would strong:1y converge and for-e-

sb rte N·· .. ti tha· t the h ~ tal

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A persp,'ootive ,drawino wil look correet Q,n1y. If the ,ft_;:nt'~s viewpo"'" ··int:· and his direction o'f v···jawing the suo b·-·J'·ac~'t' GI~

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"-1' .4i.,:., . I ' ·fi:=-'· .-' d' Th' i!I,_, ' . . dr -,-' ~'-. - . ;jit,'it.. .. '11"-- ~"te·d·· li:l.Q;_I..J ' f: - " ... " Th' f .01 n, I'd' "'.. .. . -II . I'lidl tho . C'='-O-, 'NE' I O"F' V' I-'S~·''''I'O- "N'

,r,edl.,~ve'"--Oyxe._. -, _:. lIS ,means, ._' . awm~g W.I IU 8"llml :.- _.-,ut:1. 'u 0,. vllSlon~. . . I. . ,9 ,D,e '_ 19 usu,a y ca,_IS ' ' e ..... ''=: :.", .- I,'._:.,':

b f th :,_.Jl!,_ ·'t ber of sl 'ht lin h'"'···:L ·.;;'I! ... te " Iik - tern fr- th (In eal Ii h'l' th I'·

em use 0', , ne mnnne numner 0'1 Sll 'I.' '_2-189 Wi:ou ra,u..' ': m a cone .. " .:,0 pat: I .•.. ': om. ".,' e ey,tl: .. :.· 1\'· _1.1.ij7"_ ese . mea,

are iig"'ht ravs comma !'Tolm the subject to the ey-'e-) The angle o-·f'thifI cone is b,tliitw,"':."e':e"'o'" :0115:, and 6:0,'· d-:e·are~· ti!!le' If"a~' g"W".IOa"'--r

l~.~, . ..:.... ..:l._ .. ]·._.J"I' -'·_._:........_:..___'ID '. '.' ' .. ' . __ .:"'" _'-." .' .'. L ._: .. _.~ 1!1" _' _ . ..,: __:J .. ' . ". I.' '." "';' _~ :~l .- ,-. ~~ lp.JLiI,!:;.._·.· I!Jp "~.i!!I.:.__,l'., . .&~LC'I

angle: is used. ,in, at drawing; it implies, a moving cone o'f vision -. and the picture will be distorted, 'You can. 'test your

f Ii... b 11 I~;o. ;, ht -'L .. ead d' '. !I ' reb d' · and f-'" h

CODe· 0, VIfU .. OD:,ry :tOOAmg' straIg!~'1 a.u~ an, 8wm,g.mg your outstretc e". anna ms ' .. out ,o,~ ,Big·t.

'W,hen, we lookabout, esse:ntialJy what we do is locus U'POD 8. suceesaion o,f spota or "cen.ters ,o,f' in'ter;est," each of which .' .c· .. ;red b Ii h- t l'~ t th t 4-..... £ ....... f' 'II<, TID- '1', 1 ~., ti< '11 the' t: ","""",,"", 11.:............ f' ~, 'bf]!'li! .IS, m.,·~_ ".:y a Blg.·- me a:' ':. 'i'e' axa'e', center O:!l ':uil~' CODle' 0: V1SIOD .. '1 ,,~_·;s, nne UJ, somenmes ca_ ec ne 'ce:n'I~- nne 0'_, ;!ug II, ,.

or the "central direction 'Of' seeing." W,e' shall call It 'the. CENTRAL VISUAL RAY~W,hen ,YO,U look through a

'-1 h Id iI-~' L.,,,"", lt ", t til ", .... 1 tho ·'1 !I , I ' .... 1 ~ '1

te .. escope or .0._ ' a penc I,. so that it appears as a pomt '1'_La IW escope or 1 ie penei lS exact_y on your cenuw V1Sua· ray ..

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To understan :'::. d p~"e'rg~ti-<i"v\'e lka'"·w···'·mO' a 'P-'II'CTURE-':' ,-:" 'P'LA ... ·N:··IE··· must be imaaln ed between tb'· e: obs .... rver and sl.lbJ·:ect

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T'H' IS':'" PLA·"·· N'·' E'_' H:'A··~····S····I A'> IC'··']O·'·· N',·: S""T' ,jANT··· .. ", R'" I,G' .'. ,HT__: "A:'N"<I·G.~' L'·'q HE·· :"·LA··· ". T' "'I-'O'''','·N: '8;-: 'HlP: "W:~~I-;TH- c::__:- TH" 'CJI C'·E· N'" T' HA' ..... u ··L· V_:.::IS' n ·U- 'A, .... · L-=-=· R:"A" ·'Y-'::· .

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So·~w· ,h;ec':-n ...ll-aorina '8" ,S'jr'l1:b(.'·J:~tAt'Ii,t wh·,o··th"'e·r· I'"'··t-' ~,i:!iI '8"00' eve b'olo'w' er ~~:ght- shea',"· ." d··" ';' ....... azin - s' ~ri'iII!·''H!i'm·'' (!J! it jj.L ......... ugh an" 'O"',rn,'n"l~n"'lt

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p,~ ...."._ .. ,_.... . 'l~ , .. '.-, , ':", hi ~ _L .!. c .. - 'e" d: ,.., )" ... 'to- ,. .' ". ,- .. ....__ iI ..• ' '1- _.:,' ~, ,--,-., · .. , .. ,_ .. ded b -:.'C' ,- .. -:, ..... ·.f- ,,-~ . II ,., .

. rcrure .Pl ane w ~ tal 111, perpe·n_:lC,lL8Ir.· your ceDw:w, visua , ray SUl:rowlW:'-" ~Iy a eone 0 VlSlon~,

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The: concept, 0, ·i.J_ie PICture p,IalLW'ma:y ne !'8'·:' 'r' 'I:'~ . 'ersujutu ~y OOALIlg 'u.u~O'"g'· ,B wm": ,O'W or otner transpa ,9D:~· p :~·,· .. ·e

f·,· "'C" ,.c_~...I1 "~':"'" .' '"~--·t··· 'V." 1";:- ~"iI!!iI ·o·f· "'·~ht· ·the·· mnltitud '." "'~f' a~·,·' ~ht 1;0· ",",,~I lea .. ad iii ~ fro" ~ v'our"" ',.'" to Ll,.;.·e··· subi ct :··'11

: . rom a. IUIi.\eU Ylewpom ~.~ ~ o,ur --,me~ , c' .11 1511-'-2 _"., J,. . . ', .. _, . e' 011 .~'iL<-,;,al\g ,m~ ,_,' ." mg I··m.j ", .', !eye .~. lrUJ,. ~i .1" :Jec.,~ WI .. ,

all :inten;ect this plane, Thelieiol'le, if you were to reach out with, a, grease penell and draw the, Image of the subjied

.i.L .:_1 __ ,...... Id be "tra '. di the' 1 !:.-.t:_:.t be f' !I' ~ f·..· t· f'''' ht d 1,.......... Tb

on, 'w;lIZjl pw~ you WOu:e- "~~, cmg OU~···· ..... riuiuil~:e numner 01 points 0 Intersec non 0': Sl;g" t rays ana piane .. , .' '1 I"e:

................. It - - ....... 11...1 'L..- tha-~· .. 'III- . ~ _ -"wd ha '. ""';'" . .~ .. - ~ d"'- . - '1- ... 1.._ .... ..l iii ~ -.-~. -~'"'. nal'l . "b-" '!'. ..·t- to .. ..i:.r.'I\ rI '" .. - .-- ." -. 11· ''1_--

rt:2IiW ;. WO'w.u U8' 'J~".:' ,you WOo II.' ,: ~:ve iW"ans'lc:rr,ec·· a rea uu~,e,~lmensIQ __ ',I.~ 0 -~ J6C,' ' ..•. a iIIWO""'L1.meDSl.OIlaJ. PUUle,~

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'.'j au ean te:De uus ,expe'rimen't ." ry

loom,1 'through a 'window ·tha·t has vertical and hg,rizo,nta ' pane divisions, or through aD_Y transparent sheet that

b-- as ·L---· .... ·n 1 ....... ...1 ff·... ... Ilar id ,.'. oeen mar:.a..eu 0 r m a SIID_,,_ :'~ gnc

na,t·te,m with eravon or bv seorine

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H'· . tb' ti·"~_·l db" I ere ne 'ver. car ana o:r.lZOntat.

lines of eaeh small rectangle ,clarify the dlirection of oblique, or' eonverg-

... l' ii, 'L...... [I' w-- -, ,'lIl..-!_ lth

me ines ueyon· .'.' _'-::or~.g WI ~ such

a ('-r-e,fer.a.n.Aa, fn"'l';;d:- ", O· D" e 'can······, ..... """ :'""':::':liy'" .

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""_'.!I"!Ii,'II"Ii,B·fer· " th··· A Jt!'~e'" to:" . ....:11"' .. ·tch· I. pa" d-

'H·!(1U...IO", .' r " ,'..... ~.iIi! ~ I G ~ a ~e ,- . ..: ... ~

~!""', iI· I t ended .J.,.u,~ lSI sure 'y no ... a reoommeae "I~_

..ll ........ ·wm·:--~ ....... f'.I ........ ehnlq 'U'--:' b I" ;Ii. ~t· do . ", ..JI-,.;. " .. , " .t-'. u.a:i':I., .. . .. :6, ~H.U:_ _e 1-,' .. ~ I ... oes ura.JDa : '

ica]~y show the basic' theory of perspeetive ... In factJ the word perspective comes 'from the Latin 'wo,rd "perspeeta" w1...·.:: ...... ..,.. 't"W!il,n.q'n,t!1 "to 100" 'k- , thro "" .. , .. rh ,,;,

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YOUR C,ANVA S"" SKETlCH PAD,;,

'OR DRAWING B~··O···:··A····RD·· ":. ITHE"7 I' ':·'RE.·· I.,'

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FO'HiE::1 IS~:,,-:-, THE~-:·I P~~···I·C··T~~ 'U----:-:-REC", I.:: pC--::U·c··NE-··· .',

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0- N:J' IT- '_. '. I' 'S' c: D'RA" . WN· .'. ,I···· . WH:· .. · - .. A" T' I W· · .. ··:'O'--:-···ULD· T '---:"

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H'E SEE:N 'IF' IT WBRE TRANS-

PA'" 'RI :'E-r-'NT' A···· ND' HE"LD~- I '.' P'~'R'P'DN"!'

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nICULAR TO 'YOU.R CE:NT'RAL 'VISc:_'I'_'~U-A~L-, 'RA~"'·' .y" .

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-~, ~. _~,._"~, ,":-., '!y" d' '._.d:_ 'the~ .' _!i1 ,,1 t... ....... ;., 'f D····I·M· 'IN' U"TI'f"O"N' C~'O"'N"'VE" "R' 'G" E~ ··N·":C··iE· ro··· "'RE' I. :S'"'H-:'I O-:R:·TB···· '-'NI"I"" '. 'G' ':.1 A··-NDC-· .' '0' 'VE':'~-L:--R'

more pr-eCJBe., :~ ODIe'. I~ _ V.lSUail l.J't\UI'lS 0 .. ·.' . r· .. ' ,L,__:_'_ ;.'~. '.' "._" I.·I.~ .. :.1-,:, I.' ." ,. ... ' ,~ .~ . ___:_, I. : ..... '. I ~ ~I '" '.,: : • .1'.: ' .. , , ," . :"'. 1 .. 1 .'_', ..... : ~' '-',l_,--

:LAPPING" and lexplain d'ia,gramma,ticsIU.y why the: appearance· of aD, 'object so freQl19Dtly diftien from its reaJity'l

III'Llne' O"f S-=- "glht, Th' - ~ 'h' p. ·Iul.. P- III n' el' A' p" -~ I'·' ~ d- T- D'l iii nul! en

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P,ICTU,AIS PLA'N"E AS !lsaN By ,ces'B _V,S.

DI'MIN"UT~jI'O''':--N'' O .. ·'BJ·· .. DC·_·-TS--I O"F EQ-"UAL S'I'ZE A-'-PP~ "DAR~' S'M"A'LLE'R"j AS" 'THEIR- ~ 'DTS-TAN' CE DDO"'M' THE'

.-,.J ....• . '.' ._ ~ ,'~.d". ~ :. I I ~: .,.1.':, , 'IC:C..:",._~ - _ ·:A_"c_:__:..-. ,\" I'· II :-j 11-- _.Jl1- __ ,.~:_.",.' .Il"',JRi .,'Ii "1''-

OB'~'DR'1:t'Cl'R' -I":--N' 'c" ."IRE· . AS'~' il::'I"'S' . Th'" - - ~ . ~ - iii . ., _. both- - tan ~~ii!'iiI,1III' -- _-Z_ ......... lIiJ .•• .. "ht (: b' t - t dlr - £1111 II; 1';;"" "th-~ -

!~~n~:" ".y..D~.'.' ,'· ... ,1 .... t. .. , .. ~."" ··.·.esepenc s are bott :s,;,· ~.':p~!Ie.t;:LI,yup,rlg ' •.. 'Ju'-nO~ ... ll,eclu:ym meWl_~.·one'

aneth " .' i·'f· th-' I . ", '. " '6'PD .... ]k-, 'IP.On p, .,' .,-..... ''!'~'l " ., 'ltd' b .' ov' erl appe' :.'- 'd'- B1I"II·d' .; -n:nll' . ,1 'd'" ')" '~Pen:·""":11 B· ,- - - ~nl'ir'R ,-',' ,,_ U· ~ than rw:mc' 1""1 A····

'._ v __ e:l-.1 eyw,~~",~.JIL~.penClJ,WOU'·· .e··.'!W,·_, .:·'::~_'~II>,,~'Cu.lll!,ceal~e"· .• iI' ,I.,;B_ apr-'~~sma er_>i ~,_.,."'~

T- L,:!'_, .'. ' .. '11..._ - ~ -- f th·· - . - .. _.- - !I'- - 'hi' "'ch th l' . f oF ':-hl 'I, - d' ii' - fro'-' to' .. b" - ,~l '-- ;I:., ..... ,-~ -- - -t (. -!Iii: "~:pi ....... o)

IUI5i .IS, so ooC8:,use 0' 'e manner m w •. , e " ". " e ,.mea 0; 1 Sll' . i r, lea ;ID,I _ ~ .·m eye .', 0 _:Jie~IGJl .m·Lvrsec, . or .... pro,Je .... ~· ODw'

the iciture~ - lan

...... _" r . -"J .-' ,' .• ." ,'-.

p _:1. _' .... p_: _I__ eO!

'.

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P,I,CT'U,:AE, P'L,A,NE AS ~,eEN By O'B,S,E,sz.VB,R,

n-- Y-M' : 'IN' 'U'TI' '0" N":' '1 I.i"ll...:'_ .. ,. th_.;- - ... cils'""- -.~ - l1i·!JI'·'-- ~ ;0, - tand _. , . fa'b"I' to-c -~.' '!Ii 't'!I! " _. f~ . --- th~ - - bs .:-~ -~ A'~'- "'-

'.I.. 1_ .. " _ ", ........ "n w.m case,. _ e peD:.~ __ are lLjmg' m .. Ii. ,em. on ,a.'>e·.':·p, pam mg ,away rom _;_Je. o:Berver~ ~~~gam

'the penclJl furtlhest, ,awa,y .a,ppea.rs and is dra:91D shortB~ ... Why' tIt.is is, so ,is, Blain explained b,' the way in which the

Im'""-"Aa! 'of' ,a I'"' .... 'L.t- lea #lli"M,pjf!"_ .. - _iL . ,_:1 m'i' .~..,.ct' the'· - 'Pl"'~''Ii-'"'' --'1111

._,:___~~ I. . IDe p.a~: .I:-~~16 WI eaa:J, pen~ . I ~~:_:: __ '!~ ~,'I .' lI;,;."'U!l.t:li p.8L9.

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.'SN,C.. '" 8 ,@f I

":ILilnes Of Sighrt' ThrDug,h Picture, PI:ane" AiPpl'ied To, Di,minuliiion ,Andl Coftv'elrgence [2't]

,

I I

-

PI'GTURE., PLANE. AS SEEN, &Yo&SERVE~,

DIMINUTI'O'N: In tbi's case, both pencils, are agam IDying down" but parallel 'to the observer's face ti:e., parallel to the 'picture plane) '. The foreground pencil 'would, appear, and so ,is, drawn" longer than th,e, rear pencil, This is again exp,lained by,.' the~,"lines, of sigh" I·t and the·if p.o·m'ts of intersection with the nleture plane IS,:.ltudy. '-,- '-.'. these lines .. S.up' 'p,ose ma·ny.' :,

~.. , .' • I . [ • ~. • . ; • • -'. - - - _. . • ~ - - - ._. - - • . ._. - '. ,r ~'" . . . ,. - . II!. ~ .' .._ -- - - .. ,- ..... . . - ' .

. ', .'- -~ ·-,~,_::1, ... , .. a la '~d' "iilil·:t'm:" -'. ,,~ , __ . ;0'1-' 'ma" 'nn' .- ,', W" -, ould ·tbjl ' ls " t be,' '"'d-'-'en- -'''':ca''l'' . lth -',' ad '-'-"-1- :"., ,LI...- ·I.~·c ~I-~ " "h·,--, '. "-'-en' '-"o-"n'

more pencuswere amoue m asmmarmannerv wo ". -1··DOq _'-, J..:~_:_w<" WI· .an cexp.am,IUIJe.IBmllar.p enomeno I

D,f,·thel ~' -_ d i'mini~h' __ 'm'Ii-, D' .. ailroad n'l'l'ft-e!(:ii, .. "'1i"""'-?'

" . ·.·.·-·._:u-=·-=- a ... !t.KI.l.I~ ~IU~ ~I@I

I

peHCI~ A

I

A

a. w

PICTURE PtLANE ,AS 5EEN '&¥ OBSE:RV6R

COO, 'N'··f'lC'i'RG'-:'EN'C-·E 'P'A'RA--' 'LT'DLL---cI-NE-"-: - SIAPP'E'ARTO--' A' PPR'O"-=-"A" C-''-'H' EA· CH OTHE" -c- 'RAS' -. THE'" -Y" RE:--' , 'C' E"'DE I thi

,::11 vb . ~~'_~_', .:.~, -::".,~,. __ ,II . :> .. -' ~./ . " , " .. '''-: '. :-cc,,:.I,I.:', ~.7-.- .•..... '_ e-I' .: .. :' :'.1.1": ".:'-'. '.' _I:' .. n _._·IS

I th iii Iy"" '1-'1- -.1' to ...:L,_,_'O; • fro the L ... , Th'- uld to

examp' e, I,-_ce peneus are 1':--,:lDg para et;, '.:-- one anotner, polmting away .. :m.~, :,~ observer.". - : S;y wo~-~ ~ .. appear tr

d ..1._ 'Why' th''"·' Ii' 'Ii I ... --..::II·b tit lin f ii, 'hj, Th 1 di to th f' d f' th

converge, an are so ,"Urawn._. ' .. ',..:--18 19 SO.IS agam ,expameu. ,:Y' i'-C' .:_', es 0_' SIg':I~. I ··.·ose .ea--UlI·',,-· I-'e ar en's, 0 - me

pencils (the podnted ends) Interseet the picture plane· relatively [close to,geiher ~ Those to the, near ends (the: eraser ends) inter[sect the 'plane further' apart~

A"D'O,·th-- c--·:- ,-'---'--; nf':' -_,.!',.;".,--1~, : •. U ····D'!ii'e ,- n-- .-, .!'j!j to ·th:"-"ink'"··,·- ~'f" I···t (as . rolained .... .-n' .' ~ .. " '3=-':')" 'as" ,iI'!i, '-', ult iI.' d"'·~-·--'-- ,I.,:, B·' on.

. , c 1_ . 'er way 'U' .. VUh,li:UlZlDe., 'cU',.-.. .r-ge ,ice 1,,-, ,_ 1 1,1· O. _ ' ._ '_ ,.. ex,p i.'U.I~ v· . pale~ ',,' '.:, tR res I I.' o.il ·_lmmU.L1-0D.. ·.U

eomeare .oiLjt..; . ...J,~ .• ... "lith th ,'- -', -,,', ,-- - . bo . t·. n,·· ··~--I io. bo ... hi·~ d iO· - '-'" .'. i.' . laid'" I "c '. ", t- to .... "d·I· .... .e,-~ .:n ..... t t, d -' .-- --, - -.~ '1 , ,,- "", '.

"""'- '1""-' YUllS w:;c8Wmg WI, c:~. I __ e ODie' a_ ,Ive;, cenClm m ~·,ld_ .,Jagnnns are _"I,c· 00.:, I. - '~,u,ne perl8C an·· ,equal sqnares.

Th~ e·:'MB·Jf-riO·· Jj-L...,....,J .... ....:k·· d-"·£J!. ..... ...J '111~-e. In the lower dr ',' -·"-ffJI could be th pen-' neils of' ... 1.. .. 'd' "',,- - -ame" --' __ . bove , ,d' '. - :' '~--;-:h' '-., , llld· L ..... ··:·I.~.IU_, Ill.IU ual~, ""'O~~ HIli "~ '. Ie ,_.~'":.: . I awm.6,::.- _. ' , '. ·'e --:_:CJ..l_', uue .··lagr.:.1 , a_ove ana,s SU,C'-'~ WOU.I! __ ~

su b ,iil .... ~ ...... d·· 'm"i' d .!m '~nu,j.';'''''''1i!ilT . . d" lbed "C' -, a' 00-' .. , .. '.'.' a. 'T'_ s: _........ c-._ - ':_.,c,_ II!i te " 'n" .... _."'" -, -, . -"f ...... ~ ... ' -'. c- ,--- -II' ill . . d ,',,' '1 Iii .. "~, (. d' the

':.",C\,:i~_ ,,> ~.l_]v __ .w.ull as, escrl·,,; .c ."ve~ UI. Jia~I" an. ,U;UI,1l1 r-a, , __ Wlwer 0 , OYUJsr p,ara ,,'e!1 an . equa c.mes ... e"rJ'"'' _.A!~

·l.!· h--£'I. - d t ......... ...1 III ) "'II II III'" '" 'i1 b .. !Ii )- d th·, il' nd .:::'11111 . ( ~ 1'1 .' the '," I'"' f'

. III .. ~ " 0 .eu. Im.es: W.l .. a .. ~JmmlfL 'pro,reliltIlVe' Y·,. an, '. ~~e'lr' e-- ,8 Wu.J! trace O'ut,or 10 . ow) 's. oonv'erglD.g: mes 0; I

th U

e pene;'_!s\.

,../1 ;I J ./ / ./ /

.1' /

./ ./

,. /' ;' pos,Il, TIIQ1t-i C

/. .' ;' I

rr';-- ..... ....- .- "":

~.j ,_/. ....... --~i'l

./' / ... ./

/

Y

P,JiC·Tu.e ,oF

pC81TION

F'ORESHORlTENING:' LINES AND ·S·URFIACES ALWA.YS .A.P·PEAR LO;NG,E·ST WHEN :P'ARALLEL TO IT"HE' I' O"'BSER'VE'" 'R"S FAC'E (.. 'T-O':' 'TH":-U PI'-'C""TURE" P'LA'N'E' ') A' s TH---'··---:EY' 'RE"'V"O"LV'E AW'A-'Y': FRO- ':'M" TH'-IS"

" .'__I_ .•.•• _, .••. '. I.· .. ' .~_ i .. ':: _ >,'.:.:,1"1 I. iE.,.e".lII ',1'" ' ... 1'1-;- C :_~ ~ .. '11,,:'. ~ •. '~~~~:"'~-.'.' ~ .1" - . I I ,". ' ;', •. ,'",,_, ' .,__:_.""' .. ':_~._ - -- .. : ... ', .. ~ I;.~

PO' 'S' ITIO' ····N· T'RE- Y A' 'PP'EAR' IN" 'C'R' E-- 'AS-- II--N'G--' L-- '1' s H' '0' 'RTE' R W-----:---:h tW·.. .. be dl tood b tin' '.. 'h- t

,,: ,,: ',} .. '.,'. 'I ' ',"_' _,-,.,_;-~_'-:_!__:, ... 1),.' :"",' "'1:: 11 ',:_ )__I_,--,._,Ic_: .. " ".Y ." S lS SO can .. -:-,' une ers-, •• ',y nO~~',1 iow tne

. -

lines lof s.ig;h,t intersect the picture plane lor' each position of the pencil. (Note: when the peneil appears as a small

eirele .. ,','. · .. ':'hen-- '!"'iil'il£jl,t-', th .'. ,'. . .... -- th ',' , .... ,,'. ted n· d ';;:!lB1 :.,." ' .• "" .. ' th-]- lt Ii i l-IOO"IIUl ·f' . , ... " ... ,L ·:·t- .'. ied nd . Ilsn .... ...;JI --·-:-,,·th· ·:th'j,

cireie, ,~ .. e., w: ,~,I. JI~___.e eraser or I e pam,·- el~_ ~ m V10W, _ en I", ,)S, i'O, roresnortena an 81gDt::U Wl._-I lee

ceo tral 'visual lILY [I,)

.', .,. @)~_:-l

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, "C!./i.._,. '-,

i,"- I~r,-,·',

'OVE;RLAP.PIN'G:: This obvious technique m:ust be emphasized because .may ~:ginners tend 'to avoid .it ...

:I.t is based on 'the fact that lm,e8 o,f s.irht in,terceprted. 'by an Op8'que oblject simply' s:tolp" ISO that objects. be:yond are partially or totally eoneealed (literal),y "blocked oft")" 'The: result is, a strong ,sense of' lor.el~oIWld and 'background planes, 10 nvar,dneu., and beyondnssst in other 'words,; DEPTH ..

Chapte:r 5: PR.I,N'ICIIPIAL AID,S-·VA.NISIHI.NIG. iPOI'NTS AND IEYE L:EVEL (HORIZO:N, 'LI.· :E)

In - 'Ii --, "f- . '-I ·~l·'f . d' t,lL. ' "ore fn realis ""1'"jfII pl~·,....,;Iq,·-"""if!!I the ey'-' 1--'- -'I (h' - -, .. :"' ,- 1'"'-'-"') IS'"" rarely Vl~'~'tL._'ID and 'i:·!r"fi'i"i,i6L,.: ..... o

' ~, VIews· '0.' rea, , I,e, an ,,:. ; tlIlj,erel.' '_ .: . I -~ ~,'!d, .. ; !1,(.;:LuJL~g" ." .' .,'.: 'eeve· r I ,onzon, _IDe:. ~' :". ~. ",I ~u ~,iIJ a:.LIlJ, ,,,,Q.Jl~Jm~6

'" 'ii, - II '-yo ' t" th ~ull Ii~~',~ f-' th t - t' b I '11 d- d'-' 'W- ,', """~"i!iIi,Ri !I-h

pomts VIrtua y :nev,er are, .. : ,e ... '.1 Ie !1 sigmneanee 0. I" , ese eoneep __ s mua ee e ear.lY nne erstoo u, ,>,,' or~iti' Wl,t~ J an

,awareness, of 'tltem and actuaJl,y Isketcbing them, in, temporarily are perspective drawing prerequisites,

,AIDI N:o. 1: VANII:SHIN'G P'OINTS

A _''1':11'' ;..,........._ n''W!'! mo" re'" I' ~-n,1Ii:i.C!i tha ., ,t, a 1'"'10 m~"·

~v LW1U u. '_.:':.'.: ~~ '!__ .• ::.- W,~. .

:r- _,QOI-I)'"'ty __ '---, ~,-.a,11al-' :-wl-""II :..til'lii.'!V""'-'nd~:' ad-: In ~-:-

. ~_., I_-~~-:' ,~I~'~;;i. . .. ~: '_' _. :j' JLIl rl#Allrel:. ~. ~.: ... ,,!!iP

defb:dtely'" 3',ppear 'to, come to,gether' or' meet at ,8 point,. This point is called. the 'VA,NlS,HING POIINT o.f these Iines,

',. ~::. I - I_ .... I

" -

• ,.-: : ~ • I:: - _ .. ~

_. J II ,I_

.::. -. - . -

Th.n eta ;NJI!'i~ - and' I SCiUlli b st ftV'iIi'i''FiI''Iip~e of' ~' ···.~~c' w' ... :_ c stau oes '_" IC'~JLll_J. ~.. '_ r

this h !I, th m' eks f-'

,", .' .....• ", "," ..... -I" .• ", . .-", I'.' .'. '11' .

P enomenon IS, . Ie .. ae 0·1 a

ilroad Th--- - , ..... .:'1 .... In r-' .... , ... l=ty,- p, 1I1iel

,raIl .. ~, _~ ~ ~ , . e· .[11 I, . J.U'S;, ~~'--'- .. ~: -,~... . ·W',W.l_ 'J

.. pear' to eonver ge and I uI'tUD~" 3, ....... ly

ap: ' ,'-' '1" , ., ." ',.' ""., 'I . "1' IL.C ,,'

I, :",', " <. _'", ~ I. "; ,"_". . '. :_", I I I. . . . I: ,"_ . : ,I t. . J .' I· . _ I - " !.:

'''.' t ~,t·" :8" -po-:' "·mil'.- 'I·t' m:"", 'thl ., AI: ... :"""",.,t horis -',n

moo ,0..1. _:: .. ,J 1_ ,__:. 1_, e ~ ~Jl, _' _ :r.IZO,JLIl;.

Many historica] paintingls -o,f IchUtth,

in .... erio ''t!li!I, 1-'00" ':,k-· somethin IS ~,':iI-:la this 'I"'.q

,U;#.,l,,_~g ..... IOU ' ,,~. 6, JlU\1!;;P . ,&ig4' , J.

all the: column capitals on eaeh sidle"~,

-'--'d' I 'tbl- .. - _._, ,'-]-':-1 .l-t..._ eolnmn bases w - re-' . an;" 'en. au ~: ~,i~~, nases. were

"connected,' and these mes "brought baek" m,to 'the picture, they would

:' th' - - - .. '~ t" . 'th" - ~ __ . ~

'm- eet o~, "e- ~i~'r.YfIi'DJ pAm- .f.!Iiii51 0 I· -A'rP-! I5IIm' 'J=.

, I ''¥~, Q,!L\;_- ~.I.~"'" ,'U' .. ':. '1iPLi::!' , , _ .. ~ Ii::!'·.· ... ,-

w1y~l'iented. parallel Iines such as

- 'b """,,,.n. ~ .... '11 ;1:.:1... II

ti'IB ceDiud'f' ~e or' LU,e proeession,

(' Th'; c . , · ..... ,1III·:-;·~ - ". , "ti" + "10--' ,.,L.':- --

.... -' e OJ,UlY excep· Ion, . UJJJlS, occurs

hen th ,. paraII,. "-'11"'-- I al

. .' -," .. "I . . " ... 1 "_,' ••• , ._ "." '", 1- ....

W e:~_·,~" er nnes are arso parar-

Iel 'to, the observer's face and to the pllcture plane, In this case, thle~y neith'er recede nor eonverge and

th' ~ d'" t ha ...... _,~,,,,t.. :, .... ,

- _ereJ,o:r,e .···0 no' _: _: :ve ft, V,i:Uim[Wlg

'po,." ,m'"'''' lP'-, - 'pl_, ,;.t..e, LiI;~',i"iI~' , f' th . ,."IIi,-,.

• .', ... 1.\1;, ~ or exaDl~J ,1i.,U·. ClUf5;~ 0 · __ IS

b iii 'k ..... ,1']- d 1111 ~....... .. 'I d

'rIC " 'W.· ,an:=_ au rts vertical ane

b;, • __ 111 iii '"' ' ctI' .... 1111 I

ol"lZOnliu. ,Jomts are exac .. 1 Y :p,ar®e_

to the ,0" ~"!"""'"!,'Ii!rii·itn,_"1i:iI fae ..... ' ,-- d ;1:..- t-']b·" . """_\.0

.' - ,,",,.. Utie: ... 'y~l:' Ci , Bee ,an· _ IW' _ ~e pu:~

'k1"'~ p.l:-ii:: Th ":~-'"iI:"." the :··e·!"" .... ieals 1IU-l'1iC ."RUle~ .:__: __ ereI.OM, __ ·e v ,\.Il. 1l,.,1:....a""

still appear vem.caJ and the horizontals still ap'pe8r :bolrizo,n'tal and parallel '10 one another.)

T·,.- "p,_ .. ,. VII, e .

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The ~Q·al truth of 8eDi'ntt an d drawm'DP' (exeept fOf' the ci~-;: .... ll C-;f;iC!O above) ijC'l!"~ A~'L·L LINES WHICH IN REALITY

_. I"J~ -- '._. - , _." ~~AD .. ' .. -.~'.- .. ti. :..:: , . ..:._ . .:._.':_ '_:'~.:_ ·---~Ii3!F'IWi~··.!tA.~~[a .. ·.· .. '~'.,: ~1oI' .__:__ "." '1' - _"." " - , __ ' __ " _. " _ , __ ~_

ARE, PARALLELI WI~-':·~L-··L.·, c·]'nNiW"-'·'RG:-E,- ",n'W·····'A······R,'D: A ... ·· S-->IN"':G-,;LEr: V·':'A·"·',N",·'IS···H"IIN·"-·G·:": ro','I·'N·'-j·T,·1

- _ __1 ... , - _ .. rV· .. 1 _' ,I _",_. __ . ..I. IV '. ' " _' __ -::..' '_":_ .: .. _:...........:, .. _ .. 1 __ - " :........: _:- ',' • "." .. ,11. "',' '_l' I •..... -0'. !I'

'Th~' .... ,,.- . 'I' RE'G'~ JAR:" -': 'D' LE' -" ·S-'·S··· O· "'IF D" "11 -RE'-'- "C"'TI" O-"N' E"'A- C-H---:'-:' g. 'E' T'O"F' P-"A'· HA' ... L- L~C-L 'LI'N' E:' S-' W': 'ILL C' "'0' 'NVE' .... I. R' G'" E' T'''O'' ·.'W·'~ .'A·R- 'n- .

, ere.lOlO .. , .:' ·.~-.I· .. ·. .'. :._ [ .'.:_: . . - . _ ,'[ .. :'. _ ' .. II., _:. ' - -. : .. ~':_: ::_:: .. '~ r, " " •• _ .ID . I· ~'. '. . .' .' ,: . ..'::' ,:_" s.: c'-::__=.:- ' _ ...1

ITS O":WN-' ' .. 'V:A' N": -'IS" 'HI' 'N" G'" PO' INT' ... C·· h _1 ... "':'L..';;:,~ f '-. - '"' th- ..' 1 11

'.- .··i·" L._.:·I. '.~_" "'_1:.. -,,~ ""'_ eCA ·wu.. ~'o,r yourself.m "_~__:e proi9SSlona exampJ.es, aeross .pele~

BeDeL H'--~- ,- ,-: '~Am-' -" - ('1""'" 11),,", H- , ~,_L"""-I'- ----, A'" --1.'::,&' ..... j,;i!'i n_-,d-,,,--, ,ii' , -- ' :b- 10 __ &',,_.;1 H" 'h-" -,", ,,,,-,, -, , "'--- ,~, ,OUS6 .. ,....", "" - S! 10 w; -,OuaUS8'l; ce' rClu:"",c~;; ~I -a ,e:r,mg · ry rOaIU,OJ.U _ ,10c ,auser

~,261 Ai,d ,N1o. 2: Eye Le,vell,(!Ho,rizon Lilnei) ,_, Alii H:arizont,.,1 Lines Con,vergje '1'0' ,A S~i,ngle Horiizonla,1

Vanislhing: L,:ine A,t E'ye Ilev'aI'

'Take',R stU,table photo or Idrawing and extend ,all converging lines that are ,in reality horizontal (i'~e .. ", parallel -to the ground), Then connect: 'ttte res,u1,tmg' vanishing points and notice 'how they all line up on a, single horizontal Iine .. 'Ibis

;Cli ... ',1!... .... , vanishin d!1 Im~'-;Q ~if'.'r "",1;'1 co '~:"n- v,: ,~,r'gm'" ~ 0 h-, orison f~ 's" . .:Ii,,", Ll!.~,'¥ml.UJUl .. D ' '--' . ~ l!v~ i!l:1U" ~ __ .11;;;;;"", ,0···· _' ~ ILa.Jl .. ~

'-B" eeause ou ~'~!il!IIln m ad e en viromnent consists P-·'i·-r·i':marl'"'ly'::.' o···f,' shaoes '-w:h' 0- se 00"" ges and markinss approxima + .... v'·,a·rti- '"';i"I<°1

. _' .,~,~ . I.: _ ~ l.l.lLJl.-alJlll~'- ":' [. I I ", . r: .lILI..I.JL!I~' .~ 'I!r!:v..~~ ~.~ ,~' _, _' .. . . _:: _:. '::. . ~ I~:_' _ :Q'r--¥~ ",: _ .~_I : ..• !ilI : -, .:'. . ~i:I! a...a ,": _ _ _!Q _.. " .... ~~! "-"_ 'r' ... AU!~dII. ' .' ~ . : V. ,. I "~~

and h .. ···o .. :r.;'I!7..nn-·~',.._'iII lin ... · '-'e'~ th ~'-I~C! horizontal vanlshine Iine plays Q kL1ifV ~'lID in '~l":sp'" 'e' ·_,.::V· 'on. dr ,- !l!iliwm--'c:"~'''' ttl'

cu.&.:· ,I ",' i &UU~ ilCl.l, I ".' -~, .~ ','" JCI' .1 < " •• ·_~UJL.LH_I ··.··:·DWIJU.. ;~JLUlal ' . -", 'Jt::::! _,.}I_~ Q Q "~j" .J:.v,I~! : ~:__ ,r.~i: ,I._"_ .,-,IlJ-(. "'v. ",I:.. 'Q,.~ .. : .. "_"_',b."

W'L-t· d e' '"-,_:'-, .......... , ·thl - ~',i:'Ii 11m'"" -,. e"'? '[]f·o· .'1:11' ,~t!II ]'"'e 'I 'I sed .,-? B-,~~n-w-C" does l~':t· ..... ·.Aini;t' ·dr· -'g'o:r;ngm?'

lltli:al,.' '.:'. ,,~,~~ '·.:~~~I ,I.~._. '-li; .' ~I Iji J:.lJ.~··n _I .. ", ua.-.~ -'11; ~ Iii 'I, -" _ur' .... ·. ::-.:_.~j;'~! . au~ - .. ' ,1CIi:-n ..... & :~iCI',~ 01; 'IF. 'Ii

iiI!'

All ~,-ts,~,i horizontal 'parallel Jines

" j:;::I e_ _ 0 .. .., .' - .. - - ~- . -

converge W' :POUlts along the horizon ...

'11 _.!'.,.;L,':_ 111,: ......

taJi 'V3lWS1wig nne,

Illustration. courtesy of the 'Westing-

b '," A ,;=:'-, 'B: '. - - 'k· ". Co··-· .c '-m-· 'l"\Aliv ouse J!'LU" ,rsJe . .'.--,,-,r-...,

,ICT,UlltS PLANE

We:'ve, seen that this important Iine is straight and horizon.tal, but what detennmes its Iocatlon? 'Very sim.ply:: IT IS

. .

AW·~· ':A····y···S:·· "O··,N-····-: THE"': ·S"A····· M····· Hi- "L'E" 'VE,':'I:"L A···· ·S··:' T"H' E" O"~"IB'S:iE'· 'R:,'I_TQ'R"S:" E"Y'·,···qS .. , In oth .. ··eW!!" .. ...,..,..l,~ th ':'.' obs "'::." .,"'ii:'!! ,ii:,ii::::-:.~., 1',,-· ..... '11"', , -'-,-

_.' ,I ,I '. ,- , .. '_':_' , .. _ ,', . ,.: -, ,', . ..y~ ' .. : '·D,~, . '.. ..... WOCW'j~' is 0, erver ~ eyeevw - an,

'~'i ~ t tb' ]- '1 f-'.LL.- d' '11111 I ;I........ ...';'I!.. _. d- d I'j!o ta t" . th I ti· .~ - - (_.. - ..... 1n. - h ,~ ht 1-- tho

nnagmary p~8Be a;, ': (ee!v'B, or 'LID:! eyes ,8n paranei eo me grounn -lie, es tne oeae on.;~~e~~w.e ~;m,g- iium ... -e'

~·und· '. )" ·o,··f·' til)" ::: a t:f;!o, ..... ~'iI:!I;it.'.:I ........ S' H',..,.,,.;. f' 'n-r"· 'Dll"~l "00' ':t'!'';'II7A'YIil;l."""" 1 .... , m'~~- 'D. Ul'""V~'An ·dr· . a'w'mL,"O'

[~,p.~.1 :: ',' . _: _~ I :I.~ 'y..~_~Jl._.l..D~_ LllW I.:IU·~ M-~'_' .. ··\;L;I~U)il.~I~ . - .', u. ti·.", ~~, ", __ II'_'!·_·'-:I 'a~'

.A. side view' of' the drawing above will sbow the eye~ levelli and the: ground plane from their ledges and th.e:refore ,dep-'~"III'c-'t, 'tho, ·' ... ·e·~m-'I·I a: "1f:!I narallel hor l~l2'nntaJ

:._ .. .:. ... :,' .\" '1,_, ''': -_., __ .gl ~ ... ~_. ~~: ::' ~" ~ '''':'.

I'"' H" . ;L',L, 'Ii ~,,",,, 1 .. ' I

mea . I' ere~ WIO ·pl.l;,.;u:'e piane IS aiso

seen from, its, edge,

\.,1-1,,1114,6 ... u'-'E FOR Mc:aIIZONTAL, ~.Ne'5 MO,~rwN!TAL P'L"'",!

~ llIRaU6" rev&;:- U:,VQ"'- - ~ - ,_ ~ ~ ~ ~

w
, 'Z
C(' ,
~ J , J
,J W 1 W
W' W :J
,oJ 'II ~ J
.J ~
~: 'C ,4'
c If
I..,.
,d : ) a: .
C U ,~' C
~, ,_ ~ D..
Q" :1£' w,e DOW look at the picture plane "fron t" face" .(. as' th' _... obse rv '-'r views

' "i ." i . ',' '. c..,:' I' : . . . '. ',Q ," " " .' e' --. , ... ,g.', . "[ .e' ' , . . ..... .

_,_". ..,' . _ f". '-." ," ,"'_,' .. ~ •. : •.•. -. ,: •.•.. :' .• ~ . _" -.' '. i J

lt) 'I! tL I I I

:1 '.' we agaan see ',J.[;~i,e itaY'e rever p, ane

in edee-on ,1: " 1I;)1T1" ....... ,~a a Ilns, :-H~r'e,~

. '_~I!:!I''Y- .. "",~",,, ~." .. ~ ,iL~,

though, thiS: lin,@: also represents its pro,jection ou'to the 1?icime p-,~ lane,

- ~',

'Wh,etb,e,r ·the observer jum,pe,d, 0['

'be' .o.'1jQd··' .. and ~n raised oc iii" 'i10~' w-~,~ar,ed'~""~ his , .~,Jl.~" ~.II.., ,t;;JV , ". ",ii;!I~ . .1, "., " ,'~ .. , . -, g

ey,e level, this re1a'tioDship would

rema In '.... unehan iWld'

J.L~U_:. I ILIJIJI.,CD\. -~ ,6~ 1_. _:lijl

IT'" H" 'E-'R' 'E"·"F·-,,-,O":·R'·'·E·"·' ,. 'T" H-~E-" E-::- Y"':"E'

_ '. . I".. ", . II . - ," l - .. _ .," 1_ '.: .!~ j I, r·o· . -'. ..' :~. I

LEVEL NOT 'O:NLY DIC,TA,TES B,U,'T-' 1-:-'8 ... '1 S'·-::Y····,··'N .... ·· ·O"'N···' Y,"'1t.I,O··'U·.·S·")_ W·····:·'!'·T-:-, ;'H'-:-

,_ .., I . _ _ ' , • '. ':_.' .___: . j '_ ~V&.. .. _ '_. ..' ' , I l

'T-:---:'H~' 'E-' V'·,·······A, .. · N·····IS·······H" IN···· G.·· LI"N··.'! E: F·I,O·IR', .. '

. •• L I' '. ,'. _,.___:: ". ,_ a, ",. "',' . ,r~,:........:..·. "., . . ',' . . -'1 '-." ... l ~

- - ,

'H' 'O':'R'I-ZO~' ' .... -. N" 'T"'A" L LI"N'E' ·S··']

,_-: .. I. ": I, • '" .. _ .•.. '.' ".!' .1. :, .... ' .. . ': •. ,': '. Ii

1010,,1 Z_,ONTAl L'NE

" 'V' AN". i 'I&,IU I ii..1I~, . ... ., w "' ~I '"",, ""'"

T ..... £1...'e'~,' 1...1-'HHrliiQ':~ a:'L.~,,.::~O: and bel or"," nOlle U~, 111.11" U_C,fll.'n' .u..a,I;j!IIi'J' !UUV c; (OU..I! ut:: _' , "I ,

camfuU: th lin, <0;" - - f -' '.' - 'ht. Th" - --

, I . . . . . . J ' , '.' ", t ",

, ,_y ~I_e -'~ ,e.g, O. SII',_- ,. ,I_Use

:pointing to the 'O'f1eIII-otmd (1, 2) -- 1"" I ti 1 ' -4i. ... , ..... - - - ' ';1 - -, '"' th th mase re D,' ve. y steep angies Wl.~_, I_'_.le'

d bj-' ';;'J th" ' • tin' ,I fUrth"

'~.- . f'" '" '--: ,-,' r. . ,' -:"J -'I" -l - . '[, 1 '. ' . I ro' -'1' 1 ._

gW1Dl_ f W, e _ ose pom 1_,_ er

(3' ) k ,Ii ;~]

• I: ',. - ' .• : • I..' ,:,," t ". _-. ,: ~ .:,', . -: "j r- .:. : ""-1 • "-.' . :-.-

a,way ,,~ 4;, ete, ,,' ,ma~e mcreasm,g y

n "]' - d b d

[' ".- ." . .' - "': r " .. ;- '" 1" '1 ' ", _', I.' ..•. -' , [ • ,"

sma e'r ang es ana eeeome mom anc

h !ii, 'I I-'f" th tr '~k t

'I ,-" , , 'I ,- -" ", , " ' , 'I' ' -' ':::.- , " ' , '-', ",' '" ':-:-~ , c' "", -,

more " orfzonta )~ ',_,' e ' ,ac, ,~S' wen.,

on endlessly then tb,e: sight-lines 'V.iew,,ing them at, imini,ty (00)- :muslt be

Ii - 'Ily b co; "'-'1-

vtrtua " ,"'otiZOD,w-,'I'

'.

';'

r ~

I

~

,

-

:,1,':

L

J

Eve ,LEVEL

..

..

. "

• ,

'" \!/

®

,

,

, ,

@

,

, ,

.;, .

.. ... 'I' II ..

,," • ,I,

" ~

;..I I~II'!"- ''': ~',~ ~ ~ iii ~ ....

,

• III II, • ~.

_ I'l!l ~ il -!II ..

:' I.l~"" -. Ill. ,," ~,+ ;..I,

Looking' at this, si.ttmtion 'hum above, we! note that 'the lines of si;gh'l embracing' the width, of the fore,groun.dl fies depart from the tl',bserver' at, a, 'wide, angle", and that this antde gets :progr,essivel,Y smaller for sight lines, to 'ties prog,reSS,[,vlely

furtbeJ' "I' S'WS' Y' 'W'" "e can" -, th ere- - f - - - - -- eh -d tha t t iD6' "" lt tbill ~IS s'n.'lliel 'lS'~' so' infini-' ,'" "tes~'ma- , 'm- 'the' at a sln - g] s·'gh' t I'" 'be'

"""1 .,",", ',: :,':' ",:' ,-"~ ",' _'D~'I~'ll"li1 "u":e"'" 8" ""II':' D'l:v' 'I"": "',, "'.",:" "1"-11':,,"'1' '-':11 '-'1,',,: '-"" e":' 1', "II 'me,~'inl'" "

, _ . _ ••.• -,_;.~ .' '_ •. ...:, -e ..:._........:-.:, • __ ..•. _:..____ . ......:. ,..:......~~ ~~~ •• ', . ..:~..:.... ••. _'.'.' .'.' •. 1 I_ .~. _ ".' ••. _- . '.'/ . _:.:_ _.1., _ ....:_.t~ _ __:~- . ...:,_ 1"_:,1_ ..:____-----. .. : __ .... _ .. _.:....___. .' ~IIL .. ',' tJi!

used, In tha:t case: 'we would "see" a 7 ~,fti .. 'wide cross .. ,tie by means of a. single Isigh:t line; to-tal diminution would, bave occurred and only a, point would appear on the, p,icture plane~ This point, of course, is ,the vanisb_ing 'point of the traCks~

No,w look at the :sid,e view again and, note 'that this same single ;sig'h,t, line, pontting' to infi____]]ity (M) Is :horizontal (i.Je~iJ' parallel to the ground) " 'ThereJo,re the vanis'hi"", point of the trac,ks mus;t be, at the observe~,s' eye ,level ..

In fact", all horizontal lines, if !extend~ ind,efinitely' lik.e 'the railroad, tracks, would ,appear' to oo,nver,ge' to a. point at, the observer,s eye level,

SO rr IS ,ACCURATE AS 'WEILL, ,AS USE:F'UL TO 'THINK IOF THE E,YE :LE:VEL A,S THE VANIS,HIN!G

LI-:NE'- -'1· F'O"""R"A'i"Lc -H'-"O-u'-IZO' "',, NT'" "'A" 'L LINE'" 'S''',- '-'ND--"-=-" 'P'LA-~' . NE' 'So"~

. f',I, ~: 1 .... I, ',A...iI..I' .. ' I,'_n I:, ... " , '. ~,,' 1_" .: .... ' .• A., ..... '",1, 1_ • ...:.,~

.'

This, ,is wba't our' observer sees, His

,,:- ·1' "'r • ,,""", iiil:!ll ·th" . ,e' ''1''aniehiD,tf, 'Im~'-, a ·0····" .,. 'iI!.,.·-:-n~~ ...

'0:ye e,y:~ ~" ,,'.,... '_C '.' . "~I ,'-' .. "I~ ja:'!,~, .llU '.

,zontal. IinUt (Actually'" It is a plane

seen _"...1 "8" \...Ji""ii.'!I'I, ) ~w: ~~l-' i~'IIULi, _ .... r

:But what Ieeated the specific van-

"'" '1..,,::: ..... " ,,,--,t?,~ A"" ~.ael 'pa'" 'g"'~ nirA alB,C":-'

11l::'!l.·,DJII" PO'", ··m "... ,',·',W'U~ t ,', ,e'n"~ Jii1tIQ;W

l1:li ~~ .. ,' J __ • -- ••• _ • ,- -- •• .1_ • - - - .

'tha t 'tbe horizontal ISlight line aimed,

,-·t'· ,!-..t!:,-!,kir' ''I9I.,n;'ii;FiI; 11~lel"- ,~- , ... iI!,... .... "---':'1 ... - '" ,Ii ,,"'Z">I ,8,1,,> lJJ.!U.J,UP,)A~' ,t"CU-,QJLJL _c W u;-~ "I:",a.~ ,Plm,~!

,,_ 'lli"t'" 'S"'D'" V'I!!iI"U oii''"'''p.1II~:Di''~ ":r;.,,,,,,, 'I'in'";'~h, ':t'no:

MJI :', ~ _. _~·;··:"'··I'I -'. 1~: .. ;J.!' aU.lul ".q" ii! iI-I'-ie U''''[Ir.~ '. iI'!"i.,

~ t' "I" the -- t ." "ks- .. t"Ii" . ~ ·t· "t

. -'_ 1,1 I ,- ',. _-. '".- i " ',J ',-1'- ,."'. - ,

,pom" !O I ",:me" :.i IS ,,~~~:e ,,,om,, , G",

h ~,,- thC" ~ . At I ~ , llel t t'k

.'.~ :-',":.-'! '.:.:-'" " _,).'"" ·'.i,!.,.1 ... ··.·.~:_I· -. · .. ··~.·: ,_J":."' , .. ,.>.l .. ,_"

W, ,lC_ , _', _ e ,',f.I; .. " ,nE! ,pIJIU, "0,, e,m

" ·,t· 'er:1 'ct"', th""- ,"- ic 't""iU"'IIIIB' P"lim" -, . e ("'TIle' -'. I' . C"'-'801 - ,

'"".~.,,,.' .. ~p':,--.':'" .. '·_lII, .... ,',::, .. ," :,~, " .... : ""v" '. '.''''

~.. .~'... .. ~ . _ ... _ - . - .. _. ~ ...

'"' '1....,::_ i'" , ..&.!L ... ,lill ... ,,.·' ;i;.,L.:!_ h ' • -

,IB"iIlLLIlI pomt ,es8etb~RU.Q UWWI . onzo'n~

tal ~ - h-" ·t" 1-.!'''·- fro"·,· !its 'd-I) AD''''''''

,iZilU' .' j1l'li~ a~'n ..... 1 "m· ... 1 ,", ,,":, en" : ,: ,~.... ".~'."

D-Dr-. . ~ ~ _ _ __ ill.. - ... ..-

1,:_ ........ , '11 'ill' th'" "'-- ..... 1 ... ""'" lll ns tu

nnes ,para. e~ to! ·.'·.e i~"IQ~ WI., natu-

"'Il"i" .... iII- ..... 1-"-·--·... -~tl·, ~~joft,~t £L.%,,",, iI!!j,mn'lli"", ra.&J ,W1J\J ooDver,De IJUI "'N:l.I!U, uu:::., 1~lULe

pam;;"

. ':. j~ ..

IN' OTHER W'O'RDS THE OBSER'V,E,R ISIMPLY n:PIO'INTED"~'

W'IT"'H "H'T'S" 'EY'DS" P"'ADALLEL TO .. ···:·

> . , .,.. , . .I.l.... '., ..... .DI" .~:___:__. . ..'., .' .' '.,

TH-' E·",'- G~,'IVE·.··":"'N······· ,c~T" O",','F',": LI" N:,···E'",,,g····,·· I, N":,,:'

.. ....:, '_'. ~ - :':_' , '-' .' I,,'''':' '_",,,'

O',RDIE'R TO L'De,ATE 'T'H'EI':R VANIS:HIN'G POINT,~

"

. ,

" .

til I~ oj.

I • ~ '.

o

'r. II ,,"

~"

.'

+ •

e .;;;

,it

'r.

"

;; - .

,.

o!' r ':0 ~

The EoD.low,in~g' 'will show' -thLa,1t this,

holds, true re,ar~,les,s' 101 the' d',irecti:on " 01 the set of lines.

'Here 'ttle tracks are at an angle to the 'plictu're: plane,

Tb ld II, Ii

e S1'·.;9 V.1'9W across :pag'e again

ap,plies,~ so we, know that the Infinite poi.nt of' cOD'v,er,gence (vanishing . ~ point) must be: at ey'e level,

I I

I '

I'

,I

I I

1. I

.

I ~,

, " , , I',

= ~ :I

'I '", '. II ..

. ~ ~ . - . ,

.. - I.

!II II'

.a • I

• I I ..

e' "I .. !o

"

!!i' Ii'

ii'

'. Ii-

'r.

" . ,

J , •

"

e , Il "I I iI!I

~

+

~, .

"

..

,. ,. ~

"

..

~ .

' .

• ~rl!;l ~J.

" j : ,,;;,":~ ,~ ~ . ',. :', .

"

. "

ill, !Ill

[II ~

~

..

. .

• I ~.. ',1 ...

'. .

., .

'. .

;. ,,," ..

'I .,~~' ,;. ,.

!II 'I

.~' ill. ~ •

~ • oj,

• 0

• ... fll ••

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.'

. ' 'I

.. ,Ii

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'.

!ro ••

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..

,. "

, ,0

e I •••

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'ii-l ••

..

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;;; _~. III I!> .'

• ,;;; .'Il

i ~,

• 'r

N', 1;"'" · 1··::· .. ·~,·1 :,_ . " t' th ",.,iII,-- I "00·"" . ,'~ I. " , I '.' hat ,>10 rht lI,'t embra .~, . ~ th " """""d~ th : .. "f .;1.1-, ·f"~·· '''' .. ', .. '" " t nd ,t"!ii '. d ,', ··,"·t 01 L.." .r.o.-,re·,

. ·.,OW;!!--,OOAJlJlg ,a,l· .. IS ne(w .' .,p VIew" we see~Oti:l, . Sll . .lLlDieS, mn.· r,8,cm;, "c__;_:e Wl"_c,. __ o~ WJI!e ,oregro,UD ,,' les .' epaF.~ a~ ~' , .. ,'

;l. .. -:·'dl_ "'1 F'" ,j,:.. ,L .. ,_.i.L·. .' .. ,--- 'th'· ''Ii. bl ' _'ltl"!II! ."II!' ,._-_'II'!e" -" '-',-" 'd' I _illt.t ~,,_ - .-:., , ," ',:' "" . __ ...:1 '." ,'.' to £ 'rtl'-""'t'l"

B,..., ,It W,I~ anr ,8. r Ol'Q,es ,1UEWSr avm.,y ~lS ,anl~ ge'l.,;D prorreSSl!VCQ mlltU ·:·r an arso alDlS m .. ere tulU more 1~1e' 5JL.I." ..

'Wh", ':: '~I ·th~·"o "'~'~i:J 'Gi,1l'!ii:i; ~-''''''''ll'y·: V:lI,""o.ln-,..:I a't' :,-.e-:k:J' ·O·,_:lt'lll!~iIf 8." C!l'tnu'le'" 'CllTI',a'ht" lin "".0; 'iP'.Oirn.o1:Mel .... -.31 ]:;'4f. iel -v:~"It~I"'a'lly" oarallel ~. ·the"· rG~L:"'"

. " .' ~~ ',,~ lI,.ll~ iIioIi-iL ~ J,.ILJUltt,· ". ~,¥~ eli",,' HU'u,iIi..i&,IIi!,J1' "II.!IJ..J' . .' ,go.u&e" ,,' Ig~, 1,1" , ~ &. ~~;!!a .. II.U,4i!! ~ c :,~, ~ . ,u. L'U." .... ~ g,Ji,,Il,,,",,, IW . ' .. ,,' 1L.,l·aA.ii.'.&::II\.,

Thftefo~e", the sigh,t line :panJlel to the tracks "points:,;, 'to the 'tracb~ vaDishhtg 'poin',t..

rT1L..',l:, .... 'li"'t'£le" A~-r~'~AlMiit" ,,- .... ld - - k f"- , . A' 'N' '.' y" ..... Qot - 'f 'p-- 1!11 "'I '111m'· . ',gB tha .. ,-· . ·,t"r. Q'prw::lA"r ,.t_ nnn·VLi."rII'I'08 ''MeG'G.~II ..... ,"",iZi .nf' ~'L .... th·~, , ... L ...... y---:

"'1~', ,IILli·,· ~~ .... ,~~~,: wow,,~ wor_;·' or ;_' ... :, :_ ~" 0.'., "u."ut.a,e.,· I·' I.~.~ '." .: 1_ ~',:r"~"w Wi_:~J.t'-='''J .&.'l!Jiu.a,~~ v ri':n.e'" ~ 1.&"'

'were, ,horizon,tal; vert,bal or obli'que', or whether the observer' were looking UP' at them,., B,traight Olot 01' dOWll~ 'Therefore the tmiversal :rule m: The v,anishin1, "o,int I,'or any Bte'lt 0,1' ,parallel: lines is tM' ,1J()in:t at ulhich th,e sight line ,pamlleI' Ito

, '

;the set' interse,ct;s' ,tAe pic;tur:e plane,.

I-N- 'O''''''T'''pB'R' 'W·-'O·'R" '''D- "'8--' THE' ,- , 0"'B'8- D'''R'V''''D'R'' 'S" "I'MP'L'''U'' P"I"'O"IN-'--;'TS" 'I'N-':- THB'-r" . S·· A'l.K'I:' D"'IRE'I ·C-"JI"I'TII"O·'C"N·"··' A" ·S··' ~ L' IN' 'B'S'

''";'' t i_,-,rW -.:-_ ··~·.~-··:<.·l.:_;.'- .: " !;", <1._ .:~ ~_'" ·· .. ·.·:l_..I!II. ·:.·.·.·.·,g,1 :,', ~.> .. _.:. ~ ~; ~'[' l'i : ,"_ .:1'- ,",(: ~.'. -- _, t' '.~!--' -I '_~·~·ft.&~W " __ , .-1.".' . < <.L~I .. ,:" .. _:_~." .. :1 '<_','1 -,A,-.l':LD .-_ ·:',1 .

INORD - .

"_" ...... I"" "". - .. --. -- , .,-,. ,- -- .. ' ".',.- ·--:··"·l ,,' -'.

. '" '., ~ _ ER, TO FINO THELIR VA NI,S,IUNG' POINT,~

[301'

W';h-'- ·Th'·· .. e·· "Pa '811'1-11 P ., ,tl' , iii M',:· ,th 'd' '0"'" L···· .,,'!! ... 'V"---:-" iI! 'hilj 'p .... ,-III,t Is'II.'··p·'oMloant-' '. , __ . , _v.. , "'. r·. e'.1 ' Ollnl ,1n,g: . e,· 0" .. ', oCBdnlg " ... aln~s . Ing ,- ·a.,n .S, ., " 1111,_ · .. ·rtr, .... ,' .

In 'T' square andtrianale perspecti lve th I Is meth od of locatin a 'v'a'n'~""I'Lm"l"a poln ' ..... 1 1~C!I a-no' e (.'!iDlon':,o'!i;iII a'te· 'p

.m . -suuareant .. ··I.I,:b,_\; ':"~:I~~:~'_'~.~ .·.~~I :1.0 ·I~."I:._: .. :~ ![I] .. :~,'."·I·b: -.-'.:' .. uan O[I:'~:U':- ~··'ii:'.':.·I_i~· .. -··.~!I!;I-~:"~l·_:.:.'·.··,J:··.j,

Thus, to draw the, objeet below, we first cons:tru,ct, a top view' Of' plan (,left); showing the object, the pic~ plane (seen a': iii::! ,0, line) and th 0 0'· b server's position 0' "~n° tho I"'1i::!! plan ~"i:2!'][~g'_'ht Iin .', es" "t"'IO' in ·l.m~'· "g pa r allal ·00':· th'a 0' b iect lin es 8'lr\Q

... n.;II\.!r. .... :_ .. -:.Q1 ~ .... " .. / gl~_._:., .:.: __ 'liU;i: '_:_"1'Q .. I~.'yl,. _ I.;I! _··:U~ __ -'_"[ 'Ii ... .' .. J_._Q I:'_~_:j_~'~ g_ /:._,J. :_, ,.,:Q ,r·':.1.···--~·~_J·, ,::.~:_:_,~ I~JJ. 1-,_" ,_- '1;1 :-'-.'-"J~;~ ..... 1_~1 ~_J!.~

d '11' th .. hi ..' .1l...,.' 1 O"··th- .. 'h- .. 111'" ,~ Oi »' th bi t ",- --'111 "'_ th ", J,.,;"., ....

rawn 'to Joeate .. ne vamsr Img po mts on, the picture p' ane, I •. " . er Blg ,t nnes "project" ,"'S O .•• J0C·, :thUll_' onto ·.'_J3i picture

I Th.. I 1" 'h .-, h th '11 - '".".L'" ... th 1k.... , ,j ~L., t, 'bin ..

Pi; ane, .ne picture ptanenne, t I erefore, IS u: ows '. i. e relationship of '..,C object s apparent SIZe rouie varus .~,'~_g' pomts~

This "measurement lin'El~~ is then transferred to the actual picture (rig'h,t) 1 'whe~e it is superimposed on the, horizon',tal vanishing'line (eye, level). 'W,bether the ,Bubj,ect is now drawn above, below" 01' t!J'tr.addling this line" -the rela,tionships

~ th

. ;-" '. I . ~ . . ~ - .' • j '. ..'

remam 1_ .Ie~ same,

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I',· f·..., .... 'L,, d d ;;, h the" ., f··~· . ']"'f·---, fro j ,. ~',. tic t-"b"~ .. edt ·,t' rally ,~-, ,'!I-.- ·'-II'·'''·bl- iTh·-- -,-

n 'r~;lan·· ·.·.r,3wmg, W··9 _' ',:r' rrom J' 'e or' rom imaginanon, I. 'IIS proeee ure na uta" is map'p,]ca ·'~e~ '.' ·.e eon ...

, .. , '. 'Ii ']~ ··.·1 f'I"" . sh . rten .' ' ·t'· .. , ',.', t': ,~, .,ib.,...._ ,d·~- "b '. d-,4J., ·,·,'"'·· ··dJ bs ,.,. ueful '::-b'''' ',' tio'r·t.... ..,.", oj .. II't'n'!!' "1

va.rgenee' 0 ,.Il mes , orear O'f __ .. mg, ete., mas, msteae e aetermmee ,:j' earen ,<0: \serva.l~· m or VISua _);za . on,

!!!I'

Y::· .. 'm-"'-' ~L,:, book t"h' nig' -'.'--: .. , f'-:- :-". - bser ',-.:- ... ', ~,:- ·t,I.'i_-- .,- ."- .... , , ,', rd s .-,.,11, ,j..;,'Ii,...... '-',1·:::-- .--'.,:-' :.11--1111 to·, 'b",o; :··-'t lines _...;::n be sh .. o·· gTl"lii

~ e~, : 'i lI'U::.c '::_8 J,I;' lire 0, ,an 0,· ~erve'r porn ,m:g ~w:ar" ft, P.lC'~!lJIJ.J~ p'-.:ane para_ '. 0 l6C ' ,m~ W~ ,~'I# ~__:·",A.

repe = atsdly r. in order to emphasize the impo ',-rta:n;n;n of the" observ er-to-su bi ect relationsl .. , !P-""I av, £('D' for '1---..;p.1.._~nd·· mawin,Q'

.......... ," ",. --.,.,'-,,-- ~ I .. !__,_._,,,-",'Ii;',1 _ ,.__:_ ~"., loU !';!IJi.J,~c.,I ... ~m.wlmlU;.--: ~~_ ,_<___: ,,,It'~.ll .. :..11~.,__:_, .. ,' ti~

Th . bse -- -- --, -,," .. '~-. t· . ,', d '. -'.. 'f""~" ,"', h'·' ...J',':, ion,' ... ,- ,... ' 'b"' .. ", .. 'd the ... ·,t'...]i,:_- ·ti~' '. t 'tb '. bt' ~"-'

e O_~lSe:rver S vIew,pam' ,an cone '01 VlS\ltltD" l_lS UJStdnce ro·m a sn ,JeCIl~, an : I ,appar:enl wlceCI on ,0, ,0 SUjlSCildl

) .. ---'.- . th'-· -, '"---.- ~ . 1 d'" '00'''' .. "; .. ·t- "f h' "th' ~ ... " ...'~,. . 11:"'£' . 'd" .;.L· . f'- , ,. ~',., .. ' ... ",i. , .. d . ,'" .' A-'" til' .... --

.JJ,m.es are' i~'e' p,rmClp.ft : 1~_e'I'nnman, s' o· __ :ow __ ,_wgs, appear m rea, ,I 'e ,an IkUe're 'o.re m :pe:rSpec'~lve' 'irawmg"" , 9, I'e,se

,·f··a'~t,-'o··'rt!ll ..... L.·"l"'ln'· ,ae' i!LI~ ~Y~ll ,~L.: 'p. l"'~'iI'M-h T·t..:~,.:.;:~ ·th'~· . k-' '-'y- ,·t:-: .A'Tlv ""~U'i!'I,t_.·-:---::- ,:Ii' -: ·f·, :-~'.,: -'ii:!'~' c·,·-··t"", ""' .. d~ ··inlu' B"',·, .,-.: '-,-.""T'iiD' ''C.,. - :-'._- "f ,,!'t ,,-c-d'

.. "~:- I-I~ l;1JLa,' ',; e ,,~U' n,..,· lilI.le ,--' , ..... ""UL'~~" "lUa ~i 1_ .. Je .e"O ~.. ~"J gil_em 0, pel\ .. ,p6C ,lye ,.uraW~,~ ..ecollU&~ a~ 0,· I an!,·.

'unde'rs,tandinJI it, will strengthen yIO'Dr ,pOWe,l,g, of. visu,aliza-tion ,8'00 obserV8',tio,nt

Nlalur_"·,IIHo,rilon ,AI.8,,1 Ap,pears AI: Obse:rver',1 Eye Lev'el,.111ere,fora. lit iCan I., Used As'Th:, (31,1

Vanlsh,iRiS - I:n. Fair Hor'iizo:nI.1 Lin,_1

• I - • ••

·f~.1 "',

In 'fa-:' ~ Dal <h"'!R·"",",m ]I!--, ......... ' .. -I,'· .... , .. -'h-,41... "" :-'" "'b- ·1·"'" ... ' .','" , .. ' iled leL" th , ~- '." nmtains 'foi ~'lrfl;;i!~;I.\n'-;hn.-'-- L" . ~,-.. ," tr-·, "

~,'l;;;L,; '. " _'~UJL!II;# ~ lIi,wnzoD me,. w eU,ler VJlSI ,I e or ooncea '.' " ,U,Y , ~ roo, a ,:[Wil.hIS" ,lor ,gu:.'~I~t or .uy ,R I,wDSe, I, ''ees, or

people) ,', will always 'be at 'the observer's eye me!\f,et 'The ,eye level, we have seen~, Is the vanishinglina :for all horizontal

':Ii,iIi . 'Th-" £ .. 11...'"' l~ L':' '-h iF. bo th'- 'I' e]- d .... ' .......... " h i!!' '~I:. ' i!!' - ~ '110.. 11 .i. ..... ,,.J

I,mes~ "ereJ.'Ote", 'bUllS, ,I 'me, "'met, !IS __ -J eye ,ev' ann nature's ,.00[,[zOD, 18 0:1,' great importance, ,JlO[-' on, lit are J1ocaitel.l

'the vanishing, 'riin.;m:·:-.-'''' .... , 0" ,f- all: .,:- -I 'CI4~' ,n,f ho iI",i'~nnta·: : 1-' 1 :'-e.' S

_- - - . . - - I ',I,~ JIIJ",.' ~_. -. ~~ lUI·· " ,-.&,~ __ .... _-_ .. lUl· -.\lil

r.!! :. +. • .' I! ;. .. I'! Ii ~ ;;;.,

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... ,.~ ............. '1 1_ I .'. I ... "_. ~ • ~ l' ~ I ,I :' I

~ • "I~_. I I~ : ·-:"III·II:~ ... ~ ._.IL

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.. • 1'1' - Irt. ... • I ~. I ; • I I ~ _ • '. Ill.' "'I 'I

r • iii! .-1' ~' • ;;:: T I .~ II T "!!' "!!' III .. .. ~ ,I ,_ .. • 'I 'I .. • II'~ 101 r. II II ~ 01 I, 'I 101 ~' I' .. I' .. , - I'.. '"

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In- ot·L-'f' words if·:' '''~Io. O·t..."!iI'~,..,;~R .... Jai 0'''0'

IWJe, ¥T'rutIi" . ~JL~ c ~~,,,~, ,;(1;0.. ,

fain to d di!! "

a moun . [Ih: '1"1 0'-: r· -, ,.'. (li;e!i~n' ml.~g' ~ liDo: a:,

_ _ _" __ "___ • " 1!IW!i-il""~A _ _ I I _"_

nmrra~ I'?L.:U-·' 4!. .... tb,s' ho .. ill7'nD 1m·' e'" 'n~'I-1 '!iOo'p',near

F-" .IIl,;IJ, .... [~ '" .... .1!.~". ,I, .. , '"",11, ,g --' ,.t""~" .

00' ·8·' lev el ~th'::' hi'si ~V~!,

" ,I "_ "_""" '¥Y.I.." "_"" _ --: __ "" ~¥~!I!

.. '. "

Aild when the observer is on, flat ,groun,d the m,nzon. Iine will stil',: ap .. ,

. '. '. .' . t--' his ,', . '1- -,-. ··'-1 C'In-' 'thl-' ;0;._ ..-,

'" . , " . ". ',,'.' " ','," ,I ' '11 '.',

pear a.. . .. ,., eye , eve ~ "': . ,-', .. ··19, case,

,thuu,gh,. notice that the amount of

, ., __ .Ji bef 'L.,:_ less b h

glO"w;w .ei:o"re,JIWll,seems ess than the

SD10'UD',t seen from the higher' Ievel.)

And, if' the, observer lies on the ground the horfzon line 'will still appear ,at 'e-'ue' ~-. ,n ....... 1Ii IB"u-lt' ft,ft....:~ £ ..... ,"""'" 'h~~, th·· A

','~ .', ~,,~~ \_.' . nuW~ Ildml~, .,-,.'-..~"'" I --'_~

_. t' f -" ... , .. , ..... ,..j -, I - din , . .l._ th

,." . , ..... '" 'I .',' '. '" 'IDlI.u " '.,,' .,," .. ", ,.', "w': .',',

,a:moun 0 ' l;ro.c_::__-.c- ,area _eOL,,:c_ ,1 , ,e

ho 1t'i'~'9"An' Iln e' SOLil.'iI'Y1J!i::!I evan 1~1I!ii· than mt',

, ~"'ll.~ (~ [_ '~I,":" ~"~"&".I~ I_""~" ""~. ~ ~ I," wI. 1,"1

the above two 'views.,)

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II!'-- _1'!!!'ll. "'I' II II 1I1"~I~ 1:';; .111' ~ ... 1, ..... .1111 ;i"!! ••• I,.,.:l1l

.11 II II .. '" • .;; .. i'l" •• ,II _ ... _,~ I,", ,I I, I' ,I 1,.101 • .. _ I _ I, 'I II Ie ;;, I, "!! Il • I .. , _ .. .. I • .. .. , _ ('

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1I~;;;'I'l- ~ .11 ••• 1I1I1.'~'I"~" loll .",Il"I'1~~ ••• ;;'~." •• ,I .... r.~ ,_ ...... III~'~~II _ II'I.,~

;

..... [

1[32] W~Y' N[at[lIre!I1,1 Hor[ilzrn1 ,Ap,p,ears AI Ob:serve'r"s 'Eye Level - Theol7'

'NATIURE'S HORIZO:N LINE,: (i.e., where the, Sky appears to meet 'the ocean, prairie, ~'r desert) is technically slightly ,difter-ent :fmm observer's e"ye J.eV'eI~ [The, eye level plane is, trul:y herizcntal (i:e., constantly perpendicular to the line of the observer's bod,Y') while 'the earth actually curves, away' from the observer .in all directions, Tb,e diagram shows this., 'but 'with, tremendous exa~n~:leration~

I~. . ''-''.'' ~ ... _ ~, ~ [~'\I ~ J'

~ ',!I:ii '~I &ii . -.~. ~I ~

(P&OP~E' D'RAWH MERE - ~S A,c:.TUA~V' 6IA,H'T'S

'.._". A·' ", H~' Y' M I LIES 'T,'ALL,,-

1I1'!'!I,. . _ ' . - '.'

PL,AN 5'

.'1 .~ 08'6:£f\Vt!R

- - _.

! UNAEA.LIST,C DJRAWIHG

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r.1, Ke 'TO e~ ''''T'u''~ - ,........ Ir" ~

CIi'NTER

e ;(_'" 1C:l:':" L. ,~ ''I..cJIl ~ L ~' .A.Ik_.1 'E

'\j~' ,I!I;i;iV~, !~[L..~I~~ ,

~I_-_ _ _ I~ __.. ....... __ ................. , ~,_~,_"_~.....;;;;;;;;a; --=a._ =,~ =

E A ""T'ill,16

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[·.········Wt,·,I'_.

Thus, the diagrams on pages ,28 and 29;, showing at flat ground plane parallel DJ< observer's eye ],e,vel,; are realistic and the, eonelusions drawn from, .. them. are valid, In fact, artists have for ages, and in every fleld of 'fine and applied. art

used .;l.iJi..._ AA'D' ···C~P·"IlI"" . "'O'Y'~' ]e:II::"' ..... 1 ',:, and "na .. tu . ''t'!iO'' Ii::!! h .. 0: :r' ,~~\t"iilnl line" in . I """"":'M1!"'- an"j[t'"g,in ~·ly:·:. II "n~' I 'ni'!i~ ,ntI'~ n<!OI-, t· -O.'fi"i"!ii,lii]i '~''riie, ''If'i'''I'4~['''~. th at ,t:I;s· th A

~~"_ .. W-J.C ~ ... I, j~ .... ·I~ c.-.,~, I :,-y-ttJ- aJI~ '_, .' _,- ' .. ' ·._L'CI gl .. ~ __ I, i. . _1~1~,~IQU.JJ~!~Q.Jl) .[_. I@I ~ __ ,r~,Q,'L!' . ~J.. .~ J!._1AA:II~1 WI~ gl,~~o~_QI ':_'_-~"_ Q. ,J!.JLI(J;

observer's eye le-vem ,is raised 'or lowered" nature's horizon line always accompanies l't and 8'p[pe-a:rS a,t the same horizon ... tal level. It also, 'means that a painting or drawing whleh shows .any part of nature's horieon immediate'ly' Indicates

.. L -,~'~ - t"iI!!i -'y' ]- ,~I[ ~'efl' and ''I!...,,:: ' .) i- "' .. - . - 'I!....,:: 4i-...... .,a..L- 'sub- 'J"' ~·t'

IUI.a: mi~1lS_. [~[ e:'e·· 'Gv<l, ~ ... [, ,.I!uB re' Q',L"IOllS'IUP Iuj! It..lLle ,'. '_ ~I',"

T:- ·th' ·e·· 'ill'" '111'1iC:!!,._ti' "0' m - 't.."",,'IO-Hf ·th· - ;9~rCn'I'I'A th e'" observer's 0y'" Og 'W' DiPo exa,#1li~·,1.y lava]- with ·th· -'e'~' pietur "e~'s !IIi!li'~'I"Ii''''''_ o'~ mi ' terest U N'n ........ UI . ,'~.,. _. ·~d'j;;[i:l,·. ",1' lie· I:)",. I :~.~_l.LI~..lrVL~, ~- '_' . _.Ii,· ~-V.IL.-'Y'~ !CI c:_ ... :[~r~ .,.._._ ... ~~ ," ·~-_·.'~w_·~.··· ,_~' .. _:~. '.,:J1 .. _-. . ::~ ~'.' I, . .I'~"'_- _,I_, ':..~ ':' ~~.I&Jb~ll:· .. :11 ~,I~' ~·~I.·:!i! .. ," /u~

that both the, horizon line, and the line of the: dune point to it~

ft-"'L.-"+,,,,,...11 b'C W: :''''11'"'·::;''-~ -. A·", 'S·' ---;-~'th· - ~ .. , , 1:], ,Jb····· ",1. M' .' 11: "'--"

.,r,!allb"eu,Y .... ,',1 .. lam .", ~,~ •. mI.. _ " JLo,r .",,",eu .•. OO~ .' I . ,tlbOZlne

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W,·· ·O .... KI·N·'.-"·G·-:.., :S···TRAI·; ,,' --G' H' --'T" [O·-·:U·· T' .' B'· ,.1.1..,:--:: .. hal' :- ,::, ..... , .. , ...... 1' "" .. ,,' .... ,.- 'I. .... h :.--" '-:-, ''''_'11IIy-I:-., C'···, ,-·11e1·· to·'.-· th··-,· . '.:.':" '" 'd~-) Ii't·' ';';L-,L~-

, ..,1 .. ',. .:' .['<._,'. __ I ~ . ere~ lUe ren.WI'", V~~ ray pom'LCiII[Or.lZOnwu.,_ . "PUW_ .'. [. ,e groun .. 'I! ,. iWU;U"-eIUCU

. f "" -... ,~. und - iii . ....,';11 tho L __ ,_

lies, ezactly' on the eye Ievel :pilute. Because the cone [0;' vision liS symmetrIcal arc", nc this central ray" i ~'; e· o~rver

,'.", - ~., '- .. ' '-,~L C'.'I..._,:-:-.~ .. ' "'<·1-" . ·1" L_'l .. -,.- Jn th .. - 'rnc'~";-' i"n'l1IA;::i;i"'O'IrO:n·-t"Iy'~' ·th·'·A aue= te :-el,: (ho ·"'..ill7nn Iine) Is ·mid~·:-ftta··v be·' '~lO'aDn

sees as mUGU auu've eyre ,ev[e, as I..ftUOW .. :__:1 ,'--,,-e; ,r"-Ij,fw.~,__..i.!.i--""J.'-~ '.!~ .'~i """'~ .. ,- .. 'Y .. '. " _.I,~[ ,rl... ',' ._~_ ,'Pi . ., .. ~ IlrW~.I,

to- . d' 'bo:t",_--

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LOO' KI'· N· G"-' 00" 'W-:-C-'~C"N-"-' 'H-"-" -'., , th .. ",-~~'111 ~,-';',i"filo;.,_'I' ,. ,.,"! .. '''rP.'!I . ·,t· at tb-· '.: ·d· ~,,,,,-~t·,h.·-· ',", ''', b ,t ..:31,., :-"t "':L... ~_1 ... _ I'Th"''''''''''--'--'-~' ,:·'·f ' __c:'- _._..... '. _. __ '. .. "ere·, e! cenUU,l Vm'l.U':U. ray ,pom."" no a. _ e ]'S:I.ii:I,;U .. ,orlZOD .,[1.11" u-own a t'li,ue "J;',iC:I~\~ e· COllie o~:

t:ria~·.nD th ~ ..... I'a" J'O:~"'iIilIIt- b )y' • eli d .A.£iI, tb -- ev:e ]-e'v'el! plan' e ('N' 0"'- tho 'e p .. , ro-- hV;T'n'l~'ty' - - f to - -- afiaht lin 'ea and ey' e level ) 'In-- ' .

....... ~~,H" _- ·~!~i'r-e,,, .!I"rI,<g. _[are,· _" m· rD,-w,_,eo,;,: ev .", :,'. iI'. I···W [:J~: ... "~,I,:.i.~ 0 _ I·P ~ti;,;.1 mes ane :.'[.' I.' .. --,~ ._~.,

.&L""",. -- ''',_._........ th- - - ~ £L......,. lev' ,....,1 C' 'L_,--;o, v -- 1:_ s) ~', . 'J . .&-, ·thL" . to . '

~ ,Pl~;L'WG,'" erelOre' .. we leye .. _ ... :'~ . I.lUflZOD, ,U!,Ue·. .lS, ,e_OIe ·w I.' . _e, '.- ' .. p.

,EV'E, :LE,'VEL

____ 1_ '

:roo··· .: 'KIN--i;:' "G-:', 'UiP' H'I~ 'the-'~ 'I~~al-' 'u';~ual-·'·' -- - -c;' .-.--: .-, m'''-' ·ta- .- ,t, .. ----:~" ...... .:--, .Iii . ,&.L_, .nL...., .• ·th·~· . te .. 'f '. tel'· .. ·trra'--:h· --"-',11 =', ~,-, ", """ ... ". " •..• ~.~ .••.•. _ •• ': a , /e.';L'~,i!!' .' ',' ".lg&&IN,"; .. "J.:g --, [ ray po .,., a,., lsomswuul m, ~ DA;-~ or ,8.!L!!.' ,. e ',.'p o. a, .... ea.M,p poe!i' A.J.IC cone

of vis,ion. 'bare1:y "'sees" the, ey,e lev'~ plane with its lowes" [sight, lineal In, 'the 'pictur'e 'therefo,r'e, -the eye levem (horizon

1:- )., '10 to· .LL bou..-

uue.: _ c-.se " we: ,~~'~wDL

An. exampb! of' "'lookb:J, ·up .. uTIle· hor.izon liDe (eyle Ievel) is, low in

P:+.II'II·- .' W''''!I!JU. '1;01

Drawing by J aeeph Bertelli for the Lo0I' ISland Ci.ty Savillrs .Bank

, An. ezamplle ·ofl '~~looldnl straight out," The· hari .• OD line (eye mel) is. approximately .b1idway be~tween top and . -00- u-.im - fi p~c' __ ... A._: .. ~.

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'W,hallHiappellts Tal lye 'Leve,1 (H:arilon Line) When y'ou LOD'k ,S,lraight Qu,t, Do,.a Or Up· (,C'onL,) l~1

In- - th· . 1 .,..,....11 (-'00 i' 1·)-" I ........ 11 bo be 'III th dr ,. f"'I"'L.__ 'I ... _.L ..... L. .......... , 1...'·'·:1-' ·ii' d-I,", te

extreme eases ne ,eye me'¥Ie1,:,_(l,lZOD,me·_: :is eomp 'e~1y ae _ rve 'or' .·elOW :1 e-i:awi:Qg. ,.LJ.le SM:~ W"O'W' m~lea~J

,respectiveJy,; that· you are looking downwards and 'upwards at s,AlI steeper angles than, ·bejore •.

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So 'whUe itma,y be obvious tha,t 'when, you look, 'up you lsee! :mor-e :sky or ceiling, and when you look ,down you see more ground or Boor, ·WM.t is not ,qui·te so obvious is -that the eye.level-·,hol",izon Iine (always on a horizon.tal plane, bough, the observer's! eyes) Shifts u_p and down iinve'rse,~y~

IThere,fore~ .if, when you start a dnlwmg', you place the ey'e le:veI (horizon line) high, on the: canvas or shoot, ,ou .mUl't be'lookin,1 dlolWD. on. the suibject; if :you :pmace it, midway;, yOlu must· be looking out :horizontaJly (the central ,visual my is approxim_ately on. the e,:ye: ille,velli plane) ; and if you place i.t along the bottom you mus·,t be looking up at the ,subject, This holds trilla whetber drawing or p-sinting :from life or :firom ·imagination,., Try it and seet

·80'·' .' - I l................. m'"'····· min d·· '~. ~inv '~~'W' "-·m"-~·· t:I ft:Jl'hi- ,'!'·,ph· .,.,.:1 ... "'i"'-'D~ 0-' 'r-'- !I!lIi1 tF'O'J!!i!-S-"""'1 l@ots·,-:·e··y' e level-h ""r-~''''I''i.'Il'!II 1m'"" -. ,e m!i· .' '1:1!IiI!!I';o!I!!Iib,"ly, ',,' m~' d ~'~ ;Ii., .... _ the G",~ .... 4t'~·a

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..;i':;---:tl··O,: ,:M nlf- !i!liiUblt' ._"""",.,3 'nfL-tiler' th· "··e· e;uh"J@o eet ft:f\a'~ y .. ';'OlW· :.' ..... ...iIi fro" "",, m' aJ··bl. "0' 'II::~'e" 0" r-- b e·l·~,w·' '. ,0"'," head-on

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Bal-itt,,", A: ---'n- - .iitioV1DI'l"li'illipill- ·o···~ "Ioo ok I "11I:iM::I' ·d· 'own': .,', -Th-'-a horison line ,,',,'. (':'e"ye' lL!1i!1"" ••• II·)'·1 lSiIi,. ab .... v ~ ... ;i.I.. ..... p" 1'"',C" j..,,"1I- N-····· 'a''''rJ~o'"n''iII ·C·-.nW!.'01J H' ':_. n,'11 A'f ~IWW"~; .,. ". ,~.I,J~:,~"· u! 1): ..... .J.iJ.!a .. I. . .... ~ '" ~, . \lI,-~iI. I, ._ -r--. ' '. Jl,~'Y't'.l: .. ' .... ut1'e. !liILU~' . _,1 ~.:...:"'UI.lIJI;#!ii ' .. '.;!oilil~t. . _·u.··· '[}J'--: u.t;.E- "".

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80'm. tac'ta,ta' in makin, this ehoiee ar-e: Hor.izontal planes will show their' underl,ides when above ey's level;; and 'the:jr tops, when below. ;0 ';0 .' At, ,eye, level they foreshorten alto,gether and a, - pear as simple lines .. ;0 j [j, A'lso, ,all oonry,ergm,g ho:rizontallines DE: planes will tend dow:nwards· when abeve [eye level and. upwards when below,~ • ,t '. A.t eyre' level. th'ey ,appear perfectly' homOlltal ([80 when ,you look at, a. dmwing that doe-s not show na.ture's horizon, llne, you can find eye level by :noti:ng the reeed ing' ho,rizontallhls: Of' p,lane that ,B,till ,appears horizontal ~ e'4",. the top off the bookease) ;0

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TO IUNDE[RSTA,NDINIGI PERS,PI,ECT'IVE,

D- [-- 1 __ - th: 'e- ": 5. ::imp.le, Gulle'- (or ,ani., re··cIa-n·'g· u.l[ar p:rlsm ,.,' :uch as. '. _. .- b·--I'c,k , b··.~~~-- 11..- U- N: S·:·.e. :"'-e,I-,ari-:al)1 'Jll:ftm man,.',

rawlng __ . _ ,_ _ _ '. !iii!! . _ . _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ n __ , _ 'U'V,K or . He . !II !II ~I '_ ,/ III W __ ~ ~ ~ "

viewp-Ofi[:ms; 'i:s an importa.1 ,axer'cise .hie" i,av •• ls and' explores !1I.sic perspecl'i:ve, princ'i:,ples!i Thie follow[i[ng pages dr[arnali.'e man!r 0,1: u.ese~ IBut these, studies Ican onl" poill,l: '10 the, probleRls; i',nvoived and' he'l~p to sli.-ulale, ,our po,.e. ,of ab:servalh)n~ TOl d'ra,.' properl" 'rog MUst suppil!ament, 'theml '.:Ih inteRs/iva slcalchina an,d Db,I-.n,non of your' own. ,

Gel• I'; &L:11 h- ..... L ='& .. ' "',.! .nL D -mIS _ - __ ,IJ"

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The: ,SIX Sl!~· as 0 I' a w-e_,or any fee-

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level with 'the ground.) and at: :rilht aDgles 'to each other",

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eATED :BY PIPES

,_ ONE SET IOF HOIRIZO'NTAIS WILI:L, B,:E INDIICAITBD D,Y CHAJNS

' ...... 'THE, OTHBR SEIT O'[F HORIZON"TA,LS WI.LL BE IND'l~ eATEn BY' WIRES,

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NOW' A, QUI:CK :REVlEW: 'We see thiDls", as mown, on pages 18, and 1'91, by means of a central' vis'uaZ ray IlUIT01.1Ilded

b f· ,j ~ ~- £-..;.111" 'iIi"ili.II!Io.1 fe- th' "'_M! f-·' .i- .... _ t' 'hil'· - - th' -'- - .. - -.. 'f !'--~ - defines the

:Y a COM or Vl:siOn'ill.,~ cenii,w V1S~ ray' '_CU8eS; upon " e OODKa 0 mteresr, VI ue _-:e oone .0.1 VlSlOD,;; :.' ". . 11- ....

waghly [circular' area wi'tbin 'wwlch 'we: can see tbj~ngs cleft'Fly ~ 'Perpendicular to the central visual ray' Is the p,ictu;re p,kme]Ji which, :may' be 'thoulht of as a piece of[ :gialSB or the drawing 'paPer or canvas ,itself~ The observer's face, will also 'be oonsi,dered, perpendirular' to 'the, central 'visual ray';, hence aI:w:ays parallel to the :picture :plane.. :Keep' ,tbis schema, :in'mind ..

Also recal'l: tbe ,'o,Uo~in, poin:fs!'

.Lines and planes 'parallel to the observer's face (and 'C-ODSetI]endy to the p1icture 'pbme) undergo DO d]stortion, bu"t maintam, theil' tme ldirections ,and, sbapes~

,Lines and planes which are ,no't' 'parallel to the: observer's :mce ('picture 'phme) appear 'to' converge and foushortenl

( S- I_L Jill' .. d !'t.._..:1 ... ,~ ..;1',;'_ .... )

.I'DQ.I, .. l11eS, are sometimes[- esc[.~ as, "~r~g'i '?':~ .•...

'The 'V'8!IlisbinI pcloint for' any &e:t of receding' :parallelllines ,is the point, at which the o'bse~rvers sigh"t line 'pamJleI to 'the set in:temeets, 'the p,ictum plane, To locate this, point" the o'bserver :mletely "points" ,m the same direction as the' Iines,

'TEm 'DIAGRAMS ION THB, :NEXlTI SEVERAL PA,GE-S[ ARE BASED O:N ~,rHESE F'UNDAME'NTAL PRlNIC,IPLES.

(In, 'the foRowl»' examples you. can either 'think ,o,f the' ,observer as 'waDdng around the eube, Olr of the eube as r-evoI~n.ii' The ,resu), :--tl, D,:I\'"D id~"~": ~.~ ) •...•

-""-&;D- - -. -_._ ~~ _~)~lit,

[38]

ec· ;-Y-'e' 1- e' -v· 'e:--l (. ',IU'L!ch' -. ]8"'- . also m"- - ~L.:!',.... .ftili!iJlll!!lift

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the plane 0,1 tbe;--· central visua',] ray")-

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::__:_:__:_e ~_ .'. , __ "1..~ converge an J(L--,,~ClHJU..Ii,'· ]I ~J.W, I VWI.B.:ill..Il..UJ~, ,: ,.',.JI&.III~ u.&.v ~ ... ' __ , ---" .Jlot'Ul ,lJ['v, ',_ ~ ..... v- ,- ."" ".JH;iII,lo.n m, wp

iii ITh- _# the Old" . ~.... b'" .. ...........,'!il_. 'N'" ual I

'Yl8\V. ~'_eIieJai[U~e':' '.r:y ate' eqw'I.l.s'taD,t u-um cue m P,I'i.,,,w.:=. ,_'._Olte, eg ',I ang' 88 .. ,

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Alam' .ii, '.. bo·th' .. _ .... ;iii O~··f' b"",.;'lilWiAD'ital' . lines co· '''In't:''~~D an·", 'd' """re' 'sh- 1'11,-"--, B'Ult" a;~;I',u"e~ 0- L.-iI'i'!li ... .,-~ ;pj'- a'" ", 'arm--' ." PO"" . mil' . .l.i!'i , e; , __ ... L, ..... ". a~ fttatV ,;tL,a,

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In JiLL:_ · __ '1 the' '!' - " "'b'l'" - - , ,"-, th,· ,'"' .iI... .• '_ --·1_,_, __ . ,(" ,. , """''''-ny- -;. 'tb'~'" " . , ' ·,__...."..lI,.:_,"':1 ' " ... _ :I·t· ) .. aft'd" th - .1..,.". ,,"L,,;ftT!P

'w.t:ui, ease, Wll,Y' :, WD'eS, are QI.-'Jqu,e' ~ I~ e pieture pRUlll.t.t,aC'IlrWla,.', .~'"" ey are pe:rptn,IUJ.tt;;lw8l w .1.1:" Gi,1l~_erelore IW,:ac3

_'I·on·e·' con't:r~PDn, mLe" ACIio'l'lii,4-iMal'" I VliIi'S",,",_"1 -r'-al:Y l··tseH po .' dn J....1 to th ai',,,., 'WN'!li"n;;,t!I'I..-~''IJi'!Ii,,_ po--'" "mil' '-'t' tBee S· !¥ftm"n,1'- n.llli/ll\i'rl,CIi'S· r'Jt1'd'e ).,

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'N" ·o:--:~ ... 'The I ' " .. ft'i!'lii'~'Pl1..,,_ - .... m"'''n "'., . :1,'" ftC'!ItIo to· A!I!!ii ...... L o' .ll.:L_ .. b __ " th·· ;Ii.",.' ......... A....ftJn~ .i'A'l'lit-·liI' 0 .', '] ..... , .. ,_, ,-'. - 0'- 'f 'tbeL ," ......... 'to,""": ,-,""'" .... , .... ftiii"ltill'W,1i!'i; 1

", ' I. D ~ _~ .. ' , 'YD.lLUJ:JJ.1Jl.I1;1 po . ·.,1iD ue C, OlcQ~' .1, .. ~~ '-= 'WlI:C 'WI, en, .'. 1,9 iL;W'U U:U, II.!! .~, ..!C8 ~.·LaCeS---, ,_ I, \;iUJl..J!l:l' ~ cqu.cu.,

,',"1-,''-'" I,tb:-- · __ L_, ...... -·, c.' t • .. , "·h' ·.·.'L.,.;,' .. ·,.,-1I.· .. '1'1!1'_ .. , .. etlv at ." . .- .'-.-','_. (t·,--,:" -c'f' '""d')" ~I··'-".· '--"-'d" ... ' ,,-t""',1 .-J".'" '- .. ~ ...... ~

ana es W1. o~rver, J,~,e, • .t, W m1l OJ.J3erVer ~OO~ exac.:y a a comer ...• op 0 ~,e> • .!I.~y aprea,__: ,aparl, as one SUl('UI",w.

...3_,--:--, ''Mii!!i,'.a,lI1·1- .j.-"~ 'b'" ,'.,' - -,. :" I ._- ...... _,.Ji the' . .&L.,. ,&...;.. ........... "i'iIt.... ""'_,;i!!I (. .' ,". . t .- - _.- " e) u.:t_,_11'1 ... ,·( J.. ' ... ",,. .. ' d '_.-. -'-'_..'. ,- ).. '&L.,_-~ . ",. '.~

UJ.~WI ,~,~e. ,LU '0" serve! S ~ itlI.Ull .' ' .. olU . .lLer 'iU.}I~IO-ll.'~ .• ce.n-",er 0, pate .. ,,1;" .IIlWy IU"O,,,,~o'm,·. ta,ram/, wmy ,are an

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lJ-llr, men. ',' ,CUBe .. , ~,·_·ew, 0·", .--131'"' ' ' .. ', '.1 I SIO _, . UImltJSer" AFum,~LO.. rwn·ermg .... rg uosepu '-' ~uO

oo(kli!ng Down A.t Th' . C'ub: ~

The pipes are DO la,n,gel' parallel to observer's face (and, picture plane) so they also coDv,srge and Jor,eshor:ten .. , Their ':.' '~c_:~: -~,fI po,int on p.icture

plane is located, by ,pointing downwards in their direC'tiOD.

II

N ,iIi,.L1I!... .... !I:..._:"'. ---.... !i! _. . - . --. 'a)"I' 1 to Ieture ._- Iaru 'b' ·th- ',,' ,- - - and f ,_ .... _,b _ ten T' .iIi.. ....... .s., . ... hing - i. "'_ - -_. e:lUl..er iCU!l:l'I'l"ii[I!:'I, no'l 1 r WIreS. a.r,~ rtil.i'r [ [e· .', pl'··'· .:.._ p' ". I 0, SO . 't'l' mnv··',t~ili1li0'O,- 1···· J!.o~o. :r' .. '.... l.1td:r Va.nJS ' ,,',' 1fW'\mW!li g1l'".o,

_ .. - -...:~-~., .. " .' _':'.' ":____"1!;r. .• -~:- -~. _._ , __ ,." ._. '.' '.~" rW'" . .' __ 1., :-'_:."_' ~t:ll~' .: .. ~ ',' .,:, .. -,"!Ii! .-,.' __ - _.t - '. r~L -I.·j ~l~,

.. -, ,o'ili II !ii, . ..._'_'t f'rom' - ,'. - ,. ~'!II-"". b' .,= :-; - -,.- " b . ·th,· . . .!!', . ...:- .' '.' i I " ., ,. ,: .. ' •. l,..1 ,.;:[i'Oi; ... 3 ... ··t' ,&-,- '. . . ' .' " "'f ' ,.,"': :-.- "D'

eqm\rUi,wu,1 "I I pl.~"LU.t: "ecBuse ,,0 _ ,. POlD'...".,lg arms are eqmu.u:na.ul' J.LU!m, cone o· VlBIO;o

! '

The '1-:N"Iii,",;nL,;,..,,~ 'PO"" m:Ii-'....... Jtnr h 'n":~n' .... _ '11[ .... _ ""[~,~ ,.~'. _:. -: -liCII' I'U ' '-I iv~l~ I~I;D.ID

t b th 1"1 hori 1·'

mUS ,= e on,' 1 e ,eyrie "eve ~ ·.orlZOn me

(':' ... ted··· to' b . th,· .' , - -.) The" " ... ,'

. 'nn'm r .. '.' - ~ .. 1 . ';17 0.' - I le·r !il!i;~I" . . rli'[lil~.''I''Ii "I ...

, ....... 1 , _ '_ ,:__ , ,'" ' __ ""¥" '_' '_ - ",_ [~.£U" 'II! .- -,:_ .• LIIJI'CL .. illlIL

ner m" 'w.:--hi· Ii -...1.., a PO"" In , ··t-mill -I,iJ! 'o""b,il:iA'lPi7iiliit'i 10:'

, I...,:', • I. .~_~. ~ ' __ l ~' .. ~ '_' •. - .~ .. __ '., !~ .. ~ , .. 111!!!!1

cates 'them, on this line! is again shown

'" tb ...lIi.:m . 'iii

m the t.J.W!erent: 'to:p VIews, •

. ' i' I'

I 1 l'

[ ,

Chaine ar-e now parallel to p1icture plane so they aplpeal' parallel and horizontal [(Ifi o'b,server pointed in their directlon

(dotted line's) he wo,uld never intersect 'the picture, plane.) Wires are :not par,aDel to the p,ictore p,_~ane,", ,A !9,:ight Une

parallel! to the 'wires (located dkectly above the: eentral visual ray) points to 'thek vanishing point on ey,e levet

I

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~o examples, '01' "loa,king down .. ~:~

N" 0'''' - th-"- e do:' , 'l'i:ii'!t'Ii._"' ........ ..l CO" , D"!i if - r"ijjJ- n- ,-- of :ili.le, :i ',:',::,"","u,W,W:U :~",:, ,~Ie, genee vi,

- - - rfj! ' ........... 11 lin'" "eil!ll

ve' ; ~"I~ .. ;" ""'.~.

[42] ~ooki:ng Upl A.t [Thle C:ub!a ~

The pipes. not being parallel to face · \. and picture plane, will converge and t foresbo[rten. 'Th.elr vanisbling ·poin·t. o .. pi,cture plane is Iocated 'by pointing

I

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,., ~

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.. pal:U1om:UiI _ i

'!- '_~_~[N m!!':-' £L .. el;'lIlI! ..;I':~-""1"t· .. -, n- . 'The' [.- - 1jji'O'rM" ....

~Prw't:U~ '~'-' LlIIJ".\.U ~. 10' , ..• ',.~ .y.~

':_ L. ., Ii, .;..... ~ b" "I ' .'

JlIiIJ.l1lg pom,La J10~' G:".or]zo,ntal ' mea must

b "'~"n,' ... ; , ·· .. ·,·1-:00, ',." ''':'"':'' "'1' Iin .,','.' 'The'" '., =, to --,

. e 0 ... ~ye eve , ·r,IZOD, ·~e, .. - 11._ ". _' P

Vl~'rif:ijJW' '~I 'L-,lnlw· a' Dl'om'"" . I ,N],,;. n~i' h .. '0' af. ."L,e··y· !!I"P-Z!!; ;-~, .!i:Ii lIt'-_:u,,' ',. :ti~·-_:--)- ~U'" . ~. ow Y·Jl ',[".. ~ ~

, I hi 1·

located a ang t " IS . me ..

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Chai '1'1 .... ,1 ... _"'" '. ....['11[- Ian . . ~ ..-L.· . - ~- - ~- .~ .... alLel and hi' OMQn'O' 'tal" .(. Try po- m·' , tin'"' 61 to'a'!il'ard' I .... 1... .... ,j'!t'!i vam' . iI C!i1..,::- a

. " : me are para rW W pIC IiUi i:: pJJ: I~e: so :I/Illey rema.m P~I_:' u '.: g_: I:. [.~ '- ~ ,'·.IL~U'. :. _: ", '" I.' ';, :./ ' .. '.: .~i r: " .. I, :a, .:, i_ [",a. ,:.' Lne,D.-·' . " 'I IlgIWI,D

. . '11,_1 Ii 11_,__ h Ii! tal iii ;L, I'"' ]-'1 1- to J.L • ('I . d di etl 'b I

pom~) W:ires are: :not para. m 'to pl[o·tore pu:uw; a _-o:r.uonl-': ~_rl !Ug,!Ult . me para e ' .• :. ,WJi8 'WIre·s '. ocated direot Y' ::,s,ow

&11..._ .. .4.-,,', ''', -1' ~~). ,.. ,j, ... ~.- ,tho J' • Ii .• , .. __ ';:_iL.:_. ~ _ ... ~. t" . ' ',' ]. ~~'-"~-I

I~ rceDu"a, VlSU8", ray ... pom"", W _J! ·.e.IrVlUW!i:L.UI!g' pam, on, e,ye ·~evell.

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r ~''''''h ...... , _

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S·l··-er CJitui~ 'DOl'" WIreS ar;e ~1Y'a [e :. 'ww p'[IG~iin~~ SOD':" ". conver':;'B an'" ,IU~,IU,I~Wn-i I,' ~"i" VanJ:sl' lit ',tJI' po,m'···· ,a,

, ' _ .. -._....:_ . ..::.____: .. _ '_ ....:'..:. .'._ -"'_'_", -=.'~I:~ -,'1.····· .. [_ .. ..:_ .. -. '_'_ ..:. ,' .~"" ,',_,- ~i'" _ .. " I ' ! '!I . __ - ~L...,:_._- _ ____::.___ ",_-; _! __ ,_ - a "".-".1 . ~

:further' away because 'the pom:tmg r1gh't arm is ,further from lcone of vision,..

,il'

[all

Two examples of ";~loOking ttp!~;' Note the upward con~lerg'en"ce: of vernca,] Jines,

'W',i'ndows,. 'by Charles S,heel.er" Courtesy oj' the Downtown ,Q,aII ery" N .. , y~

(Bel'ow) Painted, by A:ustin Brig,p for

McC'aI'l !ii'

.' .• ' • 1',-" " -'. ".- "~ --. t..

<, IS, magazme

[44)

'N··: ,nw~:-:~ ]Iot,"'>t! I~O':-: ok 0 c7~rJJ···1 I a' t" th e·: U--; Nil' b ....... '='lI~I:,_ -SI E-la~ ,-:~ v-' ,i,;Oft"T· ·'PC.III'II"'... m~ill a d :'~e" ~,t'- ~J"nA '0": 'f: "'"D' iV-:-:-DiPDa'Jriill~ -'""l';l1 '10'" 1 ....... 'O!Ol~;n;~Mi·~''!If'illi'il';

,"', U.-: :__!liJI.", ~ ,ll··u_. lUaU - -," I. ~.' '," .1 _.I -·.·Ull~-Si !I' '_ ~ .. - .. ~ :,~-'IY ''''I~U LDl, . ,'- UJ:'.)~~J. "3~ _, .. ~f "~,D~I&~~ ilflUl J~r ,.l"muu~~~

E .- h .~]LI- - .. 'O;·lId ·L..... ~J!I.;.._..J baek ,,_ "'ilk ""'"'"''IIi 'b. .d_.---'.. - s : ,:._ '=:1_ t. . ..,''' ....

ac tiUOUJllU. 00 J,~~'~J;;~-':t.a1. 'w 'iWe 'CUOe rw;,aWlDg' OJi.' SWJ..Ual'" Vlewpom',~,

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O'1!,..~alrv···er' is acrosel tb:'-e' ril:ir~. S': t ~'~und '1IB've] lookin,a siraic:;ht ahead ('See :ntrd'e 88' bot·,l-o,nt):'

- lUg~ .__ _ _, _ :__,_~ . _'- c_: ' ... ~ ....•. b<A,'U' '. . , " .. , . ' ... ' '. '8 '.. -., ,:_, - - __ ,_ot .. ::_ .... "'-5.' .... , .. , _'I:I'_, __ .~ .

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:_~:a,.1'~ ,M3" ... 'Ift· ,,lY.£WURl '~JI ~~I. ,lIl.V'VaJD~ -lWta.J,a__:~ , ~, .. 1IiiU;& _,,'.' .~~~,.~ 'WZ5~.I';,",,~ 0 .'~ ,r~: ~_.jIi ~~".t.';If""'1! t,.

0,' -L_ -,- - ,~-,.~ . 'i'lI'1Ih'L. . ',1-,' .- . b "iI. -;.~" ']· __ 1..,1_. ·:_UB.erver ,lSI m~g e 'O,Ber _ 'U\), 18!w-u '.~

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0- bse t t' ''!it'" b t·' }' k~ -

. : ", ",,'rver IS a' h same 'POSl' lion ,-Ut- .lS now ,OO~ln;g' up,

'T"c' "P"

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'Y' II E"!l·'"

",~" IIJ ' .. ,.

O":"'L_,- ,. ln.h 0-"" I kin do ("S" 4'0"")'

, '~rver' is now-'~.' m-- '~~I" 'CO, "": p" "a.""""'r" 00:', "I'-'~ J!1' , ,' .. ; r'il'f'll"ll .. ""'e""'e,1 J"i;,fj'Qd - "', 00" ',~, I

_ _ _ I _ ',_, . . .... ' ~. ~,_- < ",,: •• ~_. : _ • D .. -. '",~._iI -,._ .. 1 "' " y-~a~ -_: .. -" " '_, _.,iI!~I~~iII' 1",/

VIEW

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'1::1' .......... "", ,. ,,' ,," ":' 'ai' 1,,,,:1, ]1..., ..... "'_, ib "",, , __:, " d L",:,:'I, ",:...:." 'I ,:,''''1 ,'1 C', ' :}' '" :,~..:I ,: ,~, ." .. , .. '1I,"'_~,~,_ ' '-1":' 'C".' ",~",:,,",~._ " ,'I'IiI,q 00" ,-= M,g, o"',f' .. '1:~iil!l!;li"'ii" ')", Th' :""e"l!'oO,= E1t:.U,=E!;, ,many par, ~ cu~s'~ a.ove, ,an, ~ow eye eve :,' are Vlew~, Slmw,WU,u:.;,uus,y,W.lWJ-UI, O.l~,~, " ",~"", ~ '_ ,g-

£0,','""' .... ,, ,,',L, .... ,.: ..... , .... ('1-)- he .. '""",,,,:,,""l"" "'d':'" parallelj will eonv ",' ,'C' ,,,",-,,,,,,,,, 'd" ""I'''', """,,_':_1...'':'_, ,,' ""',,,1- ,'. 'I{li 'tL, ...... ,'.,',:·,,·"'=' '(::"b-,-,""';,,"~,l and

, re, ene enams ta ,", orlZOna. an" para. ~, WI. eonverge IJUW,Qr." one vamsmng pomt, ana !I~ ~",--_OrlZOnWJl 811 '

'n!!liilr..,.l1e', 11"1 'b"'u"t' Dlnm""'" 'g' ", m'l, a' d' l:rA"e' .. ren ... directi ·'O'D')' w" ill ~ii··"n'l:T,O'~D'~ 'to" "fR,_~1 8' d '!',t!i!'Olll"£!ii'ni,t' .. V:A-'':I'"'"' -- .... ",j ~·w...""tt po "'m'I!i,-,-'t Th" "a p- ,i~ii1 'boi:ni'lil!f 'pa'" '_~I~ll""'1

,~!iiIJi, :', ,', , ' _ I,,' ,.,,_' ,1_ I ":"",!LU,,, " 'Il., ~, ,I ",,", ",.!I, ,,,,,,,",,.ai...li.l'~,D;~' ",!'naJU .' .. ·U,I,w~.' ". ,fUi,JUa.lJJUl;a '.... ".;" ," '--'--~ ri , ~~J _,,,",,,_~ I' .iIi"aut::

to ... L".... . 'b- ".'" L 'i1~ I' ' , ,i!!', '" all' .... iIIl

• •• 1 lwe 0' . ,sewer :s' ~,iQce;; W, . r-emam pa.r-: ~ .. ' elt.

'N'" - 'te' h"'" t -- "'''' " d- . 1...._.:_, ... , ,'-bo' , -" '" ,.' :-1"" '} ',,',",'.' d" , __ ......... ...1i_ L:'1·. ·tIl: ' , - be "I'" ", a la I' , - , " ' __ ...1_

..... 0' .. r . . .. nrnPe9 an I 'CI:li:l1Jm a I .' ve ~e eve oon'l'j!'er~e,' . o· wnw~ WUlle . - ~ : .. ' , ow""' e~ i'tfe ' .. :ve' OO,Dvero,'e U1"rWi:lEUlt:t-

,.' - ",' !", ,-,: ' H,.:LI;,.:_,,~ ',,' ,,"",' '" ':_,",.':_' ~Ji',,:_ ",':_,'"',',, ,,:, ,"'Ic" ,ti'.: ',' C"," ",,''''' .. ' , " ,',' _:_, ,,~ _, ,"",'~."',' ' ',7 _.' _,' '" ' _'",' ", _ 'Ii'- ,Ifj"'''' Ii-

_ . -

('''·I'~ au,'v 'U7D-'IIiI!i.i!IIi AViI!II'C",l'!tT '0- "" ftVe IDo'i 't ..... 111 tbl ~Y'" 'D'tn.'uJ" Id," lna··'·· ''''1I'ii'IM:- allv 'D,P-, p-- no,. hor iIl'ZA'K£~'1111 )' ,,'. 1,1£ ~~ ¥Yu.I.~ ~"WJ!' ..... \LiIi. 'Ci~., .... _~:'i"W .' 1 IfWi,_./HV ...., .. li;'lU'- ..-',,j/ u.:::. .. ~ ,U,U, ,,~.II"!d,~J!iJ .'.'

Proiee; 'th~ 8";-::U c'- '~fi>u 1~:M,n -D';Am······· "e'l~'o, Q,,- -8"-0·,1\..1 '.' ·;iI"Ii;··"I'1C!1ZWr' A:· 'rcbite_.i..... R" ,:, end "er;'TU7 'b' y.' J,,',oC!!ap, "h- D"~Am:' elio

, U, ~1¥'" ,",\I' ,~,<, K,1l $I'" tt . ;I' """,~, ..,....~. __ ' \l.1Q,~ __ ,,,, " .'_III,,;j.II,;Q(~ __ ''II;<'~,-- ':. '_. " ' ,~ ." ',,' _:_,11, <w

,-,~~,

.t2L. ~.

»<:

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A :IroU_)llof cubes (or bricks" dominoes~ ete.) :faciDI' 'various direetlons bas man:y dHleren,t sets, ,o,f horizontal par:aDel

- ,

1•· ... E.I· ._L .,-.' t· 'if'~' '·~c~~.d sd ~"H .... "",1d- .t!Ii'P~Iir' to oonve' ra'O tor', . i''''" own' ''Ii:~'''''';~'~:'¥l,li''ffl 'po'" 'int on £L.~ horizon line I(:~e leYell')'

.meB~, ·,·Bl.lll,Se,;, '-" ,e.&,~e., WU'W·, g'-'r~ __ , ·~:~-:·-'DIIiOO .•. ,~;_'."-'~ V,Q..I,~~ i·_~ __ '.:._'_ Wit:: '.'" .... __ . '.~_' · .. -i'- "::': ,iii

Bel - . pU- ,iI A E!i,'£ !!' - 'H t:ii - J!. ",L;ii!.'ii p~Ai'plliii!!i;

. - e QIW are ap: ~ I_' eanons er ems ': .LMAW; ~:l~!!

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GENERAL H',ULE:: WHEN' THERE A'HE :MA'NY SETS O,F PA'RALLEL HO'RIZONT:AL LIN,ESt. BA,CB ,S,RT WIL',L CONVERGE TOWARD ITS OW,N VANISHING PO!INT ON 'THE HO'R1Z0N ,LINE (EYE' ,LE,VEL) t,

[48]1 Why A 'Tha,rough KnlowJ',edge 'Olf Si',Dlpl,a, .Sha;ple.s~:s bnportant

ONC·E A. BASIC SHAPE SUICH AS

A c UJ:?l'TiI O······R···· A: -R~i'fi'iC· ~T'·AN·· . 'G' :·'U'I"A'R·

....... D.D ., .' ,.· .. D.· .. ~ ... .' ~

,P'RISM IS, DBA WN IOOIRRE,CTL Y

IT' CAN BECOME ITHE GUIDEI

F··,O···.·RI:'M:~-c F,'-"O···'R·':· A:···· WI.····. D',' E': V:ARI'EITY- '.'-' 'O···IF'

., '.'! 'I. __ ' . ", _ __ •..

OBJECTS~,

THE, SIZE OF ITHE, OBJECT1

DOEi·S··., Nr'OT:··· ·,··.·-A:TTEi __ . ··R .. t. IF'O··.R,· 'IN···-

, . . . [ ", ~,~ r! .. " _ ' ,

STANC·E,* A. PRISM OFI THIS ·PRO ... PORTION (b.elow) DRAWN A.T'

THl' S' A" N"'J-G' 'LE~ C-"I,O=-:'U' 'LD'" BE'C'O" 'ME':-'- A

., , .. ' .,'·~I .'1 .. ' ,·1 '" I .. '; _:. ,. _.' . __ ', 1_·:' .... '.:. ':__:_,> . :1,·.· ..

'BOOK, AN 'OF'FlCE BUILDING; OR EVE'N A BIL·LBOARD~

I

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OR" THE EXACT 8,AME S,HAPE CO'ULDI BE ULAID DOWNn, TO BE-

CO· ME A, ""PA' CKAG'E:lHIi' FO"':-R~" HOR

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CI·G:.'AR- '. BO"X""c A' G"'UIN' A"· B .. ···()()·::c· .. ··-=-·K· A'·

I. _ " '. _ '.:...= '.:_)_.:.c." ~,' ~ I .. 1...:.,. ,'. ....= -':' :~:- .. ,.' _',

S· WI' . M" 'M~c 'IN I . ··G···.' POO-" ,:", 'L 'iC'Irrv""I C' N" -:-:- ........

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mes .. _ ", ,:,. ·en preVlOtlS .. ··: OO:Dverge.·

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Lines #1 which prev.iousiy eonverged

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The tie,s, o,f' the railroad and the black Iines of'the structure at the ri.gbt are parallel to the pictureplane; therefore they do not eonverge .. 'The rails and, the :fancy lines of the structure are perpendieular to the: picture plane: thlB'refore they do converge, and since the observer's central vtsual ra,Y points, ,e:x8,ctl.y in their direction, their' vanis ··'~--.I pomt,

t beInfh te 4 .L.1.. -. OJ .......;..,.,- Th- Ii! ~, ,. .~:; N 1 k t tbl ,.. . :Both-l ta· f .'4;l'iI '1Il.._ . 'Il ", ..... '1i

.mus,:' in, '.aje cen: I: - r.' o.~ WW pil~:I"'Ul·C',;. ,::18.1S one-point ,perspe\;;iUve~ ··:·O'W . ',00 " . a' '. ,e SUitcase. . - .' ~j .. ilff' _ o· l~, .'lUnzun'~Ji

lines are oblique! to the picture plane; therefore they' converge to left and :righ·t .. The observer (top view) points in

thai ...:1.='- ...... .-;.::, to·] . 4-.... LL -.!-@ h I Ii! ts T'" L:'_ '" two' 'I' .. ....,:

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1 d- th "I d eh ,,... __ ,,, 1':_. f' th ,,--, tur" th d· n'" In ",L -- to · th L._ .-.' . jI '" ht"

piane, as, 0 '. ··_e' taus an' . :_, e ~"-';3 ,UJu:e8 0" ,'e ,S(..j[YC'.~_e,. lD another cnreetion. In me "':p view, l_,-e: O~lVIEnt'{S ll.gl,

han- d'i - '-., t to tho !!, " ..... ::_. • t f- tb ..::=,_, fl· h'"'1 hi '1 f- b d iii· to .£.L! .... ,L!_ lnt f' th

'." pom a .~::' i~· e VaDlS'Ii.tll,g pom ' 01," e '1~t set, 0: C , m,0S,. wnne ,"118, e,;t. ian ~ POInts '1 -, I/d;JI!5. vamsnmg pom I 0 ., ,.e

second .. ,N:ow consider 'the, suitcase: one horizon'tal ge't of Iinea has, become perpendicular to the picture plane .. There~ . th tr I '. ;0; ........ 11 '. ";>;;i to · LRl ., N"'iIo,_: ... ,1..~',_, 'F, hieh t be i th te f tb '...... .. '_ T' h the t ~ lore ae centra visuar ray pomts [_-':, l~ vamsmng pom~ Wu,i~;;;' 'm:us, , r m 1 ne center 0: 'I:',e 'Pl.CIioU.J.1e., ·.II~e 0: er se 01

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IS,WI~se Jlm:es lfJ ,parau,~,' . - e! P:lctur:e :p' ,ane; ,so ... _, , mea r.emam pazw e,-c. m Je w-awmgll ' .: ·9 on,~ an .. 'ro-pom, .

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perspe..,;;uves U.ve ,Ieen. u·anspoatru.

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F,looti'n;g BO,u.se:8J, Lalka Geo,rge, 'N'~ y'" D"Amellio,,1: Hohauser, Architects .. An exam ple of' l."one-pointtt- perspective with the point corr·ec·tly placed at the center 0'" picture, Riendering' bly Sanford Hohauser

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OJ aDY_ .. ' ,::!uJ' S, L ~ ::, ca' ~Ioncal~y' ,~, , WliimJL ' .' 19 V8'DlSIu.ng' po,m: . O· . ,one s.e '0 ,,' _Or.lZOl1'I.~: ~-,-,~es, '0": a. reC;WUlguW IU_..~ec::

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. SUtaJL as a rai roae trae -:', a CU~', e"~li .. ' : ~ W'RWI t~e ·pl.C;~we '11 en LIre IOUIeE ise·t O~r _i~es.',a~. ·n,·:·I: 8Jl11 eEL 'u.oes, not

converge and the lines remain parallel and horizon.tal .. Th.'e, .picture above is based OD. this arb,itrary rule,,, .

. Note: that 'tile, rails and ·the! fancy lines converge to th r eir correct 'vanishing point, but, ·that 'the· cross .. ties, and blafik

II 11- t._L ._ .. 11........... '-bU' iI· to th·, '.;... .. _- '1 ( .) d ._,L ,",'. it'd:- th ·_,_':_,L ':'-. • ,_ di ted

mes, w: .JUIi ar-e ~ 01:, ~,q\le ".J' ,.~.ie :plC"w..., p,~ ·.·.see top v~ew" an':', .:lOW~· CODver.,e to! . S: 'Vtu.iUlmJ.inI' pomt me 'ca', .•..•

by the observer's ri.gb: arm" do not, What a'bout the suitcase? Its, recedin.1 lset: of Iines eorr-ectly' vanishes to the point indicated 'by the eentral visual ,ray" while ·the se't 'parallel to ·the p1icture plane remains" also correctly" horizontal and non-convergent, The result lis that the front edge 0:1 the suitcase comes O'ut para 1.',,'_ to the erosa-ties, This, surely is wrong'!' .AI,so", it's obvlous b·t, objects, at the ,far :rig:h·t'ls,del' from dj9;mrtioD~ In other words this rule is contrary to, basic perspecti.ve dra'win,g p!r,mciples and results in a variety o,f' ldistortions and iDa.ccura.cies.

Tbe reason this rule, prevail.s is 'tha.t it eliminates the ,difficu]ty· '0,' working' with distant, vanishing PD,in'ts .. But wbll.e this difficulty mllY complicate T~quare and tr.ian.le pe·r,s,pec.ti.ve" it surely is no p;roblem in freehand wo,r"k.

·Therefore,. when 'the vanishing pom·t, of' 'one set, of lines, of 8. rectangular object is placed at the vertical cente,r' of r a ,drawing then the other set of lines (s.t righ.t angles) should ap'pea.r parallel and horizontal (EFg." top picture previous page .. ) But whenthis OD'e vanishing point, shifts, ,a'way from the center; indilcstint' ·that the o'bserver is, s&ifting' bis, viewpo.:mt, t,ne' other se.t of lilies' ,·11 ou Id' begin to co.nver,ge to a· distant ,v6mishing poi:nt~ (E~I,t" bottom .picture ptep,ious pale (I.nd pieture below. )

Lo:MD'l' ~,.f ...... :-~ S·:, oinee B·'~nL D·"Ame]:· .-.- ~' .!I .. C, "'-:- H','-,ba"-: 'I'IIOo.'P A····· __ L.:;',. ..... , ............ 'R···:, nd ·"ntfl 'bL.~.~ .J': .. ,. ·h:-I. 'D'Am'" .' e1~'"

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'C······h-·-<~·· :··,'t- ",," ,-. B"w ·M··",·::·Q·· :···R'·E·-- '0',.·· ····N··,,- L-I 0"· ·,··O'··:"··K··'·'IIN: I~ UP D·,··O··,····W·,':····:·:'N'···',

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AND S,TRAIG!HT AHI- ~jAD

G"-'-:~'- '- ",." .' - -""-t· ,- I!I -- ,""0'" and--' A'2~' -.' L ..... __ .a.L_ Aliii'L.,- :- ,- Ii!!! "~ --, ,'-~ 'b' y' ul-'oo'- king d'-;nr-wn'" ,',. and ""-I,n,,t'iI,'1'.':,-!i!I' up' ;,', and no· ... - ,i;L""",.-t-, 'th' - _.

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ver, iear unes e 0 no aeman remain V~~J.c,;u.J. m WJJe pll.CI!.\tUre __ u> .I4I;~'wtlJ, appear I, oonver,~e," OWDWwuS an- ." upwaJ.~

peetiyeJy

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any JJ!Ll!OU S, ',.' "-~" arl, ar~wm - SUCII ,Jnes SuO_~,--~ .way,s, ,appear Vel'" '1C8--". ~_~ M.N'QI:· con -ary " HIe U'd'l-n,

of',see'ing, this, rule is laid down, in, order to simplifY matters, But such sim,p'lifica,tion is helpful only in, mechan'ical (T~, and triangle) perspec'ti.v1e 'where converging 'verticals means complicated ,drafting to ,establish ,and work, 'l'lirl·· .. JL..:;II:n'r...,;· .. t··~ v~ani8hinO" l'V\iints and complicated procedures 'to determine 'vertical measurements

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N"inw- - hold th ,- 1m book v-\il!iJ/'rt:lli',~·lly·· abo tI[:~B,

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your' head", m, ·this mamtler (Is,.t),. and

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What ylou see (r'is'At) is ex8lctl:y the

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same 189 ..... ore, ..... ,y DOW' e 'conver'"

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,SIMP'LY 'THA.TI THB RELATIOIN'·, SHIP :BETWBEN E'YES (S'IG'HT

L- ~1'1:i'IS~-,I)::" A·~··'N····· ·D··· S.····'U·'BJ:',: E·,·:C····.·T'- ,,', ,("B·:,··lOO·.--::·-··X')"

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I-'IS .... - ·m· 'EN': TI'- ., 'C" "A' LIN, ' "BO"·'-···TH·· L . C· -' A ,OlE,' -'S·"

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But a.sain 'why is upward and ,dovmwa~rd convergence so rarely 'used? The reason ]s that 'we usually see thinl;sl by lookin, more or less ho'rizo;ntally~ Not, only is this attitude more natural tol·the anatomical is,truc~e of our' neck and head." but so :m,uch of wha,e we see exiSlta a't o,r 'near' eye level.

Therefor-e" most of the· time our centrall visual ray Is horizontal, and OODSe~ently' our hna.ginary picture plane: is vertical (i:e., at right ,angles, to tb.e rround)." And under these conditions, 'vertical elements continua to aplpe&r 'vertiesl.

Just a. few of ·tbe .inftnite number of thinglB, 'typically [seen s.t eye·level~ (Note true ,direction of v9:rtical.liDes .. )

'When then, would upward OT ,dOIWllWard eonvergenee be appropr,iate? :lFo:r one: thinl;, it could be used when drama, lor mte:~est 'was desired, ,B,u't :itt probably makes most sense when related to the natur,e of the subject matter.'...N 'O'FHER

W··---·;O·-·--RD::·:S-~ THIN··G·.·.· .. S:.I USU'ALLY [SEEN-,' FRO-:·_::-M···· BE.LQ-·-·": __ -··W···::· O·-.·.R~· F·_·R.-·'OiM.···.·· A' .BO---:---lVE~:·-----~:1 S"c'HO'--'U-'I'L- ··-D·-· B···'&'O D·R~·A.- WN-- --- W···· ... ·;·I· TH-.·.

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CON'~' rpR·GIN1G·~ VE~·--; : R' :~C·~ .. A'->! if!

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,]1:'X'8'mp]'e8 0.1 thinl,a typi1cally' seen by l'ookiDJ u;p. i.e., objects usually above eye leveL (Nlote upward, ,CODver;leDOe of

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: lzam ~' ... ' ,10'1. ~ cD,S, 1'Y,.,~ . " ~I, 1.11 _'DODUII ... own.; "e~,~ 0-: -. le'-flO USWUIJ!' . _.1,091 eyel .• v'w, .. :-' Ow qu'R!LWtuu., COD~

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rCiU W, en 'we ,,00 - UplOl .. ··own a""; aD, .m'-·lllVl!:· ua eiement, a·utal as a.

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amg e co . "., eaen viewmg an,1 e ret,S,,, .Ki m a, 'lJl,er8n" convergence

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we were to back ,a',way and, 'view all the:

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If we were :now to add more cubes above and below uBi'Qg 'the same van .. isbinl points ltI 'bela[re,[ these' :new'

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fmu.t eomers (as' noted) wouldbe less than right angilles* A cube· would never ,appear this way .. ,

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'vergfmre ,is simpi,Y tha,t these De¥,;..· 4' ~

cubes are outside of the obse1vers

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'co'ne· 100f clear VlS.mn~ .. ,~ "

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tlon is eliminated simply by pla,einl' the vanishlng poin'R;, :further apart,

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~~·~~PART EL_.'IMINATES, DIS,TOft."

TIl!' ,O;'N"" A·····'TI 'E .. 'DG····:;_'·E··,~·S-· O.·Fi D'RA:·····WlN~·~:;-,G:

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I:iT 'ia~'E~A,N"S OB,SE;:RV'E,R HAS,

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elements that are placed horizontally,

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I 8fti'v,ely close oo',gether (se,f! t(JiP v',ie'w) #~~~~ and th.e cone of' vision lnolndea on'ly a :few' cubes, s,t the center, 'Cubes,o,utsi.de the ·OODf! of' vision are ex,cessively dis ... torted and 'th,e'ret;cl'lte unrealistic (see p,i'c',,'ure' ab'g ve" @

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But when the observer steps baek, the cone of vision includes, more 1001.' the

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I' ,i ,I ,iI ~l suJbject~ the 'v,anishing' :points spread

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'gon appears, in one: 0:1 your drs,wings,.,

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,iIOi .p-' , 's" r't (wh ]'t ~ h m ,0: ~ 'n-" i:'Ii ,'V,~ 'U" h ,a' , '1:j' h

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"stepped baek" :from, ~ ,subject) O:R

show' only' the 'undis:t7orted,~cen,te,r area

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w .: ". c~ I means ,y()tU' Fe: respec mg s,

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Distortion due to ,excessively close 'vanishing' points Is a eommon ,error because close 'vanishing points ,in general are ~ to bandle than ldistan:t: ones" So don~t let laziness trap ,you .. ,

Bu,t also ,.vo,id the 'o!pposi.te extreme. PIac'ing vanishing pcdn:ts too :far ~l',part is ,also 'wrong because it results in minimial conYer,Bence and. hence a sense of fta,tnese~

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Bu.ch is 'the case m th,.e drawing above (rig,ht) ~ The flatness is 'the result either of v,i,ewing 'the subject, from, too Ileat, ,.,djstance, or' of limiting the drawing to obieets ve-ry-,'oea:r the, center of 'the cone, of vision (see suJ'e l}',iew) '. How is it· OOJTected? Since o,ther' obj'ects or foreground, OE' background. features (clouds, trees, room details" ete.) would no,rmaJIy be visible~ aI~ around 'tIle ,mbject,~! these, ,if drawn, would, giv-e the picture; a. reaiis,ti.c three-dimensional decl, (The other solutio,n is to, "move eloses" to the subject ,_, i:e., n,se closer vanishing' points and stronger conver,lence~)

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IN' GBNE,RAL: Converaenoo is minimal at the center O'f a picture and incr:eases as you approach the, circumfer,ence (J,f~ the eone of vision. Beyond, 'this range! unrealistic 8D~ una.ooeptable' dj'SW1Uo'D begins to, oeeur, And Da',turally the: :fmther you 10'", 'ttJJilJ' worse 'things, ,get (above) i

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+ Chapter 1 0: DETERMINING 'HEIGHTS AND WIDTHS

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'In, that case; flrst draw th,e ground line to the, le,f't, vanishing 'po'm:t~ Wbere: this intersects the fa,ce of' the cube draw a, vertical Hne (soo,wn dot;tetl) t (This, might be still another ~ft~ ... high POSIt .in :perspectl,ve~)

,F,r-om the 'tap of this hnaginaty post draw another van'isbhl;g' Iine, This is the 6-:ft .. :heilb,t 'line for spo,t ®~

S,U;P'POse you wanted to IdraW' lOme... thiDJ' 12 ft'i hig,h~ ,Simp1:y' idouble' the

a f',," h - ,i,fIt -h' t- and _ - --- - und oLm..··e n~' ~",-:-Irt-,_,e.:.:.;".·_ m~iL~· carry am :~,~ ,w_ :!I&~n

l~:ftt :he,igbt.line (li,'h,"" d'ot',ted) io

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If the congtruetioDB above were ima.,~

m'''' .·· ..... 4 es" GlS- iiI!!illll'l,ilaa In,f' l2._f'" -hi ,o!' I' :'h~ ni:,OI'j,t .. ",,";I.

"-',Jt=U !CiA"-,, I~ ,~~I U u- h'i' 'I .:'" r~~11iI

:fences, 10l' wa1]s~ then the ",heigb,t Iine"

W.: .IA;u1d:1 be '8 '~QI , ... L,~;_D" '~"'ia~-, .... ,d ·()'''f-' !i!!II,'It,'Ii

__ v .. '_ '_'_ '_ ;Ii,,,,,,~, W-1l-J,.IUJio ,~rI~ '~ .. ~ ...

irna.so1n,!Ai'I'fU' 8'i 'Iii,~Aa "I .:'-.... tI' .... ,'II':e·, W" 'i!:!ii iCI.aa

'd£0;D~~r# ISI~~ ,ID US !I! ~~I,., '_,,_,ll1ji!i1' f~

. ',-' . " .- ..... ·-1·:"-:- --·I"y·" ~;-ti'f ,"',L~~ ~1!,,'~I---;i!'!i;1IM e-'i!lita· b·ll,;t."L. more c ear ~' .. ' ;UU'", Ioll~ lUI.IJ,I_~CI' _ a' . , ..... \!UaI1

'he>'~ "":I\.o;t· - ,-. ,~t.., .... '.--~:. ~U-·· -~-,J " -'. d"

.llu, :&, ,88 liD.CY' are carl~~ ,arou.n~t

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L.lllS case,,. '1IIlIU~ persons ' •. ' . ",', 10

about 'the, same hei,ght as, the! ob-

. ". and' :-- " __ ...3':_"" th" 1 , ' "

server "I, ': I stanamg on ',' c e same

,-- 'und-' - 'Jan--" . 'ul'-' d' ha 'fb'l, '~--, .. ,-,,-

'-I' ,',. -tl '.' ',-', .' . ·i,.I, ... - -. _ '. ,.",-'

orrn, .. ,.,,) 1'1 .Ie WO '.,'" '"V'S ,'1 ,en; eUyes

l:I!~ ~ - ' . - F"~' - . .. .. .. ~~. . ",~. _.

at the same mevel. as "tIle observer's

( " ... L_ b" 11:'_ )

1.le~,. on ~ I .~o'nz:on, lYJ'i,e'.' ;;

Those (2) a, few meb,es shorter {e~g .. " most women) would, have the tops of their heads approxima;tely ,at

eye: level,

'C'-"'h' ~1' ,.J-__ [I., 't-)" ""', '-c' 21l ft: ",., +~;l'l

,I I] ,W"eI1. ,~ me 'IS, say 7'2 ' :.. U!:I"., ,

about one-half 'the h~edght lof an adult

would "i"iI'Ci,4b;;;',",-rn..1Il'iii·" 'ha'V6 fbi -O'i'1I"" he ... .JI

- ·.·.~:viUJl ... · ~~I~UJIL~ ,.I_:G·.~:~ . ~ ~i·'~tlU-

4.c""" " - 00-' 't- h l-~ . --, ., " "",,"_..dll:~'_"

'wPJ~, at ,.U'~, I ~a· r 'way up any Sla.lUUJ!.a~1

ad' ult ,,c'lmI11iP ,nFiL ii!!I.'l' ,B,i1-o". iP.II!!ii 'n·"'.no m" "18- ~ ... - . I, "_.' ,DD'~ _~, Jl, II'IW' ~I' '\£ 'Ij;i: -, V .. '. ,L~-

--'h ,- th"", .". -I ._ .... ..J (. 3'~ "),, th-- .. ..J: ... w' er<e ,·,·ey ,are Pi 3ceu, ",: .:. ~ sn 'e UJ.&o

.,;., .... :- "f,. , th """~",' ofth air head .... "'_

laJ.lce OOID_ e ,"",ps, 0:, • _ell I l.eB,U::j I)UI

eye: level. must equal their body .L,,_':' ht

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'---;r

W,~thl' - ",,' ,''C' ]- . -, ' .. il abo "t- t:: f-t'~ '&0-1 I ;i!','L,.

1.,_. _ eye· eveJL a .o'u I .. tI ' _~ ... , m, li,Ue

800- '" '2-' f't h ~ 'h" . . teb _'1.. "I (' .AI ')

1\ a, ~. .~- II]g; (. was'ILoC_'a~ef 1",.'."

Id tand h '"'to

. '~',., - -I.. '., '. " . . . . _.~ I" i":_: , • .l .. ' J I . [ ;, I" _ .....

WOy , . IS" .. , W -' erever II were

lI........zI t th 't... ..... ,tto ":I.e: f' U'

P,Ht:C'OO", a' ne Uti ,'. m ~l:'U 0 ' a Vet --,iii,

. ..... .-.,1 fro):-- - '-m- - O'ro' 'un'" 'd'- j,_ oy"e"" 1- ;DiV, .... :1

~ ~~ ,.~ ~ :.. b:' '-' -~._ ~. WI ~,"::' ." '_.:~·.",'t:I!I!l

What about, 'the 5~ft~ men on 5~,ft .. , lhig:h stilts:? The 'foo'trests, are at e:ye Ievel, the,refore these: :IO~unit figures (5) would always appear one-hall above e:ye, levell ,tmd, one-half 'be)o,w", reg.ard.less ,of' where 'th,e,IY stood,

'Th.€! proportions used' ab'ove for h,eig,h:t'S, related to eye teoel are all v(8,ri/ied In, side .viieiw .. It snould' be noted tlwug:h ;that these p:roport',ioRS can be worked out "in perspectioe" wi.t'hout this aid. Rev',ie,wi'n,g the lJ',teps' i(lbov,e' w',ill show this.

[8 a]

Assume the observer (1) to be 12 :ft, above rround (e,.,g'~J< a 6 .. ft~.-tall man on a. fj..,ft., la,d,d~)"

lIi!!Ir ....... - - d' I "'Dr' -'n th··_ 1""''','!II'nA W ....... 1d- apt"Wi)Ai'JI bel' eye 111 __ ," '1

gWD-U;:, O .. ne .'JI,'V'~~U:OW~-'C· .r~ .. ~_ o,w i_':_~ re.ve· ~

This

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means all alUMS

The top of anytbinll2' ft~ high, such ,as a 'wall, would the:relore be level with ,~ye level I(horizon line) and would apipe&r' as shOrWD in the ,drS:winl below ..

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(,3) standing .al.olll this wall would ,always be one-half the wall's hei:gb ...... i.e., such figures would always stand at the bottom half of a 'vertical line dropped fr,om eye~ le¥'el. :Tbe dotted :line is theIr c'~beilht Iine,"

'TheT,e'rore. 16~ft;" ftawes. (4) drawn anywhere o:n the gronnd would stand at the 'bottom. hall Df a veriicsil dro pped fro' .. m e:11 ' 1 V"""'-"I

, .•... ' ..•.. ", 'I' . "1,. '':i8 @i"eJ!.*

4,,'ft.~ children I( 5,) 'would Bltand at

the bottom .. · ~:-·_··-:-~-tw:·-,,- ~ ·lfl ·th·'I::- (: on,~""·4L.:i""...11·):

'. . .' I, l,lom . ··e·_: _c..B, ' .:: ._~WUl'UL

- f' - - ra"ical-I fro' m eiVe Ilev'LIIIl

-0 .. a ·vel.· :.:1 ... 1:1 .'1, :_,.;11_: •. ~ ,"'

Proof of this system - and. still an,,,,

£L - -.. I... h iI b

,01.,.,. way of determmm,'·· elll" ,ts-can

b. had bv al~t .~ -.~t· .. i·1'1,a', the headsl , .e ,au :y,~ 0.0 __ ~_~j _"" __ __ ._

and then the fee·t of any hvo fipr,IS, of ISimilar height, These! liDes!, wb,en b'rou;ght baek 'will :meet at ,R 'vanistdnl point on the horizon. lin.e (lee Ido,teed lines) ,t

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HI'ei'gjhts, When 'Oh;seN,:r Is, SiHinlg

Here the o'ibsenrer"'s eye level Is about, A f'" ;&'iIi'l-o. ...... -- - the - -, -un-' 'd In ~,'il eh a" ca- "ma ~' IL~ ,ftiwve '-"',-" gro_:.-~., - -_: I!aIW'C_'" _~__:~,

all ,,'th-' '", ~..L_, ','- ,,;io~ __ '11'-)1 "-,,w' (d"

,,'. ',,' 01_ ellS WI,W are 1Sl!~I!.\l-l.l"g \ ,i' WOI "I ,-

abo have their e::yes at eye levet

S~'-d- li'n,fr ,a;'i!!h1I"'Q'J:I! (;"2"")'." 'D~n~';;lld-: .-;;.1!'irii\!iI'US,

I ~ ::: .JI.l&&;~ ,.L1J.;6 ~ ~ .... ' "," '",,"y'W, .. _ [tlI, T!J ~-I -.

'ha tb" 'f' 'b ..:II""", bo ')-1 If' ' - nave "_- c elF' ," ea~, aeove eye : eveJ.~, ,,-

they' 'were 6 ft, tall 'then the:ir lower

~ '" ,£1).. (,., J.-.-_ I.L"!r_.d,,... ,), -- - - ul d"-I ..... 1--, 8 jliiOu.r~lX,L,US "'" LWu-,ufu~, WO-",_ .way:

be 1.,.--'1'" -" =i ,,,"~'- level ,'1-,..;11 th--.-,- ",,",' , ,'- " __ -

"_", _: ue ow ~,ye leVe, aB,u, Sir upper

~- !iI! £L""" (-" ,,-- , £L';::'_..:II)', -'11 -', --, ,-'1.. ...... ,,,,

, IXwm .cne-trumi ,_"N!lil~EI, ,tluuVB

, . - - . . . - . __ - ~ I •. _ . ._

("" ,-, 'thl_, ;Oi';~ rlb ~'D'e'lI:!I wnuld al'H.KiIiVG be

..... I!le~;, . :~'" . ;_.' ~~!t: ~, -'.\-·u L,_ I.,: ", ;.r.1!·:~w,: ,",

,B,t ;eye' llevel)

A- 00-:- -- y: -' C'" 3')' ,oVID --',llv Al"tj. bi, 'ab"" ft7ln"'" Id- - 1_

~ ""::. -~ ~ .. ,: I: _." ~. ~1:I.v.w,lI1' ~'IIL.. ,lift ft'U11.UJ_' laI-

ha L,~', .... h d t :--1 l

ways, , VIB ~, ,-~ea ~" ,Bi .' eye "eve .~

A -" :!'- '"'f' £'L._ h .. ...1-1 ..... ,--..1 ~ ." . f'

lam,_, 1 __ me neaes ana t!ee~ 0' any

two, ::Ggures of' ,equal height 'were eon ...

ted ( d d l~' ) lb' 'J~'

.' ····_·I_ -, ," " --:;--_ " ...... '.", _-,-' -:. -:- _-, 1"'-,1'" .. .' - "".- -::-_ "-1'1 ." ... I

'n1~ '. iO~,O .. 0, t",s., , :I! n;t;lll,'~ . . I ... ~~.o ~lDes

JIi.~ .. Q~'~ ..... ,~~ ... "~-~, .. '-~~ __

'D:N'!i: .. , .. '~d' - 'it'ttrJJIUi~ ~n"v· ·\dJr~, to' ,-- I, 0, -'D' e" 1"'ln,m0 i"

,"'u~. J a.l-"-~.CI! ~""_'~_:'~I'V _._- -r:.' ~ .

ion, the hor,izon liDe~

41'

I

Heights When Oba.'N.iF Is IL,iinlg Down

H,ere' the: observe,r":s eye l,eveJ is aioout 1. :f't. above the: ,ground .. , Therefore ob .. jee,Ls, smaller than 1 ft, would, ,appear

be10,. eye level (e .. I~'" most beach balls) t,

All taller o'bjects, would have their i-a, level[ at: eye level - e'4'~~, the 6-ft-~-

tall '6' m'ili.~C!' .( .... g'), 'ft7ftI-'-~...:I a)''DJt'Ii'U'a o~AI,'"

.. ':"_:_~~I'~~ .. ~,61 .. .'. '¥¥'uWLi I.'.' "~"'I~J.~ Arr~

0De-fI,ir.th 'below' and ,Sve,-sixths above:

eye level,

Tho 5:' .. f·~~ -hieh .;.11 1(" ,~,) would a~lr

__ ,~I_ .. ~l '.Il.~~ 'D~~ .:.~~ .. _ .... ::. .. _.- ,_"' '--'r~~

'-' ," '-ft· -f~ "'hi-I- b ""eln II '. " , . - dl "~UiP_',6f' · -J ,.I.',L~ 0 L.. ...... ·'I:le,

one . - . ,l,tj .... _' -~ow all, ~OI!i.Y;,' I I,U~ uU'U'T"

" ',"" 'I,' 'ioi,...__l ,--iII\U!i ~I ' , ' " f~ 'III ,. l't_'I', ',-'

eye: , Svw ,rel5~ ..u.esB, 0,' I. 1Il0C8 ~Ion~

The 2!-ft~~bllh, dog (41J would, always

balf bo d hal- f-

I, . I . I .. ",.. " . I . .-. - -'I :-; '. . -;- . . [' - - .. -_' [ .:. :~. . -:. • ~

appear one - . a. - '.', ve an~ ODe-,_ , ..

below eye .levell'

And .i.L.·. 00"-' -, = f' .L':L_ I '~t, h~'n:m.., , ... 'd"

, I.ne:, " (P' 0_ l!J.Je - _"',11 . i-_~. ,san'

eastla (,5)-', woulld ,ap=-~" ,at ,ey:le Ievel,

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In _'I .. .-,j._1i... '" .. .1. .... - ..

1~luiuml a room mtenor, ma.DlY

1... . .;o;..!10 -J...b L... ~ dl'L ....... 'iII ...... H'ift. ,11t::lp.u;c, can ne mO'UD", u:y J:'~'~~

them. to wall heights.~

II a .room is, a· :ft~. high. 'tIlen, some ... -&,,,,,,-- 81'-' - 'O~' 'DtI' th - a 'Ii'ft!il!il'l'll '-wB]-1 1('" '1-') niP'

W'I.cICJ;""c '_'_."_ . b '_ .- ~:_2~: .&.I~ .... Q, ',', .:.:_ - :'. v-&'

.along one of the side, walls (,2) 'tick ,oR 8 !equal divisions~ A 7,,,·f't·~hllh. doer :next to (1) or (2) :is, easHy draWIL

S- . .. '"'I I ...1 116_ b- 3" it t... ..... ,

I lIDl_Bl '.y, a uoor sno "'II_:,~ rEbJ(JI,:e·

'the 1fJ.oo:r Is .located by th,.e a .. ·ft. height lme: 1(3),~

Suppose we wanted 'to draw ,8 6-,ft.

fia'l'l'lt'l\e m'"" .i.L- .t ...... ,WI!.i!!1Di'il"nUD· dl T;L- dou.-..11 D!u.iLI~:. '.c'_ig]e IUI.,~~,,~~-'I~, . t.1C;_I;"I~ "~-I~. _ ___'" ....................... ~~~~~~~. __

I'" ( A)' ul d'" .,"':...3 J,)L._ h 'I h -

;me· .... •. WO~ .~- __ ,- , prov Ale· WrIe :IISlg-I,:'l

F,ind the vani Sh·bt g' point of the

recedln- I"'· ho ~nm~"· 1'-0"- ·ta-~ 151-- and .'. D,O· .. ·te·, ..... tba·-- 1,'1' ···t·~

... " ..... -1 ... ' I. -_ ~

, - • • I - •• _ •• • __ • _ _"

.

the leye level of the: drawing is a:t ·t\le

4;·ft.. le\l'lol.. The:~efO]'ie! all. ~ft~ B.gmes would appear ':mur:"ismhs 'belol•· and

t9lo~xtbs above 'ey,s lIev!em", no' mat- "

te:r where they :!ltO«xt

Drawing a 3"·,ft,, .. high ,chair a.t (5) ,requires· lcarrying the dooir knob

hP';'~l..t'~ ,a~i~iC!ia .... "", .i.'lrl:.... 'IIi"'W"\;inlt-- A' .O .. f,,~

.~,i5U. . ~U~ "'" ~ ~... t .. _ ii.JI It"'

high. boy (6) could 00 drawn '~y

"""" ... .;O,!IIi tb-·· h .'gb'- t 1iD- ·Ii· "',,"' UDd''''~

""··csrrylrn."'·" ~~S': ~. -:-".'- -=- r II··r ' ... " '.-' '''''''','-' _- ',' '-'-'1< ~¥"

'---". '-A,BI---,--el. '_'_C ..:...:...0 am 1-

·the· 'vertiall at (7).~ (The guide lines shown use ·the· center· vanj:sh'in"g' 'nt'iIi'il'lit- but ~U1V' ~~_':ft~~_i. point· I. ,_I",:na"

,e.'~~'J . _', I .• ~· VIaJ;~. ~ t- _. '-_~. ,a&VUD,

eye Ievel,could 'be used.) Nog,ce :how'

..L.e L"","y'" ':"iC:!i1 h mg~' :h·t· ,;na'll'll'1 ,- lways~ -'~'C:'. 'L.._. ''i:rAiP-]'Ii'.

Ul IU'U.' 13 Ie. I'. - ~ Ill· '. '. ~ -"-~II ~

.. '_ ':-'.,: '. - . . _._: "_ .. _' ,' ••.. '._:., ' -. . ." "." 'I' "

&_,.lI 'b .i.;\..._ g ,-. 'b .. _..... 'Iii' L.-..-. the : 00 ' .•. ~ i~ 'Q~J'l .-81 ... 1, hIDe ll\JJD .. ~ .. , -_ :

left,

· .

,.

From the root of a ,SO-story buildin.g' all taller' bulldmgs will appear above the hor.izon. line while those Iower 'than 30 stories "",iIi ap'pea:r below,

(This assumes all buildings have similar floor heights .. ,_)

There for e';. tha eye level-horieon Iine will cut acr-oss the 30~sto,r,y level of all 'buildings tba.t have one:"

N' tu - -11;-' .i-.'Ii... °Oc ....-. PiD n .A .. _·. · ...• m

aturauy u:il,9 'UI-Jsll/ory ~. WI,

Building m the 'foregrolUld appears taller than. the l02c"'\soory Empiire S·tate, Building because It Is eloser to, the' ob serve r. But in both cases their ao .. sto:ry levels, are on 'the same

:h,orizontal plane as the obsery,er':'s ey,e :Ieyel

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The l~:ft~..;rotmd Illmp"htmlml over

a.L__L ...__ '1 f'" 'b ~ ... ...1-

'we WAIr :u:um ,ll! - -, I~ enam ,lS, uniWD

by' 'using the pUde Imes ,shown as

snows"

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I' The Surrende» at A,ppo,nt(lt[to,:t" painted b,y Ken Rfl[s:y fOr :Life, Magazlne, West Point M'uBe1Jm Collections_

'The ground is level, so the eye leve -horizon line "cuts" across 'the same level ~ chest height -- of all the, :fi,gureSl.

-Ea Grande Jatte, by Georges S;eur,at., Courtesy ofThe Art I,titute of C,hi!cago. -

The ground slopes toward the 'wa,ter~ The adults standlng on the higher ground have their head-tops approximatel,Y at e)re, level (hor.izon :Un,e') ~ The, adults standing along the [shoreline ha:ve their head ... ·Wps :geD~era11y midw:aY' between L the ground and the borison line, Note that this chan,gm;, relationship rof head heigh,t to horizon line almost exch.1.8iy:eDly

l.il1e:x;plains" that tb,e land, is, sloping.

Determin'in:g Wi'dlhs

PIli 'W- . iii'd'ih L-·'· - ,-

n ,'esp.elva [- _.I, _i : Ines,

...... -;

~ "

•• 'I

, '.

. ,

I. .-

_ ......

".

.

; !II r.:. ~ ~ ;. r

';. .. ~

"

..

1,.- .

- '-

'I • • • Ii!!" •

• ':' 1'1' I'

• . ~ Ii I

- .... ~. r:' ; ~

.-

. ,

... , ~

.... Iii •

-.~ .. ~~,;~:~:~;',::~,« ::~ .. .'~~: ':""~ ~.':';

II'" I

"

I' IU II

.. !" ...

. ",.-

,ID, both, pictur-es 'we know tha·t,the cross-ties are r-eally equal~ized elements, Ye~t ,dimi'nutioD makes them appear m1i'I~JmC!l';V, e'ly': smaller The,' ralls C'QD'I~...mnB to, ," a vanis .... ~''''''[- PO"'int,L aet (jiil!ll, gUl"'-'-"'ld' 'e' lines lo'~ ~La 'wid"~: ... 1,..,. o"f'~ these ~ClC!I'=""~""'''''1

tl;Jl~g.&, ,.~. ",. ".~ .. ;J&. ," . ,I "--,~,:,,,,-,"I~-~"~'~Dl ... ' .. __ . t:1JL.IU£U.~ : -:_ " __ ._. -;~ aD ',1"- ..... ,'._._:' _' '.':.lA N_I~J. . ~ ::,'_' ._:__~ ~V~~i!I

Th- d.!'·---~ .;_;, - -I -,I,'L.. '--, iUf[-' -£If. - b;o, -"-...... .,-', _L, i bo hi ,-- ,-- , '1, 1'!1!1!'·' , '. 'L. "":L at' " b-' - d ........ -:-00 b ... 1....-

e~~lID1D!u.(dlOD 0" [ower 'I! a" ,~.::]ecloDlI' ,SUl.iU. as "a_, cars, ,peep '8 Q,mg: on, a ~[l3J" :, ,'C~" can ee .. , e....e:I:U.Ill.I..·' ~.~. ,~Y' 'wu

',' ,,' ,', ,'.'.e- ,,", , ',' f"'.!' ,:-'"',)", "~d" th-" .-,~ . ..l' ,·I:~·'--c'

,conver,gence 0[· 81m] arw~,· I ._1. gUJu.910eB.,

:T' 0 8Um- Un· mLe' 'I'I'I']·d- ...,"L., .... O·~ - - .... _1Iil .. ed bieets hi' '~ . ...:L diminlsh : ro : ; ",'~, ·'11,: '.l.U '.p, .. '1,4.IiD ·ll· 8qlWJl-B:lZ'_ O",jitE\,;lM W,··· C,Il, "" mnmsn

]- i'. 4.L_t . '"' t th hori 111·

, mea ~' .. '. conve:rge to a pom - on 1,le , . orlZOD IIDe.

S't. '1;11 'my' '" eel 'b'" .... rt to .&.:L.-. l-~'!I! b- ,

lImll1·ar·1 <'eSlZ-' Olijec;..o, eo ww ' ~t or rlgl"t can

"de )-. t' the' !Ii t' d ired'· '

mll'lll; ", LIn; MI a-= " ':',.' ''l'V''iim' ': ". Da.C--'-::-_".'

D1L~ ~ ;_.:....-~ I, •.••. _~. ", ~ ",' J~.. !III

a~ -- -1'1 .' ed e]' , -- -, - " ... c bo be·· I . " ...lI_.. . ·'th L'L_ -d f'" tit ........ ,1 ld 'iiI,!...... a.. ......i. .... ..l th ,. "' ...... icJmL,ar· y.-slZ' ': _ r e emen", a "ve Ol_c:· O'rW' are tu'U-WD Wi :: .. ene aie 'Oi ver,,'~ 101':. e nnea conatrut;teO" at . _- . "e approp:r18\~

r.nm'iI! ts &10-- -- the·, w" ..llthC' . !I'd ~. ' .. >",!ng ,".' .1u · .,' ,lUI JIt.

FO'B" E-:- XA"~' ,,'.' M'" P'''LEI: ','.

_ ["_ . 1. '[' , ',."(. .. _'_- '.

Sketch the first, object: (1)

't. ,a,I'

m a we,~

Converging pidls lines to' eye level, w.ill define "widtbs:" [of eqllsJ'ly' lonl obiects in the same :file (2) ~

Suppose' (say' ~y means oli [an by[drau,-

I lc jack) one 01' the, 'Objlecis (4) were a,l a higher or lower lievel. Its[ 'width is leasUy roWl[d by erecting \rerti'cals from the 8:ppropria.te pain,ta, on the guide lj'DeS 'to the new lev:eL (N:atu,-, rally the. same' eye level and vanishing pom.t as 'befof[e 'wot'uld, be llled 'when ,dr.a,wmg the o'bject,)

..

:

, r

'j :

.,

. ,

.. ~ " ..

"

' ..

. .

-e

!,,·",IO

.. , LI''I

-.'

in perspeetive can be found by means 0" width guide

b ' d ' , _._. - ,'"'-, 'I' -, b - tr , nsla 'I' ..... .:',_ 'to l' f:t e.,raw,n SlDliPY ,.y . a:"'I.'_,Iw.JlIg' .~,. [e",:

or

.~ ht tb '''dth f' ... L .....

rIg,: i ne W" : or 'Line

. ,

'"

.•

,-

;, -

\ jl

\. I

\ / I

" I

\./ ~ 1'-

I \ ;1

l "-

'I \

/ \

- .....

. ....

.....

- ..... ""!I!!I'

...

..

_ ......

I

__ .

-~.

I

.. ,.

.....

I ~. __ ....... . ... _._"

[~~ ~~

I ........ '"'-- . __..-

I -'IIII!!!!iiII;;[~, ~~~,jpIIIii!!!!II

, _---- ............... -. ·T·- ....... ~ ................... , ......... -

j ., ........ -- ......... ' . ......,-~ ..

The following concept is the basis 'fOr most of' 'the ,aids ,emplo,yed in finding perspective d,opths,:

The diagonals ,of' any squal'ie or ·me·tangle (see abo,ue) will always .intersect at the exa,ct center of the ftl'llft!; ....... in other words, at a point equidistant from top and 'bottom and from left and right ·edges~

Th - . J.,:1...,~ •.... '.-". """"'bl' .' .'

us, on IWlS pmg pong M1,. ~., I,e seen

dlr - . ....d.'!I1 - f~ n ab tb' - ~ de- Ii - _._ 111-''''

,u",ecuY .• ,'om a, ., ove" .. ' '~el",wo •. ' ··18g0JW:.JD

will naturally interisect at the net

L!_L. ~ ... ..]1:. ..... · t fro £L d'

wuu.al,is, equIlU..Ritan,: I rom ene eD~ 8.

'THEREFO'RE: TO LOCATEI '. MID'POINT QUICK_LY .AND' ACC,URATE_LY' ...... 'USE DIA'GONALS.

I I I

.

I

.

I

.

,

I I

\ .••••·· r. ~<-·:I /'

\:' .. : .... , ... : .. .'..... I."

... < . ~ ..

\ I

\ I

\ ,.

\ I 1

\ /

\ .

N·- . --h-' 't- h ta"- ble :!Io. ...ll .- . ~ . -.

...• ow, w.' en .';·S '~:, .. ~'llC lS 'UlL-.wn m per-

.... -.4,.': ". . .. hl·-··, -. should the -.- ·':t be .. ·:· spe..:;;:wve, w. "ere a.IJOU.j~· ," ne· .~' .. ~.

I __ . ..:I? IIJ - 'd iI· - ~.n-t f'~'ft"'II £1...- ftM,j..llP 8,(jU'U, ~ .. I_'~, eqw::: lEhj,Q;al"~ . ,0lI0',,,,,,&&1, I~e ~.UJj,.

the result is wrong' (below),~

B t "'f 10 ted t £L.._ Ii'._ ",_--~- - f"

U':',I', :_'~cal_.:·', al, iWIU mi~~w.Un or

&.'L, d"" _,_.111 .... , th·- he r .-.. .. 1,. 'l'liili:3/,'I'!n'f!!:I;,';'nili:!! .oi.- ........

tne [~,JaI'Ou_~ '. ,_:., let!iW,11;! .Il.,~W,g,iwrUt;:!~

( Inl.a... the- dis' ,", nals- actual· I'·

.-:-~. 'I' ··m-e······ ... - ..... ,rI~·~-':.-1 .,' '1i!!II,Ii:!': i -. :.-, 11m· e' :8·

_._. "_" _ ' __ • • __ .J' _" • a~' u -_~. _ r~ I '_' .-'. _ -'~:_...: . '_".

." uled .... "'10._ ,; ..... :11)'1,·" )" r.',,~·.· 00, ~ tame..

'w····'·· R····O-,N·':~

r ]'gllJ

I .

I i

I

I I

I'

I

, II ced mceding" I'

Tb A._ ·'·W-' ""WlY s--fta- -: ',=- ..,- =, ~ -'" -, .D a....

'W-A" _,0 ~ ''''~", .' .. ,~. ':'__:" , " ""'_V-'

ments sueh ,as :JampPQ-sm,. lirsit sketCh

- ~' .&L. '-be' th de .... : __ ..iIi·

'two 0.1, UleDI .~· .. _tween ! .' e: "~ top

and- 1.-._u ,pfi'ii':r.1 - '1'~ 1.A;A;i'.:U: ...... ,iiN!' .......

, uu1]'.OJOI, ,&,.....u.e ,Wle8, ,L~, 'w

th .' vanUming-, '. ;w. - - ,.- 'l

~'i':t'" :':"1"': I ,''I'''W''!I;m,' 1-,

UiLal ",:._ - - ~ ....

N I;. ...:III ..... , 'I ..... 'L!_, fur"'L ...... ,'" ·d

:.,-OW ,'ets, aeve up WW'J ".1.' -wltl m si.-e

~' ("'f" ~"--h')

VIew .. ,-ar rIB "t,· r "

B"an A-'I' Draw dia-.nnals 'between (1):' r

_~p '. ill ., __ ._1... " __ ---ft·!!IIiif."": - - _ ... _" _' _ _ .. , _,_ ,_ .

. d ("'2")' 'to'· d ,;.,...., ....... ,:I'iiii._ ,--,i!I'dl--"'·_-,,·t· A'

3n,/ ,; '. e:IIiCJIi.-,Iuum ,mI_ ',pom. -~ :.c'__,

h• tal- '. lin" tbro' ugh- this- ,iI Ii! t-

. "'.. - 1"'. . '. - I : ~ •.. - ,I . I .-", - '",: /. -'1' : L '. . ", ,[' .... -.-' •

,I ,oranD, , , '_ ,,-"e, I __ ~~ .:::. _ .• - , __ _' pom _

,;'~ .... - '-'-, ',- ,"d'-'- - .'"'.j. .. ' 'f~ (" 1 ')" 1'("'2"')'" ,'. d,'·' ~l"1

lIVes, us Dll-,po:m,~, '0' _ '. 1 r » \ '. ,an, ,ai'

.... ,;:_.:1 ..... _ '!Ii' 'I

r.mIllIIaC verticau9~

,S'181P II: :Draw' ,dio:IOnaJs, :from (1) ,throu,gb, :midpoin,t of (2:),. to Joeate (9)'1 Bince the: ldiagonals :place (2) emctly':midway"betw1eeR (1) and (3)" the Ioca',tion ,of (.3) must be oo;rr,oot;;

Slap c: Subs~,e;nt, ,equidistant vel1i~

I 1 £-...:1 b .. lla ..;III:· ..... , 'I

ea s are oca~,-.Y' iSlmlJl' ~Iona s,

(Note,:: :It, isn;t necessary to draw both

diaroll8.1s" One o:f' thi"em, used with, 'the center' ,611e, lives 'the same, result)

VI- EW'"

I _. . - " '. ".'.' r . t'-~' .•

'I',"

....

BE,LO'W ABE SEVE,RAL EXAMPLES 0,1' THIS MEITH:OD .. ,ST'U.DY THE VARIiOUS APP'LIC,ATIO'NS.

,

I :

'I

I I' ,I

i I I,

, I

, '

~
,., '.'
.. ~
~ ..
~ ..
. .. ,

SU: ppo,': ":,' se we wanted to, divide face A,

_ 1. ',' '_ • _. , w _

f'tbj'··' bi t 40 to tw ual . -. .-

>0 _ '_1:1 S, 0.' :lee" In ~ " .10 'equa s,paces,,;

£.!Oi~ 87; l~'n'to,- lour eeual snaees and the

I.~ , " . __ -' '. . . -"":1,-- - Jr'" ., --

'top m'to eigb,t eqUal. spaees,

:B[ElLOW is the solution when, each,

fa' " Ji'I!I.Q, iC!l vie 'w: -,-ad," head ,~n;n: 1

'\~.'~' ~ y.-~ ._,._I~ _,~ ... _~ 411

AT' 'RI~- I"G' '-~HT.!' the . , .. ' ,I "ti~"~n In "I

, . ,I -; ,'. ,_' 1'9,,' e same, SO,lU, :,0: .

---. t··.!'

pe~pec'. -lv'e.

Na.turaDy" this method 'wr.rks[ only when the number of Spa,CBS is 2:, ,4" 8,. 1,6; 32,;, 64, ete, Suppose we 'wished, 'to d .. ' ~d &.... '", "'- ..... 7: '10~' s--- ~·~s Th'-'~ "e' n

. lVl,.,e a lace ,mW[ :.' o:r ',' ',pa~...,--: 'I

the: following method should be used, for It works for- any number of' equal :s,paee&,

(PZefJSe loll'ow the numb,et-ed steps.)

STEP '1:: From lowest comer of' face to 'b di .... ,..:,..:1 d dr 'L '. . ... .:...] lfn '", . d' ,e ·:·iv;we~~ w~a.w· nonzontai me ano

tick off' the nUIDber of' equ,al spaces desired (7.in this esse) .'

STI!P 3,: Connect, other ;Edx points tol

., 1 'li!h'~''n''i''iI' ~ t T" ~ _,..,;...J

,1,peCla ,v:ams .. :UJiIl5' pom ',. c___uese: i,'~e

It, will"; 'I iii "_. __ ftIo b- - D' ']meli. of' obJi< ..... -..,..;I!.

mea ... ·····_.I~ lD~~;" nase , e o ·.·:llf~~';

,creating' seven equal spaees in. peris,pective~

Note: Th.·_ eq iii_ .. ~l snaees ~ed off' in

U'_'~"!I - - ~. ,u.aJ. l~.r J' -. _~ ' _

s,tep 1 could be at any scale, 'Tbose _'L .. , . ,~, . '., _t.. a.lN ~aces but could tU10w.n are eaDU 7,8 ~.r·: ,. -, '. . ..... '--~

b- l~""'~ -.;~." .~:.il.' ... &...... N-":-: ·;1..'''-11 - -- , - .

.'. I"" .JI.' . g.... '-iLC' LW-,il .... c - ...

. _ e, .,-2 , ·'8 ;0 e .',.', '. a. I , __ y eve,ry

spa,oinl 'will shift the, special vanishmK point but the resulting perspee-

ti, . i!!!~pa' Ai~rlU7 "w.ill' II ""'" 1'fi7:i!:iIV'~ b e· Lt.. - C!lG''I''nI,e ve ~'-._llII"o_~"· I. 1 Wn~a' ... ' w.w ~A@

Why~': . .' " ,--' th .-,.. ';C!!' iIZlIliI"!i .!i!j explained I m·'~~ ... ,..,:; ....

~'" " IS, ~ !QVI I~, ~A . _~~~ '.' . ',_ lil..lUj

to ~ Le t' di ld th- same I.'-~. In

Pi 'VIew., <'.' &I, ". 'IV.!. Ie: ' . ~ 'e ~,:~ ta.'~ci. .

two,. usm;g' difler;ent spacings~ From. '6te lowest oorner ·tlck [oft two units 0:1

1~- cit - f I' .'1' d-"'_- f 2'~"

.. F' ea·:- tw'--o" o· I . s, 'J!!iIiI'l"lil' '1l,':W1U, o· 1,.i.!'T

t • ::.,:: • '0 , I" '.... ',.' . ~.II: ". c .. "'.... ~

No·w·· ... eo onneet eaeh second tick 'to the

' ""', ~ , 'l!;;ij~_~ ..

far' eomer (3' lines s,h-own dott·e'd) ..

Then fro· th' 16.- -- -- t ti' .!Icks- _ dra .. I'"' ...

• ",' 'c" • ·',1 .' ". 1 " '.

. ~ ~ .,~m c e 1 ~s· '.' ,-._,:" 'e ; ,.'91 ,mea

arall '.'. til 'N" ths t the . nd

P .. e. to. il . eBe .. ,---c,, ole .' ", .1'" t·· seCOIIJ,

]- .. :, . ~', I al I.!" ....... """:""' ...... ·,t . t·· th -', m- .-. id ooin -' t '0, ,fl , mas,. II. IDM2·DeC· [al. __ e "!_,l~¥,_,, .

... 'L.... f" - Th'··, ' .. ~ .~"C.'ri'I\n. .!!!In v n·f- ;L1,.. ..... a.e... e.p.iIliI;[t'I ..... lJJ.W la,ee.. . _ ere .. O,,-e ~.&.J' U'[ LU~gc' ~I c'- u,.,..

.ings would w'ork, even though each

ultin .. t f paraII-"'1 'I h 'I! . ta 1

' .' -:-', ' •. ". " .. ' . --' t·- ,.... • ,., I :--.- .. 't.:', ~ .. -,' I, ~" :.;;;; I •...•. : i . ' '1 ••. ·•· '.:'

res I I. se" o. .,,-,-~'." e-. orlZOD " ,

'l~' .... ,illd h II't C' I I)"

,mea W10OO;.· nave l own ... .specia '. van ...

is'binl pomt (see across ,peJ',e);;

. ",'

....... F-,-~.-mliliiiiiiiliiii.-.~~,~ ~"""'I'~ ~I ~~'~"~ ~,- '!~,~ ~ __

····.c~. SPECIAL VAJN'I,WINGPOINT ·'t._V.A,NI'5~ING' POtN'T

!r:OR GUIDE :UNIES ,FOR 0, .·.··;-.'CT

ST'EP 2,· 'C', - .. ' . .....,,1:. .. -',- ~ . t' 7' ......... '-'p.t'n41"~·~4f-""" ~,; . ii ·'··.O,lme· .... I ... pom u.J 0 ·r"..i.~~

'Iower eorner a:nd continue to horizon Iine, This .gives 'US, [8 special vanishing PJ,int fo,r ,8 I guide Iines parallel 'to thi

' "[,

_ s, one,.,

~ "~

.... .,...

ToP 'V'I 'EW

."/ ,. "-

,I, ......

. " I t·

. .~

i \',

I \ """',

. N, ,

I~, ,

I l , .

I' "-

I', "

\ '

. /,

,. 1 "

. \ "

\ ,

t ,

t " ..' '. .,' ......

r,MEA5~IR,ING· LI,NE~, >.

5ST A SS'T e,

~eT C

-

_)I

If-~·--~~-,~. __ ~~~_ ~~~~~ __ ~ '=y;

Z,'

This is the previolus top view ,diD,gram see!n in, perspective"i' So remember: THE SPA.CIN'G U'S:ED ,ALONG THE

ME· . A" str RI'NG"-- 'LI-N" E' C' '-AN BE' A' T'" ANY'-' . , sc AL' 'u

.- ..,'~. _ ,'_:__:', . ':_ 1- - _', '. ~,~' ~.-,--.", :,. '. .... ['" ,;: _ - 1.0,

I, -

I --- •

'. -

- _.

5E'T A 5,E.'T S

seTe

.' .:

[7tJ

VA,N: ,5H hie POI N,. FIO,R OIB,JEC,T

.....

/

Dividing ·A Surfac·. Into UN IE,QU,A L. Sp'.ces With A MeasliI'rJ'ng: Lin:. Andl S,p.oil.1 Vanf "hi;ng Plaint

The ti'measuring line" :me·thod, 0'1 di ..

"'d'li .;, f I-I

VI, mg perspeenve sur aces may arso

be used with unequal spaees, a,uppose a 2r-.f·t. opening is, tol be loca:ted an a

d b I

_ " . 11 [ ""i .-..... ". _. ," ",." . . .. I - .. _ '_,,;

wall;; space as, e OW~.

,.

oJ! • .p •

1 .. • III~

'.. .

·.1 I

, .. 4

, .' II I'

..... -.. . .... ,

_. I

~ !!Ii';!

'. - .

,. ~

I ~ '. ..

, iii ,.

I Fol'low.: :! numb,e're,d-~' ste os a'· 8· -. b ':~f' ,FIJ,,.' - e . ).'

\. .~ .. ., . . , __ ' GI '. ,1;#' . ."~. v_ !I!',

STEP 1: 'Tick o.ff' 1 unit, .2 units" and 4 'unlts. on measuring line, (As! before, the' 'units, can. be at an,Y seale, The princi;pie is the same as ,in the case above.)

,S,TE:P 3: Br,ing other lines, to ~eeial vanishlng point, This locates opening Ion wall,

Once correct s]l£tcing' is found on wall, the distances. could be extended fOlrW8'rd (from, lef:t, 'V,anishli.ng po,in't.) to ereate 1if!l1n!'y Q' <iOf,·t .. id'" . e' walk or a 4 ~t'

"'~ ' .. , ~,~ ,'. g. I.Ji'''w'.· ."",,' ..• '. ','_: ,. _ 'c,"'.1.-.-

long bench,

Or" bly carry,mg gulde lines up the ·wall. and over the roof, a ,2-ft .. -wide eh ~""int::iV· co" uld b a...J"""'8'· ",..1I"t"'II 'B" 'u·~ no ,4.0i!0

-u all." &'II.#J ~ _ " __ I .. 1 .:" ~ ~=-. ft".J_llt-11 L'". _"~, .~. _. ~

tb a ... "','1\.... d' 4L' fl ... 1....:.... hi

. at to ,J.I.& '~~e~~e:piU!l, 0', ;w~ e imney

(1 'ft~) "we :nee. a new' measurml line and, special vani~lhlng :point~ and ·n,e·w guide lines {shown dotted) ~

.~ . ..:.nE·-'C·' A iii V···.&·N po' .. L. ""T--:'

'. ~rl __ .III,""'~ .j!!'!I. ill' /·:,IN,.

... - S:-T- EP'· 2 .. ··,1i C·''-ODD,ect end po." ·intS·to estab-

'4' ~ Iii "'~". _r !_ ,_' "':":_ ...... _...:.:..:.1 _' ',_ ['."

.:.. ',ish special vanishing poin't

- .

2

4

I ;' • .. 'I ..; ..

NeW' 5,Pe.C~AL: -- < , .

s: 'VAiNlt!d·~UNG POI Nt_ ' '_., -. ' ., ',- .. ' .: -. '-, .

. ,'" ., .. " " .-.. .' . ~ .' .' . ',;.'.' ';' --., " ~., .~ '. - .'

. .

.. ~ ... • ~ • I

- \, - '

. ~ ..

. .... ;

"'.. ,- II

II.. .; •• I' ;II" •

r;. ,-

. .

.1, ~ I"

~ .. ~-

[II •

+ .. :I I 'Ii ..

!! II 'f'

II' 'I ..

- •• - • .....:......~=~~....;..._~~~ ......

.. Ii.. ~-=-

. .

- . . .

.. .. IO_

jo 'II

. .

II .. .~

[I e o@!o !' .

.' .; .

..

.. Ii!

.'

..

!r. +

:iii jo.'. I:

- ~ .

. , .

'11 II!! •

• '.... ~ II!!

~ ,iii ·"11 • of

iF .. 'II i!! !p Ii .' •

'.

H· ft n ..

ere, . oor to ceumg s erie eDS, are

- . - •• '" 'II b I

placed as, shown In tolp VIew·'. B_c,OW ..

. . ",'lI... -. h >Ii' d · ts

Also at ~ same one-t .'. Ill·., pom :"

·o1Ji.O thfn '. ""alI" II Iin ea' -" e.e m···· .... Ilio rn,C!i.

U;Ii,~' 1_: . Wi~e II . I' ,. '. " 1··,.0· .. ·' " UJ.I· ;II.~ ..

. .

II![~

II' ,..

. .

i.

1'1 ,rll!

..... _ II. [(II' --~~""""'--i-

• I

-- ..

, -II

;.

".I. ill.

r ~ I ,

.• -

I • ";" " ••

( , ;;, ... _, _ oi

. . .

I II' .. r rr I.

I I ....

I •

. .

fj •• '... iIi~ .. ~

. .

'!' .... !II

'"

._ ,

._': OIl 'r

., , .

• I ~ _ - •

. __

~ .. r !' '!' -!il '.

! ...

... I ,51 •

4

.~ .....

,". • (_ • _" J

•. ,'J" " .-.

,.~ ··:~.·I '. ~.- .. ~:.-:. ,"

.. ,', ..:_',_',',"

•.

"

• ""!

I. :: : ", [1;1 1110:=' II rOo tp I

011 'Po I:. 'II .. e ,.~ ....

• ... [. I 'Il

• .. !I •

I I

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1!. The de-pith locations 0:1 the mol ...

11"\niTiiICli 1(' and rJCl"'" , e·~ii.IIHC!!). e,; 1I!i0 f,o·: un' ",,' d' ,0,'0. be ..

. l~~ , P.!-lI.JI":: ' 1!i::I·.. .' )CJl""~ ~ ~ .1[" - . gg.:.

'fore, (see P:P" 70j. '7.1) - by 'ticking' off three equal spaces on a measuring

lin __ ...1 . ...lI_ '. it ];0. to e aiw UJrBwmg convergmg' mea to

a sneeial van 18·" hln .- '1- . 'P", oin ····t

~'r'~w.&Q. . II__:__:._L,. -.' •• -, :....,1 ••••.••• _ "Ii

In ;iLL,';' .. ~ • th·' '}' ts seed

uiu:J, 't:o.P 'VIew" ·.~~}e e .. emen s ree ::,C""

iii u' b all

m.g .• rom 0.·- server are unequa .. :Y

aced B b th

sp_ _ .. ,:,ut., as we· .• ave: :seen. on '" e.

P~'n,ous' I p' .\8,'. ge· tho. Ialll'e me··" th . od .: ~In'

'.J,!;.~"",.IJ< ... _ .... _. '., . __ .:.:~ .' '.... ".:U" ~

be '~"'d"

...... _.. 'l:ISle.I",C . .,

,.

I.!II •

'5,PSCIIA.L » V'AN~, POI.

P')l

, I I I I

1 f'

I r. 'II"

I.. :; •.•

.. II..' :0. - ..

r. '!-"

_.

2 mI..._ le 'It to ridh·,t- 'J ... "· ... ·;-ftCii of-···- :the·l . c.

Jil ~.JIlIe. ..•. _.' 0 "'ti,'- .Ocalw.u.·,11,~ '.' '.~ " _ . .:

screens are then fOUD,d by' means of'

th !Ii l~ <Ik ..... .- ' .. ~

ano _er measuring _-me~l umts

long (2'+2 + 4+·2) .. (Units may 'be

. t' ....- ", I·': H _. "1:' , ...• eh .. .' .lOt = it ii' ). I

·8 t .any sea e~ '-' _-ere.,. ea,·· urn· 72 ' •.

3~· 'Th'9 location of this me.asmin;g line 19 determlned by sliding a, ruler baek and lorth until the, desirednumber lof units :fi:ts exac:tly' between pro.jecti,oDS of the ,8,Qor Iines, .

•• !II .. -

-!" •

, ,

I '

! I

, , ,

I O···@· .... .V: .... ~2. ....

'. J ,.', • .' "

I '.' .' _ I - .

--~~~=--==

A" ;0, th d .L~L I ti'i; fo dl b tj' ''',oi!'Iib.4_,_ £!t. he- • '1 ... 'L_ ... lin· . 'iii th

,~_gam '. _'~e';'_epi~,u meat ~ons. are ",,' nmc ,.:y i~.~ on t .~. ap!proprlR'te spaces a O'DI u~ measuring nne, connecting the

'I ·t· t= ... 1t... - --.!'L1h- '", - -'~ --~ and-' th··" . - .... 11 th ';": .... 1 ..... to' the ;0, I • ihin~ .. .- T- ·b··' I' >!i' I th I f

,as, ,~~ Wlli:_ room comer" :~_c_,~ '.'e,en ~ omer ~ I .. " ." ....• speeia varuamng point, : 'ms .. ocate! spacmg a 'on.g_· .. e e t

wall base" from which it is, carried, across the room, Thle left to ngh·t locations, are' the same as, in the case above and o'Po ~O"' und-;':-' as-'I'" abo'-' -v' 'e'~

r~~,I.I .. 1' .. _. L .. ':1_'., .. ' -,I,.

. -'" ...

---

An tho e '·W··- O'-"'f: G······ett,!!'n·g D-'- 'apt-'hsli ?he S-:I'lidl1n'S R' ule' r A'n' d D' '"'agD'--al- 1··.·lh'·o- d

' _o~-_J,r_ay' , .... ':',1,1,1 II "'","I_Jii Ii_: '~III.,-_ ',11' __ ,1,_ 1_:1' __ "ni'-_IIS 1,.I_i,~

[731

STEP 1: S~pl:y tick 0,&' tha required,

spanir'nif'l on '~nI'II'!i!'Iii - - erU'" ......... ill' 1,;''Y'Ii,;!o; Ly 1I:!!!)1]'"'d.'-a.~~a "~.:_'_: some v~- ,':L"W, , me ,u/ ~ -_"'"

,ing a. ruler (as on the previous pale):a - 'to :6nd, a position where 5 eq,ual units, fit, (Note that either 5 @ ~'t o'r 51

@ %,"1' would, be, o.k.) ' .. Z,

:S~'T'E"P'" ~,~, C,.··, .'. 0','- n-' - ",'i!',e··"r,D"fi each , ... :,....:1... ''''"-I ''11:_'~'n_

. _ . I .cilll .. "_. - I·Y. Jti~ . " __ 1IrI.-l#A I.!U Y~.Il.

ishing po,m't at rigb,t~ - I

STEp· 3: Draw diagonal as shown,

Sl'EP 4,,~' Draw v,emcal lines, art eaeh point lof m,terseetion~ These will OO,flecfly demarcate :5 equal divisions in

"11ilie· '~'II"'lQ~t::tA,_ ~ .. _:& II;IIrY~WY~!II

sru--- -- .. -. -. ---. - -" - ted 5' . - ua1 ' .. ·t'--!li'·, ":-1

., p. ~o W· '0 'I'Z7'-H'n .. ,.. ~q 'I 'IC :to."," 11n.!II:!ii

.' ..:. 'r~~~1 e- ~ "-"~I: - .' "_ .... ~',..' 'f'!W-.;L' , VDI. ,

di ~, ,., ..,£. 'L "" .4-.0;,-" ii' ( ~...... ..ll_

VISIOns m tms rectangle I~ IW 'w:,aw j

~. ,~'~-, --"'"I-R'~' ,~ . '. - , "Ily" clik'iL,.,':::'_l .. bo ...... 1Il,.; .... ,)· tor InS,IWJlIL, .... ,e", 01 equa_ ..... "',IdUIC,tl, .._ UUIUj .' '"

U~,,..y tho .- ~'C,'i! is en is ,Dvn'~""·':''"',1'· .... ,d bry-:c these,

-"y~ I _~,_,~t ' __ -_, ~ :_1_.1 ~Jti",~lClI .":": _:_~ "' __ .. .'

fr\A'n-" t-- 'rf:fI"ID','1!1'N!1 o "f-' V'IIl:Iit'II"'l~'O""'I'I'D ~;i!'!!I"'~"II"II''''I'4s '-Th' . he

u,. I ,I '''It ~,n~ . '_' \ ·_·'~~:ilL "",,~ 1.~~~il6 ~"r.1 _."

dis mt1s I ...ll;:; 'lid th d .' t

g,n~ , . ,- - gH7:Qlvli::li 'wVl' e' .: 00;-, 18: ~1I"iII' -'

J Y; ... _:. g -"~~ __ '_._"_. _.__:. ' ... _~ a--1,I, .... ·~&,

.

--:-':~k- ~-,- - ,-~ - -~':---a- ~:,..;'1'1iiji, '1-· oth . ' ...... - .. " ,. '"'rd' '~ S\lI;U,es pr-opol, IWon,~ 'IJ' , -D 01 I re:r wo: .. iOiIIl,,'

b-"y "m- - ftQn,~ 0':- 'f- ":1.,_ dis!iJ!nll"i,o.l ... '1!... .... !liiiipa--" -#'Im-'· ~ 'g

.',,~." .. ' " ·_~:c~_u:.' , w.w I.c'~. ' .. t:l111~1"~ , UN gl r= "i!IIJ_ ,'_I!·.

alon '" ,-~ -Q.....;.~. __ lI e· ·d··1 a'A Is ~,_"i\"IrL-""i<d~'

.... .-..t; a v!!W1' W~ :__, ~"" ,_" !l;.I:'W~.I~-,!I.-e '- _c

'. .. - ..- ... .:' . -~IJ. ..... l'!l''I'' to . . ho .. '1 _:;'1':i!!".t'\,11'" tal ed ' .. ,:c- 'Cil','e'"

,pro:PDr WODaU;tl,1 . ... ,a , .r .uA.I",u" jJ., '- . ~.;:_'~

S ' . ...- .'- ~ . &.. ......... ~I f"b' '!O. di ~ ided f!i!' to -- ,uppose, ,ms'~'u 0: ' ,_'emg: •. __ VI,u •.•• m,: ' ..

,equal s,paC~S,; the, :l}sctang'l:e were to be divided ~_'lfj!~1111'y:.:::,_ FOF exa'mpl,~, o-:-'n"1

'. , .. I--.~~.,.. _.'. - ,~',t. . '-'c .

• ",1,;._ same 5c·.'-um;'· :i!~_'IIn'''''I.ilt W" :-:8'1 ~1~t"C!I dr iiOI'W"

W~ :' ... " .~I ' •.• _ ·'Ii'-t ~.Il;,=, ...... 1·, lIi~ . gl .. Q",. ;

~ '2' om' ~'t, .;i.1100·· .... 'r- located 1'1 'wn· ·'·t' ,tmi'Dii'-'--' L ...... m· 'r;;L; ~ __ - •• ~, . tU ..: . , v~,IW··, .' '.._- iP!.#8:y IJ,VI' ..

the, '&ont··: end- The: dr.a.urin~ at rjo<bt··,

.', •. , ,.-. <, ~ . -, . -". -'-_c:_:,,_._,.. ... --e.... _. - ... ~. :~I.

show 'that, t'he' ,some ,method' ICQ,B ,be

~-I-' . d" 'f'" '. . .. , ,:J"J'lf,flt~:M d

use·., _ or uneq,uu& 8r- .... '~",."

("N·.·:Co··· ';']III"II'i11 -- ~1'L~:!;iIII'US !i::!I"~''lliiit, vertieal Iililpa-··. 1i"L.,.

,'" "_'~!Ii i:lIln'~~~' ~~, ,.,~ u~_ iO. _ ~~

m-II<-- ,rr g' .~'II~"!,,, ~---!m.- th·:' - a '~'D~A to I. '-'-'p. or" .. bottom ..

bi . ~ uU_ , ~_ . .I!C _' - ,flJ,.I,""W-,_,-

.... ...:1 .. -",. ". ,. d"-C- '"',-,.,.:- n-' 11 E' id' ·t-·, ..£.... -~,=-'h'''" th ,- .......

lcu.ge' as:: lag,v,J,~;; , .... 'IJ~~'" a _ J,U· fig, b' .. £I,

...::I':IJi"!ij"lIiYn .... •R,:1 - ;i.A'MJ:.... ' .. ,t. 1l,. ..... u,_, ,;I.'t... .... ~ - '.

~u'IUilJ IS,~ IWJ a ImJ"l!"um~ wBre"lom

the l .. unit tick also starts there.)

'Thisl ml~:thod is also ,applicable to h.o..mo,ntal planes such as a floor, ,Again, eq:ual Orr unequal spacing can 'be ,dete.rminledi

For ,instance" .let;'s divide both the dep1tb and, wid.th of thls p]_aru~~: Into ,5 equal ;B:paceS~

S- T-E'P··· '1'· 5~· spaces ,~, :1.4'1 8"'- t here an d:.1

' __ : II· CI" ·'a~ 't.(J. ,72 . ':_;._ .: I.' ., -"

so can be 'tEed to divide the width.,

(O,l' 'Use ,5 units, @ %/,1'; below.)

STEP :2: Draw guide lines, 'to vanish~ mg' 'point" then draw diagonal,

SITEP 3;:: Draw horlzontal Iines ;l,t m, ..

.. terseotion , -' noin :-~, T' .. '.1- ...... ..,.L9 ;~'~ .,£,\,....,. ''"',A .. ·=

'W'-",,~., , .. , . _t.o!'U· .,~~ ,-,J~,. ~,.;;:;; ~ ,&,~'--

. QUired. ,5 equal !s:paces ,in depth"

1 . I

- , i

, '. 'v '~I V ~ .. V ,C ii v' <c' Y' _ _1 ~ .•

"""I ~'1 '~, __ '0 ~

I I

- v _ "I 'V_ (

I ,"",

~I

''!:lv' ~' .

' .

~. "

Iii] -!'I!"';!!. 'r 0!-

il. ,.

r. 01' ~ -

~ Ii ~ .'

:;'~' "'. :,;" ," )It

"'; . • . ·N··'-'

,II'! ~. • I,.' ,

.1 ~ ,;;, _ •

. -

I I

,:~! .:

'. -

Suppose we drew one shape, such as rectangle A, and wished to repeat it

l,~ ,Ii .....__ ... d' to d 1+

\lor mstanee, In or ier ,,,'I ,: _raw a nne

o.f' cars OD, a road) ~ If the rectangles :-w-,--:;!'j,,~~ touch "m"-~'f1' fh £lI, m eth "0" 'd- n.f d ~ ~'o'g' .. ,

.. :lv.a.1[J.i ~. u]· ," _.. "." '~I,:I! ~ .... ~~ ..... ~~.- .' . .... VI .. ~; _

I sh 6"9-' 'Id" b

.... , -.. . ': I .. "::'.'. _. ',". . ,'_ -'I - ,'_ I' - .. 1 .-:- '-::.'.- .- -::1 ..'

OBILS _"own on page :!,', , come ne

- ~-~ 'b<!j:~'4!. sin .ii"I\iO; th" "e"''-'y' ,£iil'i'n 'no'" rt' 'iOi noth Ie' "1Ii'" U!;lI!t'U.j tU'u,l", I,",' " , I~~_, " QlL ~ , ' ,',', , ,aIAU' ' ,JI.

me' thod I .; If!! need ,- d

'_ . :,: . -: ~~. ,'v'I' 1.IIr_gl ~~V..: :er~· "I!I

STEP 1: ,Draw the diagonal ,0:1 the first rectangle and, extend .it 001 the :horizon Iine, Tbis locates the vanishins :pomt :for this and all other lines parallel to it,.

STEP' 2: EX,ten,d, 'the' sides of' me .. tangle ,A to, their vanishing point, 'These are ,t,b,e "width guide Iines" fo:t all rectangles in, line with the flrst,

This method will also wo'rk fOF' ver-

, ;0; 'ill I I _L. f bull" d

tica~ p~a .. nes, sud ,I, as, a row 01: I' .-,'''~ ,_'_,""

in,g facades", odes of trucks, etc,

~. _ ..... .:1 '" 1"" b

,.1 ne proeeaure 18 exa,ctllj' as ,R, 'ave

and the diagram, is identical. (Re~ volve this book, 90 degrees and, see.)

Note that the: horizon line, 0'£- the firs,t case 'DOW becomes a vertical line", But like the, horizon line " this.

'-v" '-er- . - +-111 eal ...... Giic--a)l .. -V_:-A~ i'\'!Il'I'1 ]1 in - e- r=i! '0' - n'" '0'" r p-" .r,!I;r-

.-" 1),.",", ~ '....'¥ ~~' 01.. . . , .... c' ,,'. ',' , ,,' j1,-

allel to" the wall plane, The diagonals, therefore, conve,rge to a, point on this lineas shown" (If' the other set of' diagonaJs (,shol.V'n dotted) were used, their vanishlng point would be above leye level 'bu,t on the same vertical line .. )

.. III ,!, or. II!: ,.11 •• ,.

11 • :, ~;., I

~ ;. II;'; r

• 'r • • .. ,I

• 1'1. III

III .!I:.I. .. Ill'!

II .. , •

• 11 - _

.. _"'-

'~!!'. • ,I • '~ I.

I!J '!to ;,~

• 'I ;;; ..

"1.11.1' 'I 'I' .. II

~ • 01 ~

• I • _ I

;;; I'l I.. •

",I ." -

;;; •• !'

STEP' 3:: Draw' front Iine of next,

... . ibl' (': h" d' k ):" Tbl" - f:- .

sa,pes,own ····ar~·,~, __:1_eD, :Imm

point 1 draw line, to diagonals' vanishing point, Interseetion at point ,2 locates the 'back line and thereby'

cr- a.fi.jk ..... Ci! ,iIllI second reet .... -;iJ',le···· QI'111.£1i'l to '~Q.I~!':I Q ~!!l,.;IV.Jl~._ c ,c ~li,Q.lJ.iIi~ _:_~,-wl I .•..

" the first~

loll [Il

A

,

,

,

.II 'i'

STep 4' 'F' or oth tan I i' 'II

= " I ", ,II """,," ',,' '1''''1'; ',,' .',,', " 'I' ,- _ -:--, ,'." ,'''".,

, . _',_Ii O.lO "I er ,re,c . .' S es" .o,QW

;I.'I!... _ .... ,.;1 I-li ti I di

'RJJe same pro~'urelJ aen teat I~mg ...

,h''li''lil'i'!i j'~1 '~'ll ,_ ..... ,.JL", '~d' C',- ti,~"" -,I "i4i~~

U.JlI'Q~ WI ' ,PJrUU.UOO 1'· ,en, . C8c.c J/;,~,V

, 'I

tang,es ..

/'

,

,

/ .I I

/

, 1

, I

I

I

I,

,f I~' I l ,

l l "

/ J

I l I

I l ,~

I i I

l I' J

l l I

. I ~

I

.~fI'_Irj.·J-~_," I I'l,

• ;1-_ • - _;I ._ ~ t~r I ;. • ,I I j ,;;!II -

• I. - • I .- ~ :1; -. '1"" ~ .~ - I ~ I .': ~ ~ 1101 -

• I I'" ~ I., ••

_ ~' I '1 • 'i I •

_ • I : I ~ iii ~ • I

- ,I I

I'! ..

,

jI ... iii •

, .' ,

~, . - ~

- .....

iii ... .I

.ii.

•• '!-

iii ::. "

, . ~

'1Ii iii II·

• ,., !I.I'l;' t,1'l

" .

. ;.. ;;;

. , II ~

, ~

, DI,AGO'N,Al-,SI

,1.-......... 1'······ T'

.' YAN.,5W IN,G POIN,

;.~ I = !! _ !II

I • .:: ~ i ;;; ~ 1'1

• iii ••• :.

1>!1] .1.

C·>.

. . !-

.1 .. :, ~ fI

- , .

-

• • ;11 • .:} ...

'.' .' '. :.:: - "_.: I

,-

'1 - ;.

• • Ill]

"

II 01'10"

. "

, ,

e " '1

, .

",

- - - I. •

.;; - I.

, ..

r.-IJi~ .. ~lUl~_'II I ,;.

'11.1• II

.. .

01. 'r

. , , '.

I

., ..... /

. ,

.ll.

-

.~~' .~'.

1 Ill.

01,· ..

• n iii _ _

. ~ ...

~ ~

..... ~

. , II. I'l ~.>., ~ •

, ~

I'l'l I,

i .' iii •

• 'I ,I.

'1' II'!

. II' I

~ .

• ,F

, , ,"

~ II,

;. I. ... ~!

...... -;.

r .II ,j. ..

; .

!;. II!! II

., ,

'I • e 01 P.

, e

, .

'. '.

~ ;;; • II'! II II'!"

~~ !!! ,r.. : _ ,r. ~ I

'. ," 'n - ~

, "

" ,

"

,

,

/' "

,/

/' /'

./ cF

./

~ ,;0"

/' .,/

j' ;!'"

/'

/ iT

/'

""'.

j ...-' "",'

r

./ ,/

. ..;1' .

,r

/ ./

d" .r

;/" .r

/'

,

-:

~ ;if'

1· .u. I)· ,,-::'11' .. ," 1]-1

mea 'w', S'I!i,i.i&e on equa_~Y'''c.clong ref>

,tanules by~'~ be eomine the'h' Idia:~'n,!31B\ ..

. -. .. bI... w :' w- - - - ~ - - ,ew~"'~iIdiA

A _.:31'" th'l "11-111 J,:L._ .... , __ '1.': ....... -

,~W, smce: · -' _ . ley are, para __ 'ta LI~ nnes

'ft o;,h '. ral " !y' " nnn" ..::r.a9ga to- , .. ~..... C!lGi''l'!i!'liiO po.. 'In't'" ,

&IQ;~u, _ . _ " -.'_." '~I.:· .¥.'~~I.," )~I , .".1 W-Je: D~g . :_.- ~ ,Q~:._-.

, ,

Ill", ,'"," _', ~".t,," ," ,t",.', ('.LL ·d'·~ ,'. ._~'I""':'ftn':i!i'L,

m ,perspec. :Ive!, ene I.' IJB;golU:Uti ValI.Uia-IL"'"

inl 'point) I'

D1i',a,gon1allls As Ani ,Aid In Dr,.wi'ng CO'llce'nlr'ic: An;d Symmetrical Pa,ttiarns O'n, Ractanglas ,and Sq1uares

.i->

W'·.iA-L !'- I......... I ul- ,t;:

nmn a square or 'feCILCU1,1~ e~, a m _' 'U""

tud f·-' tri'" t;l., ..... _- be _ _ e;Q ooncanl-- c pal~-Im ,can.:."

d ,~ _.......ib U- b

rawn m eerreee perspec'~:ve _'-ry

bringing horizontals 'to their' vanish-

;, ~ t'..J- '"' ,.,·' __ '1 .... ,_..:Ii

1!n,1I' '1:V\1.ft -. w-:.a""'nl tJ! Ve:r'(fii;iuS. ww

1"';I.d.L~i ,1:'-""-- 'iI' . ._·,'T ~-~ . - ... _- .. ~I -

fttmnin,g'" th,e~ pattern at 'the diagonals,

E,ssentia,1]y', the' diagonals allow

you" to: .. ' ''''carry 'the·· - -'. 'p···a-··ftem'·~··'_-· lUOe:·-····UDi '·,d'- ."

.' I·. .... . . _',- .. ... '. 1 .... ,... ' . . ..'.. t.

- . . .. . -- .. - . . . . .- - :.J

tbel'e:'by malntalning ,symm'letr,Y'.,

S·_-tud- I~· ,iI' __ ,._ th . ',,'. :- .. ~.,.'JI.-- .~,'.~.=,--;.-~ ""'if th - ,'. d ftli:i!l~trn!

I ' .' :ymg 1 ._e' ,~:ll,ut;:: V,UtIW 0·· I - € .. ~~iII

- t ",ah" ,",,-4:11)' L'e}' ip Avnmm'" ho w ~L~'1I:lII

D' :~~':'~ 'WD UF'I '.. :.:...-v.··.· . 1 . : . ..... u.:i.,

k '"' ~,

wors m pers,pe~;lWlve~

Suppose, ,you had de termlnsd one point on a reetangle (such as one of the: knobs ,0,1 a radio) and wished 'to locate another symmetricaJ]y't,

(Th,e~ follo,wing' procedure applies both, to top,'view and pe-fs,pec,p:ve draw~;-rMY ):. 18t_.,~ D-~'H" diazona 1i,_ OM..J', .. C-·g,~

'~'.~ ~.I ~.:.._ l!i I ·.:&~ia:'"··~ ,·J-~D'_·:.· _'. :JJlJ~l 6.r··C'U~ ~oII&;J.

around guide: lines (art1o,ws] as shown.

Basleally, this creates a cencentrle rectangle .. 8r,d'~~ Draw line parallel to side 'Oil rectangle: (s,hown dotted) to Iocate the desir-ed point,

i[1'5]"

.' .. ,

-~ / /

, n

: 1

, .

I,

., 1 ;,.

:._

. ,., .;; .. "_" .... --

SID&:, 'VIEW

I . . .

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.' . '. ~ l!i:l'ymm,elW.,Jl..~, pa,~'~,lm I~~ _~~ .::. ":.'.:: __ ~.~IV!!l,.OIL.LIl,Q.~- '. '. ',' "-,,, .. .1 ':/. ,g Ej .:,1· eO'· J!~ .. '.C_C w.~ ~1.!uIJ~~r ..

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'(711 An,' Desi.gn Or ,Pattern Ca'n I'e ,ReIPfDd'u'ced iln Perspact'ivel By Mleans 01' ,A Griid~ 'Th,el Lalc.tes Its

Impa"rtallt' Poinls

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Tn locate~ the desi~1 in ~pc!p'ective

. , ",-, _''-_ '- -' '", e,"'''' ,~,I""'" - _',_ ,_ ,_.,

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'we simply draw 'the rect.angle by' ap-

proxjmat~ion and 'then I_ay out meas,ur-

m·· g' 1m'"' ,O'D '1'1 ~-..:I '2:" fro' om poin -'t' A, as-

_~- •. _.~l • ,WIU 1.1 '-_', ,'] t';' . : .... , .. _ ....

... ,L_~ _ By~' us.fin €!I ~'L~ seeeial '11:~_::'~1L;_ tI

tiUUW.;I.!I! '_ :,_. __ .- _'~'~ IU.l~1 __ .~-~ _. "_. ' -V-~~I;I3'

.,' ~ th I·' t.b'

po~ts 011' " ,sse unes, 'we can ", en

trans, fl-- , lb' :-1_ ede ,- , "" -, , , fa'" 'to th' -

j.' - ' • i···· I' - _ .. -. • I - I . •. . I.: I. . I . '.~ " . I I l .. I . "

.J~r ,_,-e ,', ~~ge mea:suremen ' 1 ,", ,tllS

~r ,;I......... ']i I"I'lL. ~'... .. -

ps,mpeuuve r-ec,~~gJJle~ 'JL UJJ;tJ" m tum,

alI- ~-nIa ''iiii,E!i "'- ...i ..... j'!i gji' -&.'L- gl'lJ" , ,"'d',-- '1D_!II,-, per-~ , -'~-p--: ~ fV·P'D. ~ Y.I OJf7.'n [~! .. '..:' . ,._ :.__ ,I _: '.~ ~ a '.:_~-

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tive] and the. arid intersections en8blle

, 'to-' ,- - '" 1m' ,t th' - ,- d' oi! ,

, " , , " " ".", ", J' ' ',': - -',,' - c",-",,'

us' ,", .mOODSI __c ,,~e__c, e ,'. Je9llDii

c:.jSjtttIi..o!i!!'oiA III v- ... N' iI,iIiiI III I, ILJI~. ~"--~'_ill~,"_ ,lt~I!II"II! III ~

POIN,T NO~, a

i .'N",. H,-,A .,

ifill" _'!I!ii!I' ,', '''''''''i!i 1i,

H' ;0; '~f- I., .. ts L_ ... , ere again a ,series 0': a.ey' po.m, -_' IUQi,

'iI......,.. I Ji..,.;._.l ·'~I )'L:.-:L '1.... ............ iL...."

00 en. ' omi.eu on, a ,gr,lI.U, wJuww.u ,.l~ . weD,

been dra'.. u-

,' .. ':';',: .:.:' -:--:-- .. -. ' .. :-:': _", -, .' ··~·'···"···l.:--~··- ':'.

____ ~,~_vm, m ,perspoo, _Wi'

The ~pacing ,of 'the points 'was, umlS,fened to 'the :perspective view' 'by'

,!Ii, -, ~ - -- --:- • 1IIl'~ .... -- - ""A' to' un d-'

usmg measunng Wlas' _:i~I.D ,8Jl"

'ii',~·O'" to- 'W'-'·'

'!'PI! . ',-' "1 .~ ,.[I!l

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(1lMi'oaCJUIM'n,D' 'Iin"',s '~"'O' ",-, 6': ,U ~Ia iI_ .Il.YJ.~I...!-_~ ,_I ~',~' ',', iW:,n'~' IU'"

,flft"'-,...1 c::!I';'l"li"liin!iy b' 'IV' "'~I,~..J"~-'rI' S' naner- ---""£1..

~'1iUU. ,~~ ',':i ::"'; l-.nuw.' __ , F~'-' WllWI,

4i' tk: d. '"' 'L., .... ,_l .. , d ~ - 'tice'...gu Sptlcm_gs uatG& and .lO,rth,

tmtil it, fit euctly be,tween the, piro:~'

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:S"':mil' . Aft .L1l..··e· ·b'· o"~,m'" '0"'" 'l-L.: ... b 'O-'rIV' ';'D horizon · ....... 1 Its "00-:-'- ,;ft1l::r,o''''''Oi'in".,. Iines a 'lw'·" ·!I·VC 1r:r ...... _·::: ..... ,L to·~ ,lI!:!iiy',.:a, ],A-V: _, An'~'" -- 0:' bserver "N"I;m'~'--''''-~'-;a ·m'''· ,;I,"iIf-oe··

.~' ~-~",:~y ~ _.~. ···."LUJI; 11 .··.1 U!Hl .. "~A ,~I llU",~U, ,~} '",",' .. _ ·.~.l.Y~laJ~la .u.~ ." ",' '~J.'1!!.r. "yIWUBI.J .... C_. ~ _~ "~!i! .~.' _ ',', ~~ Y-~" , .. ~.~ .. ,~I.~ :__:_. __ . WI

...J,~_"",,,,,,u· .... f'" L1!.._ 00": -, (" he _.!o-:--L-l1, '-:)'" ·th· -,.', ~-~- - -- - :L_ ...... to :~," .... ,~' .. '. -.'"':-·L!_- Iir :U (" +: •. -;1. d'" -' .. ~-" .). -

u.u.~:~o:n O. ~~ ·:··X, .. ,_~,-,or1ZOn~y,. 1~~__!e:re4!or,e pom,1A'j '. l~, VanJS~lJ.Ilg ,--me I. INS',~ .·'rawm, .. "

~I--, ';:t'~ 111:! ,~"th,: I th' .:,0, ;P'l~ytfit:;n ft 00-·'- X to -:: 'p." An~··~ o· 'L. ..... ~'~:~'~,r, po'" ·m·,· ",i...,. 6' In '.' the " .'. , iCl!I.,IIi!Ii,'ft"lil~ dlr ~"'''''.~:''''',n!O.,a , ... ;t...=:~ '1~\iO .~IIi"1lI'l'll'c!;ly .... : '""m'~ .' el m~" " ·, ..... d p: lane .~ : .... po-" ".~ m'" - ~,,'.

~DU.IL .H3! ''P£. ,I _~ U r"' ~'Ul~~ _ '.' _ ... " :~.~,.___: _;_- _' ~-V-'W 1 ..•• - •••••• -111~~a . '.' iIaiCU&_.uw., ~11dUJ&.JI1 q.g. WUti 'W"a.L.tU~ '.- __ ~. ,,~, .:. ~' __ '.' .. : ..... , _. I£!I

.._. ",iI"ft "_,_,';;i!'Ii L.,~'_ 111;;:_

...... IN' su~ccesslve V~.lW1 ~.eBt

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B and box t I') I th'

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' •• c',' ,'. :". _.', . -' " .' '" c'·. '" I" :. - , . -'

. ·ax 'c" __, -'ox top ,are para. ,e" _ ~ere;oo,

f- _'1,'II!'~ ,. - L,!_ 'I'"' (

ore OJl.&ij' one vamsmng ,me, ey,e

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Here, the box top ""pomts:u somewhat below eye level, 'th,m:more.it converges

... _ '" ".-1i,':' b' i.l L 1 'II! 'I'

i~, a poml~' m,EtJuy ue' _,ow eye "eve, .. ,

(N'OTE THAT THE VA NIS,H ...

I-N······G· P':··O"'II'1\.F"rC.'!l F':O"-:'R": 'B':'·O'·'-·X·' A···'N···:n··· 'D,O-.-·X,·····

_.:.._:.:. ' : .. _- '.:._' ~,"II.J..,~', _' .. ::_'. "~ _I' .. ':.__: .. _,::",:;~. '"::,,,_:,,___'" .' ,~ --.:.:.; •...

TO:P ,A'RE, A'LWAY'S ON 'THIS 'VERTIC,A'L, C,E'Np.l"'ER, LINE,. THIS, 'I' "S' '·T·R-· UE···· RE~'; ···.'G· "A'R' ··D'LE' S"S'" '0"F" ·T·IHE"-·

,_. :".: . ,' 'I .:' 1- .-:i.'-·.:___·, :-__:__'.' ,~-._ - __ I, _ 1-'.'

TOP;'S IN'CL,INA,T-ION~)

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Here, the box, top again ,pomts, b,ei-ow

eye, level bu t beea 111'1Ii:iI~, It Is nearly :'. ver '-"..

>'- ,.-"- ,,_' .,-.'- ...... ,.~ .,"'..I~ ".' .:'.'

0· I its ... hin ~. ~ f-

, ,' .. -:- . :.__ ':.- -: . .' l'- . ,: .'. 1- - " --: I" ..... ' ~'. ~, ' '. .' . '--:- .... , -

ca·~ .l. ., VanIS, ... a nn,mt IS, ar a~v.

.. _,~ ._.. . .. __ ._ '!Jl p"-i!l' ,. _:'I!"'I~'II!'

I'

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Here" the box top, like tim box front,

'. )-1 'I to til" b r' fa' ('"

. '-:- :--:- ~.--: -:-:- - .' _:_':::'. ' I -. .; ".-, "'.' "',.':-. -:- '-:-. ":- -- ~ I :-.

IS pam' ,e I~ .'.' ~ e 0, serve .' S <,.iCe. ptc ...

lure plane) , thel'1efolre it does not eon-

. ("V""- -'~ hin . - , · .. t- . - ·t.!'-

,,' .. ' ", '.' " '" ",'.' "--""" ' .'. - '. . i' .'.

verge~ '.' '.' aIUS,c.c__: . g pom 9, ,are a ' m ...

:finj- iii.." ') ~y,,, .. 1

Here" the box top, points :ar ,iibov;e ey!e· level 'to its, distant vanishhlg point,

Here, the: box top's vanlshing point ,is, still ,a'ibove ey1e :level" but closer,

eVE LEVEL

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- . , -F-:'I"-O;# let's revie» ., Tb- - - ;11,""",-- .-- d b- ·-·t

.' - ~)g~~ '-', ,G!' ,- e·iI:.;r"iri;;. ... - •..•. i " ew'p ,an _ ... '. 0 ~:"'"

tom ed.ges ,of Balch. page of the books at ·~O'·'1-t.t·, 1!Ii~· ··-n-·· horls '"'I~'''''I--l'''''- .: - (see a rign . ne 0_,- norrzonta .jnanes rsee

J J' - . - _: -)" T' , L_ .... · f;' . th - ~ -- .. ~ " 'll' I

8~e lJ',leW .'" -, nere ia'le~_· ley mus~, a _I'.

IV'!Ii:n- V\a[!P'oO ;I."...,. ,;IIl.L_n hor -~ """'iin lln lO. (' a'yD

~".~-,b~ IIiU IU.ll.~' ,~I' ,~-l.:~.1 '~' .' ~, / ""

I " ··'"1)' . hleh 'liTfe'-: 'r ......... 1;) '~,I!.\'!I -],', ... , -"--;S' - ·on·" . _eve,·.,,. WJ.U~~._, "_' ,_e~,-- ~ a way" ". c_--'

h '. tal ~ thr-' h th b

,a ,'orlZOn ,' .. 'p1llane' '_:,: :oug-"e 0,- ...

- ---- - , - -,. . ~ - - 'll I i._ ... 'iL ....

server ,s ey'as,,~ s.e. j. parai ,-e', to liU,v

planes in question, (See ,pagie's ,28 and ,2'9 /,or iurther revi,e'w'~)

Now suppose we held the book -tbis, 'way (if it were possible) so 'that both ,,,'L.-. ",iii ........ p" an' ,- - d "bo ,olto- "m-' -u I her e !-i".,:£t-

litre W_I ,,~_ _ ,.,. ll,.'_,I',_ ,\' ,c- __ '. ':iI"~

. and :r.ig'ht) edges, of 'the pages are now bounded b,y vertical, rather than horlzontal, parallel planes, As above, thes £';'-0 pa' rallel pl ,0 'rIii,lI'"!I;t!iI '1il:i,'!t"Ii.,;l' -- 'iii.!! th· - ,0;

~e, i~W!~:_ I -, II:' ,;jU:~ .... &~C"" anu WI ,. ~~

Jines that lie, on them, will oanVeEfle: 'to one vanishing line, Bot in this

th ~ 1... ,!""'" 'il1'!~"'" ~, ti· .......... 1

case e vanlfl1iliig !UJlje ts vertaeai.

'W,here is It located'? As in thel case: above, i.t is, situated, Ion a plane

,,·:,'l., o---: ,u- - uhl ,- _,,:'I!.. . ..-. 0:' .00-' : IQI'!"iJ!'ai'""'!1f'i1 ,g.y,;t)'i!:ii .n.'iF'ipd,· 'l"'\ml~-

-WHI ~ . ':t;f. ww .' .~~, 'W' ~ 0 ~:' ~GI l~~. ' ~

1'1 -I' th 1:_,_" ti'" (-

a _.Jie·, to ' __ e 'PimiGS In 'qtteS· 'tOn ..... see

top view's).

In the, diagram at ,far right, ,the left and ,right edges 0:1 the pages, and.

h- . __ - . th .. ·· olan . '. 'thnJ'" " h .- bse -, er' .---

r I ' . -', : I ': :: '.11' . ,", " . -'. .:',: __ .. .'-.'," "

.ence, ep ne .. ougn on rv s

-.. ~,-- t· " ..... .£~- - '"gb-' ·t' J.'L ',.. -" - th --.

eye,;, pom-w' ~ r),~ -'j' Ll~Jore ." ··re

- - "ti.!' ....... l1ll _. '", hin -- 'l·!i<, .... ,b~·,i:"'iI'iIi to 401.., ...... ,

ver. '. WJL vanlS I I . g' ,--,me srurts ',W~

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So it is. Important to. realize that vertical vanishilng lines and the horison line (eye Ievel) serve the same purpose

d ...;; lar i ,- .. ~, "th " bin .' -- f '111 1 ;I.., ,. I'· 11... t h 1 '. ']11 I 'Ian

an are simi or in concept, Both "CO"D tam. ',,- ,e 'varus.' .'. l'g points ' or parauei sets 0'" . 'mea WmuC .'. _ J11e on para. Ie ' p .: .. ~. ies,

Th'" ·-·e· horizon "11!'~_ se serves '£IJ'II tii.'l!!Ii!!ii;l. .... , o' 'f---' Iines on h orlZO'~I"" __ nta "-1 planes while 8':-1 ~v·a,.,..t'I·'--,",1 ''''':rn,_:~!1I-.~''li'!iI'~' lin i~' ~Lii'll'!fiil:J\OD aD'1 !I:!I!.O,~"'; 10'lf Ilnes

. '_, _' _':__~V~'" ~Jl! -: ~ .. ":'[~~ Q _~ ~~:~ :_ .. ~ .. _ .. I ,"_':" .,1, .1, I ._. __ 1 ,I.' CI. c:a ·lILLLlJ·:· . ...::~ .. ~~.-.~ y.Q.I~~J.r8 - _ It#' ~~ '¥Gal i r, ~,LD·. I _Ll_~

on parallel. vertical planes, Both are iOUD,d, hI the same manner: in fact the drawings above and. 'below are identical

- _ - . t w' b ,", tumOO 90"- de f h tit

", .. :'1" .. -.' _ - _"._ 1-. ',_ '-i-:-- --:-. .." - ,.,- ",1 . - " '. I', ,.-, .. ~.- -'. ,"'" .- ~

excep, 1" .. emg _ .. ,._~.~. . ~.Ir.ees, ,.1 rom ea.,c, .. · o~· ·"er'i

T- -1 .... ..,.. d:',,,""O!ir ''"--, . t- ,"~'4.:. bot _·· f' th -."-., -,'. ,.,.,' :--- ad '.--,-- ,th'~' ":1 "; ... --".'--', i . '-'.' ",.,. _II· __ - """lL.., ... ,---- ·i-iL.. .... ,t- th .'. __ .' ,-.,~'.,'L-!-,tiI' noin ,t for 'l!'\;n,'IIJlIj\~I~' ..... l

,1u;:i ~I:i, .. am_s a,l. !!fIle ~ .. ,0 I.!U.m o!_ .. - IS, page ,an . on .c,.,e prevIous ,page ru'SO ;:JJUOW ,lo.!L~ . II,., ",0 VWU!lnlll_11 ~t3, ptL_" . lI. ~a.aJLI;:U

Ii .... .'!'. eli ed -I (' - th d f"to' b k . tho '''d'" fth -00 .' .). 'Ii' aJ. ' di eeUy'l ' abo -- bel

.. II .. ·J'.II '1"1 '1 ~.::., . i ~I···. . '·1 - .. ' .. , .' :-: I': I' ,~ '.- i~ ",= .':, _.'''~' -: - . - =. ",:-:." -. :-:-:' ,;.:: -:- "' _- i':'-j .. ' '" _- .•....... - . " .•..... ·.r . • .-, I' • ' ..• :.' .: '.' .. -'" _, '.:: ",1 ·····1··';. ';I~ •• '.-.' - .' .. - :_'-.'

uneson inenaec p a:nes,,€~g'!~ he edges ot _. e .oo,P8gesor ,il,9,SlSSO I. e box top IS ,I ways II, aeove or .... '-ow

the, 'vanishlng 'point th.oee; ]in.ss would have if they w,ere pivoted to s. horizontal 'position.,

5~De \lIEW

. '

Now note the ice cream vendor's wagon and the pusheart; The wagon is on, ·the level part of' the street, IBOo i.ts lines natmally converge to vanishing points on the bOriZO.'D Iine. The lines of' the pushcart on the inclined plane, on, the other hand, converge to points along the vanlshmg line o.f the inclined plane, But since both vehicles ar-e, "turned at the , fV,Q,#!I;'t· jf!,g'h'iI; ,n,MH'l' f"'-m" m' th' ,Q C1l'I"'d' j§, ...... ..._I'1\ .. tho';. '",:r-''''':'''':I...:-a· noin rts (' -Ie"'~'t and" """,- n~'rih",t' ')"1 Iie n'n th . 4 (lj,O'lt"rll,O, ve" 'rtf- leal 'Vi!in~'t:j'bin-'- ~-:- a lWllg,

'e'~ ~e ~-"'a ,0 r,~~, me ~~ -,,,,",,,w'~~J 'J_:c:~ .,aJrl.~.u.ml;E.; 1.""";'" ,,~, ' -lll" "',,, it)-' ,-'~ IV! .' - '0 DCLIL.Il..LQ: ~-,Cl,dLJLJi.~_ '.~= '~q"

...]:' .............. ,,'1,_, ...... 11:... ..... :-", and bel - ,"C:"--"" -:: >".£'L, .... --

uu;'~lwY ,i:UNV,e ,aD..:_, __ . - ,OW one ano~r,,,

5'1, PE' V'II'S'W ,Here again (foregro~l1nd) ,lines, tba.'t are hori ... zontal converge toward, a. horizon Iine van ... iShing point (near center), and those,' that,

,':' __ 11 ,Ii d C",JIi _ .. lL ... ) ,,_,

are D,H;1me,·_,UOjvm:wal~,' OOllver,ge 'w a

:pomt directly' bellow~

:Now.t when the, road. turns, to the ,right;; what happens to the horieontal lines of tIt,e' homes? Their vmUshing llOtint remains, on the horizon, IDle, 'but smlpJly shi£'ts accordin.I,Y to the right

And if the road also goes downhill its vanishing po,m.t Is ,directly below 'this new horfzon point .. (Note that. both downhlll vanishing points are on 'the same horizontal 'vanishin;g' line because the, angle 0,1 incline is, the, same.)

ITO REPE"AT: THE VANIS,HING, POINT' FO:R P:ARAL'LE,L LIN,ES ON' A'N INCLINED PLANB IS ALWAYS DIRECTL:Y ABOVE lOR B,JElLOW THE VANISHIN'G POINT THIO'SE LIN,ES WOULD, ,HAVE IF THEY WE:RE

PI'C-V'_"'OTE-"" ---n-:-:"TO'-' "A" H"O'""n'1rZO"NT-- I,A.LPOS'ITI--' ,. ,- '--)

. ,\ __ , -,:--1 •..• ,_c_' " •• "~ "·J.~'_._,,A ":_'_:01",,:, -ON,. (Se'e .P~ 7\7~ ,', ,.~

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z

,~

. - . ~ .

. ... ~

II~I_I ,I •

"' .... ' ..

01"

"lI '

.~

r. ''"I

,~ .. ,I. , -

~. il 'i -ii' II

~"II ~ 'I ,~ ..

~> u-........

..

C rapter . ,3: C·IRCLiE,S, CYLINDERS .A.NO' CON,ES·

C~:rcle,s And EIIllipses: Circ:le,l. '. xcept When] 'The, Are p. _,all.1 TD 'Observe'r'. Face, 'Will F'oireihorten A'nd Ap'lpe.r AI Elillip, .·8S

L'.·'NE

~.

- -.-

III ~Iljil ~~."'I'I,IJ. :1111111. id III I I,. I I

"Th" •... ,i!!-'l'- 'er' -. do' .' 111, .... _ a· p"pii!!oorWlS'- 'n,~, a per'~ec: ·t· circle anl"lly W·,L_n·· s' 'e' an' "f·r·o-·n--·t:' 'fa' 'ce' '" 'W': 'h',alni, ... '", ·ted-·· ar' ~.,·'iII''l''liid·· CIi' '., .. te··- .. 1···.. .. !"·t"

. IS ii:.l.V[~ .. 1 '·UW-, ... ~J!" .. , ~ ...."~" I.i',," ... _; .... , '" .: '," "1,,teL ~' ._., '_,,' "''':''"''"_ ... ~,I,,Ii, PIV'Q· .. · . '" .'V~:" a .: ,ame ',r me" .1,,"

_L _ ,. ..' .1-.- - .. .. ,: d to .~ u ,~~; __ ,'IF. ,:,·: ill-' - :ilona '.' ti- _01;')'11 ~....,.,- 11 1IJ-:-c.--; ]'"'t.. s ." ,"" B" "':'Ii...,:'-. 11',:_ '.

Uli.Ul.I!geB rrom ,8. roun . . . a ~" e~ pse, .1,,1, DlHl..U"y I." appears, as ...:! tnm UllS.F.

( .

. . .

.

TO'" view

8.a. ...... _..;I - 'O! h-' t and" ' .:"' - ted"- . - d' ";,~ . -' '11:110 J.L· r . .....:_ ..... 11 ' . . . . ... . hth ...... - .. L_·. .

i~ 'uprl.,g •... ~ a '1 . P)VO~·" r- •·. arouna a ver;wCB, me, [wlS, eircie appears mue· 'I,r'"ue same as aeove,

U--, .! .... h ·t I .~. '. '·1 ,'. a -~ .. " '"1-]- ........ :1 ... _ .' '. . ,~', "", "'t.... ,

pr..lg " C1lC Eta para ell", one anOI",,u,er

d t · 'Lt '1 1-- b (:,"'

an ,8 rlg~', a.ng es to o,server.l"ew,

to. picture plane) will appear' as in-

.t'IoPo-DHIf!!:·'M,,"-ly 'IiY'!i. .. · .. nder ell"" ]]'"'nC!!!O!OI ,~I:.. . L.· ... i-"'I... ...... 'III'!! "-'&.~g~. ,Luw,lU..l.....: - . ¥g~ we lUII.iU,e..iIi.-

th ey are &0'--" .. - -- center" - I·' f' obs erver's

. .. ......, "... .... m" . - '. ""1"1,0 o' .. ' .. '. , ..... ' ,-..... .

_~. ....:: '. '_ . _: . ..:..', _': :_ .. :_. . _', &&.~ .:.__: .. _ - ,I.:... _ - __ ,: "': I .

'Ii" (A' b: ).

.. ' I,": /1- .. !", , .. :-! .. ' ,"

VISIOD. ': .' ·o,ve .. ·

Horizontal circles stacked one above 'the other and at right: angles to ob-

( letur dane) lll

. '. .... '. -," '1'" . -- "...... . - .. . ." '. " '.. .... ',. . . . ...

smver. pI. ~ . ,I ·e p _ . II :.e .. : W.l.. ap.pear ,as

". -. "-i,: . : '.' . '11.. ~ .. ~._. .. ".:.- d: ,.,:: .'. -]]~ "" .. '. t- 'lb··,·

Inc,re,a,.81D,g·J.Y roune er e·. rpses '. e

fUrther they are from, observer's eye level-horlzon.line .. (Right,)

I

~,

Horizontal circles seen simultaneous~ ly, @'V,e.'D the ones far 'to the: left and right of center line of' observer's .... ..... •.. . '. sh " ..... ild .' '1'1 b·· 'dr-' I :a'-;-- ."' .. '. ~- ........ VISIOn, __ OIU-l'. a _ ··.e .-., __ ,WIt ·as IU-UC

ellipses - despite the 'fact, that, in .rig·",

hanieal tive ci cl

'0:" ~;Il"'I"'i[;i:iI!jI m"' .. - ,DC·'-··: ' ... -: .".... "-:.: .. ' p.' .a~Dp:·iiIiI"I 'IV" e· C', "11''1''1' ; ... as

., ..... 'Y! ~ ., .~ .. --'-_ . . . .... . .....:."~~, ~. '.. ..JLII.'.' I""" - ,

at fa'[ left and right wO'uld come out as distorted ,ellipses ..

Th ~iii dP ~ nal '~l fbi

e :~'wO"'~lnleDSIOI . ~ ~.' cue es on. . _"0

~ ~~1~ t'·

preV1DllS :pa.ge· oo'wu represen 'COUlS"

phonogra nh ~,rds pan cakes. lenses,

, '".," D . ~, .. .L~ .. ~- .. " " '. -. .;, , '. - ... .:. -,

etc .. (rig-hit) ~ But circles are a1so key

. ~L. ..... di "'I bi ... , ....

parb9 O'f W~- nneDSlQID8, 0 ~IOO~·

, . ...,.1[.,. ·C·,.) ·~-~·lin··~:-·d"':= .' dl .. . ... B and o lit!!'

sut.;u as cyl----'_:~_e'fs an,··, cones, g,Jl:tf.c-, ~

sneh have wilde ap:pliication in rep:re .. ·

1'-" '.0 t;a' 'tii •.. ". 1 dr ,'Ii' I' IC·-·::l.:!~d-· ..... :' ',' ". -:

sen"· _., ana, .' I awmg~, -= .. y, ·m·_ers, ,are ~." ~ ..

the ba ~ - f' D,n ~ ..... ..l11'~~'E! number of'

_ I ... " . sea 0.. - ~ t:UW~ ,ou.l&,u..."."

.~11. ~'ft ,r; : :" I_I.. , ...!!o .. " . '. t- 't- '. ~ ~ ill" ,£.~ ....... 11'''', ....

IW;~IS liSU!C.I1 as Cll'are .. eo" '0,=_ IWJ~t

£L._ ......... ,d" '.-.~ ....... .'Itt -h ~'c .. · ',' :'V1s etc eo-', - ·1!'!II~1

td.Q,~ ·_s,poo, '~,. 1(U1.mn'9;11 ,.,,_ II,!!,.... '." ~

.ow.'e· th -. b Ig,~ni:!jl '0:- f' ,iJce"" -' ;i!'iflJ'",oa"l"'W'\ 'CO" . nes· b',' Jli"!l;ur· IQ,II.I~. _. e . .:::.M~ .:" ,_', "_,-: . .' I~~ ... & .- 1.- -.'J.! ':v.'_'

glasses, :martini ,glasses, funnels, ,e·tc.

-;L..... - I-L·' f '11 ,~

TlU,~refore" tne Importance .0. '. ,1Balnlnl

dr ircl';;' ti··

to a- .. w" " c"" -,- r ' e' ~ m T\I!!io'N.p.:.ec· .', 'I V·~'fi ~ l·· e·'·

"" ' _ " '_'. . '.. ...... , .. g' '..1;"'- _. .' -' ~ " '"'.c ~.~

W h dll b .~. d

e pses -can ~~~,,~!"-=--,y beoverestimated,

..l

c'

,So a good way m begm learning to I .S_'.~.'.'U'A,,'.':L !.-:,.': .

draw (and, to! 'Visualize) ellips:e8 is to, ~!f.=--...,"' __ --="~--=Ii!!o~_E_·, '~...;;;:Q;....;;' u~- A:.....o.·, -... ....... L ...... , ~~

S,.~I-· ,&, b 'Y",- ,;<oi""'e=~'AjL.inll"·-· th·· ~·Ac,i!ri;. <8'V'oa Ti·r,,:''"' o.

il~l~ '_ .. ~. ~J.li,M.ILfi . _ ,---~!!Wl' ~. .,_ ...... ,8; .. 111, ~ -~II!!!l!!!- _- ...... _~ __ ~-~_-_~_~_+

equal dimensions on either side of the center to Ioeate extremi,tiesl

'Wha,t Is Ani !Uipe ,And H'ow le',an W IL,. ami TOI D,r. '.' It'?

An ellipse~ is an oval :figure wi.th two

.. ' ...... 11 (ma] d Ii )

uneqmu axes : ,maJo,r anc mmor :

which are, ol'ways at :right an.gles, to one another, These axes connect, re-

apl .. -~='V~ 'e:'l-y· tbi' .- e DI',mlllrA's," 11'0' DQ'Oi£'i!·'t an d

. __:. .~\IhI' : . ,,~~:: J' l. ',:___" .. ' JD ~ '!W'. . ._:.' .' _·D,~DI'. - '

shortest dimensions" Mid, about eaeh of them, the curve o,f the ellipse! is ahsolutely sym!metrical This means £0111" Identic , quadrants, 'w~,th each axis dividing the other exactly ,in lulll

(,: ,~' x, :v:::;:: y,) >I

ODe A ,...;LO' 'uI· ,1·· Ieam ,j,._..... ...;II ..... -Q·W'· an'· ..... ii'~'!pi!:i!A

I I,~ ~.1.... _.". • .. m.II,-,"!Il 1LU' ~;g, .. CJl,UI: . ~1IQi

"----.1... .... ,_ . ..:1 ~.t.. a'-' loose ~---- ah'l'm"-- tri''II'IG' U~UUIU ,"',aU] . ~ , .. I-~,. 1.~"'\1i;""Y.·, i!!I'-~

~''Ii.. 'E~ll· A' d B-- - tem "'ri'!'fi

S,ld-'UA!e,. ,.- Ipses .", an, ,.: are ,at •. ,'. I'P'U"

, 't·_ tbi s An-·:···:···- =, .", .... 1-:11; ... ~ . . 'i'th-' -. -11" ", ... , .....

a_ ' .. ,---._(~ -.: .,yon,s ~~uJar Wl.",--- e ,.lPses

iii I Ii J.L ,," d 'I!

can v~a "De, iL,U,e maJor ,an· mmor

'!Il!II'''''·e-· s· - 'ani I d' I ~'L!lJe" ""1'1..:-- ,_ -:- ·,t- A( ;~ 'I'" ,----..:I w-· .~~ille:· B~··· ~~ .. ' - ~''_. lidJil- ,"' &D! [.~ .. '£UIJ_ ...

la eks ,£L..e·-· n-~ 'e' itl.OCiC!lary- ~h'1IIe' - try., . . ,('I'f' w-· 'e

_8.'" ,I U,I·.l .. ;-;.~~ :' ~J'~:' 1_"1111 .'._.', '[ .. "

..:1 ......... - .. B· ~j.. ~~. ftV;ft1!:!1 .'.- nfiftl -... th:- .= UJ[~W . ~:: S "","0 ~,. we: ~ see . ,,--,6

errors much more cIea:r]y;, Notice how' .. , "";-1... .. .,- uadr .;.- -·t·:· ·d·'~ : .. - ~,' )

saUl!. 'qua·· · an, _ ~ _Ulers.·.

m'L.._ . 'tt· dra' -- -. iI' ... J!- , . 'ua]. c· d

·.l~n .,. -y , __ :_:·_wmg liom leg. I .~, Iqua-

- .

ran" ts N· :'o·te'"' ,,..1L.. 0 6n..3- ar" ~ 'e S'lrn1ll,VIC!

-'-. : I, --~\t. _ !:' ",~' ,U.l.~IIWIJ ~&IUII " __ ", '. '~. ·"·~··s

rounded", never pointed.

, I

I I

, ,

I '

I I

II .

!

.

A'X······: 15"

. . .',

, . ,'_- ..... - .. '

-

M· A" .J O-···,~ :", , "r\

r~, '] " - . • _ ", : '_

')( .....

, '"

"'i

" o

2

[~

J

'" '

@ ......... ~---~

=--0" .

You. might::&nd it helpfull 'to Ke'tch ,a

, .. ~-':--1iI'11- '£i,jli'l'ft.Wl· ..ll the I. Q U';i ..... 1... mar· 'l' ,,,',I .. ,..... r"II"Q,.;. :,",," .& 1~~'~D.1e ~ v,' ',IU '_ .~, .. J.;A '. " ,:IUj, & LUa

... ~ guid~' Iln ~tbln· 'iI!

c:rea lI.I,es .L~ur mo~, I -- ~ I I '.' e' ~.:, ! r . 'I~S, "JZft" ....

. . ~.. _IU J ~~ I ',c_ • _ __J~.. '81& __ ._

whi- ,··'_L the _L ..... p;8,;i!!i1 am' , . ....._ JL -'dl -'ed- and

:, .• lal, -"~!~',!!WIII ': .' .. :. J.J't!II la, ':11' : ••. :: I 1. .

d (. b -)

". .~. ,'. .., I' .-, '. '. .. .-

compare .. a'Oive ... j,

Another_ood technique is 'tol draw 'the

nil 'II'III'!!'II:7e~ ~ft''liaA'fllll'''!I!' m'· . t, A'De," qua- .. dr':' 'onrt .mI,.. --. "-"!U.IIi. '¥,. ~~J.I!.U.I.Ji' I -= U\ •. ' ~." ,,' ~,iI' J.,,11eD

-I- ........ · ... '#.er· (. ""'_mIClD' I 'pac per- - - ]-- !Hi" ~ 1111)'

ila.-WeH:~:· I .I!,.I,~': .-.-, :,,:_,.'_ _ WOI'lU:ii1 ·¥¥e..lI., .. 1

this Ish ape, to the ,other' three quad ...

ts .. th f' tin·

_. an"'~' 'II'1o'lirnf'l ' e Gi~A£!ii g,m ''P.D:' '-',~- .. -.-- e - - ··OD.

fi. , ..• : , UIIaI'~:..e . ,,!,~ cu;;:,' ;I. ~ :e:re.DC.'. ., - ~

(b )

" ~ 1 ,",-":' I 'J

a \Ov,e" '

Ii

The, Canller Of A eire'le D,r!8,Wn In Pe'rspacliva ODe. N!OT Li:e On 'The C.,rre,spa:.diing IIIUp.-.'. [13] Major ,AJdis -II: ,1,1 ,AI'wa,I, F'urlh,.r A,.,a, (Prom Observ'e;r) lihl.nl Mla,jDr Axis

This astonishing' fa:c't is often a 'C8',DSe: ,o.f great di8lculty, (even in 'boob on the subject) ~ Wha"t fs the relationshlp between 'tile circl,e:'s eenterand -tb,e ellip,se;s axes?

,A tt:ue clrele' can always be suerounded, b,Y,i a true souare .. 'The center

p._. Ia"-J.

,0,1 the sqDll'te (food, 'by' ,drawins' two

d!ia,gonais) is also the center of the circle (lett),~

The circle ,in pe'[,spective (rl,h,t)

--~-, - 'l9\ shean, t,alsodbe surroDunde~ b~L a d~?'r&

~ " -or 'ene,:, square .. , __ ,ra;wmg ';"ne', lag ...

cnals w,nl. therefore give! the center

of" - 00:' ,'- "th' '- mq:--lI'1'O;~i!!i;, and elrele __ 'W"'_.,,":'e-_' '1m: - 0'-, iW:

_. ,~'-_-. I li;II-, ~,~, __ I _ ~u.'"",,_, _;Ii, ,', ,'__: .. _

from, page 68 ,tba,t this point, is not midway between top and bottom

lm4i" _', d-'C!ll S"~:-o", thl'· ;0 ;t'Ii~I1P\- '.,;io;~'e~··"iiZ:!!~!l''''l!'inii,g;4!.,.n!'IIiIi ..;J'-.a'I'ITii'!t'III'

JJ. ,I ~Qi@i . ',_ . I. ~ ~ c.1., [!ifill' u· ~JlJI~,I~- UJI."g. P'.lIJlJ

throulb'this center :pomt is also not. midway' 'between 'top and, bottom,

Yet we mo,w (righ,t) that 'tbe ma-

" I f' II'" ,-, b ld ,

lor axIS, Q, an e ~pse must ~~·.e m "~. ,""

way' between 'top; m,d bottom lines,

So." eombining the two' drawings

Cr·· ;rj'h-:·,t,)_' W" "'-e- Cle~ ~ tha-' , ,--' t, . 'th· --,S eircl .. .o;:iI"i:il!1 d·· ~'6'it'" ...

'''b''·.': ," I.,~ .. -~~ ,"_"_ .. ,~~" ~g. ~&

eter falls sJigh,tly behind the ellipse's major axis, (Note!", too; that the 'mi'nor axis is always identical 'wlth, the, mos;t, foreshortened diameter 0:1 the, clrele.)

The top view ( l'ef,t) exp:la.ins ,this Ee:miDg paradox", The wides,t part of

th· --,i'. -;-'l'-~-' ,(., se en , or n'Tn]~ji!!illllq,."'''''d'''' ,"C,:-:- to :t':-bn

.19: cu,c,---,e,~-- .. ' '_.'; ~~ ~lIj;,jdIA::ti:·· on,. ,- ,~

:p:ictme plane) is not a diameter but, ~~~~ .................... ,simpily a Chord (shown dotted) .. It Is this chord, which, becomes the ma-

_~~~_-I-~iII!!!6,~M_·.···~A~.J,Q~ ~ ~ f the 'II" hil th

AX, ',5 Jor &XIS 0' ',',-.1' e.· I:pse'~ w -11 e "_J _I '9

circl,e's true: diameter, lying bey1ond,

~,np·oa,.lIIt:i:!II and "~'p-, ro:-'~: jee _,;i ..... :,:, am6[l1'1I~,·

I~r~ , .. ~1i!II ~ ... ", '_""" . ." ", ,",.~ 1E;II~~-I~~llIiI!l

D I A,M: B'TE R

M,AJ:O·"'X I!~

.• . .. ~ ~-I~

This' is true re,ard,les,s ot the anB'le or' posit,ion of the ellipse.

S- '0'- d·· 0-' 'n'I't m· , ... ke ,.;1.1......... . _-- ;O;S~ .... ·iI''''- . - f'

... ' .- ... _ ... ,_aA~·· uw ml ,~ 0:,

drawing a :foreshortened square and using its, Celt te'r to locate the major uis olf an e.Jli.ps~ The, resw.tin,g

~y......~-----':::::::iiiiiniiiiiil'''''~==---'''''-'''~ figure would Iook something like this

;iiiI.!!ili<'

';"'_' ~ - (r.ight) ~

"

To, --- _,:_ ... ~ ,.I II e 'A~ p.r Y' Ii !IC:i,. 'y

The, two a't ,riah't', however" are each prolper halves, because the circle"s diameter is, used, as the divid-

... '-I'"

,IDS: nne,

I _

i

- --

,

-_I~

r- ~."",-

~I

N-' ... -, ~';I;'ii!!II 'f· - 4-;;1ft'_ - .- 'b' t -- -,

IO,f,'e,~' polDt.G OI'lot1.U,geD'CY' ··.·aween,

ell-.', - .... ,. d ' I -, -" ("1- H' 9")" - -

llipse a:n~ . square" ~ ~'" 0", •... are ex ...

t! t' d II, "'" ..... , .... 111' .,,£ !ii, ... L_

ae y 8_ • . aameter nnes, JUS~' as; ,m !l4W

true top, v.iew (upp,eT' left') ii,

!.. iI Oil

, I

I

I I

I

i I

,

I,

I .

I, ' 1

I '

CrUnd'er: .

Rea,ardJess of 'the, position, or angle of an ellipse, its, major- and minor axes ,always, appear at right angles,

-W" HE'" I'N'" n-"R-'A' -WIN" GA' C""-Y'LIN" DE-R' T',,"S- 'C" E- -NTI'C'R'" 'LIN"E- M-' - :-U-S-~T' ALW-"""A'Y""-S -8- 'E n "RAW-N' -- A-' S' AN"'" EX' 'ITE:-N':-:

'<": I~I I·_·.I .. ···~ ,I ,-._-,'" ·.·.~·-.·~.I ..... :,', .,'. ',,: .:";'1" I. _,L···';~'.· ~.:.- .. --.; .L',£·L"·l ,- ',2,0', ·1....:.. I ~;_ .... ,-,,1 ..... :; ..... :< .. ~.~.l:.'··'. a':.:·I", i '~:II':' .:....:.: ... ·.~·l·,'·::.··· (,'. ',' '.;,'.,"':.~ :._: .. : .'. 1·_i_:j'."I··'!!!I!

S:-"'IO-N":- O---'--FI- T'I~I -- LA-"TE' 'D-' E'-'LL-IP':S~"!r:iUS-'" M'I'N'" 'O""'-R A'X":-IS' Th-'--'-' -".- .ili.L.! -'-'te----·].!"-- (.iLL -. '- -f:---h--- '1- ,.JIi,.L.·. ,- . sba I

~ I, " ,,' I _ ,~ <' ' ,,"_ ,_!_:__I~ ,,' ~ " ---"" " ' " _,-_,' I' - ,ere:ore" 'tw;uS ceo; _.'1" _me, '1t;,!US ax: e 0- w- _ -,ees, ,yd! cross ',_-' r

of' L.. .... .: ... bells ""L....... ~ 1... .... ,-t' 0' f a ly~JI!i!nnipe ete.) .~' a- y ~100 s- pp - - - -- t 'if'!! It ght anll s to £oL.e ma" - ,OJ - -- - ~ of' tb' 1_ - 'II i!pse_ a,'iI:!I~JI:!!nn: a ted- .-

'. UtU.- '.,. ' .• "'~' ~\I,W . " " [, '~upw·· ,~~i.· '." a,w "~,,' 1-;- ears II.' &:" ~ - d~< 81' ', '1!o!I:1' ' . - . or aIlS,. - '. 'e e', . 1. ,I,. ~~oaM : ':.

- - - - . ".Jf.!.' . .•. '_. _,I' -_. • ",' _. - .• ' . ," " •. -!' - _.1.: ,-" -. . -' I l_' ._ -......, ~ - . . "_ . ,_ .. - .. ~. . I'" •• '_' _' - -

·th It, Wi', 1',-_,

B t' not - £L,_·t till'" ~ ..... - nt 1'''' co"",n. - ~ to tb-I, - -ll'~ t th . cent '. ,,", f th Ii cl d t- to £.1- J. .... : f-' th

ur note ena ,[ - ,~, ¥e'__,; er me 1·_:~:':M.I!e.,;;m I', 'lie ei Ipse, ae t __ e center pom~ [0' me eire e an, :no l._:_'~ tne center 4)', ' .. e

'ellipse. {Otherwise 'the Ishaft, would be eecentrle -,lite'rally "off cen,ter .. ';' Sell! previous "al'e'.)

B,y redraw,ina two of th'e obj',ects above, we c-an see here, that fror'~ shortened ,squar,8S in any di'r,e,ction, can be constructed, as guides around a circle. But in every ease T,HE O,PPOSITE POINTS Q,F TAN' .. , GENC:Y (dot's) will TEBMINA'TE, D:I'AME,TE,R LINES THRO'UGH ~- -_~

THE- c· ,IR-- -IC"'-LE~ ,'~:'S::' 10·. :':E-::-l'N" --TE"," '---R~ (' T_I ,-- ~

_ • -, . ,_. :':_,' " ',' . '. .". - I '. I: ' . .l.Jl:1,

rea]ity these lines, are! at: rig'ht [al1,leB~, )

The ellipse's m a Jolor G'V";,[j1 (d tted)

~l,l .. :_" .II. __ ,.;~.,' .~l .. :_~ .. :.::: J ~~ ::_,,~ O·-.-'~I'··":'

has, no'th!ing 00 do with this ' ......... it is

__ :1. !II' ld I'" .t. d- 'II' ... t..

mc.LCiIJ a IW[-~ e nne mr . :~'r;a,wmg~.ie

el ipae, (Note [Bgain that the e]]jpse"s center is closer to the, observer than,

the- cu·"-cie- ~Sl center )"

" "1' ,_'-.--,,-1, -'1'- _0--

- ,- .. -. _: ., .. -':........:., .. :: ... -.~' '. -_

. Be,JQrW are some 8;p,plicatioDs of 'th~eee :priruJiplesi

.... r

..r._..J.-

~
I , I I
, \
\
~ r
I ,I I I
, r
';
i I •
.. . ~ r 1 i
I, ......
...... ; ,
!
... ~ l
l j \
! L
1
11 ....... "1;1_ •• _ .... ~.i 'I _' ..; " , \
•• , .I~ .. ~. . ! ~, .

.:--"-~,,,~_:,,--r.,h~ __ ~=!!!l '_ ., •

.. •• 1_ ... ~

. ..". ./"

l <,

'<,

<, \

The·· 00" ne Wll~""·ithin" ····'1 J::L._ cvlind er (·'r·'~~fJ'ht···")····

_ .. "!!. ~ ".: - I Llie ~J' .' ..~ _. . ... ' iI1ti ~ I • _ ' .•

naturally has its eenter lin,e parallel

to tb-:: ...... ta ·b:l .. :: to .. I Th'""' "'. -', -.- fc ' -', th"·..,· .. ':' .. '".- I ".' c-

'. ' e '. '"'c, Je _p~ "c___ere .ore. e cone· s

'a"~ i,ll!l ln .1.11,.,_. a- I .... rrt....1...1~aw , ... ·Lo Ann.le

... r!lWl- .u;i' I. U;W. '. ".:Ii.J.. . .... Iy ~ . ,<. Wt~ "...,.,..IUJ " '

. Ji.!-ar -- ·th'·C" - ta hi I '~'''n -pax' must d m . res,LUlb on':, e t' .. ::Ie l~ B~"·· .. ······ "" ."iI '., .. :iP

(a,1TrOws) so that its, center line 'fa1ls, - ~- - ima .. · ..... 11'11!'P to' th -. d,nt· ted '" l-'~

,appro:x~'~ I' .·~_e . j';'; - . me.

The ICODe at far' right is drawn w:i.th

.i.L..::,..,. deo .: "p" peel ..... :.-- I' "-'" ~"'·""'lm··:- ~. (.mt...:,.... . ' .. ·ti-~'· .'

IpU3 .' _ '. . l__ '.. cenl~ _L . eO! . .lIUllli mo .Ion

stilhtly for,eshortens the length, and. makes, 'the ellipse, ".roWlder .")

~'RE,' 'FO~'D'U C··O·····N.,-··:-:ES· L~IN'G-·

·.a."rIl"J.JCI_I_. ~,.iL~'t I~.:",.I[,' I, t. ,c_:.' I' _

0- N:-' THEIR'~" S···'ID·E·_·S-I H--'~-A::VE~""-'" C!'-,E'~'JN'····-""

__ ,'. __ i r . '" '.- ,- - .. .. . _ _____:_. '_ , . ...:_::.. . ""

r'iI"IDR.'· LINE'- S·" TN-" :C' . LI'NE" '. D': TO'" T"HE"

.& G· .' ,- __ ': __ .' _.~: .I.... . .: . ,.' I : ... '--'- ' .. <.,. ':__:::__- c_:-

P· LA' 'N' 'D'S"1 0'" N W' 'R" :'1' 'C' 'H'" 'TH' "'EY

'1": .,-1.' "-.J .. nr",·: ... :, .... , ,'.J ~. lj r II.: [1- _',: I. ~.! '>~:'

REST

: .. ::':1- -, IF

)"

.

,1:&,:I'h riIJ!... '.. 'II·' - "uiUe nere Yie 'varY"ing e l:pseS and

,~'''-ShQr~'~~~,;o) .I~ n+L,~ SU:I'J:D'g" est tha.1 ••• : "It· tho - rD.

,~s; == I~I,~ V.;.&l~ - iD - ~ _'_ ..... _~~

«IDOl are pointed, m various directions

.....- J.I 'j " .... 11, ,.,..,':_':1 (N te

UP B're a,pproXlMI8,K:1J' snnuar, r t ·'0,"":-

.' " t 'the id~ o:f the oo:nealwB,YS ,con~

neot to the eDinae Clnll~ti=-1I.·~ )."

d -, . '. ~ .,. ='Y~~ . _ y ii' ~.'

The imi]u' iii 'lity f th -11- ,~ ..' ht

Im-, : .. ' -.: r .' '0'.' i' "Ie···· e': I· ~s· at ''l'filloJ· '1'

g . . , I •• ~.. •• ~', " 'r'~Y - ~ .. &, a .

'", d-'"" tha .. ,Ii

m.~·_'lcates ·_':_-~:·_.t these eones are 81011-

1'_,-.lv o·:··r-:l·en-"·I,. ..... "~ bu t o f'...;II.:ae:, rU'D·· ." I: .B"II"t, .. l,.n

,1IIr~.T ',' :l w.u ,' ... J. _,_. ~_ •• I.~ '_'Vi ·__:Ir ! _~&II!i[~JlDJ~

Co.e •

[[8 .. ~'

.. ~,
1[1' ..
~
... ..
.. ~ ~ ~ '.
.. II '0, ro
~- 11 ;. .. .._ I' C'" ····hap·· teo 'r' l' 4" • S' '·HA·, DE A':"···, IN" 10"'" S·-'···'HA·····,····· 10"""0" ","'W:'·::'

" ,'. .: I '. . ,I I" ~, • ',-,' _-_:_ - ~ ." -- ,/ ·1 "', : : .:,," , , ... , --- . I •. " ..• " "

I -

First, let's clarify our terms: IS' :A'DE exis:ts 'when a ,surfa,ce is turned away from ·tlhe light source". a,HADO'W' exists ,- "hen a surfa,ce~ is, facing' the i:igh,t source but is prevented from r'ece,iv,ing Iil'h,t 'by some! :in:terV'ening' objeet ..

~' ,.-

~~~~~--~--

The sun, of course;; ,radiates llllht, m aJI direetions, but the ra,Ys reaching the earth, bemg 93 million miles from their ISOu.rt1e, a'~e ,essmtia.11y a sma]!. handful o,f' ,sin.le, rays virtually parallel to lone anothe ';; 'Therefore" when, drawing' with stml.llh.t the rays of liJght should be considlered :paraJlet, :

• • • ..

:Fo[' example: This suspended, cube has several surfaces in .light and severa] in Shade (those turned, a'way

frlhm" t, the ]-I'"'-ilf..lt·,· )" Th'" "e'__:, lr.:ol!l·lb".I' ;0, to p,.": ~'i:!Ii

,v, . . _~" " pll. ',:.' !I L J' '. Ita., .u r. _ .. ' .~

turned toward the Iight and would be

entir~'ly, :. 1Ii"in liabt " excep, t lEo-'r the

,-.,. 'IIW : "". ,~" "J.! :. (-" . .-: '., -'.:---., -., '.:'

,_L ado ·W. ' f,;r,~ !C!!tl 'u! 0" n l~'" b i'U' the cube 8' bo .. 've""',

1P..la. ~.':_"'. _. ~Q._. _:.--" ,. :. 'J ,Ia:l·· ILFU .. ~ .' ." .. "... •

W" ,.. ht· 'ha""' th ,,. j,- ..

we :mlgl.'i': say 't.I:·t the m'~'rvenmg

object,;'s, shaded surface has "east" a

shadow on 'the Iighted surface,

""h S'HADE 'L-- 'IN-E" that I''''' hich .!LJ,'e:,c..: I~ -:_,._--', . IJ', is' .. -':.-~ . me, Wl'uu

separates those portions of' an ,objec:t that are "'in shade' 'from those that are "in ligh't'.. ", In other WQ,rds, it is

the: boundary line between shade and light~ !Tbis, shade line is Lmportan't because it 'esseDtiaJl1ly casts, shapes" and detemUnes., the shadow, (B,ight.)

N:ote, tha't the~ shadow Ime of a fiat,; two-dhnensional object is its eontinu ... , QUS edge line. (One side, of the, objee , 'II! .' 11 ~ 'hl- tl ;a.lt..·e . ther I, -. Jn . sha . d' 4 )'

lS m ilK I~ ':,,' 'w ~ 0 _ . ~ .. __I ~ ." '~~: i

,Shade and shadow naturally ,e,Kist

... 'I'i'F - tb .' Jj- 'k, 'L'"' h .

'OaOJ' 'when " here IS ~ gJ.L:.,l ,,18,·t gener-

ally :m, of two types" depending on its source, 'One type produces a :patte,m of parallel light raYls", the other a radial pattern,

Tb,e other 'type' 'o,f' ,light, orig,inates 'tram, a, local po:iD,t [source IsuCh as a bulb or candle, Here, the'- closeness. 0:1 'the light source means tha't objects,

'1!!iI1Mft ~ l'!'vm~ffl 1"i'iI'1I-..t ..Li1l.. t . di te ~g I:~e__.'·", ~l_: '8 :__:~j." raY[SWla,~·· r8'·.18, .. ~·

Oil'''~·D''P-:d'; '__'mi 8' ,a;rnD'le' '~m'·· .. t:' '.. ,mL-'re··'·

_ I~L'W'I~'. ,.I"!U - _ _._ t~l~~D"" III~W':_.______:,- ,I.I! & ua, ~

'fore, when dr:a:win,(g with 1'000_1 point ~ 'the raY;B lo,f tight ahotdd be radlial

III II'! • II '!' ,. iii II • .. • .... .. .. ~ II • .;;

- -

. .." ;.. i.. . II .. .. ~ "Il 1;1 '!" Ii

II P. .J • .. '. ; = I I ~

.," .. '. r ~ .. W Ii

.. Ii .. ,.

I I .,1 I L

II .. r ..

,

.. Ii 'II

ii .;; 'I.

. -

. ..

~, tI I! ..

,_ '" '" .

,II iI .. ,!

'r

e II" •

.. !iil

" .

..

. .

.. ,_ ii

~ .,

. ,

..

' .

• 11,-

'r II .. 'II

..

... . . ~

.;. !!!,

• io II"

..

II' II,

• ;&, .. !I' II!!

'Ii ;;;;. !r. III Iii" 'II

Ii- e 111.1 ~ :til' T. i!i ... ~ "oS' ~ ~ • e- ' •

. ' ~~.. .. '". ~ ,_ ~ .. ~ :, ~~ .,~ .: '.>~.~ '" ~ ~~:.. ~~.~, :' ~ .: ii'" ~ • ~:'"' ~ "': :~" .. ~ :' :~, ~ .~.".,:'.: : '"_ •• /:" .: ,.~~ ,;::':

'.

. -.

~ ,',

~ ;. ..

-~

• '!! II! ~ •

'I

• I .~, :il. '!

"

• •

'f.

if!! !Ii i· +.

~, '" if. ~ rt.

~ '!' r.!

. ..

[88] Pa,railial Liglht Rays: ,(Sunlilghlt) Pa;rallel To ,Observer'.s Fa"ce (A;nld Pictulr8 P anel,-

lihe ,Simplest C,a:se' O~I' ,Sha"d1e Anld Sh,adow' ,D'ra,w:ing

I,

Tb,e top view at left shows observer

I···· ·· .. ··k·m~'tI ,·t - ~""'b' 'I' ,.' hi "h' Ln"... c ,~", c -". eil ·00.,··· ',1:1' a" a ~,'" e W·.),C,I .U~ a penci

(,~''K1"nl:l: ~';~C,·::i"")··1 stu '''f''.:i ... , fn ·,· .. to :- l'l't-- T']4a "~I1"' ...

OI'iI!~ ~N·'._.~. QI · __ Ga _-,"_.-:_ ~1Ii n..~ ~

-II' I 1'1< ht .... f the I f't

a.. ,n ]-g' ': ~ r'''ay' ,-:-,~ SlTl.-vm'·'---"·g;:· '~iinirll""'!11 :- e'" ,Ii!!ii."

.. ~ _ I.' ' .. ' ",,', If::II ,~I. . '".. .... .:V..I!44 ,: _ ..... _ .. _'

are, parallel to the, observer's face and

to th" _ ... -",,'...... llan Th'" , ' £ £L

1_' ,'e plc~,w.'e P,-'··I'_c€',.., ,-,~€U"e:_,ore, Il,;.,Ilie

P-- eneil's shade '-w-·~ m ii'iiiCllt·;- lie ,"" 1'0'" iD6. £1...1i!li;,

~ ~-' .. !kii.&_ ~l ~Im.-, . " .. _ :~. _'_.~'. .. _', tt.l'~·_:-:_·~I ~~~,

'1j. ~. b' ·t ... ;1!.. --' ' d ..t..i._-1

,dl'" I'., r,ay !5LllUWIl I. OLIIA:itI.

The shadows Iength d,epe:nds o:n the, angle of' the lig"ht ray, but this can only 'be seen in, perspective {r,tg'li;t) '. All angles are possible. Here, we, use,

..... c: d·'· eg ~C'!i . - ···hi' II- ,'h· _,,_11, .. · .... _1 tho -". ,..,.ILI·-·· 'd' .[ .. ,'~

~. e~· ... ~~:; w_·,~c_ ~ '. e mm lOWS

length ~q" ual :11 'to I the-' l_ .. _.. 'p··.en·I' ··c· JI"s' len .. _ .. , g·,th.-'" ..

_~~ _ _ lW _ _ _ . . . . .. _.& .11.. _ . ...,

. . - " .' ~

Th,e .li,ght ray from eraser D) do,tted

line locates the, eraser sbadow and 'L __ ·ce·; -'=1" ' ..... 'iIO!i:!Il the· .. , 'l,e',nllD" .... :il.L o""f: th ,0 nen'" cil'"' 's

IretJi.!.· .. Jl1,;&~ I ,." . \111;68 ,1loI1. ,"'"" y_. . I:._ -,' '

, -

entire shadow,

,~;, ·'iI ·1 ·11 t ~'_,..:'T .... _ ... had

L]llDlllJlSr' penens Wl_ cas srmuar ~W!- -

,,,..,'Iii:P1~' ~,~ , .... ,1.,.~,d: Inlr1i~ at Ieft ,o~ .aI' -I nQ1'I',..,

UT1!'O .. JLll~ til-IL&" ung _ I:. 'i;i '._,' OJL~ lQ .. " ~

-II" 'e!." ~ to .'. '. . .. - .. -'. s= ,LL ...... -. : . .,- "'dc" ,""- ...... th' .. , 'Ii -.".,. .......... ,

,8 . ·,c· one ano~~r an ~~ W .... e PllC,Il.Jwe

plane, Therefore m, perspective the,!Y 'll"LlIim" 6'~n parallel N'J' - I. ... , ~ - d '"' idl; .. ," ... _1 li· -ht· ,.II~ . ci_u'_', ,;0, ,: .... , .•. ;, ~ .. ' .. 0100 m··lV- .... 'llUlI. :.' g'"

ra~s "casting" eraser shadows on table.

-H" ere . the - two p snells 'I tl I left'

- I' _"; .- _', .'." ,.' .' ."_ ''" •• 'I 1 ;-"_ ",.- -,: - ".' .'(, ',"' •

. ~_ >" .. - .1., e "~, - a- ,--,'.ower _ C' are

,iii ,til I... .!'".I! . - d' '" b .. __ .. .. LL,!_...1 _,..__.i'1 hi'· "":L,

un~ge ~_ ... y a uWu penon W.' i\,ai

casts a new sha.dow Iine connecting

th ' - sha (1- ,. f" til ft' - -

e eraser .;: ··:.·'··ows 0' "~ .. e: iJ;S,t two ..

TiL.:,... . " ,..."L_..J' .. - ",. t b . -, II' I toi . . I-JJmI n,ew m'w"uOW mus -: ,~e para e I.· .

'~4.... .....,'L - dO' Iin ('L' ld ;oJ' ~'l)

l.,~ sna ,I,e nne . "url .. IIng: peD,C],-.·;-

th- f;'~ A~ 't..·-th··\ -.L .... ·d:-

ererore, m persp~iuve" 00',,1, ._~·,e'

Im:~ '. ,- and , ... ,'!L: dl 'I '. 'th-c-· .. , "., c' ' ,- -: "'--h

_ ,e' '~I!~_ mJ;a.-"OIW use,e lsame varus~ -

inK point, The other pencils In this

...lI ..... - 'Ii .... , ""fj·'ll ..... ..l ,j ,,', ·to.. J1 .. -

u.I[',awmg are '"I . I:SU m '~. lorm ,a.-n

. 't\vo d'l< .. , .. - --~ I I Its'

I' .' r ..... '.- ".- '!ii!i. "1 '. - ," ,",-" '_ ..•. ,... I -." I" :. . _-:.-

opaque, 1-_.,., A~tr:lenSJ.ona. ,P ane" ' .. ·.1

:sba.dow Is ,ou·tImed eXt1'(;~tly' as 'before,

'1lI'i"'1i. fn bo . th nn ,if'i\A ' th 'j u t-·]I" . - ... ... . ~'l ' !&!!U' ,I" ,,'-, .. :'., ~S' I:· e OU,i .. me' pen,Cl EI,

QPo th·, . ,0 .".;1;...0" de·' ". 1- ~'nD~. W'" - 'h'I··~'L d·· etermin , e'

I~,g .'. __ ~ ~Jj., .. "", 'uJL~Q '" .. : CIJ, ,_; ~~·IrJJ-_I ! [,"

"",1.. _.... ... t... 'd-' :iI'. , ... t...-

Iwre sna .ow· is snape,

N 'I -Ii! b Ild b · .iLL

ow et's -u- ,~"two cu .91, using 'we,

ft"iiil"'i,Ii!'j1~m·'·", 'I ' ........ ..-n _po' Ian ~ ;i1!i"f.iIi ~':!d- a~ Thl' I. '"'

'~", '-'_ ,. Il,.'wv .. ,' ,. 'l'l!bi~ QIi:I' !iii'l" ~'"" _' c.!_!s

-, \ft1!3,,,........ ... ,_L· d' ... _". t, - t 1 and 2'

cr~,~s new all.1a.' e pom sa: .... 'I'. .'.

, . :'L!. 'h' . ,4;, , ... L..lI.. ~;I..... lS d:- nS

w'J!UC ... cas~ Z),uA'uO'W po:m~, " an,;· 4 ~

IThese points h,elp .loca.te 'the shadow' .lines ($,howTt: dott,ed ,in. to,p lJ'ieW) of the new top ,and, vertical ;shade lin,es,,,

N 4.... J..:L_ t" t~ __ .'1 ... L-d )'" f O,~ w~wo ver '-1'~, ~m" ,e ,mes, 01 ~

t~he abJtve ,drawing 'tha"t have ,ceased 'to

-b ''il.. ..... ...l II',::;..... h .' ",;,l!,.;.

e S,£Moe' Wles .. e're,,., ,smce w.iey ,are no

I 'bet'" .. '- . .J],......... b" H'" -h d ·onger .·,·u~,uu.w~.JJ.es .··etween, "IO":'t aD.'",

, I!iI

..... ,L .... ,d·-,g,

i::U~ .. ~~

\

"

The F',o,lllu,wing ,Applicallion S,k·.,tch'e's A.~- H·.v·e S,hadows Cast B'r Paral~el Lighl Ra,s 1811 P,ara~le,1 Te The Obs.·rvelr's, F',ace'

~..... ". f" ' .. ' '. th ,-: 'nrm'" , '. cipl ,o,.s, d·'· C""-. ~ .-.}.. .'~ d· ~ "'" th t .'. . .,.J,..... .'. " ,~., " ~'ll' be ", "'dc, .. '.'.- ,-. t N"·, te .... A:, ~ - .. , . -,d',' I" ~'-, ,',' ',' -'. '~l!'·· h - t ,'-. , .... " "d-:-

,.I.,J!~fie .oJ"!e·.,'i3' ¥' .. '. ,"",I ~."eve',' ,ope . on .'. e pre V llO us' ,pa.:ge \Yl,IJ, ,e: 'en .001 .f·:O_ ~ ., 'J',vwe,~,Ule$ are 1;8: .. '.' ra,Ys use,

till ... '>l .... !i! ... ' tant ..... had " , ""~ ......... , Dotted I, .. · .. " ' .... -',-'-'-- dde 11" ", , iii,. d' 'to' . 1 ... ,,.._ -,L_·d' I ,.-,

o roeate nnportan ~m·· OW points. " ···0" ·,e.u t;lne'8 ar·e:~lpo.rary lUI. e unes requrree J1oca~: snac ,t)'ws.

W I ,

I . ~ ..

~,""'~~,

' ..... -,

.... ......

.... ". ~

..... """

'~~~': ~ _, .•..

3 N··:I a'lID b"n:id'" iYa He T'iQ'-I--'!I: aerosa tb· -',e"

II "'."1'11' __ " . ,1EIi~ '_ .J.-"bO,ULCJ.I. ,!".,JL~ _ ,-'

- -,

eraser ends of the two lower lef,t pen-

cUs below, Its, shadow on the table 'will naturally connect fhe shadows, of 'the eraser ends, ,Since the upr,igb,t pencils cast shadows of' equal length this new sha,d,Olw :must be parallel to 'the bridging' pencil (shade Ilne),

'Th' - .. ·-·tIl- ,or ,..__ T"IA'npl!''IIII'''''Ii .... l!:Ii,"II"iO ~',..cll'''''..l in .,.,

,:_ , ' e '0 _ • '~:, ,,"w'Oi ~v.. .. ~,Ul tLu'i:;; U -ell, ,I, ~

tOI ereate an o:paque', two-dimensional

P'~I"'I-,aAg-~~'1I"'" th - ",0. 'Daw' ;Il."'p:" shade Iine ~.

Ja.ll,...,., ~R,.g,lL .' ~ '!!W', !WI I - . , _

casts - I""tai rail' D,"II shad 0"10" 1 in , e' o'n' ;i.i'L .... ~~~ ............... ....,....._.~~~-~--~«--~=~~~----=;;r-=--~==~--~~~~'

~ ,~, a. ~-! ~, I, ~Jl. Mut,,,,,/ _ I II,' ..... 14~

tab,lamp ..

"I 'Wh-':·'·'· th" .' , ',',.; -, .'. -,,-. ' .. ,·"t· '.-' .-11'1..,1 to"

II,. " ". -,~_,en . -,-,0 ,rays am ,no - par~e ' 1,._'.

b - er' - - f' - .- '('and-" .-, - - '"'cture·, -.--- - - -1'- - )

... " ,_. - . ' .. - ., . '~', I'. . :.._" ,'.. ; I" "1 • '! i i l . -:: '. . . -', . - . ~ '. . -' ,

o servo _. a, ,_aLee .•... -_ :' _ pi _ _-' p, ane

then they :mus;t: ,appear' to ,oo,nverge~ This, means more eomplex dra'winl'

but, 'I't ...J .:- . . L'1 ,---- to -- -' -, . '.--.' ~·,t

.•.. , ,- 1... 'uueS, emauJ.e us' ' .. ' m'presen,

ishadows, 'the way' we 'usually' :900 them, In sunlight,

In th···· ~,-' . ,~'- ... bel~c- -. lift~t -'-, 'sII~ Ji! liiVP v.lew J,- OIW",--_f5.U_: ray,-,

- ---- .'. - It th - . '-1 sh 'b . --- .

, "'" " r . -' : 1 . ..•.. '. , ··•·· .. ·1, .,' I,' '. '. . .

BIT,lV,e ,3,1_ _- ·.··e ang.e .. ' I awny arrows .. ,

Th'eIedore the pencil's shadows must

l~' a]' "''nHIiY oiI.J..n AI_" ..... d" 11.:: ...... AOiA ,..,., ':II.. "0' .... ,.IiB .':~~~ ' .. i~ 'uU"~~, W.I~~\~ ~ :U04!':lI,.'C;,

equal pencils cast equal and, parallel

shad .. In th'"" .- .. -.... fbi' -. -h 'the·" '

"., -'. I ", : I 1--, ~ r: I' -., :'---. . I - . I .' ,

s ... OWS~ ,. IS case~ . _OUG- ,', . .

shade bl'~ . - to let Ian

I" 1 '( -. .-j'·,1 :. .' 1 "1 ...• , I' " • -,' . '., '.

c_'. WS aEe O.~llQll.e, '.' plcure p .- II_Q"

so in, perspecti!ve (rtght ) they con ...

to 'I! t the-' h" ':-1"

VeT,le a, pom'_' on " . "'~' I 'onzon, ,me"

2~' Ho ·w~~· do 'IITl',9·-·' draw -- th e 11~ ",bit', ravs £,L._;,;,-

'I' '. . . .... "'''. '.. .a.... ..' .I I".!I' . '-",7 iQI LIm,.",

d' .4:. ..... _, :"'. '. "th' , . '. tI!'1! L'-d-- ~ ... '];I;[ID' D"~1L.. o?' n-......

i . ,e~ H.Jlme . J .I.e ~'IJ.al- ow . ~ .. ,~'~lli';ll' ~ ,L" I;.-~

-viously, when the rays were palt .... ' :

- til "'c1me Ian 'I' I dre

. r , .' '~:.,-- -,: 1- - -,', -.-. "I-'~"", ~ ,-.~ ~~'.~.::- ".: _. .' 1'-' --'.-:-.'

to ,11 ... e p]_: ' p sne, we ,snmp,y ,W

th- II I to' ther.B t

' '. -. " " '. [ - .. ' . ' .. 'j 'I' i ' , . ' ' . ' .' I .' . . .: ' '.' '" ~ , ,:

em., para e .. ' ane ,anD ,or",· lU, now,;

'being' - o'bli,qu,e,t- they must conVeFge,~, '

Th- ,I '"'. - " __ ..... ,'11:..,.;' .... , - ,--, ii' -·t·, Ll,.,-,tb'·n~::-~' "

neir vamsmng pom '.; IW~_ ,-~~oreJ

1-, I! th ' o!!' 'I vanish -

. :-.- _. _'.. ' 1- . -'. I" ~ . '. - l : ... ' 1 - .. I .. L • •. , . -'. ".~:" : .... ' I .. ' . I - [_

must ,]e on , . e· saUle vertica ..'... , .

~-n!1iY I"' ,-'. ,. th" .... had .. -' 'WS" ,'" . , ... ,.",..,::·""',lI....i'n.'tI'

--e :__,ID'.e as II e ~JJLa.: ,'0__ V~lD.U.II!-:..:o

- - '!', - t 'W" '-by"' '0....... " . both ..a:..L_ .. ,.

pom:-~ ' "'iT ~cause ·:"lW[f me ray,s

. -d' th - ,,,",'LI -...3I-ofC!!' ]~' - -- nRIP .... ,'lI111-le·:1 pl .... ·_es

an~:·., 'Ie ~J)~"~ ~Ie on It~~· .. _ . J.WI-·,

( - .. F '" t til' 1

see top ,v,eiw~ ,··'01" a ,rev,w,w -0 VfJ,r'ICO,

a. h" :1'" 77 00)

vanu;',~\m, ~uteS;t see pale'S" __~ :." @

On -. this~' '" t '. fix·· .. ' d 1''" ht

: . ·-'1""'" : .. - -'-, :-1' ·::-"i ' .. - '. ",: . --: , I,,: r. . '.' .:'!

.. ' . ce _-'_ pom ., .. ,·e_ .,' 11·, . _ ,rays

passfng through th,e' erasers Ioeate the

shad O"Of IAnU'.L'L.-. ~Ia.·: ,,:: ·~w-¥,' ~~DI LlJ.a~1i

LIGHIT AAVSi 'VAN,., F'QtN,T

Thou,'n ,t.UI1~r;mt to viswliSe" tJul ~ In perspective, these: 'two new sets

.vanishing - point· :is ach,oUy t'M'

BUN many milrKl'J~I' 01 m'ile. of parallel ho,rizon'tal Jines 'will eaeh

laway' ';tid'ila~g' il, 'M~ful"'" 'tll converge to a vanishing point N'"ot@;

- -,- l·r ~IP (.- - - --" . L - - - --, ,. - h ... L - ;&.:L .... , ... , . ... bin

,pa_«~-n',~ .,'- ,conv,:er,IR:S' v€CUUlS' 0: thoug __ ~, that tnese new 'vanm-_ -;",:,1

,pt1,.,spe,fJt~v\e) ,'lgkt my.'. '. ~., -,"-_ _ ~'. .' ._ _ . _.- _ _ . _ '"' - . _ . . ,':-. . _. ,

". points are ,not essential to the draw-

. :'. !ii'~' 11 It h d 'I'

"-. '--" m-~'g' '~m~- ce:' ~ ',ay" it"! - .g;'~ O~'--W' --: 1'1t1m' - -I. ....... ~I'IHi

'-, _ '_____-_-'_" 'jQI'" -,_-- Q-,-,~'.--.' ,"'. ~'": '- .... ,-- .1:"'....-' . 1L:lIi, ~&,

.... ' ... ", be, de'ternUned by 'tble same lig'ht rays

. . \. "'and 'shadow lmesas above. (The new

'. vanishing pom,t,s can, heJ,p, howev,e'f,

, to: ~, 'V~<D;~Jty', :-' th ··n ~L!I.-""f'"" 14:~ )1

. _...... ,v.l'JJi:: .!t:: JIl.ctilIUl)LD~"

. -

_

I

J

5 N•· .'. 'O:'1!n .1i§.t·t~1 aaain build two cubes

Il - - '!If" _I,;.!' - g Ut:i!1 - - _.. -

using the. ,existin;g planes as one side

f' ch Th- '" . te hvo had

0, e-:Q-·:- -' _. ''II~' cr': -ei~" le.; -'., -, i Dfl'W' s.~:"u.e

. p-. ", .......: .. ...:-4! " . ~ .. ,". a. _' .. g . ',", '-'~~ . - -- ._ -.- ,._

poln ...... 1- and ~. w-· ~h-~ch:'- east iCi!I ..... ado Uy

• ,~, I~_~ . ..:.~ ~ __ " ,- .. dIL· ", '~iCI" ,;,IW."_·· 'WY

. . ... - +.R I'D. . do' 2-8 pomlllla '~an~ -'. : .• '~

Th t ",-, 'L, .... d l~ t.

, e l:wIa n'6W wp sna .•. e . mes again

cast shadows parallel to thernse-I.ves~ 'tbus fo,r:ming two new sets of' parallel,

b-,. tal -I'· h f- hieh -

. orIZOD_-:- .. mes" eac," 0'· 'W~_lgJl, con',iii

iii "I hln ii, -

'!I:!lie···r-\D~iiiill 4:.."""1", I····ts own VaD1S .... I' 'fI' pomt on

'y."' ,it!lJ~ IIi\J.II .. - . .:.....' .:.... _- I_~- - el I' ..•.• I,'J. "," :'J

.... 1!.." h 'I

liJ,J.e ", orlZOn..

'7',., - 'n all examples so "ar the sun has 'been, hI front, of the· observer, and. -therefore ·the vanish'ing pom·t of the parallel liJg'ht, rays has been in fa·ct

the sun.ltse·lf~

'Wbsrt 'vani8lirlns point, is used, 10,[' ·the l'ays, when the SUD is, behind the

. observler ( to:p ,lJ1iew b,eJow) ? Tbe theory Is ,emctl,Y the same, In per .. , .pecti've (;ri"ht) "tbe inclmed parallel F~EI, lconverge 00, a point, and, as, before,. 'this point Is Ioeated on the vero,cal vaniShing Iine that pasees

... 'it.'-~·n,ah-· till e···· ~-·-·!' I..mio po m'"" -It I ~ "If: ·th' 'I-'-.a.

'UD~v....ue ' [, .... ,. ·Y·[WuaJlJ~:..... ~D' :..' . ~ v· ... - ¥

pen .• neils' shadows (since ravs and,

[, u ~

sha,dowi. lie Ion parallel planes) t

[81].

SiI' Notice that each cube bas, a to'tal of' only two vertieal shade lines~ The other '~lertica'ls, that had. been. shade Jines In previous steps are now'

""b -!"d'" :L.,.,,\.. . ..JI ,~. - nr- 'DO" I;t'\o-"--" --,

- ~- urrec .. m HUaUe1 Z~,(t.), 'Q.e .... .... ;v'' le·r

boundary Iines between, light and shade; and, therefore do not east shadows, Only their shade points ('.)

... to - - £ilt shadow po m~' ~ (. &!; :I:V)'"

remam. . ..... ca~' ~\Ilai~,'_ I.,' ,1'1I;b' .~ ". '. ,~

:!!'!~';.N5T'" .•.

,,;~,. 1!"'"'Wi" _. . r-",

~

~'QHT' RA,¥',SI VA,N. 'POI NT'

8~ But two Important dift,erences do exis,t,:: 1.~,) 'This 'vanishing point is not the S;UD, itself but sim,ply a vanishing

... 4l; '.r - t - f in -- -1- In ed parallel

po,miLi to.r a E 0" . . _:,C'· .... ' _~ .... . _, .. _ '~ ... _ . ..'

lines, 2~) It· ,is always below the hori ... zon Ilne, (If' above, i.t would mean the ,sun Is in front of and 'visible 'to the

observer .).,

•• ' •.. ~~ ,'_' ~ • I~ ,"

'Thle' e;ide~ 'views below; pJctur.ing' the·

observer p.:' '0 ... 'm~' .. It'"~n fi to ... '1:~n·.;;,Il!;!k:~·'TII"" ·1nO· •• ,ID_;",_-,;" ... ,

.!ii:\I~ '¥'~.!!. '.-. ~ ',' \U.JL~ .. '¥~~~~.tti ,1""- -- I~~,

... houl d exnla m~' 'w·- .. h' ,. v ~,L.~,~, ';:,f:I' ~'",":

~"_' - '- - -r. ..... . .. oJI· IW~.u\7~.

/

611 ,I; IJIi I~WII!llll1

8- I~' jLl, [-II N'" - 'D'

IgIP'!II I·.· .• -'.

1,2] iThe F'o,llowin:g AIPpiic'ali,on ,Sketch,e"s A,III Haw's S,h,ad',Dw,S 'C·ast Ii' ,Paral' ell L!i'ght Aap, '(Sun~lgl-"I) Ob!Uqlul~ T'o Th,. Olb:serve'r's Fac)a' (And 'To Pi'e"gre ,PI'ana,)

Ther.efore" the principles deve,loped on the previous two pages will 'be' evident, Note that when the v,a'rushin,1 polnt for

11!!'liJI'b--'t., 'jii!"C,- j5 '~£oi cl ~,I!i!d a. ..... , the ho ~ '.' th ....- ",!P, I 11,-;--, :. - th ,'. skv and t· he sh .... d .': ." ,-- . '.",' I' '« A',"·:, l1!.. ...... · . ", nish '"' .... ,.- .. ,'. "'~ t·, ,'~ .. ~lI!!iin~:Oii:!

.:Ill$l ; ,I" .l!.ia.y~ l~ L n~, !UU l:J~! __ orlZOD " ie' sun ]8 JlOW m 1_- .. ,e s, ,y an'·, ,e S'Jl~I~ ows ave ODid .. ,-,g u,~, V1UllS~, Img PO,1n .: .lnicr~~~

,t di - f- th h" ,i h L I. I th · 'hl- Ii h d -L'L had I... , ... ,'iI!... £--.- /.,' I'

'm distance 'm'ID ,'I:"e ~-Orlzon ........ ,e:tt··· e:r a{jove,or r)D",()W - .' ,'e sun rfsesh rs' ·:'er an: 'II..!Jj;O Slm:·. owe .ueoom~ M.1:oru:a~- .. ,: .. , ..... '

, " ,,,' ,',,',', ,", '- ''_- -'_" " 'c·''':' _ .. " '''-" , __ .:.: ,' .... : ,- ""'" ' '_C' -- I .... · ," ' , "Eli'''' ., ," . , .. __ "" - . -, --','" --. - ',~.'" _ : ... "" c ',:.:.' _._:: ~ ,',','. ,

N'ote: ,Arrowed Hues: are light rays used to locate hnportant shadowpeints, Dou'b'l'e-arro,w,e'd lines are sha,dow diree-

0· , -. - ., f "~' -'hi ,""- .. und . . '1' " ' D'- - . .jl..,.. 'd' if ~ , . - ;I;'A,'iiii.'Ii,' - -- "'d 11 ;0 . . . . .. d- to 11 . ......... , ... 1.. ad .. .

ons o ujmgntson grour •. piane, uouea !tme8'a're~J.!lpo[',a'r,y' gUI .. ·,e nnes requiree .... ·1 roea .. ~ M,W"'OWS~

L'_~~ Ib=~~~~~~,~'~-~;-~~-,

J

I

, .r

I

r--~

--.._

.. ll'loOl""

~ ,

, '

J

1

l

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The key' to dr,awing the shadow of an inclfned object (abo ee) is locating the

had f ~ t h 1 T'w-';;' ...

IIil!! 0'.' w,· n' 6 nnm--'i' (i!U-':C:-:.- 8ii5i, _', '-I' ~ ), I~

~I ' ", . '_' u__: la r-'~ _. ""_ ~I '_, . IQ;'" . 'II!! -:."_ .. "'-l , "'!

diane b,y.i conetmetine an up ,ricrht, ( ...•. i. e, -

"' "_ ',"' •.. I.. . . - D' . . _. - :b-- ", __ II!. ~J!

dronoi ti I) I' .' t 1- to

rO:PPlLog a veer. l'ca : ,rum 'porn .. ' 1 . "'"

--: .' __ -.- d"~ ·r· t· '2',·, '("1-::,,", ted -:.,:-:-_-- .',-, . '"IIlII'Ii'!Ii,'.Ji"",

grouna poutl_- ,~' ·."oca,~~: on groune

11: __ B,.C·: 'which eroes, to, rjlaht vanish ...

.lDW, . . -:J _. . -", -, I~" - .. -'. . !', D! J ,I

~, ... t d" d-" "'). b I 1'1...

llng :po,]n'_', ano ]s, Jrecli!~y · ••• eiow sne

oblique pole A,-BII) 'Then" if we, east the shadow o,f the nprigb,t 1- ... ,2' (first alon g'" ~L.,G, !O!round and then up ·the,

g v.," ' . .:_' lua~ ~f'-' _ - , " "" -, '_ ... '" .,. _ - _

wall) 'we can :fix point ls,~ Thema:f'ter,. b ... - - -..1':_ iff' - I 'Ii _.- - Jf'-- - .- - - A "'iL~lI '1- is and

Iy ex~enUU)l,b! a me llrom .. , 'u;.JiJ!,u =-_ alI .. -,-"

bv eonneetine B-'· m:r.lit'h' the around )'"'n ,~y ~JLU,iI.~,,;~I~, . '. ',".:&,I~: •. : I'~ e,::r' .~ ...

terseetion pomt of this line", we, arrive at the correct shadow direetions,

Tw io 'I f shad d

' ~o 'umque exampies O~· snace anc

... 1..._.3 uJ.t~· ;t_..... • .. _'1I~· bt

~U.ow res ' __ 'mg' :1irom. SUlulg~~,:~

Ice Glore 'b'y"- Charles Bu Ire' ',btl-- '---.'ldi: Col-

. ' " ,!f;Uf-[,,, _ ' -', _ ':___' iC&.Ii.. " " , ,"~ , -, e ",", - " ,

, eetion 0:£ Whitney Museum olf Amer,... Art' 'N' 'v' 1,;0;-

lean,: :1". ,- - ew '~o~rA,

Under "he SWim,s,. by' Robert. Vicl«ey.

C' lle ction I ,·f' Dr" _. -; '"",: d -M: "J[ J-ohn' L '""~ M--"'--'

0)1. cec -JL.' '" 01 ---'- ~ ~ ,aD:_ ,.r[s~ I' ,-, _ _ ,,, ••

Shuey" Detroit, Courtesy of Mid,to,\Vl1

G- al' I}l - -.!' -, 'N' ' v" "-.' - k

'-',I, erles" ,-', ew ':or,

A' Ii" ht b ..... ,'ilib 11 - bo ,- blll-- t' th-' l t t 'h' .. .&.....1' , TIl- d~'!I' • 1": h 't _.L ..... ,..:I, al

, 'I I., ,I.g[l,,' ~an;gs a,vle a ta 'lle' a ' ,J Ie pam,' S, ',own ,m IWP VleW~, , 'e,: Iverg,mg ug~-:,t rays must cas: rHuLuOIWS'~,c_,onl

£:L ..... ,d' tJ""""..lI l.;'nftoC."lj1 In, -- ,..:- .. ,,' .;,:, ", th ., " , '",,, shad 'C' -',' 1'·"-, ,- ,,- 'f"', 'd' 1 'I-n-,.. ,..j_ ,!II, '~', th' --,'" ",' , ' -: 'die '. ~" '"Ii ,,' linEr' f--""'" the':", ,,'

ww, D, 1M;fU '.I;dl.~" ' pelrs,pecw,ve,~, 1 ase same IS ~_: ow ,mea are OUD, IU~ OJ:1i.wmg _",e. s&m!e _ .ver.,gmg .. " _:_cS rum,~.

,-",- ,ta-::b-'I""--":C!!":--:I'" ,(",-,·,:t':-'~'k)' £L __ "-I,flh'" the -':'1"'" meil eednta These lfnes ',,;I:..'''-al'' "'Iy'" ' "-"16'·,'" ·t' ','" '~-~-"th----- ......... ,..,.,..,

same ,," e Po.w" ',as"er,ES:",' l{.J..u;uUD ' sam,s pen" ' , pom:~~ ._: : Jese mes" Dal!Wi I "" ar-e no, ,I, I, rayIS •.. lor I "_c, J~~: &c a. w:u,

,,' -::,:-- " C" ':-'f" 1- _!'-'hc t· ~" '" ' ,-" -',', ,-,:-h' - -':' , -'1..1 L".-,_." "th' I:, ,tab, ,'],-, IT I , ,',. d ,'te" ',' '.- ','. , " the "'" ,- ". t I 'C" "J:.L . ..,. "f':' ,,j.L,, _11..,,,,,,"] , '. 'aI'" '", £1.. -, -- - -:.....a:.... .... _" --, '" ,-

source 0, , Ig,l ,I .• 8Om,leW ere ,~ve , ~,e~, Ie.", 0 " el, "mune I_ e exec' ,eDglloUltii 0 1 If.11e H:.WlUOWB '" ong tnem, 8l;I;lWiJ mys

-:---, d~,,-, ,(,~ ..... _,.,.,. th ,"' '}I-,,1..'t ,,-: .:--',,-:-,- ):1 .;I.L. __ ,. ,c,1.., , ,,'-, ,,"'-

are '\.UaWD, .' _.1Jt"UUI. . ... e .1g,JlJ.J.l~. SOUl'ce,:- wuvugu eraserls\~

RU-" -LD i!i A"" ], __ '1 .'. m'· - tr: ~nii~~ 'i'!iO,..:I'.:,n.'i. ..... JI!j! d: "'\ .. ,'c, -rg" '··ttI '1·' ':h,t ".' '" " " "'bi' l ,'it _1...., '1', .. :.", ''"-'' - c-:- ct" ,'L_..lI_ ."""" .,1; ... , B", t t·:L .-, . h' . __ ..J',_ .

_ ' .J.(;JI ~ " !Ji,Oca.J. po ... "_ ~U;Jl..",""e . ..,,~U-IU.~~,lve': mti . II I. I' rays W,. lUI l1-oca,~ exa.. S:.W:RIUW ,poml~i!i " U" .ne s· ~w

di 'Ii t' ,', L I ~ Ii·.... ~ d' -e. d b Z,O; d·J .., t h ,~ -h- :t ..... '__ II ~ d'~ l

.1t-eetiOb, 0' !u;pr'g,rl,f ,J.l.nf;S' (I.n a pwne ,lS·~ et'e'rmln,e 1)1 ,:mes. ,.,verg,u:tg trom. t, . e .poz.nt on t· :'e Priii,pj ,t':at IS", ireet :)1

b lo 11 " .. h

Ie', 'w' :f .···e' lB···. t source",

D~

_"

. -1I!Ii!I!Ii

. __ . '

TOP 'ViEW'

la - UL '::An'"" il' ... L I f·'- ..... :l.... d- "'fill j' .. ." <iL'L._ tb two to"_ I (0- 10- )

p; iClDg a 'ur~ing . pene', over' jhe ower Ie: t. pen~, an, ""-ing m;, ';~ Oi 1,- er ',~: :1 ereare an 0p8 .. que pane I.~e_w'

-:,'i Its'"', t .: ,' ., 4-:-,···...:1j.. ..... d-,· ~I! ..... : ·Tb· se lines east shad .. -', '-',' rall llel to themseh .,c Thi "~" oaral "",-1' ",t' ,'t-·'-,:-' - :-"ft·~·- C"b··!·, resu, lnwo new ~p ~ _c~e ~1..Il.U,es~ .1 ~J.ese mes cas .18, .. ·ows pu - . ,e· '~.' ~~' ves~ " e par ·e . se·· a rower e '_.',., eml

r aral 1'1 to '~,,,,,",,,,,,............ ~ .. --" -" ". ',' II' "II 11_ ,'-. .' ti' ' •. , 'Th'- -- )11'.. ••• 1 .-'_. tl -'. -"ht -.' -- ... ' .1.-. ,a.L . .- hori , 'R-,' U-:-'LE .. A_ pa '~,' .e I ..• ' p]t;;L1LUle p.ane" remain para. e,Ji m perspee "ve.. ',' e paraJ.~ se~ a, nl ,: converge t.U ~ OllZODt _. '._~I,' ~

-.iLL f' _n,'JI!!I\Ai 11'1_1 (,_,,, ..... ,1'.: ht') tr ii, 'h' j'" iI' .... ,L, ... ,d _,111 '1- .. , .. ~' b d __ 1,1, 'I

in 'we case a . ~~ myS,~IIl.UtU,g ,'. a s ,~alg' t me Cll:stmg ,a ~~' ow 0i1. a paritJ..le~, sunaee casts a, s0a~ow' pwil.u.e,_c

"belf-

to 1 ':1['

~ ~ ." .. r-.

TO~- P'-" 'V'I S' ,'.-

1',1.': ,,:,I,',:W

'N' I t ~ bull' d tw be- .....1!... '. tinil' I Id ,- eh (b- 1,0. ) This " three

",'O"W' 'e', us aeaan "",.' "-"0"'1 CUi,' ,',9" 'II'iI'~m-D 'wt) ,DXIS·-~tJt pianes ·1i!II1~I·O'De '~I","e' 0',:1' e'fl",·' I' "D',~:r,J!""_ ," ',,', ,~f--iN ,'" -',' ,""m,W-,-'

..... '.' ~" "'bU:IJIuL ", _:. __ ._ .:..:.::.... !~._~.:____,~J . :._~ g _ _:_"" ID . A&,& .. ~l aa ," .,_., g ._ e ' . ee .. ' .. -; '.__:.__: '" ~L .•• ~' •• !I -~'." - ~\.LIga.I~1 . ". ~ .

shade po ~ ints (123' ')" whi,ch cast 'shadows rw-.mts IS 2,,9, 3~:iS' Th ,'.0 .L1...'-e'e'-" n e":'w,'''-p' shade Hues 8aa; .. , cast, shadows

,,~c _: ,__: Co:": '--'-.'_,_:,:, ','. -,-,-_'C___".:.'" ', _ _ce.',' "',' 1,'," ","--" r-' ;, :; '_:''' ,.' '" ,,~IdlJ!J.~',_ II, I,e, "" W.ce" .'':','' !e, ,', _:, ~_~~ ,:_:_. _I..:: '_ ',:,_:_':_ ,'_'._'

parallel to themselves, Therefo,re, bt 'perspootiv,e" these shadows will converge, to, the· vanishing points o,f' their Shade.

l-='-A£l1 (:'N" - .... ,', h; __ ;'-- the· ,,' ',' 11, __ --+~ .... ,~; th' :.', ~' ]j-·"'ub",t, ,~,",,-C!I ;lj..L._ .... ' ",-,,, ,_iI,.;..--...JI- ]1',.:: ..... ', .=':-, .-: ,'- :' _;;;,1l...,- b-' ,t ,,:: '"nl~' -.-. '''_;'':', ,.c,.-,-· ... :1... ..... :::,""'iIl,.~ )'", ..lU~~...' owe·.'ow. ,,~I!I,IOD OlL "e ',Ci:' ...,. .. ~Il,C:-r;(I' wu~e IJUp ~ !J,_lIU!.es, on one· ll;lllJiJJeU OL_Y ,,"wID on, ~ o~;&;~.,

TO" ,', P' 'v'-' ~ t .... ~,

- ",»' " ... <~ I~ '~. 'W'

I

Ther-efor-e, 'the princi;pl.es, developed on the previous page 'wil) 'be evildrent~ Note!: S,ingle-arrowed lines are diverging :Iigh·t rays used to locate sha,d,owst

Dr;.tte,d lines are guidelines which '('proJect." 'the light source onto the various surfaces, (walls, :flloor " table top, ete.) ~ Th'9:Y orightate, 'from 'the :Ii:g,ht so'urca and, are drawn perpendicular to the surfaces, (The projec,ted lig"h·t, sources are marked>by' asterisks .. )

D , .. ·,1..1" d' ]i'" ('0; Ii! ~~','Io"!II" f" th" i. ii, '1,..,.,,') th' .. ,,~'_...l' I'" -,L_t .;J,_i..... '. oiL'L d" ,;0; ,;il' _L d

, looo'e'-arrowe,' I~~nes ;o'rl,gma~l!;g' 'rom', ae aSllIerlSM, are "\0 ,gwu.e mes 'tJJ:wi: ~~rmme 'lr:tlle ~:rrectl.ons OJ. l:UJliat:'_O'WSi

east '-by" , ,flI)'1f..Lad' ,0 I mil' "'Oili! rWi;i(r'p-- end ic ..... l;e, ... ,""'_ ;:Iii ID'-l'"' "''''en' I, surface

~, ''' ,'" r ' gil;l_~ ",~ . " '~t;!I ,1;"'- ...... " "~~'_la.J,~,U:L.. W iQ. :r:!!I" '¥ I " - ' 'g'UUL ,!IiA,"-"~;,

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School, His, awards included First Prize in Chicago's Centennial City Plauulng Competlnon, ]19'.54,;: Second Prize in the Cowboy Han '0,( flame and Memo:r:i.a'l ,Museum Competltlon, Oklahoma C'i~y,:: s everal Prqgr€S'si,v'€ Architecnue Design Award Citations; and the AJ .. A., School M,ed,aL He was, a Fulbrtght Scholar In Rome and ,tit Voorhees, Walke:r~ Smlth and SmU:h FeUo,w at Princeton ..

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90000

PERSPECT VE DRAWING HANDBOOK

JOSEPH D'AMELIO

Illustrations by Joseph D'Arnelio and Sanford Hohauser

This handy guide provides numerous insights and shortcuts to drawing and sketching effectively. Describing mandatory skills for beginning and advanced students, the text covers such subjects as diminution, foreshortening, convergence, shade and shadow, and other visual principles of perspective drawing.

Accompanying a concise and thoughtfully written text are more than 150 simply drawn illustrations that depict a sense of space and depth, demonstrate vanishing points and eye level, and explain such concepts as appearance versus reality; perspective distortion; determining heights, depths, and widths; and the use of circles, cylinders, and cones.

Artists, architects, designers, and engineers will find this book invaluable in creating works with convincing perspective.

Unabridged Dover (2004) republication of the edition published by Tudor Publishing Company, New York, 1964. Approximately 155 illustrations. 96pp. 8ki x 10M. Paperbound.

ALSO AVAILABLE

PERSPECTIVE FOR ARTISTS, Rex Vicat Cole. 279pp. 5% x 8U. 22487-2

CREATIVE PERSPECTIVE FOR ARTISTS AND ILLUSTRATORS, Ernest W. Watson. l60pp. 8kix 11. 27337-7

PERSPECTIVE MADE EASY, Ernest Norling. 224pp. 5% x 8U. 40473-0

For current price information write to Dover Publications, or log on to www.doverpublications.com-and see every Dover book in print.

Free Dover Fine Art and Art Instruction Catalog (58283-3) available upon request.

ISBN 0-486-43208-4

$8-95 IN USA $13-50 IN CANADA

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