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Welcome to our September (second) issue of Qaraabo Magazine where we will discuss a lot of current issues related to our beloved country Somalia. We are aiming to spread a positive image and enlighten the minds of those who are unaware or voluntarily ignorant towards the situations that we are faced with on a daily basis. Our main aim for creating this monthly magazine is to enrich the hearts and minds of the young and lighten the souls of our elders. Our overall theme will be Pride and Joy as we are proud to be Somali and joyful that we have the opportunity to pass on whatever wisdom we have as Somali people to those who are unfamiliar with us. This magazine also follows the philosophy of the Somali National Party Hanoolaato. Which believes that through combining our efforts and uniting against the common evils we can bring change to our country. We have a long vision of prosperity for Somalia, as change is inevitable and peace shall return. So enjoy the ﬁrst of many and feel free to support us and contribute. Kind regards, Editorial Team Qaraabo Email: Qaraabo@aduunyo.com
P.4 Latest from Mogadishu (Somali) P.6 AMBAD Movie Premiere (English) P.8 Never Give Up (English) P.10 A Day In My Life (English) P.11 The Professional (English) P.12 The Student (English) P.14 From state failing to societal balkanization: Somalia wars and the role of International Community (English) P.17 Gabay of the Month (Somali) P.18 Dhibaatada Caruurta iyo dagaallada Soomalia (Somali)
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Somali Ramadan Relief
Somali Ramadan Relief (SRR) would like to thank its partners for the 2010 Ceelasha Biyaha (Somalia) project
Somali Ramadan Relief (SRR) Somali Aid and Development Association (SAADA) Somali Awareness through Volunteering and Education (SAVE) Unified Networks EMEA Ltd Aduunyo.com Qaraabo Magazine Somali On Air (SOA) Anti Tribalism Movement (ATM) Bar Bulsho
Xaaladda ugu danbeeysay ee magaalada Muqdisho.
dadka faraha bada ee kabarakacay dagaaladaan. maalmihi ugu danbeeyay dagaalo culus oo aan kala go’laheeyn Dhimashada iyo dhaawaca magaalada muqdishu, ayaa dadkaan ayaa waxaa loo hadana ay san jirin wax saasaan aaneeynayaa dagaalada aan nabadeed ah ee ka muuqdo dhamaad kalaheeyn ee ka magaalada, dhinacyada ku soconaya gudaha magaalada dagaalamayo ayaa wado muqdishu, waxaase ugu badan ee daadaallo iyo diyaar garoow aad u dadkaan rayidka ah dhibaatdu ka fara badan oo ay doonayaan soo gaartaa madaaﬁicda ay is midba midka kale inuu kaga dhaafsanayaan kooxaha taqalluso ayaa hadana waxaa la dagaallamayo, haba ugu badnaato ilaaway oo aan dhag jalaq loo siin midka ay sida bareerka ah ugu dhibaatadi faraha badneeynd ee garaacayaan ciidamada shisheeye soo gaartay shacabka ku dhaqan dadka shacabka ah ee ku nool magaalada muqdishu. goobaha ka fog halka uu dagaalku ka soconayo. Dagaaladaan ayaa waxaa ku dhintay dad aad u fara badan oo oghayaha dhallinyarada iyo lagu qiyaasayo 150 ruux sidoo kale waxaa ku dhaawacmay in qaar kale oo kamid ah ururka kabadan 400 oo kale oo wadaniyiinta somaliyed ee dhamaantood ah dad rayid ah oo hanoolaato ayaa gaaray aan waxba galabsan.dhimashada Cusbitaalada magaalada iyo dhaawaca waxaa sii dheer muqdishu oo ay ku jiraan dad aad u fara badan ee ku wax yeeloobay
Iyadoo ay ka soconayeen
dagaalada ka socda magaalada muqdishu.
Booqashadaan ay wadeen
dhallinyarada ururka Hanoolaato. ayaa imatay kadib markii dagaallo aad uculus ay soconayeen muddo 2 asbuuc kuwaas oo ahaa dagaallo aan kal go’laheeyn. Xoghayaha ayaa inta uu booqashaadan wadeen wuxuu lakulmay dad aad u farabadan oo dhaawac ah oo u badnaa caruur iyo haween oo dhamaantood ku soo dhaawacmay dagaalada qaraar ee ku soo beegmay bisha barakeeysan ee Ramadaan wuxuuna ilaah u weeydiiyay inuu kaqaado dhibka dadka Somaliyeed meel kasta oo ay joogaan inti ku geeriyootana ilaah naxariistiisa janna kawaraabsho eheladoodana samir iyo iimaan alla kasiiyo. Continue Next page>>>
ayaa dadkaas ugu deqay dhiigooda iyo duco lana soo wato ayaa yiri” dadkaan inaga qeeybsaday murugada ay ku ayay naga wada dhinteen hadii aan sugnaayeen dadkaas waxeeyna nahay dhallinyarada somaliyeed ee ilaah u weeydiiyeen caaﬁmaad ku midoowday magacaan waara dadkaas bukaanada ah. hanoolaato waxaan idin la Cisbitaalada ay booqdeen qeeybsaneeynaa dhibkaan idin soo dhallinyaradu ayaa ah kuwa ugu gaaray waxaana idin leeyahay ballaaran ee dhaawaca rayidka ah aniga oo ku hadlay afka ururka lageeyo waxaana kamid ah Madina wadaniyiinta somaliyeed ee Hospital oo ay ku jirtay in kabadan Hanoolaato inti idinkaga dhimatay 100 ruux, waxaa kamdi ah Deynile weey naga wada dhinteen ee hospital oo ay yaallaan in kabadan samir allaha naga siiyo 200 oo kale sidoo kale waxaa dhamaanteen inti inooga kamid ah Keysaneeyn hosbitaal oo dhaawacmatay oo aad idinku isna ay kusugnaayeen dadkale oo kamid tihiina ilaah gaaraya ku dhawaad 50 ruux. hanoobogsiiyo”.. allow dhaawacyada dadkaan Xoghayaha iyo dhallinyarada kale ee ku wehlneeysay booqashadaan ay qabaan ay ubadanyihin kuwo oo gareeysay ilaa 15 dhallinyaro ah halis ah ayaa hadana waxeey yihiin
Xoghayaha oo hadalkiisa sii
kuwo aad u tabar yar, marki horene ahaa dad iska tabaaleeysan isla markaana dhamaantood ahaa dad ilaah dartiis u soonaa marki dhibaatadaani ku dhaceeysay, mana jirto cid u maqan dadkaan oo ay wax gar-gaar ah ka heleen ama ay ka ﬁlanayaan. “CIDI UMA MAQNA
CEELNA UMA QODNA SHACABKA SOMAIYEED”
By Abdirashid ‘Qoslaaye’
Abdisalam Aato’s new ﬁlm AMBAD tells the story of youngster called ‘Deeq’ and his struggle to survive his new life in the US. Being unable to cope with school, Deeq decides to resettle in another city to turn his luck around in search for his share of the much desired American Dream. Instead he ﬁnds himself forced into marriage, jobless with no money and soon gets involved in criminal activities. AMBAD is Deeq’s story of surviving a life of hardship with no parents to guide you as young person. AMBAD is ground-breaking and proof that ﬁlm-making will be the next big thing in Somali entertainment business. It not only appeals to the young Somalis, particularly those in the diaspora who can better relate to Deeq’s story of trying to make a living in foreign land, it also gives non-Somalis a glimpse into life as a young
Catch AMBAD next in Holland on the 24th of September. For more information check out www.ololﬁlm.com
Somali living in Western world by providing English subtitles. Abdisalaan Aato has once again amazed us with his talents, moving away from preserving the many documentaries and stories (Riwaayad) written before the fall of the Somali state, in this process educating many of us who grew up ignorant of our culture and history, to placing the ﬁrst foundation of the new Somali ﬁlm industry. AMBAD has set a new standard, and if others follow in this footstep or even surpass it, Somalis could soon dominate the African ﬁlm industry. Nollywood better watch out, seems like ‘SOMALIWOD’ train has arrived with AMBAD!
By Zakia Hussen
D. Afrika & A. Aato Idil (SOA) & Aato
Zakia Hussen, Abdisalan M Yusuf (SPDD) Yusuf Aato & Idil Yamen
Ifrah (SOA) & Aato
Yusuf M Yusuf (SPDD)
Never Give Up!
Even some of the most well-known successful people have experienced failures in their lives. But what turned these famous failures into an amazing success was their determination to not be deterred and to never give up. The list given below should be a great inspiration to anyone who thinks they can’t change their lives.
Ludwig van Beethoven, a German composer of classical music, is widely regarded as one of history's supreme composers. His reputation has inspired and in many cases intimidated composers, musicians and audiences who were to come after him. Before the start of his career, Beethoven's music teacher once said of him "as a composer, he is Bill Gates the founder and chairman hopeless". And during his career, he of Microsoft, has literally changed the lost his hearing but yet he managed to work culture of the world in the 21st produce great music, a deaf man century, by simplifying the way composing music, ironic isn't it! computers were being used. He was the world's richest man for more than a decade. However, in the 1970's before starting out, he was a Harvard University dropout. The most ironic part is that, he started a software company (that was soon to become Microsoft) by purchasing the software technology from someone else for only $US50 back then.
Winston Churchill failed the 6th grade. However, that never stopped him from working harder! He strived and eventually became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Churchill was generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in Britain and world history. In a poll conducted by the BBC in 2002 to identify the "100 Greatest Britons", participants voted Churchill as the most important of all.
Walter Disney was an American ﬁlm producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor and animator. One of the Michael Jordan is the greatest most well-known motion picture basketball player of all time. A producers in the world. The phenomenal athlete with a unique corporation, now known as The Walt combination of grace, speed, power, Isaac Newton was the greatest artistry, improvisational ability and an Disney Company, makes average English mathematician of his revenue of US $30 billion annually. unquenchable competitive generation. His work on optics and Disney started his own business from desire. Jordan single-handedly gravitation made him one of the his home garage and his very ﬁrst redeﬁned the NBA superstar. Before greatest scientists the world has ever cartoon production went bankrupt. joining the NBA, Jordan was just an known. Many thought that Isaac was ordinary person, so ordinary that he During his ﬁrst press conference, a born a genius, but he wasn't! When he was removed from the high school newspaper editor ridiculed Walt was young, he did very poorly in grade basketball team because of his "lack of Disney because he had no good ideas school, so poor that his teachers were skill". in ﬁlm production. did not know how to improving his Continue Next page>>> 8 grades.
Steven Spielberg is an American ﬁlm director. He has won 3 Academy Awards and ranks among the most successful ﬁlmmakers in history. Most of all, Steven was recognized as the ﬁnancially most successful motion picture director of all time. During his childhood, Spielberg dropped out of junior high school. He was persuaded to come back and was placed in a learning-disabled class. He only lasted a month and then dropped out of school forever.
automobiles in the world. He not only revolutionized industrial production in the United States and Europe, but also had such inﬂuence over the 20th century economy and society. His combination of mass production, high wages and low prices to consumers has initiated a management school known as "Fordism". He became one of the three most famous and richest men in the world during his time.
Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist widely regarded as the most important scientist of the 20th century. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905 and "for his services to Theoretical Physics". However, when Einstein was young, his parents thought he was mentally retarded. His grades in school were so poor that a teacher asked him to quit, saying, "Einstein, you will never amount to anything!"
Soichiro Honda was turned down by Toyota Motor Corporation during a job interview as an engineer after World War 2. He continued to be jobless until his neighbours starting buying his "home-made scooters". Subsequently, he set out on his own to start his own company Honda. Today, the Company has grown to become the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer and one of the most proﬁtable automakers - beating giant automakers such as GM and Henry Ford's ﬁrst two automobile companies failed but that did not stop Chrysler. With a global network of 437 subsidiaries, Honda develops, him from incorporating Ford Motor Company and being the ﬁrst to apply manufactures and markets a wide variety of products ranging from assembly line manufacturing to the small general-purpose engines and production of affordable scooters to speciality sports cars.
By Mohamed Ahmed
A Day In My Life
One of Qaraabo Magazine’s aims & Objectives is to create and promote harmony and brotherhood amongst the Somali people. First thing that needs to be done is to identify the barriers to that are preventing harmony and brotherhood. One of the many obstacles so far identiﬁed is the fact that many Somali youth, both back home and in the Diaspora, have negative pre-conceived ideas about one another. For instance, many back home seem to think Somalis in Western world are spoiled brats living easy and hardship-free lives while we in Europe and the US seem to think the youth in Somalia are only skilled with operating an AK47 and busy using it. The “a day in my life” project aims to break these stereotypes by asking our Somali youth everywhere to give us a snap-shot or glimpse of how a typical day in their lives would look like. Rather than us telling you how their lives are, we let the youth tell you themselves. This way people will get ﬁrsthand account on Somali youth’s lives and lifestyles in various parts of the world and in the process learn from one another on a more personal level. This would also serve to strengthen brotherhood and unity as it helps ﬁnding out their lives may not be as different as they think and also help inspire us as we will see that so many youth are working hard to change their lives and that of their community around. We request that people write about a page on their story and each month we will publish two of these daily stories, each from a different part of the world.
A Day In My Life
The young professional
being the last 3 months, things have picked up now. 08:00 A run down on today’s schedule and activities with my other directors. Feels good all of us are in one place rather than scattered around the other regions. 08:30 Sit down with my country manager responsible for Kenya, by far the best recruit I have done makes my work much less stressful. Wish I could clone and place in rest of East Africa. Checked if she kept her budget for the Kenyan Sales-team before we have our Friday pep talk with the sales team. Today is pep talk because looks good, but there has been ﬁring squad moment where I have got mad for ﬁgures have not been delivered. Jekyll and Hyde syndrome
network in Kenya. So everything has to go well from start. 12:30 Excused myself from work for Friday prayers, lucky for having a mosque so close by work and work so close by home. Blessed. 13:40 Leaving Mosque, so great to see so many fellow Muslims and successful Muslims also, and greatest part is all no matter what background or status are all equal when we are inside the mosque.
14:10 Back to ofﬁce working on my marketing budget for all the regions. Been a wizard so far with an empty budget, but this time I have something Zakaria Abdulkadir to play with. Studied and love CMO/Regional Director Uniﬁed marketing. Best marketing activity we Networks EMEA LTD have done so far, was sponsoring S.A.V.E. and Qaran Fc, not exactly 06:15 Wake up early totally refreshed knowing its Friday makes it easier that 09:10 Sales team meeting supposed to our market to sell to but a great way of start 9. What still bothers me how empowering my fellow Somalis from it will be a relaxed day people still have problem with time the younger generation. That was 07:00 Was quite surprised I had an keeping. There is a say “Kenyans have priceless. unusually busy schedule today, that’s time but not watches”. No sign of stress 14:30 Sending email to Swedish how it is a roller-coaster usually at when they are laid back coming in late. Trade Council in Nairobi, who will work but never on a Friday. All the sales representatives explain help us set up in Rwanda because we 07:15 Checking my inbox 15 new orders brought in and what they can won a project there. Feels good to have emails just since last night before going close today. This month’s incentive is that partner. to bed, it would be much more. Got for the one that beats their budget with 15:00 Calling up my sales guy’s to BB addiction usually go through my 25% will get an IPad. Wish I could update me on the orders. Strict with inbox every hour I’m away from my join. no B.S. rather be honest and deliver laptop, just to avoid the anxiety I’m 10:00 I’m before schedule so take a ﬁgures that you can achieve. I make it missing out on something a deal, a minute to go through the Swedish clear for everyone that works here. lead, a contact, anything. papers on the net, not the most serious One had issue with a customer 07:30 Send out an End of Week source of information but entertaining. regarding price he needed help, so left budget status to everyone in the 10:50 First meeting today it’s a project ofﬁce to see the customer company. It’s end of the month, kick off with our new customer, it’s a checking our ﬁgures for this month big project for us that we won two looks good, been hectic, with the low weeks ago for building a large country
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15:20 At customer site, customer happened to be a Somali. The Somali business community is large and strong in Kenya, but usually work together with each other only. Understood straight away why my sales guy had an issue, not the ﬁrst time and the last time. But after awhile talking to the customer using the “young Somali trying to do something’ trump card’, it worked. Great that our people can help each other out. New order for us, I Like. 16:30 Closure of budget meeting, we beat overall budget but no one past their 25% surplus on their budget.
Great month with a good result, need to step up for next month and do better. 17:10 My last meeting with the board and an investment banker/equity ﬁrm. Discussions been ongoing for diversifying to a new business segment and also to expand our core business into other markets. Still hush hush but it looks bright and the future will be good inshallah 18:30 Call it a day, lock up the ofﬁce. 20mins to afuur, hardly thought about my hunger today. Looking forward to spend weekend with my brother, mom
and dad. Tomorrow is another day. Everyday is a roller coaster. And every week. Every month. Every quarter. It’s supposed to be that way. That’s why it’s fun. And also why it isn’t for everybody. Leave with a quote
"Entrepreneurship is living a few years of your life like most people won’t, so that you can spend the rest of your life like most people can’t"
A Day In My Life
myself everyday before I go to bed. These notes are made to hold a otherwise stressed student focused on the essence of the day.
Then at 7.45 a.m I take the taxi down to physiology lecture hall to take part of a 1,5 hour presentation of the subject of the week. After lecture I usually meet up with my study team consisting of two other collegues to discuss the outlook of the In the next four hours starting from day and to settle meetings for the day 2:00 p.m my schedule is divided by after comparing schadules. Microbiology lab and Genetics lecture. As for me, this is the two of Next at 10.00 a.m I suit up with my the most interesting subjects of the scrubs and meet the rest of my class day which I enjoy discussing so I Hassan Abdirahman Ali is mates for Anatomy lab and make sure I get all of my questions medical student in his 5th semester in dissection. The ﬁrst hour is often held answered from previous sessions. University of Medicine and by the Prof./ lab assistant who Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu in Clujexplains or draws the organ/tissue in Then I ﬁnish my day by jogging in Napoca, Romania, together with question on the board followed by an the park for an hour followed by dozens of other somalis from hour of dissection of that organ/ another hour of dinner with my Scandinavian countries, UK and tissue. Lastly as half of the group study team. We often study a short Canada. takes a break, the last hour divided by time before I take a long walk home. taking terms on asking questions from Monday previously dissections or the subject As I enjoy a simple breakfast, my day of the day. starts with the little notes I leave for
Approaching lunch time at 1:00 p.m I call my study team for a bite to exchange information on the subject their respective groups already studied by now as I might have those lectures/labs on the following hours or days to come since the groups take turn on classes. The rest of my lunch time goes by small talking and enjoying the break from any input.
From a state failing to societal balkanization: Somalia’s wars and the role of the International Community
Since the scramble of Africa by the Europeans up until the present-day, Somalia has repeatedly experiences foreign interventions. As a result, nation’s statehood, not only fails or collapses, but also turns out to be the best example in explaining concept failure states. Hence, I argue that the failings of Somalia as a state was the beginning of more, almost certainly, drastic steps of a social balkanization and a possible dissolution of statehood completely, which Somalis have to stand up against or swallow the consequences.
once again, grapples with the world’s spotlight. This is due to multiple rationales. On the face of it, the reason is due to uncertainty of save passages through Somalian seas and surrounding seashores for the marine transports. Marine transports use Somalia’s seas for (1) commercial reasons; (2) “resource pirates” (Prof. Abdi Samatar of University of Minnesota categorises illegal theft against Somali resources such as illegal ﬁshing as a resource piracy); (3) Somalia’s coastal guard or piracy (depending who you ask) that seize boats for “defensive” or “ransom” purposes. Currently, Somali pirates are holding numerous boats (ﬁshing, trade and/or luxury vessels) as well as their crews. Thus, the corridor of global trade between Indian Ocean and Red Sea en route for or from the Mediterranean Sea becomes highly volatile. Secondly, the concept of Jihadist’s Islamist Movements functioning inside Somalia augments pressure to some African and regional states, in
particular Ethiopia and Kenya, where there are ethnic Somali inhabitants. Similarly, the notion of jihadists operating in Somalia exacerbates anxieties of the western world who look upon the spread of Islamist’s doctrine in the region would possibly put western interests at risk.
cruel warlords causes this nation’s folks to feel alienated and as a result (to a certain degree) embark on adoring the actions from piracy and Islamists.
Thirdly, debatably, since the end of the Cold World War, international security systems have been gradually shifting from nonaligned peacekeeping missions to peacebuilding operations. Grounds for such shift, among others, were due to the re-interpretation of Article VII of Security Council Charter for humanitarian necessities. However, I argue there are also expansionist visions from other countries, and For that reason, previously unstudied thus, Somalia becomes the subject of and correlating rationales stimulate pretext of such interventions. me to investigate and reveal the negative role of the international P a r a d ox i c a l l y, t h e e x t e n t o f community to Somalia’s crisis. continuous worldwide illegal ﬁshing Therefore, as the realisation of today in the Somalian seashores, the necessitates knowing from yesteryears, industrial nuclear wastes carried out I shall begin with the classical history by the developed world and the of Somalia followed by the colonial we s t e r n a n d re g i o n a l wo rl d ’s era until I come to contemporary manipulations and the support for the Somalia. 14 Continue Next page>>>
most of the studies on Somalia’s internal conﬂict, with the exception of food shortage or human catastrophy, amongst other things; misses out the driving forces of political entwine that lasted more than two decades nor the ever mentioned role of the international community. Thus, I argue that these paradoxical views, did not happen over night, and so, they have considerable relationships with one another.
some Brava) and Warsheekh as well as the northern coast cities of Zeila, and Somalia is, arguably, as old as Berbera,cand Mait; B e n north-eastern coast ity of der Abbes ancient Egypt. In 1500 BC, when (Fitzgibbon, 1982: 6). Queen Hatshepsut was in reign in Egypt, Somalia was very important Louis Fitzgibbon recaps historical for the global trades. Because of records of some Islamic/Arab S o m a l i a ’s v a l u a b l e p r o d u c t s , explorers that recorded from Somalia particularly, frankincense, hides and and so he wrote: skins, cloths and other available “Al-Masudi (AD935), Al-Bakri trades, there was constantly continues (AD1067), Al-Idrissa (AD1154), business trafﬁc between Somali Ibn Battuta (AD1331), and Ibn societies and the societies in the Khaldun (Late fourteenth century). All Middle East, India, Persia and as far gave whiteness to a vigorous Somalia as China. Remarkably, Somali Culture; in particular Ibn Said narrations appear in the ﬁrstly (AD1344), Ibn Battuta and Ibn ancient Egyptians scripts (Touval, Idrissi all stressed that Somalis were 1963:8). Moreover, some historical completely independent of the foreign chronicles prove that the world gave rule and described their country as Somalia names linking the country extending throughout the length of the with her trade. For example the ‘Land Horn of Africa” (Fitzgibbon, Punt’ which means the land of 1982: 7). ornament, the ‘Land of GODS’, the ‘Re gion of Incense’ and/or the According to Futuh Al-Habasha, ‘Phoenicians’. In exchange to their chronicles of 16th century, ADAL exportation of products Somalis were State of Somalia existed from Zeila also importing goods such as china, coats to Hubat including the dates, weapon, steel and other goods highlands of Harar, in the north from (Fitzgibbon, 1982: 6). Hawas, to the downward of Webi For Romans, Somalia was unknown in these days. They rather termed it as the “Terra Incognita” or unknown lands. Hence, according to “The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea” chronicles of Greek explorers who visited along the coastline cities of Somalia such as Berbera and others stated that the inhabitants of these lands, the Somalis, were independent and helpful for informing explorers about the weather in the region (Fitzgibbon, 1982: 6). Thence, Arab and Islamic explorers become aware of the region and so recorded as early as the 2nd century of Islamic calendar, the Hegira. In the ninth century, the city of Zeila of Somalia was mention by the Arab geographer known as Al-Yaqubi, (Lewis, 1965:9). Likewise, Arab traders and explorers documented numerous Somali cities, particularly, coast cities such as: the southern cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Barawa (to
time. In 1445, Abyssinians showed aggression re-attack, killed Sultan Badlai, and then forced Somalis to go under subjugations and to pay kickbacks. (Futuh Al-Habasha, English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: 8).
“In the time of Sa’d ad-Din, and in the time of those who governed Harar after him…the inﬁdels” (Abyssinians) “made incursions into the countr y of Muslims” (Somalis) “and laid it waste many times; so that some of the Muslim towns even pay them Karaj” (bribe) (Futuh AlHabasha; English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: 22).
to Futuh Al-Habasha, apart from continues hostilities between Somalis and the Abyssinians, Somalis were undergoing unpleasant occurrences of internal conﬂicts. As a result, there were frequent changes of a sultan to another by means of overthrowing him. Likewise, capitol city also changed from Zeila to, brieﬂy, Dakar and then from Dakar to Harar in 1520. (Futuh Al-Habasha, Shabelle of the current southern part English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: of inland Somalia. Therefore, even though Adal State, Zeila of its capitol, existed inde pendently since the modern record begins, yet again Somalia was not without anxieties and thus the country was under continues threats from foreign aggressions of Abyssinians (know as Ethiopia) at all times. For this reason, until present days Somalia and Abyssinian societies are at odds in always. 23). In 1415 Abyssinians occupied Somali capitol city of Zeila and murdered their ruler Sa’d ad-Din, (Lewis 1988:25). In 1432, 17 years after the death of his father, Sultan Badlai bin Sa’d ad-Din took the reign of Adal state. He waged Jihad War against Abyssinian invaders. Immediately he achieved little success and librated his country but that never lasted long-
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in the end epoch of the ﬁrst quarter of 16th century, in 1525/6, Somali Muslims got an aspiring leader who is also Somalis’ current national hero, Ahmed Ibrahim or Ahmed Gurey also known as Ahmed, the left handed. He took over the power of the state of Adal and Harar of its capitol. In his rule, the country regained sovereignty, he put peace among the societies in the state, justice prevailed, criminal activities were banned and subsequently the country prospered (Futuh Al-Habasha, English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: 23).
English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: 23).
The newly aspirant leader boosted the (a) morale of the Somalis and (b) the fear of the Abyssinian Harassments encapsulated their unity. After that, Somalis societies united under the leadership of the imam; they gave him their elegances; contributed revenues, gave alms tax and contributed tens of thousands of foot soldiers and thousands of knights as well as weapons (Futuh AlHabasha; English translations, Stenhouse, 2003: 42 & 123). At the end of 1533, Somalis extended their land of control and thus conquered Abyssinian lands in its entirety (Fitzgibbon, 1982: 7). Afterwards, Abyssinians went for searching help from their Christian brethren, in Portugal. In 1541, the Portuguese accepted to salvage the Abyssinians. In 1542, Portuguese “commander and the son of Christovo da Gama, was killed in the battle” by the Somalis. However, later, in 1543, the Somalis were defeated and Imam Ahmed took martyrdom (Touval, 1963: 50).
the martyrdom of Imam Ahmed, Amir Nur, the nephew of Imam Ahmed Gurey took up the reign of Somalis. Amir Nur proposed marriage to the widow of the Imam A h m e d , Ta l Wa m b a r a B i n t u Mahfuz. She accepted the marriage on condition that “he should lay the head of the Emperor Claudius at her feet” who killed Imam Ahmed. Thence, on 22nd march 1559 Amir Nur’s army engaged war against Claudius and his Portuguese guards and managed to slay them all. “Amir Nur cut off his head, and laid it at the feet of Talwambara, who in observance of her pledge became his wife”. Later, in order to defend Harar, Amir Nur built a fortiﬁcation wall for the city (Burton, (ed) by Waterﬁeld, 1966: 183-184). This is the end of the ﬁrst chronological occurrence of Somalia before its colonial era. In the next episodes, I shall shed light on the role of foreign interventions in the Somali dilemma. The second chapter begins with colonial effects, particularly, the ﬁrst and second scramble for Somalia by European colonials. Thence, I will look into foreign involvements when Somalia had a functioning statehood, which coincides with the Cold War era. Finally, and most importantly, I shall look into the international and regional involvements since the collapse of Somalia State.
Nevertheless, Imam Ahmed Gurey’s reign concedes with the times when Abyssinian aggressions were also enhancing. His ﬁrst confrontation was against the expedition attack from the army of Lebna Dengal of Ethiopian Emperor. Dengal’s Army attacked and invaded Somali territory and then committed all kinds of evil crimes such as killings, raping and looting. During the attack, Imam Ahmed Gurey was reconciling between two Somali clans. For this narrative, the author of Futuh Al-Habasha writes:
Even though Somalis were defeated
at the later wars and were pushed back from Abyssinian territory to their lands, yet again, they did not lose one feet of their country to the Abyssinians and Portuguese partners (Fitzgibbon, 1982: 7). Sir Richard Burton veriﬁes that the inhabitants of Zeila, Harar and surrounding “…one of the tyrants by the name highlands all the way towards Degalhan, a brother in-law of the Abyssinian king with the vast number Berbera were Somalis.
of patricians under him, who reached the foremost borders of the country of Muslims, had plundered it, and taken by force their wealth, and made improper advances towards female members of their families, amongst whom was mother of one of the amirs of the imam” (Futuh Al-Habasha;
Notwithstanding that, some aspects of Somali internals obscured from Burton, however, his record shows that Somalis were independent and all lands that they claimed against Ethiopia were theirs at the time of his travel in 1854.
By Abdiweli Garad HANOOLAATO C e n t r a l C o m m i 2 e e Chairman
Gabeygan waxaa uu ka turjimayaa ujeedka iyo halka uu ka shidaal qaato xisbi weynaha Hanoolaato waxaana uu tilmaamayaa cida uu ka soo jeedo oo, uu ku abtirsadso xisbigaan Hanoolaato iyo halka aragtidiisu taal hadaba kabogosho wacan.
Ka Ab, Ka Ab Awoowiyo
Uurxumada la, ooyaan: Aragtida wadagnaa . Amiirkii daraawiish: Ududbkeeda taagee: Arligayga dhiciyiyo: Amarkiyo Burhaantii: Aarmigii maqiiqnaa, Ilig iyo fadhiyey Eyl , Sayidkii Abuuraan: Aragtitda wadagnaa . Afartankii nin joogoo Af Libaax ku boodaan: Aragtida wadaagnaa . Arligaan laheynbaa: Amarkiis wareegee: umad yahey istaagoo: aragtitda ballaarshoo Midnimada adkeeyoo Iska eega bahalada
Oday wuxuu ku faanaa Orod wuxuu ku soo marey: Ararteydu waxey tahey Imaamkii dagaalkiyo: Boqorkii Afriikiyo: Axmed Gurey dirkiisii Amxaarada gumaadee: Gaalada idleeyaan: Aragtida wadaagnaa.: Abwaanada gabyaayee:
By Cali Aar London, UK
Dhibaatada Caruurta iyo dagaallada Soomalia
By Abdirashid ‘Qoslaaye’
Khilaaf kama taagna in caruurta
meeydadka oo ah kuwa aan cidi daryeelin ee iska daadsan xaafadaha somaliyeed ay baahanyihiin nolol,daryeel iyo xanaano ayna unugul magalada muqdishu. Iyadoo ay sidaa tahay ayaa meeydadka iyo dhiiga yihiin nabadda si loogu dhiso mustaqbal wanaagsan loona helo ubad macna darrada ku daadanaa waxeey sameeyn aad u weeyn ku yeelan badbaado leh. karaan dhamaanba aadanaha gaar ahaan caruurta lamana ogaan karo Sida leeys ku raacsanyahay ama caaﬁmaad darrida ka dhalatay ama lawada ogyahay caruurta da’doodo heeysato caruurta ku dhex nool yartahay ayaa ah kuwo aad uga maskax badan marka loo eego dadka marxaladaan adag inta ku dhex jiran. waa weeyn,had iyo jeerna waxaa u Caruurta ku nool magaalada sahlan in ay wax qabtaan ayna muqdishu ayaa ah kuwa ay ka xaﬁdaan oo aysan sahal ku illoowin. dhamaatay naxdintii iyo naxariistii, iyadoo la arkayo caruurta oo Arrinkaan ayaa ah midka keenay in daawaneeysa dagaalada, dhaawacyada ilmuha marka ay yaryihiin lagu halista ah, meeydadka sida daran ugu dadaalo wax barashadooda maadaama ay leeyihiin maskax aad u wax yeellobay dagaalada iyo duqeeymada ka socda muqdishu, diiran una nugul in ay wax waliba si waxey sameeynayaan waxyaabo aysan sahlan ku qabtaan. Lakiin caruurta ku dhiiran Karin dadka waa weeyn oo ayaa ah kuwa aan garaadkooda iyo aysan naftoodu siineeynin in ay sii maskaxdooda aanan ka war heeynin daawadaan ama ku sii nagadaan iyo ujeedada waalidiintoodu ugu daawashadooda. dadaalayaan in ay tahay wax iyaga u roon mustaqbalka. Caruurta ayaa noqday kuwa ku Ujeedka maqaalkeeyga oo ah sheekeeysta waqtiyadooda inta badan “dhibaatada Caruurta iyo Dagaalada dagaalada magaalada iyagoo Is Somalia“ Xulashada Cinwaankaan iyo weeydiiyay meeqa meeyd ah ayaad maqaalka ayaa waxay igu dhalatay soo aragtay ama dhaawac ah, sidoo kadib markii aan arkay kale waxeey kala barteen hubka dhibaatooyinka kala duwan ee heeysta leeysku ridayo nuucyadiisa kala caruurta somaliyeed ayaan gadisan. Waxaad arkeeysaa caruur dul go’aansaday in aan wax ka qoro dhooban ruux meeyd ah ama dhibaatada aadka u weeyn ee aan dhaawac ah oo ka sheekeeynaya dadku wada dareensaneeyn ee xabbadu meesha ay kaga taallo ama heeysata caruurta somaliyeed ee ku xabbada ku dhacday nuuceeda nool gudaha dalka Somalia gaar arrinkan oo aan aheeyn mid sahlan si ahaan magaalkdan aan ku noolahay lagu ogaado xabbad qof ku dhacday ee Muqdishu oo ah mid ay aafeeyeen nuuca ay tahay hadnaa ciyaalka dagaallo sokeeye iyo kuwa siyaasadeed muqdishu ayaa ah kuwa kala bartay oo aad u soo laalaabtay illaa iyo nuucyada rasaasta iyo daryanka haddana aanan laga gaarin wax xal ah madaaﬁicda. in dhibaatadii la sii badiya mooyee. Caruurtu waxey isku xujeeystaan soo Caruurta somaliyeed ayaa ah kuwa daawashada dagaalada dhacaya oo daris la noqday dagaallo iyo weliba muujiya ineey aad geesiyaal u duqeeymo,dhimasho iyo dhaawac fara yihiin sababtoo ah waxaad arkeysaa badan oo aan xad laheeyn iyo kuwa ku faanaya ninkii xabada ridayey
aniga waan ag taagnaa oo cidina igama xigin, wuxuu dilay dhoowr qofood iyo ereyo kale.
Caruurta ayaa ah Milatery aan la
ogeeyn waxaan sabab uga dhigayaa arrinkaan: waxaa dhacaday maalin maalmaha kamid ah oo ay taariikhdu markaa ku beegneeyd Tuesday, October 21, 2008 waa xilligii ciidamadii Ithopianka ahaa ay ku sugnaayeen magaalada muqdishu, waxeey aheyd arrin iga fajaciyay waxaan ku sugnaay xaafadeyda oo ku taallo Degmada Wardhiigleey ee Gobolka banadir waxaa hal mar nagu soo yaacay oo aan la kulanay dad fara badan oo ordaya waxaa ila taagnaa wiil aad u da’yaraa oo aan ku qiyaasayay markaas 11 jir waxaan dhinac ka raacnay dadkii cararayay oo ahaa kuwa ay daba ordayeen ciidamadii shisheeye ee dhibka weyn u geeysta dhamaanba shacabka somaliyeed gaar ahaan maatida.marki aan labo waddo gooynay ama jarnay ayaa waxaa gadaasheena ka yeeray shanqar xabadeed oo aad u xoog badneeyd nagana nixisay dhamaanba dadkeeni cararayay, wiilkii da’da yaraa ayaa igu dhahay Xabadu qofbeey ku dhacday, waxaan ku dhahay sideed ku ogaatay? wuxuu igu dhahay isku dhawaq ma’ahan xabbada wax ku dhacda iyo xabbada kale ee aan dib u eegno halka ay xabbadu ka dhacday. Waxaa naftu isiin weeysay in aan sii socdo, waxaan dib u milicsannay halkii xabbadu ka dhacday waayaab!! waxaa rafabnaya wiil dhallinyaro ah oo aan garanayo meeshii ayaan waxaan ka biloownay gurmad iyo caawinaad. Hadaba qaraabo Miyuusan wiilkaasi aheeyn Military aan laga war heeyn oo leh tababar aad u saretya?. Continue Next page>>>
Caruurta ayaa kala bartay xitaa wadooyinka liifku saaranyahay xilliyada dagaalka iyagoo dadka u sheegaya in wadadu ay halis tahay oo aan lamarin Karin ciddi martana ay halis u tahay in ay xabadu ku dhacdo islamarkaana si dhoolatus ah wadooyinka ugoya iyadoo ay ka soo garaaan dhimasho iyo dhaawac. Kadibna halkaas gaari gacanno looga daabulo. Dhibaatooyinka ay dagaalada kala kulmaan caruurta ayaa waxaan ka yareeyn mida ay isku geeystaan iyagu haba ugu badnaato kuwa aan daryeelka heeysan ee kunool jirdiinada wehelna la’ah eeyaha, bisadaha, dhaxanta, roobka iyo waliba maankooda oo aanan siineeyn in ay xabbada ka ganbadaan maadama ay yihiin kuwo sarkhaansan. Midka kamid ah macalimiinta wax ka dhiga schoolada ku yaalla magaalada muqdisho ayaan weeydiyay maadaama caruurta somaliyeed ay maskaxdooda degtay dhibaatooyin badan cabsidooduna ay aad u badatay sida ay ugu suurtagasho in ay wax bartaan ama wax loo dhigo wuxuuna ii siiyay tusaale yare ee kusaabsan maaddo Arts ah oo uu kadhigo schoolka iina sheegay in uu mar ardeydiisa ku amray in ay wax sawiraan oo qofwalba oo caruurta kamid ah uu wax sawiro, macalinkaasi waxaa la yaab igu noqotay ayuu yiri in dhamaan ay ardeydii yar yareyd sawireen hubka nuucyadiisa kala duwan. Su’aasha aan is weeydiiyay ayaa aheyd miyeeysan Dagaaladan Saameeyn weeyn ku laheeyn Caruurta maadama ay wada sawireen qori iyo gaadiid dagaal?. Caruurta ku kortay ama ku dhex nool dhibka ayaa ah kuwo aad ay u adagtahay in laga dhaadhaciyo in dagaalku uusan wanaagsaneeyn, sababtoo ah waxey laqabsadeen qaski,jahawareerki iyo ereyga dhimashada oo maalin walba waxuu goob joog u yahay dhimasho waxeeyna u badanyiihin ma naxayaal
wax walba oo dhaca aan jixin jix u sameeyneyn xitaa hadii aad dhahdo aabahaa ayaa dhintay ama hooyadaa ayaa dhimatay malahan wax is badal ah ama dareen naxdineed ah oo laga dheehan karo canugaas haba yaraatee waxaa xaaraanba ka noqotay illinti iyo cabsidi lagu garan jiray dadka beerka iyo wadnaha leh. Marki ay arkaan qof dhintay ee loo ooynayo waxeey leeyihiin waad jilcantahay oo maxaad la ooyneeysaa dhimashadu waa iska caadiye, arrinkaan aya waxaan ku soo ogaaday inuu sababta ugu weeyn ee caruurta naxariista ka qaaday ay tahay daawashada ﬁlimada horrerka ah ama cabsida leh oo xillayadii dowlada ama kala danbeeynta ciyaalka laga ilaalin jiray balse maanta aanan jirin cid ka ilaalineeyso iyo saxaafadda somaliyeed oo ah ka qeeybgalayaal dagaal, sabatuna waxeey tahay Idacadii waxaa laga dhageeysanayaa dagaalbaa dhacay,dadbaa dhintay,dadbaa dhaawacmay,dadbaa barakacay,meeydbaa lajiiday. Telefeshinki waxaa laga soo deeynayaa meeyd meel yaallo ee bahallo cunayaan,dhaawacyo gaari gacanno lagu daabulayo sida raashinkii oo kale, meeydadka wadooyinka lagu jiidayo.sidoo kale jornaalka waxaa lagu soo sawirayaa taangi dagaal iyo mooryaan wax dhaceeysa meeydki wadada yaallay oo ay ka daawanayaan habeen iyo maalin. Inta badan dadka hadda ka dagaalamo gabi ahaan gudaha dalka Somalia gaar ahaan magalada muqdishu ayaa u badan dhallinyarada ku soo kortay dowlad la’aanta kuwaas oo da’doodo ka hooseeyseeyso 25 jirka.
Soomaliya waxa lagu dilaa waxeey ubadanyihiin dhallinyaro iyo caruur kuwa wax dilayana waa dhallionyaro,kuwa hospitalska dhooban oo dhaawaca la ildarana waa dhallinyaro iyo Caruur, kuwa wax dhacayo waa dhallinyaro oo dhamaantood ah dadka ay da’doodu u dhaxeeyso 14-25sano jir Waxaa leeys weeydiinya hadii dhallinyaradii ama ubixii wadanka Somalia ay sidaan ku noolyihiin ama xaalkooda halkaas marayo miyeeysan aheeyn in somalidu dabar go’o ku sii socoto illeen wadan jirtaankiis wuxuu ku xiranyahay dhallinyartiisa. Sidoo kale hadii ay dadkii wadanka maanta wax u baran lahaa ay sidaan noqdeen maxaa xal inoo noqon doona? yaa dhibka naga dulqadi doona?. Dhallinyarooy is disheen, dadkina disheen, dalkii qarribteen, maxaa naga horeeyo dhallinyarooy oo nasugaya maxaase faraha kula jirnaa maalin iyo habeen ﬁkirki wuxuu noqday side leeysku dilaa?. Dhallinyarada somaliyeed dhamaantood dhib ayaa heeysta meel waliba oo ay ku noolhiiin ee ilaah haka dulqaado dhibkaas heeysta gaar ahaan kuwa dalka kunool. Ilaahoow Somalia dhibka ka qaad adiga ayaa awoodee.dhallinyarta dabar go’a kabadbaadi adiga ayaa awoodee. Dadka jahliga ka saar adiga ayaa awoodee. "MEEL NABADI KA JIRTAA NOLOL IYO HORUUMAR KA DHASHAAN"
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The Bloodshed in Mogadishu!
The occupation in Somalia!
“Feed the hungry and visit a sick person, and free the captive, if he be unjustly confined. Assist any person oppressed, whether Muslim or nonMuslim.” Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
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