3G vs.

4G - Power & modulations -

Exposé d électronique
Valérie Bonnel

Overview Introduction: from 1G to 4G 4G: principles & features Transmission technologies Business applications Conclusion .

Introduction 10 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 100 000 000 4G 3.5G bps 10 000 000 3G 1 000 000 100 000 10 000 1 000 100 1960 GPRS 2G 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 .

4G: Principles & features .

1645: Systems beyond IMT-2000 will be realized by functional fusion of existing. . enhanced.Definition of 4G 4G = 4th Generation mobile communications 4G = B3G = Beyond 3rd Generation (UMTS. 2 major goals: broadband for all. nomadic wireless access systems and other wireless systems. a mix of many interacting systems is foreseen (not one standard). and newly developed elements of IMT-2000. Targeted data rates (with wide area coverage and significant mobility) are in the area of 50 to 100 Mbits/s. access everywhere ITU Recommendation ITU-R M. with high commonality and seamless interworking. IMT-2000) mobile communications Foreseen to become available after 2010.

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Circuit and packet switched networks. Optimized antenna design. multiband adapters A number of air link protocols. software multiband and wideband radios All IP (IP6. 4G 3G Predominantly voice driven . All network elements are digital. Smarter Antennas.0) .3G vs. 1xRTT. Higher bandwidth (up to 100Mbps). Data rate (up to 2Mbps).data was always add on Wide area cell-based Back compatible to 2G. Bluetooth) and wide area Extend 3G capacity by one order of magnitude. Higher frequency bands 2-8 GHz OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) Concatenated coding scheme Entirely packet switched networks. Edge Access technology FEC Convolutional rate 1/2. including IP 4G Converged data and voice over IP Hybrid . Combination of existing & evolved equipment.Integration of Wireless LAN (Wireless LAN (WiFi. 1800-2400 MHz W-CDMA.

Power and modulations - .Transmission technologies .

5G) uses GMSK modulations UMTS (3G) is based on CDMA 4G uses:  Smart antennas  Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) Systems  Space-Time Coding  Dynamic Packet Assignment  Wideband OFDM .Transmission technologies Power fluctuations and frequencies are caused by different access schemes and modulations: GSM (2G) & EDGE (2.

2.5G & 3G modulations 2G GMSK modulations Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying 3G QPSK modulations & CDMA Code Division Multiple Access .2G.

4G .OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDM is being increasingly used in high speed information transmission systems: European HDTV Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN OFDM characteristics High peak-to-average power levels Preservation of orthogonality in severe multi-path Support for adaptive modulation by subcarrier Frequency diversity Robust against narrow-band interference Efficient for simulcasting Variable/dynamic bandwidth Used for highest speed applications Supports dynamic packet access .

MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO (BLAST & space-time coding) techniques increase bit rate and/or quality on a link by creating multiple channels and/or enhancing diversity.4G . increasing system capacity . Switched/steered beam antennas for base stations and interference suppression/adaptive antennas for terminals reduce interference.

Business applications .

Crisis-management applications Education . Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets. and physical characteristics of a large metropolis.Possible applications Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" (for example. Blocks of this database are transmitted i rapid sequence to a vehicle Tele-medicine: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. always-on connections to keep people on event). in addition to temporal aspects have many applications. Tele-geoprocessing: Queries dependent on location information of several users. buildings.

Challenges & needs (1/2) What is needed to build 4G networks of future? Lower price points only slightly higher than alternatives More coordination among spectrum regulators around the world More academic research Standardization of wireless networks in terms of modulation techniques. switching schemes and roaming is an absolute necessity for 4G A voice-independent business justification thinking Integration across different network topologies Non-disruptive implementation 4G must allow us to move from 3G to 4G .

3.Challenges & needs (2/2) Lessons from 3G 1. more capable. 2. There was significant over-expectations. the end-users ) and research was centered around a new. . The 3G story (for the financial community. the regulatory bodies. air interface. Customer demand was extremely uncertain. Standards for 3G where elaborated in « vertical monolithic » standard bodies.

. especially on smart antennas. MIMO systems and OFDM. AT&T works on 4G.Industry initiatives WWRF (Wireless World Research Forum) .consisting of Alcatel. Nokia and Siemens have started a research forum for 4G. NTT DoCoMo has started conceptual design of a 4G network. Ericsson.

4G has a significant potential for capacity improvements over 3G systems.. available after 2010 (?). While the impact of 3G is still uncertain! Employing the discussed techniques...Conclusion 4G is still at research stage. The Japanese market and industries (NTT DoCoMo) seem to be leaders in mobile technologies. .. Therefore we should have a look on their innovations .

Webography www.php?fid=719 www.telenor.pdf www.pdf .com/telektronikk/Oien_Beyond3G.hut.cost281.org/download.comlab.fi/opetus/333/2004_2005_slides/4G_text.

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