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The earliest Christian description of the Holy Places

This itinerary (also known as Itinerarium Burdigalense) is
the earliest description left by a Christian traveler in the Holy
Land. The journey was made in 333 A. D. when Flavius
Dalmatius and Domitius Zenophilus were joint consuls. The
name of the author is not known to us, but it is generally
assumed that the author was a native of Bordeaux (France),
because the itinerary starts from there.

The Latin original text is written in the simple and lean
form which is typical of the Roman Itineraria. It consists mostly
of a list of localities and their distances. Localities are subdivided
into cities, halts and changes; in these places the traveler could
remain for a while, rest, have dinner, or just change the mount
and keep going on.
Having passed through Milan and Sirmium, the traveller
arrives in Constantinople; from there, he crosses to Asia
reaching for Palaestina and in particular Jerusalem. The last part
of the itinerary starts from Heraclea, in Hellespontus, and arrives
again in Milan passing through the city of Rome.

Some historical and philosophical interests is shown by the
author in comments and additions seldom made to the itinerary,
but a greater concern in Jewish and Christian memories is
apparent when the pilgrim enters the Holy Land.

Because the anonymous pilgrim travels in Constantinian
times, he witnesses the establishment of the first imperial
basilicas in Palestine: namely in Jerusalem (near the Holy
Sepulcher and on the summit of the Mount of Olives), in
Bethlehem, and at Mamre (Terebintus). Many Christian traditions
about the Holy Places are here referred to for the first time ever;
some of them are still kept in our days. You are invited to
discover them by yourself, going down very attentively into the
text presented hereafter.

Numbers in brackets from [549] to [617] correspond to
the commonly adopted subdivisions of the text.

The English translation is by Aubrey Stewart (Palestine Pilgrim's
Text Society, 1887), with few additions and amendments.

The Text: 1. From Bordeaux to Milan


[549] An itinerary from Bordeaux to Jerusalem, and from
Heraclea (Eregli) through Aulon (Valona), and through the city of
Rome to Milan. As follows:

The city of Bordigala (Bordeaux), where is the river
Garonne [pct.1], in which the ocean ebbs and flows for one
hundred leagues [ftn.1], more or less.

[550] Change at Stomatae (Castres) - leagues vii.
Change at Senone (Sirio, Pont de Ciron) - leagues ix.
City of Vasates (Cossio, Bazas) - leagues viii.
Change at Three Trees - leagues v.
Change at Oscineium (Houeilles ?) - leagues viii.
Change at Scotium (Sotium, Sos) - leagues viii.
Town of Elusa (Eauze) - leagues viii.
Change at Vanesia - leagues xii.
City of Auscius (Climberrum, Augusta Auscorum, Auch) -
leagues viii.
Change at the sixth league - leagues vi.
Change at Hungunverrum - leagues vii.
Change at Buccones (L'Isle en Jourdain ?) - leagues vii.
[551] Change at the Temple of Jupiter - leagues vii.
City of Tolosa (Toulouse) - leagues vii.
Change at the ninth milestone - miles [ftn.2] ix.
Change at the twentieth milestone - miles xi.
Halt at Elusio - miles ix.
Change at Sostomagus (Castelnaudary ?) - miles ix.
Town of Hebromagus (Bram) - miles x.
Change at Caedri - miles vi.
Fortress of Carcasso (Carcassonne) - miles viii.
Change at the three-hundredth milestone - miles viii.
[552] Change at Hosuerbas - miles xv.
City of Narbo (Narbonne) - miles xv.

City of Beterrae (Baeterrae, Béziers) - miles xvi.
Halt at Cessaro (Cessero, Araura, St. Thibéry) - miles xii.
Change at Forum Domiti - miles xviii.
Change at Sustantio (Sextantio, Soustantion) - miles xv.
Change at Ambrosius (Ambrussum) - miles xv.
City of Nemausus (Nimes) - miles xv.
Change at Pons Herarus (Aerarius, Bellegarde) - miles xvi.
City of Arelate (Arles) - miles viii.

[553] Total from Bordeaux to Arles 372 miles, 30 changes,
11 halting-places.

Change at Arnago (Ernaginum, St. Gabriel) - miles viii.
Change at Bellintum - miles x.
City of Avinio (Avenio, Avignon) - miles v.
Change at Cepressata - miles v.
City of Arausio (Orange) - miles xv.
Change at Letoce - miles xiii.
Change at Novem Craris - miles x.
Halt at Acunum (Anconne) - miles xv.
Change at Vancianis (Bancs) - miles xii.
[554] Change at Umbennum - miles xii.
City of Valentia (Valence) - miles ix.
Change at Cerebelliaca - miles xii.
Halt at Augusta (Aoust) - miles x
Change at Darentiaca - miles xii.
City of Dea Vocontiorum (Die) - miles xvi.
Halt at Lucus (Luc) - miles xii.
Change at Vologatis (Vaugielas ?) - miles ix.
[555] Here begins the Gaura Mountain.
Change at Cambonum (La Combe ?) - miles viii.
Halt at the Hill of Seleucus (Mont-Saléon) - miles viii.
Change at Davianum (Veynes) - miles viii.
Change at the frontier - miles xii.
Halt at Vapincum (Gap) - miles xi. [pcts.2,3]
Halt at Catoricae (Caturigae, Chorges) - miles xii.
Halt at Ebrodunum (Embrun) - miles xvi.
Here begin the Cottian Alps.
Change at Rame (Rame) - miles xvii.

Halt at Byrigantum (Brigantium, Briançon) - miles xvii.
[556] Here you ascend the Matrona (Mont Genêvre).
Change at Gesdaona (Gesdao, Sesanne) - miles x.
Halt at Temple of Mars - miles ix.
City of Segussio (Segusio, Susa) - miles xvi.
Here begins Italy.
Change at the twelfth milestone - miles xii.
Halt at the frontier - miles xii.
Change at the eighth milestone - miles viii.
City of Taurini (Turin) - miles viii.
Change at the tenth milestone - miles x.
[557] Halt at Quadratae - miles xii.
Change at Ceste - miles xi.
Halt at Regomagus (Rigomagus, Rinco) - miles viii.
Change at Mediae - miles x.
Change at Cottiae (Cozzo) - miles xiii.
Halt at Laumellum (Lomello) - miles xii.
Change at Duni (Duriae, Dorno) - miles ix.
City of Ticinum (Pavia) - miles xii. [pct.2,3]
Change at the tenth milestone - miles x.
City of Mediolanum (Milan) - miles x.
Halt at Cold Rivers - miles xii.

[558] Total from Arles to Milan 475 miles, 63 changes, 22

1. The Gallic league was equal to 1+1/2 Roman Miles, or
2375 m. The writer is referring here to the estuary of the river
Garonne, which is in reality 50 miles long.

2. The Roman Mile (meaning "one thousands steps - milia
passuum") was a little shorter than an English Mile, measuring
just 1450 m.

The Text: 2. From Milan to Sirmium

City of Mediolanum (Milan) [pct.4]- miles x.
Halt at Cold Rivers - miles xii.

[558] Total from Arles to Milan 475 miles, 63 changes, 22

Change at Argentia (Gorgonzola) - miles x.
Change at Pons Aureolus (Pontirolo) - miles x.
City of Bergamum (Bergomum, Bergamo) - miles xii.
Change at Tellegate (Telgate) - miles xii.
Change at Tetellus - miles x.
City of Brixa (Brixia, Brescia) - miles x.
Halt at Flexus (Ponte S. Marco) - miles xi.
Change at Beneventum - miles x.
City of Verona (Verona) - miles x.
Change at Cadianum (Caldiero) - miles x.
Change at Aurei - miles x.
[559] City of Vincentia (Vicentia, Vicenza) - miles xi.
Change at the frontier - miles xi.
City of Patavium (Padova) - miles x.
Change at the twelfth milestone - miles xii.
Change at the ninth milestone - miles xi.
City of Altinum (Altino) - miles ix.
Change at Sanus - miles x.
City of Concordia (Concordia) - miles ix.
Change at Picilia - miles ix.
Change at the eleventh milestone - miles x.
City of Aquileia (Aquileia) [pct.5] - miles xi.

Total from Milan to Aquileia 251 miles, 24 changes, 9

Change at the eleventh milestone - miles xi.

[560] Change at Fornolus - miles xii.
Change at the Camp - miles xii.
Here rise the Julian Alps [pct.6].
To Pirus upon the summit of the Alps - miles ix.
Halt at Longaticum (Logatec) - miles x.
Change at the ninth milestone - miles ix.
City of Emona (Aemona, Ljubljana) - miles xvi.
Change at the fourteenth milestone - miles x.
Halt at Hadrante (Adrans, St. Oswald) - miles xiii.
Frontier of Italy.
Change at Mediae - miles xiii.
City of Caelia (Celeia, Celje) - miles xiii.
[561] Change at Lotodos - miles xii.
Halt at Ragendo (Ragando) - miles xii.
Change at Pultovia - miles xii.
City of Petovio (Ptuj) - miles xii.
You cross the bridge (on the river Drava) [pct.7], and
enter Lower Pannonia.
Change at Ramista - miles ix.
Halt at Aqua viva - miles ix.
Change at Populi - miles x.
City of Jovia - miles ix.
Change at Sunista - miles ix.
[562] Change at Peritur - miles xii.
Halt at Lentolae (Lentulae, Berzentze) - miles xii.
Change at Cardonum - miles x.
Change at Cocconi - miles xii.
Halt at Serota ( Veröcze) - miles x.
Change at Bolentia - miles x.
Halt at Mauriana (Mariniana) - miles ix.
You enter Upper Pannonia.
Change at Serena - miles vii.
Halt at Verei - miles x.
Change at Jovalia (Valpovo) - miles viii.
Change at Mersella (Petrojevci) - miles viii.
City of Mursa (Osijek) - miles x.
[563] Change at Leutuanum - miles xii.
City of Cibalae (Vinkovci) - miles xii.
Change at Celena - miles xi.

Halt at Ulmus - miles xi.
Change at Spaneta - miles x.
Change at Bedulia - miles viii.
City of Sirmium (Mitrovica) - miles viii.

Total from Aquileia to Sirmium 412 miles, 77 halting-
places, 39 changes.

The Text: 3. From Sirmium to Constantinople

City of Sirmium (Mitrovitca) [pct.7]- miles viii

Total from Aquileia to Sirmium 412 miles, 77 halting-
places, 39 changes.

Change at Fossi - miles ix.
City of Bassiani - miles x.
Change at Noviciani - miles xii.
Change at Altina - miles xi.
City of Singidunum (Belgrad) - miles viii.
[564] Frontier of Pannonia and Mysia (Moesia).
Change at the sixth milestone - miles vi.
Change at Tricornia Castra (Ritopek) - miles vi.
Change at the sixth milestone - miles vii.
City of Aureus Mons - miles vi.
Change at Vingeium (Vinceia, Semendria) - miles vi.
City of Margus - miles ix.
City of Viminatium - miles x.
Where Diocletian [pcts.8, 9] killed Carinus.
Change at the ninth milestone - miles ix.
[565] Halt at Municipium - miles ix.
Change at Jovis Pagus (Glapowaz ?) - miles x.
Change at Bao - miles vii.
Halt at Idomum (Idimus) - miles ix.
Change at the eighth milestone - miles ix.
Halt at Oromagus (Horreum Margi, Tjuprija ?) - miles viii.
Frontier of Mysia (Moesia) and Dacia.
Change at Sarmatae (Paratjin) - miles xi.
Change at Cametae - miles xi.
[566] Halt at Ipompei (Pompeii) - miles ix.
Change at Rappiana (Alexinatz) - miles xii.
City of Naissus (Nisch) - miles xii.
Change at Redices (Banja) - miles xii.
Change at Ulmus - miles vii.

Halt at Romansiana (Remesiana, Ak Palanka) - miles ix.
Change at Latina - miles ix.
Halt at Turres (Pirot) - miles ix.
Change at Translites - miles xii.
Change at Ballanstra - miles x.
Halt at Meldia - miles ix.
Change at Scretesca - miles xii.
[567] City of Serdica (Sophia) - miles xi.

Total from Sirmium to Sophia 3 14 miles,24 changes, 13

Change at Extuomnes - miles viii.
Halt at Buracara (Bagaraca) - miles viii.
Change at Sparata - miles viii.
Halt at Hilica (Ichtiman) - miles x.
Change at Soneium - miles ix.
Frontier of Dacia and Thracia.
Change at Pons Ucasi - miles vi.
Halt at Bona Mansio - miles vi.
[568] Change at Alusor - miles ix.
Halt at Bassapara (Tatar Bazarjik) - miles xii.
Change at Tugugerum - miles ix.
City of Philippopolis (Philippopoli) - miles xii.
Change at Sernota - miles x.
Change at Paramvole - miles viii.
Halt at Cillium - miles xii.
Change at Carassura - miles ix.
Halt at Arzus (Arsus, Chaskeui) - miles xi.
Change at Palae - miles vii.
Halt at Castozobra (Subzopara, Castra Iarba, Harmanly) -
miles xi.
Change at Rammes - miles vii.
[569] Halt at Burdista (Burdipta, Mustafa Pasha Kenpri) -
miles xi.
Change at Daphabe - miles xi.
Halt at Nice - miles ix.
Change at Tarpodizus (Buyuk Derbend) - miles x.
Change at Urisium - miles vii.

Halt at Virgoli (Bergule, Lule Bergas) - miles vii.
Change at Narium - miles viii.
Halt at Drizupara - miles ix.
Change at Tipsus - miles x.
Halt at Tunorullum (Izirallum, Chorlu) - miles xi.
[570] Change at Beodizum - miles viii.
City of Heraclea (Eregli) - miles ix.
Change at Braunne - miles xii.
Halt at Salamembria (Silivri) - miles x.
Change at Eallum (Lalos) - miles x.
Halt at Atyral (Buyuk Chelmejeh) - miles x.
Halt at Regio (Regium, Kutchuk Ckeimejeh) - miles xii.
City of Constantinople [pct.10] - miles xii.

[571] Total from Sophia to Constantinople 413 miles, 12
changes, 20 halts.

Grand total from Bordeaux to Constantinople 2,221 miles,
230 changes, 112 halts.

The Text: 4. From Constantinople to Tarsus

We also travelled (ambulavimus) in the consulate of
Dalmatius and Zenophilus [ftn.1], leaving Chalcedonia on the
30th of May, and returned to Constantinople on the 25th of
December in the same consulate.

From Constantinople [pcts.10, 11] you cross the
strait[Bosphorus], come to Chalcedonia, and travel through the
province of Bithynia.

Change at Narses - miles vii.
[572] Halt at Pandicia (Pandik) - miles vii.
Change at Pontamus - miles xiii.
Halt at Libyssa - miles ix.
Here lies King Annibalianus (Hannibal), who was once King
of the Africans [ftn.2].
Change at Brunga - miles xii.
City of Nicomedia (Ismid) - miles xiii.

Total from Constantinople to Nicomedia 50 miles, 7
changes, 3 halts.

[573] Change at Egribolum - miles x.
Halt at Libum - miles xi.
Change at Liada - miles xii.
City of Nicia (Nicaea, Isnik) - miles ix.
Change at Schine - miles viii.
Halt at Midus (Moedos) - miles vii.
Change at Chogea - miles vi.
Change at Thatesus - miles x.
Change at Tutadus (Tottaion, near Geiveh) - miles ix.
Change at Protoniaca - miles xi.
Change at Artemis - miles xii.
[574] Halt at Dable (Dablis, near Tereklu) - miles vi.
Halt at Cerate - miles vi.
Frontier of Bithynia and Galatia.

Change at the frontier - miles x.
Halt at Dadartanum (Dadastanum) - miles vi.
Change at Trans Montem - miles vi.
Change at Milia - miles xi.
City of Juliopolis (near Nalli Khan) - miles viii.
Change at the river Hycron (River Siberis, Ala Dagh Su) -
miles xiii.
Halt at Agannia (Lagania) - miles xi.
Change at Petrobroge (Petobroge, Bei Bazar) - miles vi.
[575] Halt at Mnizos - miles x.
Change at Prasmon - miles xii.
Halt at Malogardis (Manegordus) - miles ix.
Change at Lake Cenaxis - miles xiii.
City of Anchira (Ancyra, Ankara) - miles xiii.

Total from Nicomedia to Ancyra in Galatia 258 miles, 16
changes,112 halts.

Change at Delemna (Delemnia) - miles x.
Halt at Curveunta (Gorbeous) - miles xi.
Change at Rosolodiacum (Rosolatiacum, Orosologia) -
miles xii.
Change at Aliassus - miles xiii.
City of Aspona - miles xviii.
[576] Change at Galea - miles xiii.
Change at Andrapa - miles ix.
Frontier of Galatia and Cappadocia.
Halt at Parnassus - miles xiii.
Halt at Iogola (Ozizala) - miles xvi.
Halt at Nitalis - miles xviii.
Change at Argustana - miles xiii.
City of Colonia (Archelais, Ak Serai ?) - miles xvi.
[577] Change at Momoasson (Mammasun) - miles xii.
Halt at Anathiango (Nazianzus, Nenizi) - miles xii.
Change at Chusa - miles xii.
Halt at Sasima (Hassa Keui) - miles xii.
Halt at Andavilis (Andaval) - miles xvi.

Here is the villa of Pampatus, from which come the curule
horses [pct.11].

City of Thyana (Tyana, Kiz Hissan) - miles xviii.
[578] Here was born Appollonius the magician [pct.12].
City of Faustinopolis (Pashmakchi) - miles xii.
Change at Caena - miles xiii.
Halt at Opodandum (Podandus, Bozanti) - miles xii.
Change at Pylae (Ghulek Boghaz, Cilician Gates) - miles
[579] Frontier of Cappadocia and Cilicia.
Halt at Mansucrine (Mopsucrene) - miles xii.
City of Tarsus in Cilicia - miles xii.
Here was born the Apostle Paul ( Acts 21:39) [pct.13].

Total from Ancyra in Galatia to Tarsus 343 miles, 25
changes, 18 halts.

1. In the Roman world , years were named after the
consuls, high rank officials whose office lasted one year exactly,
from January to December. Flavius Dalmatius (half-brother of
Emperor Constantine) and Domitius Zenophilus were joint
consuls in the year 333 A.D. The pilgrim says he departed from
Calcedon on the 30th of May, and returned to Constantinople on
the 25th of December; thus we can infer that he was in
Jerusalem in the months of August or September of the year 333

2. Hannibal (247-183 B.C.) was a famous leader from
Carthage (a Phoenician colony in Tunisia). He conducted three
fierce wars against the Romans. After his last defeat he left his
home town and ended his life by poisoning himself in Bithynia


Beside historical facts and touristic attractions,
biblical personages start to be mentioned by the pilgrim
while approching the Holy Land. In Tarsus we have the
town were the Apostle Paul was born. In Sarepta and on
the Mt. Carmel there are important memories related to
the story of the Prophet Elijah.

The Text: 5. From Tarsus to Caesarea Palaestina

City of Tarsus in Cilicia - miles xii.
Here was born the Apostle Paul ( Acts 21:39) [pct.13].

Total from Angora in Galatia to Tarsus 343 miles, [580]25
changes, 18 halts.

Change at Pargais - miles xiii.
City of Adana (Adana) - miles xiv.
City of Mansista (Mopsuestia, Missis) - miles xviii.
Change at Tardequeia (Kurt Kdiak) - miles xv.
Halt at Catavolum (Castabala) - miles xvi.
Halt at Baie (Baiae, Piyas) - miles xvii.
Halt at Alexandria Scabiosa (Iskanderun, Alexandretta) -
miles xvi
[581] Change at Pictanus (Beilan) - miles ix.
Frontier of Cilicia and Syria.
Halt at Pagrius (Pagrae, Begras) - miles viii.
City of Antiochia (Antioch, Antakia) - miles xvi.

Total from Tarsus in Cilicia to Antioch 141 miles, 10
changes, 7 halts.

City of Antiochia (Antioch, Antakia) [pct.14] - miles xvi.

Total from Tarsus in Cilicia to Antioch 141 miles, 10
changes, 7 halts.

To the palace of Daphne (Beit el Ma) - miles v.
[582] Change at Hysdata - miles xi.
Halt at Platanus - miles viii.
Change at Bacchaiae - miles viii.
Halt at Catelae - miles xvi.
City of Ladica (Laodicea, Latakieh) - miles xvi.
City of Gabala (Jebeleh) - miles xiv.

City oí Balaneas (Banias) - miles xiii.
Frontier of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.
Change at Maraccae - miles x.
Halt at Antaradus (Tartus) - miles xvi.
Here is a city in the sea, two miles from the shore [ftn.1].
Change at Spiclis - miles xii.
[583] Change at Basiliscum - miles xii.
Halt at Arcae (Area, Caesarea, Arka) - miles viii.
Change at Bruttus - miles iv.
City of Tripolis (Tarabulus) - miles xii.
Change at Triclis - miles xii.
Change at Bruttus alius - miles xii.
Change at Alcobilis - miles xii.
City of Berytus (Beirut) - miles xii.
Change at Heldua (Khan Khulda) - miles xii.
Change at Porphyrion (Porphyreon) - miles viii.
City of Sidon (Saida) - miles viii.
Thence to Sarepta - miles ix.
Here Helias went up to the widow and begged food for
himself ( 1Kings 17:1-16; Luke 4:23-30).
Change at 'ad Nonum' (at the ninth milestone ?) - miles iv.
[584] City of Tyre (Sur) - miles xii.
Total from Antioch to Tyre 174 miles, 20 changes, 11
Change at Alexandroschene - miles xii.
Change at Ecdeppa (Achzib, ez-Zib) - miles xii.
City of Ptolemais (Accho, Akka, St. Jean d 'Acre) - miles ix.
Change at Calamon - miles xii.
Halt at Sycaminos (Haifa) - miles iii.
[585] Here is the Mount Carmel [pct.15], where Helias
offered sacrifice ( 1Kings 18:19-40).
Change at Certa - miles viii.
Frontier of Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine.
City of Caesarea Palaestina (Kaisarieh), that is, Judaea -
miles viii.

Total from Tyre to Caesarea Palaestina 73 miles, 2
changes, 3 halts.

1. The ruins of the city of Aradus are still exant on the
island of Ruad, situated in front of Antaradus, now Tartus


Upon entering Palestine the anonimous pilgrim is
shown Mt. Carmel, the spot were the great sacrifice of the
prophet Elijah was accomplished. In Caesarea he is able
to enter the House of Cornelius, the Roman centurion
baptized by the apostle Peter. Instead of following the
direct road from Caesarea to Jerusalem, the pilgrim
proceeds to Jezreel and then to Scytopolis, Neapolis,
Bethel. A long series of Old Testament event is mentioned
along this route. After visiting Jerusalem the pilgrim make
two excursions: one to the East at Jericho and to the
Jordan river, and one to the South at Bethlehem and

The Text: 6. From Caesarea to Jerusalem

City of Caesarea Palaestinae (Kaisarieh) [pct.16], that is,
Judaea [pct.17] - miles viii.
Total from Tyre to Caesarea Palaestina 73 miles, 2
changes, 3 halts.
Here is the bath (balneus) of Cornelius the centurion who
gave many alms ( Acts 10:2; 47-48).
At the third milestone from thence is the [586] mountain
Syna, where there is a fountain, in which, if a woman bathes,
she becomes pregnant.
City of Maximianopolis - miles xviii.
City of Stradela (Jezreel, Zerin) - miles x.
Here reigned King Achab (Ahab), and here Helias
prophesied (1 Kings 17,1ff). Here is the field in whichDavid slew
Goliath [ftn.1] (Ayn Jalud ?) ( 1 Sam 17:49-51).
City of Scythopolis (Bethshean, Beisan) - miles xii.
[587] Aser (Teyasir), where was the house of Job [ftn.2] -
miles vi.
City of Neapolis (Nablus) - miles xv.

Here is the Mount Gerizim [pct.18]. Here the Samaritans
say that Abraham offered sacrifice (Mount Moriah) [ftn.3], and
one reaches the top of the mountain by steps, three hundred in
number. Beyond this, at the foot of the mountain itself, is a
place called Sichem. Here is a tomb in which [588] Joseph is
laid, in the 'parcel of ground'(villa) which Jacob his father gave
to him ( Jos 24:32). From thence Dinah, the daughter of Jacob,
was carried off by the children of the Amorites ( Gen 34:1-31).
A mile from thence is a place named Sichar, from which the
woman of Samaria came down to the same place in which Jacob
dug the well, to draw water from it, and our Lord Jesus Christ
talked with her ( John 4:1-42); in which place are plane-trees,
which Jacob planted, and a bath(balneus - baptistry) which is
supplied with water from the well.

Twenty-eight miles from thence on the left hand, as one
goes towards Jerusalem, is a village (villa) named Bethar(Bethel,
Beitin). A mile from thence is the place where Jacob slept when
he was journeying into Mesopotamia ( Gen 28:10-22), and here
is the almond tree; here Jacob saw the vision and the angel
wrestled with him ( Gen 32:22-32) [ftn.4]. Here was King
Jeroboam when the prophet was sent to him, that he should turn
himself to the [589] Most High God; and the prophet was
ordered not to eat bread with the false prophet whom the king
had with him, and because he was beguiled by the false prophet
and ate bread with him, as he was returning a lion fell upon the
prophet on the way and slew him ( 1Kings 13:1-34).
Thence to Jerusalem - miles xii.

Total from Caesarea Palaestina to Jerusalem 116 miles, 4
halts, 4 changes.

1. The site of the battle in which Goliath was killed by
David is placed by the biblical text in the valley of Elah, west of
Betlehem, in the territory of the tribe of Judah (1 Sam 17:1-2).
On the Gilboa ridge another battle took place in which Saul died
(1 Sam 31:1-6) but a Goliath fountain (Ayn Jalud) is found near

2. More commonly a house, or tomb, of Job is pointed out
in the Hauran, northeast of the Sea of Galilee.

3. For the Samaritans Mount Garizim, not the Temple
Mount in Jerusalem, was where Abraham was about to sacrifice
is son Isaac (Gen 22,2).

4. The wrestling of Jacob with the angel took place when
he came back from Mesopotamia, at the crossing of the Yabbok
(Gen 32:24). The Yabbok river (now Zarqa) is found on the east
bank of the Jordan, opposite Bethel.


The description of Jerusalem, though wanting in
fulness, is a very detailed one. The city of Jerusalem is
well the same as the Roman Colonia Aelia Capitolina,
founded by the Emperor Hadrian in 135 A. D. Two statues
of the founder stand on the Temple Mount and some
pagan places are still to be seen. What is new in
Jerusalem, at that time, is the feverish building activity in
some Christian Holy Places: that is around the Golgotha
and the Holy Sepulcher, in the very middle of the city, and
at the place of the Ascension on the Mount of Olives.
These works required a special order by the Emperor
himself (iussu Constantini), especially for the first one,
because a pagan temple dedicated to Aphrodite stood
exactly on the spot of the Golgotha. The great Historian
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, recounts how Macarius,
bishop of Jerusalem, managed to obtain from the Emperor
a permission to destroy the pagan temple and to build a
Christian basilica. A later tradition gives credit to St.
Elena, Constantine mother, for the finding of the True
Cross and the building itself. A Jewish tradition mentioned
by the pilgrim is the meeting the Jews perform annually
around a perforated stone in the ruins of the Solomon

The Text: 7a. Jerusalem (first part)

Thence to Jerusalem - miles xii.

Total from Caesarea Palaestina to Jerusalem 116 miles, 4
halts, 4 changes.

There are in Jerusalem two large pools (piscinae) at the
side of the temple (ad latus templi), that is, one upon the right
hand, and one upon the left, which were made by Solomon; and
further in the city are twin pools (piscinae gemellares), with five
porticoes, which are called Bethsaida [ftn.1] ( John 5:2-18).
There persons who have been sick for many years are cured; the
pools contain water which is red when it is disturbed [pct.19].
There is also here a crypt, in which Solomon used to torture

Here is also the corner of [590] an exceeding high
tower[pct.20], where our Lord ascended and the tempter said to
Him, 'If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence.' .
And the Lord answered, 'Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God,
but him only shalt thou serve.'( Matt 4:1-11). There is a great
corner-stone, of which it was said, 'The stone which the builders
rejected is become the head of the corner.' ( Matt 21:42; cfr. Ps
118:22). Under the pinnacle (pinna) of the tower are many
rooms, and here was Solomon's palace. There also is the
chamber in which he sate and wrote the (Book of) Wisdom; this
chamber is covered with a single stone. There are also large
subterranean reservoirs for water and pools constructed with
great labour. And [591] in the building (in aede)itself, where
stood the temple which Solomon built, they say that the blood of
Zacharias ( Matt 23:35; cfr. Luke 11:51) which was shed upon
the stone pavement before the altar remains to this day. There
are also to be seen the marks of the nails in the shoes of the
soldiers who slew him, throughout the whole enclosure, so plain

that you would think they were impressed upon wax. There are
two statues of Hadrian, and not far from the statues there is
aperforated stone [pct.21], to which the Jews come every year
and anoint it, bewail themselves with groans, rend their
garments, and so depart. There also is the house of Hezekiah
King of Judah.

1. In the modern Revised Standard Version (John 5,2) the
pool is said to be called in Hebrew "Beth-zatha", and in the King
James Version the same pool is called Bethesda. Our pilgrim call
it Bethsaida in accordance with theVetus Latina Version, the first
latin translation of the Bible.

2. King Solomon had a great renown as a magician and a
devil-fighter. A seal-ring of Solomon, and some jars where "he
used to shut up the devils", were lately shown to pilgrims in the
church of the Holy Sepulchre (see: Egeria's travel 37.3). Also
Flavius Josephus (Antiquities 8.2.5) speaks about King
Solomon's skill against the demons.

The Text: 7b. Jerusalem (second part)

Also as you come out of Jerusalem to go up Mount Sion,
on the left hand, [592] below in the valley, beside the wall, is
apool which is called Siloe ( John 9:1-11) and has four
porticoes; and there is another large pool outside it. This spring
runs for six days and nights, but on the seventh day, which is
the Sabbath, it does not run at all, either by day or by night
[ftn.1]. On this side one goes up Sion, and sees where thehouse
of Caiaphas the priest was ( Mt 26:57-68), and there still stands
a column against which Christ was beaten with rods [ftn.2].
Within, however, inside the wall of Sion, is seen the place where
was David's palace. Of seven synagogues which once were
there, one alone remains; the rest are ploughed over and sown
upon, as said [593] Isaiah the prophet( Is 1:2.4-8; Michah 3:9-

From thence as you go out of the wall of Sion, as you walk
towards the gate of Neapolis, towards the right, below in the
valley, are walls, where was the house or praetorium of Pontius
Pilate ( Matt 27:11-31). Here our Lord was tried before His
passion. On the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the
Lord was crucified ( Matt 27:33-37). [594] About a stone's
throw from thence is a vault (crypta) wherein His body was laid,
and rose again on the third day ( Matt 27:57-60; 28:1-10).
There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine
[pct 22] (iussu Constantini), has been built a basilica, that is to
say, a church (dominicum) of wondrous beauty [pcts 23-24],
having at the side reservoirs (excepturia)from which water is
raised, and a bath behind in which infants are washed

Also as one goes from Jerusalem to the gate which is to
the eastward, in order to ascend the Mount of Olives, is the
valley called that of Josaphat. Towards the left, where are
vineyards, is a stone at the place where Judas Iscariot betrayed

Christ ( Matt 26,36-50); on the [595] right is a palm-tree,
branches of which the children carried off and strewed in the
way when Christ came ( Matt 31:8). Not far from thence, about
a stone's-throw, are two notable tombs of wondrous beauty; in
the one, which is a true monolith, lies Isaiah the prophet, and in
the other Hezekiah, King of the Jews.

From thence you ascend to the Mount of Olives, where
before the Passion, the Lord taught His disciples ( Matt 24-25).
There by the orders of Constantine a basilica of wondrous beauty
has been built. Not far from thence is the little hill which the Lord
ascended to pray, when he took Peter [596] and John with Him,
and Moses and Elias were beheld [ftn.3] ( Matt 17:1-8).

1. The source of Gihon, which feeds the Siloe spring, is
known for its intermittent, even if not weekly resting, flow.

2. According to the gospel narrative ( Mt 26:67-68) Jesus
was spat in outraged, struk and slapped, but not beaten with
rods (flagelli) in Caiaphas' house.

3. The pilgrim seems here to put on the top of the Mt. of
Olives the Transfiguration (Matt 17:1-8) in place of the
Ascension of Jesus (Luke 24:51).

The Text: 8a. The surroundings of Jerusalem (Jericho and
the Dead Sea)

A mile and a half to the eastward is the village (villa)
calledBethany. There is a vault (crypta) in which Lazarus, whom
the Lord raised, was laid ( John 11:1-44) [pct.25].

From Jerusalem to Jericho (Ariha) [pct.26] - miles xviii.

On the right hand side, as one descends from the mount,
behind a tomb, is the sycamore tree into which Zacchaeus
climbed that he might see Christ ( Luke 19:1-10). A mile-and-a-
half from the town is the fountain of Elisha. Formerly if any
woman drank of it she did not bear children. Beside it lies an
earthenware vessel. Elisha threw salt into it, and came and stood
over the fountain and said, 'Thus saith the Lord, I have cleansed
these waters, and if any woman drink of this fountain she shall
bear children.' ( 2 Kings 2,1-22).

Above the same fountain [597] is the house of the harlot
Rahab, to whom the spies came, and she hid them( Jos 2:1-21;
Heb 11:17-40), and alone was saved when Jericho was
destroyed. Here stood the city of Jericho, round whose walls the
children of Israel circled with the Ark of the Covenant, and the
walls fell down ( Jos 6:1-25). Nothing is to be seen of it except
the place where the Ark of the Covenant stood, andthe twelve
stones which the children of Israel brought out of Jordan ( Jos
4:1-24). There Jesus, the son of Nave (Joshua the son of Nun),
circumcised the children of Israel and buried their foreskins (
Jos 5:2-9).

From Jericho (Ariha) to the Dead sea [pct.27]- miles ix.

The water of it is very bitter, and in it there is no kind of
fish whatever, nor any vessel; and if a man casts himself into it
in order to swim, the water turns him over.

[598] From thence to the Jordan, where the Lord was
baptized by John ( Matt 3:13-17) - miles v.

There is a place by the river, a little hill upon the further
(left) bank, from which Elijah was caught up into heaven ( 2
Kings 2:1-15).

The Text: 8b. The surroundings of Jerusalem - Bethlehem
and Hebron

From Jerusalem going to Bethlehem (Beit Lahm) - miles vi.

On the road, on the right hand, is a tomb, in which lies
Rachel, the wife of Jacob [pct.28] ( Gen 35:16-20; Matt 2:16-
18). Two miles from thence, on the left hand, is
Bethlehem,where our Lord Jesus Christ was born ( Matt 2:18-
25; Luke 2:1-7). A basilica has been built there by the orders of
Constantine [pct.22, 29]. Not far from thence is the tomb of
Ezekiel, Asaph, Job, Jesse, David, and Solomon, whose names
are inscribed in Hebrew letters upon the wall as you go down
into the vault itself.

[599] From thence to Bethasora (Bethzur, Beit Sur) - miles

There is the fountain in which Philip baptized the eunuch (
Acts 8:26-40).

Thence to Terebinthus (Mamre, Ramet el-Khalil) - miles
Here Abraham dwelt, and dug a well under a terebinth
tree, and spoke with angels, and ate food with them ( Gen
18:1-14). Here a basilica of wondrous beauty has been built by
the command of Constantine.

From Terebinthus (Ramet el-Khalil) to Hebron (el-Khalil) -
miles ii.
Here is a monument (memoria) of square form built of
stone of wondrous beauty [pct.30], in which lie Abraham, Isaac,
Jacob, Sara, Rebecca, and Leah ( Gen 23:1-19; 25:7-10;

[600] From Jerusalem as follows:
City of Nicopolis (Amwas) - miles xxii.
City of Lydda (Ludd) - miles x.
Change at Antipatris (Ras el-Ain) - miles x.
Change at Betthar (Tireh) - miles x.
City of Caesarea (Kaisarieh) - miles xvi.

[601] Total from Constantinople to Jerusalem 1,159 miles,
69 changes, 58 halts.

Also through Nicopolis (Amwas) to Caesarea (Kaisarieh) 73
miles, 5 changes, 3 halts.

The Text: 9. From Heraclea to Valona

Also from Heraclea (Eregli) [pct.31]through Macedonia.
Change at Erea (Heraeum) - miles xvi.
Halt at Registus (Resistus, Bisanthe, Rodosto) - miles xii.
Change at Bedizum (Beodizum) - miles xii.
City of Apri (Ainajik) - miles xii.
[602] Change at Zesutera - miles xii.
Frontier of Europe and Rhodope.
Halt at Sirogelli (Syracellae, Malgara) - miles x.
Change at Drippa - miles xiv.
Halt at Gypsela (Cypsela, Ipsala) - miles xii.
Change at Demas (Dymae, Kaladerkos) - miles xii.
City of Trajanopolis - miles xiii.
Change at Unimpara (Tempyra) - miles viii.
Change at Salei - miles vii.
Change at Melalicum (Milolitum) - miles viii.
Halt at Berozicha (Brendice, Brizice) - miles xv.
[603] Change at Breierophara - miles x.
City of Maximianopolis (Porsulae, Pyrsoalis, Impara, near
Gumuljina) - miles x.
Change at Dio(medes's) stables (Buru Kaleh) - miles xii.
Change at Rumbodona (Kurusu Yenijeh) - miles x.
City of Epirus (Topiris, Karaguz) - miles x.
Change at Purdi (Sarichoban) - miles viii.
Frontier of Rhodope and Macedonia
Halt at Hercontroma (Acontisma) - miles ix.
Change at Neapolis (Kavala) - miles ix.
City of Philippi (Crenides, Filibeh) [pct.32] - miles x.
[604] Here Paul and Silas were imprisoned (Acts 16:23).
Change at the twelfth milestone - miles xii.
Halt at Domeros (Pervista) - miles vii.
City of Amphipolis (Yeni Keui) - miles xiii.
Change at Pennana - miles x.
Change at Euripides (Arethusa, Vrasta) - miles x.

Here is buried the poet Euripides.
[605] Halt at Appollonia (Polina) - miles xi.
Change at Heracleustibus (Heracleus Stibos) - miles xi.
Change at Duodea - miles xiv.
City of Thessalonica (Saloniki) - miles xiii.
Change at the tenth milestone - miles x.
Change at the Bridge (over the Axius,Wardar Su) - miles x.
[606] City of Pella (Ala Kilisseh, Yenikeui), whence came
Alexander the Great of Macedonia [pct.33] - miles x.
Change at Scurio (Cyrius, Cyrrhus, Palaeo Kastro ?) - miles
City of Edessa (Vodena) - miles xv.
Change at the twelfth milestone (Ostrovo) - miles xii.
Halt at Cellis - miles xvi.
Change at Grande (Florina) - miles xiv.
Change at Melitonus (Dragosch) - miles xiv.
City of Heraclea (Heraclea Lyncestis, Toli Monastir) - miles
[607] Change at Parambole (Caste, Nicia) - miles xii.
Change at Brucida (Brucias, Brygias) - miles xix.
Frontier of Macedonia and Epirus.
City of Cledo (Lychnidus, Ochrida) - miles xiii.
Change at Patrae - miles xii.
Halt at Claudanon (Claudanum, Kükëseh) - miles iv.
Change at Tabernae (Tres Tabernae, Juru) - miles ix.
Halt at Grandavia (Diana Candavia) - miles ix.
[608] Change at the crossing (of the Genusus, Sakumbi
Su) - miles ix.
Halt at Hiscampis (Scampae, El Bassan) - miles ix.
Change at the fifth milestone - miles vi.
Halt at Coladiana (Clodiana, on the Devol Su) - miles xv.
Halt at Marusium - miles xv.
Halt at Absos (on the Apous, Usumi Su) - miles xiv.
Change at Stephanaphana (Dukanasi) - miles xii.
City of Apollonia (Polina) - miles xviii.
Change at Stephana (Goritza) - miles xii.
Halt at Aulon (Valona). Sea passage - miles x.

The Text: 10. From Valona to Rome

Halt at Aulon (Valona). Sea passage [pct.34] - miles x.

[609] Total from Heraclea (Eregli) through Macedonia to
Aulon (Valona) 688 miles,58 changes, 25 halts.

Crossing the sea, a thousand stadia, which makes a
hundred miles, you come to Hydrontum (Hydruntum, Otranto),
and halt a mile farther.

Change at the twelfth milestone Halt at Clipeae (Lupiae,
Lecce) - miles xiii.
Change at Valentia (Baletium, Baleso) - miles xiii.
City of Brindisium (Brundisium, Brindisi) - miles xi.
Halt at Spilenees (Speluncae) - miles xiv.
Change at the tenth milestone (Pto. Villa Nova) - miles xi.
City of Leonatia (Gnatia, Egnatia, Agnazzo) - miles x.
Change at Turres Aurilianae (San Vito) - miles xv.
Change at Turres Julianae - miles ix.
City of Beroes (Barium, Bari) - miles xi.
Change at Butontones (Butuntum, Bitonto) - miles xi.
[610] City of Rubi (Ruvo) - miles xi.
Change at the fifteenth milestone - miles xv.
City of Canusium (Canosa) - miles xv.
Change at the eleventh milestone - miles xi.
City of Serdonis (Herdonea, Ordona) - miles xv.
City of Aecae (Troja) - miles xviii.
Change at Aquilo - miles x.
Frontier of Apulia and Campania.
Halt at Equus Magnus (Equus Tuticus, S. Eleuterio) - miles
Change at the village of Fornum Novum (Forum Novum,
Buonalbergo) - miles xii.

City of Beneventum (Benevento) - miles x.
City and halt at Claudii (Caudium, Casta Cauda) - miles xii.
Change at Novae - miles ix.
City of Capua (Capua) - miles xii.
[611] Total from Aulon (Valona) to Capua 289 miles, 25
changes, 13 halts.
Change at the eighth milestone - miles viii.
Change at Pons Campanus (over the Savone River) - miles
City of Sonuessa (Sinuessa, Mondragone) - miles ix.
City of Menturnae (Minturnae, on the Liris) - miles ix.
City of Formi (Mola di Gaeta) - miles ix.
City of Fundi (Fondi) - miles xii.
City of Tarracina (Terracina) - miles xiii.
Change at Mediae (Posta di Mesa) - miles x.
Change at Forum Appi (Foro Appio) [pct.35] - miles ix.
[612] Change at Sponsae - miles vii.
City of Aricia (Ariccia) and Albona (Albanum, Albano) -
miles xvi
Change at the ninth milestone - miles vii.
To the city of Rome [pcts.36, 37] - miles ix.

Total from Capua to the city of Rome 136 miles, 14
changes, 9 halts.

Total from Heraclea (Eregli) through Aulon (Valona) to the city of
Rome 1,113 miles, 117 changes, 46 halts.

The Text: 11. From Rome to Milan

To the City of Mediolanum (Milan).
Change at Rubrae (Saxa Rubra, Prima Porta) - miles ix.
[613] Change at the twentieth milestone - miles xiv.
Change at Aqua Viva - miles xii.
City of Utriculo, halt (Ocriculum, Otricoli) - miles xii.
City of Narnia (Narni) - miles xii.
City of Interamna (Terni) - miles viii.
Change at Tres Tabernae - miles iii.
Change at Fanum Fugitivi (La Somma) - miles x.
City of Spolitio (Spoletium, Spoleto) - miles vii.
Change at Sacraria (Clitumnus, Le Vene) [pct.38] - miles
City of Trevi (Trebia, Trevi) - miles iv.
City of Fulgini (Fulginium, Foligno) - miles v.
[614] City of Forum Flamini (S. Giovani pro Fiamma) -
miles iii.
City of Noceria (Nuceria, Nocera) - miles xii.
City of Ptanias (Tadinum, Gualdo Tadino) - miles viii.
Halt at Herbellum (Helvillum Sigillo) - miles vii.
Change at Hesis (Aesis, Scheggia) - miles x.
Change at Cale (Cales, Cagli) - miles xiv.
Change at Intercisa (Petra Pertusa, Passo del Furlo) - miles
[615] City of Forum Semproni (Fossombrone) - miles ix.
Change at the eighth milestone - miles ix.
City of Fanum Fortunae (Fano) - miles viii.
City of Pisaurum (Pesaro) - miles xxiv.
... to Riminum (Ariminum, Rimini) [pct.39]
Change at Conpetus (Ad Confluentes, Savignano) - miles
City of Cesena (Caesena, Cesena) - miles vi.
[616] City of Forum Populi (Forum Popilii, ForIimpopoli) -
miles vi.
City of Forum Livi (F. Livii, Forli') - miles vi.
City of Faventia (Faenza) - miles v.
City of Forum Corneli (F. Cornelii, Imola) - miles x.

City of Claternum (Claterna, S. Nicolo') - miles xiii.
City of Bononia (Bologna) - miles x.
Change at Mediae - miles xv.
Change at Victoriolae - miles x.
City of Mutena (Mutina, Modena) - miles iii.
Change at the bridge over the Secia (Tresinaro) - miles v.
City of Regio (Regium Lepidum, Reggio) - miles viii.
Change at Canneto (Tannetum, Tanneto) - miles x.
City of Parma (Parma) - miles viii.
Change at the river Tarus (Taro) - miles vii.
Halt at Fidentia (Borgo San Donnino) - miles viii.
Change at Fonticuli (Alla Fontana) - miles viii.
City of Placentia (Piacenza) - miles xiii.
[617] Change at Rota (Quadrata) - miles xi.
Change at Tres Tabernae - miles v.
City of Laude (Laus Pompeia, Lodi Vecchio) - miles ix.
Change at the ninth milestone - miles vii.
City of Mediolanum (Milan) - miles vii.

Sum total from the city of Rome to Mediolanum (Milan)416
miles, 42 changes, 24 halts.