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17 18 Century Fountains

17 18 Century Fountains

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The Garden History Society

Fountains: Theory and Practice in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Author(s): Christopher Thacker Source: Occasional Paper (Garden History Society), No. 2 (1970), pp. 19-26 Published by: The Garden History Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1586301 Accessed: 23/03/2009 07:04
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.near Basildon in Berkshire. William Mason had writtentriumphantly: . and then by other controls they make an owl move.and others will rememberPaxton's Emperorfountainat Chatsworth. 15th October 1969.by meansof little bronzeflutes .but rarely spoke of their Sixteenth-and Seventeenth-century overall aptness to the scene. and so most early Italian Renaissancefountainsrely on gravity-feed.you hearbirdsong.At Tivoli. Montaigne visited the gardens of the Villa d'Este in 1581.interest. so forcing it out as a draughtthroughthe pipes of the organ. broughtup from the GreatExhibition of 1851 .The sublime and the less sublime even leap and sparkleside by side. from the soaringjet d'eau at Geneva to the miniaturefour-inchplastic frogs.. thefountain dares no more Tofling its wasted crystal thro'the sky.when modem Europeanfountains began . spectacularjet is next to the mock-Italian. played in the same way. The great surge of Classical enthusiasmin Italy in the sixteenth century led to a wish to recreatethe gardensof ImperialRome. As early as 1777.vaultedcave and agitates the inside. "which is a true music and from real organ-pipes.back gardens.until this moment of eclipse at the end of the eighteenthcentury.spewing four-inch spouts in our own or our neighbours'. fountains had been out of fashion for a long time.or. This variety goes back a fair way .membersof the Society will rememberthe huge Wurlitzerof a fountainat Castle Howardin Yorkshire. "The music of the organ".where the simple.. architectsdid not have the hydraulic knowledge to ensure high pressure on level ground. At first. and was impressed by the water organs.Another source of water turns a toothed wheel. poweredby torchbatteries. is producedby meansof waterwhich falls with greatviolence into a round. But before the 1820s. When it appearson the top of a rock.novelty or magnificence in each part.he writes. giant-sized frogs.' This paperaims to trace the history of fountainsfrom the late 1500s . as at the Child-Beale Trust.Elsewhere. which strikesthe keyboardof the organwith a certainorder. Subordinationof the part to the whole was not often a major preoccupation.. is fed from the tumblingwatersof the riverAnio.Fountains:Theory and Practice in the Seventeenthand EighteenthCenturies* by CHRISTOPHER THACKER In this centurywe may see fountainsof every conceivable kind.but ratherthe extravagantachievementof utmostexcitement.. divertedto give a full and constantsupply. the Villa d'Este. the early fountain-enthusiasts delighted in doing as many differentthings with it as they could. planned by Pirro Ligorio in the 1550s. it suddenly stops this * Paperpresentedwith slides at GardenHistory Society meeting.while this in turnsprays beside a frothingtrio of man. travellersnoted these individualqualities .When water like this was available. including fountainsin cities and in private villas. London.You can also hear the sound of trumpetsimitated.

rises a copperball that continuallydances about three feet from the pavement. was at Enstone.and at the Villa Aldobrandini. even in the eighteenthcentury. admired the fountains in terms similar to Montaigne's. In one of these theatres of water. like most others of its kind.This was designed by Pietro Bernini.and being kept of a roundregularForm with frequentClippings.forced by a Wheel. 186.It is illustratedand explained at length in RobertPlot's Natural History of Oxfordshire this (Oxford.or old boat (1627). and thunder. which are arriv'dto a large Stature. above all.afterthey had partakenof a sufficient Sprinkling to imprintin their Memories the pleasurableMistake.. The one on the northside is by Carlo Maderno. 1677).is an Atlas spouting up the streamto a very greatheight. 1970 . and in a cloudy Day I have been inform'd.frighteningthe birds by its presence. Elsewhere. the fountain of Paul V. InRome itself the Renaissance Popes commissioned a great many fountains.even fussy. than leaden Pipes. and elsewhere a smaller.with such fury of rain. The exuberance of the one matches the exuberance round about.harmony.as one would imagine oneself in some extreme tempest. the head of the Acqua Felice acqueduct(1587). hydraulicorgans. whereinare curiousrocks.by virtue of a wind conveyed secretly to a hole beneathit. or maybe by his more famous son Lorenzo. 236-237. 'till the Gardenerhas convinc'd them of theirError. all round as naturalas if it rain'd. supposing it had really rain'd. He A joke fountain which.but. in Oxfordshire.rattlingnoise like a volley of shots from arquebuses. and all sorts of singing birds.Montaignedescribesseveral similar experiences(Journal.Spectatorssettingdown here to rest themselves.with several other pageants and surprisinginventions. Peter's. founComparedwith the Four Rivers or the Barcacciasome of the other early seventeenth-century tains of Rome seem over-ornate.and at times an amazingmarriagebetween the fountainand the buildings around it. Among the simplest. moving and chirpingby force of the water. with a Sundial.to the sumptuous.pp. It was 20 GHS OCCASIONAL PAPER2. The pictureshows how heavy-handed English version must have been."3 The "wettingto the skin"was common. and the older fountains (c.are the two fountainsin front of St.there are noises like cannon. and anothermonstermakes a terriof ble roaringwith a horn. the closer they have embrac'dthe Tree for Shelter. and appearmore like Ivy on the rough Bark (being painted Green). Evelyn. the representation a storm is most natural. pp. plentifully sprinklesthose thatarestandinground". which while Strangersare looking at. the head of the Acqua Paola acqueduct.. which on the Turn of a Cock dischargeWater from a vast Numberof small Nosils in the Head of the Trees. has now disappeared. make a very good Figure: There are small Pipes which twine roundthe Bodies of these Trees. In the centre of one of these rooms.spectacularfountainsof the Piazza Navona . with many other devices to wet the unwaryspectatorsso thatone can hardlystep withoutwetting to the skin. a Quantityof Water. wind. which the Gardinerturns at a Distance."in a gardenjoining [to the palace of Whitehall]thereis a jet d'eau.built after 1612. Then there is the lovely Barcaccia. visiting the Villa d'Este in 1645. in the Piazza di Spagna."2 The mechanicaldevice of the Owl fountainis cousin to the many trick and joke fountainscreatedin the period.Bernini's fountain of the Four Rivers (164851) in the middle.his descriptionmakes the fountains seem a jumble of conceits: "[Thereis] an artificalgrot. they reappearfrom time to time."5 But beside all this extravagancein the sixteenth and seventeenthcenturies there was in Italy a great deal of beautyin single fountains. 1575) at each end of the piazza.Switzer describesone at DyrhamPark in Gloucestershirewhich must have annoyed many a sightseer while it existed: "Atthe Bottom of the Steps are plantedtwo Thornsencompass'dwith Seats.4 saw anotherat Nonesuch. and probablythe greatest. from the Moses Fountain. 191). while the GermantravellerPaul Hentznersaw similarcuriosities in Englandin 1598 . the more these Pipes have play'd. througha Numberof little Pipes. Though our colder climate is hardlyfavourableto these Renaissance tricks.

Oxfordshire (1677) .~~~~~~~~ g t?4~1*?~-. ~ '' d:ud4r. Plot.? .?:. ---V. T-??~ - Joke-fountain...7 "?r ~ IW ~.r~~~~~~~~~~~R~~~~~~~XI.j. ...' ::~-?.??:'" .from R.z-.

i". : ?. C`.r i'''::':''*"'' *': 11 . i?': .1.. . ..*.??:?:.i.?': ?'?.??.-. ?I .?-'?...f:kr .r. ! ? ."??.??..? '??:: .! . GrandeAllee. -'. LI.from Les Curiosites de Paris (1733) .? . c : ... .r ." i' ?r *'Ci:...* :I ?'* J . ???r?'?JI:IP?II L..:?r.*I ?'...?:.... -.i: :: 1 -??. ???" -?"? . *ii?:.* I?'fC: ??i ?..i 1?? i::: ' ?.?:? ?I..47:?r. I? 'I :i- . Versailles..: .:.?.!L?.Cu .? r? ??I: .

. ?I - I I' II . MmMSl4^ -^ -. -A' z- . _7--?P .-. 1730 .c. \T' _qt = .7i _ I.I . . from Falda .iiF _. Rousham. ._3 -":. . - J la Kent's drawingof Venus'sVale. - i.St Peter's.. -- ~~~~~~ . - . * -XiL s T 0i-- -C -.Bernini's fountain.

?:\ Ip fln S S i w4f 4 SF-~- - *1 4 e t . parkand garden (Reproducedby kindpermissionof the Essex Record Office) .v ^-lo' s I Plate 1 Detail of James Walker'smap of West Thordon estate (1598) showing the house..' g W. . . . .... t S&Ir' a _C ioI .A PO C .

The main points to resolve for consistent efficiency in fountainsappearto have been (1) the creation of reservoirsat a point higher than the site of the fountain.Man is and imperfectworld. The fountains are not just an expression of Marly joie de vivre. with 14 water-wheelsdriving 253 pumps."Nature"is tamed. But these are the exception among Roman fountainsnot the rule. direction and number.in fountains as in the design of is parterres. involving the house gardenand each of theirparts. which appearedin an English translation in 1718. At Versailles. and the size and numberof the jets in the fountain. 1970 GHS OCCASIONAL 21 . the symmetry.culminatingin his Motion of Water. was dedicated to Hercules.the god of strength. the 1600s several workson hydraulicsappear.at Versailles.and then duplicatedon the south side by Carlo Fontanain 1675. ascending a good height.in particularSalomon de Caus's Les Raisons des forces mouvantes (Francfort. for example Stephen Switzer's Hydrostaticks (1729). and which even reappeared an English translationas late as 1704.but the visible sign of man's controlover nature.how high above the site of the fountain should the reservoirbe to achieve a jet of a certain height? and (3) the relationshipbetween the pressure of the water. At a political level. water-wheels and horses.says of the fountains of Versaillesand their symmetricalmagnificence: PAPER2.which we expect in the great gardens of the second half of the seventeenth-century. of (2) the measurement waterpressure. or the articles on fountains in works of reference such as Chambers' Encyclopaedia or the FrenchEncyclopedie." 6 The principles involved in the successful working of a fountain were not properly studied until the In seventeenth-century. I esteem this one of the goodliest fountainsI ever saw. Of the Maderno-Bernini fountain. Evelyn wrote in 1644 that it was a fountain "out of which gushes a river ratherthan a stream which. Delille.They extend the sense of dominationand control exercised of by the chateau.as it is of Versaillesitself. one can say that at Versailles the repetitionof the same pattern.the subordination smaller aspects to the total scenic concept.1615). and the various works on hydraulicsof Edme in Mariottefrom 1680 onwards. imposing his rationalperfection upon an irrational It is no accident that the first of Le Notre's great gardens. an expression of the centralpower of the Frenchking. though generallydisapprovingof fountains. under headings such as "the measure of spouting water. and the raising of water to these reservoirs. (now destroyed. fountains are of immense importance. alas!) .an essentialfeaturein the design of the gardens. of exuberance.and "the measureof spoutingwaterthro'Ajutages [the name given to the orifice throughwhich the water finally sprayedout] of differentbores".St. A late eighteenth-century Frenchpoet.Vaux-le-Vicomte. Until the mid-1600s. and was triumphantlyemployed in the giant Machine de Marly. Solutions to the first of these points are discussed in Caus's Raisons des forces mouvantes.No one of course could deny these to the two fountainsat St.or of provocaof tion . which his son Isaac re-edited in 1644. breaksupon a round emboss of marble into millions of pearls that fall into the subjacentbasins with great noise. The water-wheelwas generally accepted a the most effective. at Vaux-le-Vicomte. Peter's. the beat of the sun.rebuiltby Bernini later in the century. The accuratecontrol of the jets .lacking the overall involvement. absolute masterof his environment. made to convey water from the Seine to the waterlesssite of Louis XIV's fountaingardenat Marly.literallyas far as the eye can see. Later eighteenth-century writings on hydraulics. shape.The Frenchgardensof the late seventeenth-century express man's strength of over nature. which describe many ingenious pumps powered by steam. sole master of his society. Cloud. fountainshave been mostly splendidmoments of excitement .the parkdesigned by Le Notre for Louis XIV. are principallyderived from Mariotte.This is as trueof the Frenchcontemporaries Versailles. according to the different heightsof the reservoirs".and the symmetricalarrangements fountainsand the exact fashioning of theirjets display with splendid clarity the symbolic victory of man over nature'smost wayward element.was analysed in the work of Mariotte.their height.

L'hommese dit "C'est moi qui creai ces prodiges." We have seen how the "prettythings to look on" were looked on in Italy.the statues.there on was neverreally the out-and-outfountainenthusiasmapparent the Continent."As for the kind of fountain"thatsprinklethor spoutethWater". "ForFountains. the fountainof Apollo. Leaving the chateauby the vestibule of the marblecourt. Noticeably."Nature" to be preferredto "art".and on a smaller scale still there is Sir William Temple's as This is descriptionof Moor Park in Hertfordshire. having a "very large Parterre.even with the tricks and extravagancesseen at Nonesuch. by numberedparagraphs.do-ittone which allows no one the libertyto "standand stare". and full of Flies and Froggs. it was around1680. dating from around 1700.8 parterre And on.and. the Royal Allee.Holland.in 1597. and how the "fine Devices" were broughtto a pitch of perfectionin Franceby the fountaineersof Louis XIV. and of GaspardPoussin or Dughet. they broughtthese paintingsof Italianscenes (or copies of them) back to England. and finished around1760.anotherpreferencewas slowly stirring.and pause to view Latona. but nothing to Health and Sweetness. On a lesser scale. said categoricallyin his essay On Gardens. they set about trying to reproduce the spirit of these paintingsin the gardensof their estates.butPools marall.Knyff's paintingof Hampton Court.one must of stop at the top of the steps to view the arrangement the parterresthe pools and the fountainsin theirenclosures. with referenceto the theme of the present study. water in most of these 22 2. GHS OCCASIONAL PAPER2."7 A fascinatingsidelight on the idea of control in these gardensappearsin the guide-book which Louis a XIV himself wrote.It is a series of orders. of Nicolas Poussin. Studying art in Italy.A l'aspect de cesflots qu'un art audacieux Fait sortir de la terre et lance jusqu'aux cieux. or on their GrandTour. are "seldom curious in Fountains.andthe single fountainnow remainingin this partof the gardensis no more than a beautifulbut modest echo of former glory.and similarDutch gardensgenerallyadmiredin the last decades of the seventeenth was century. in which the spectacularwaterworksare a prinLe cipal feature. Nicolas's adoptedson.These were destroyedwithin ten or fifteen years.in France.It is truethattherewere admirersand imitatorsof Versailles ."Bacon had already. Englishmen travellingin Italy discoveredthe paintings of Claude.and pracby-numbers tically every orderconcerns the properand efficient viewing of a fountain: 1. The authoritarian tone of Louis XIV is imitatedin manyEuropeangardensthroughmuch of the eighteenth century. and as far away as Russia and Ireland.in spite of the prestigeof French. Around 1700.In Russia. Spain. thereremaintoday the vast and extravagantgardensof the Peterhof. "as they suffer little by Heat". 1970 . they are a greatBeauty and Refreshment.designed for Peter the Greatby the Frenchman Blond in 1712. the stairs. shows the gardensbetween the Palace and the canal to have had a symmetricalarrangement fifteen of fountains. throughthe rest of the gardens. domineering. Canopiesand the like) they be prettythings to look on. and adornedwith two Fountainsand Eight Statues in the severdivided into Quartersby Gravel-Walks. in which the attitudeto water and fountains is only one facet. He also points out thatthe English.you will go onto the terrace. and then turn to see the and the chateau. there were symmetricalwaterworksat Chatsworth. Drinking Glasses. feeling that they expressed the ideal spirit of the Classical world. This forms all too obviously an entire subjecton its own.But Temple is not consistent. al Quarters. the canal. In England.for "fine Devices of ArchingWaterwithout spilling and making it rise in several Forms (of Feathers. andmake the Gardenunwholesome. This small book has the attitudeof a recruits'training-manual." Many parallelsto this could be found in late seventeenth-century 9 engravings. the walks. Theobald's or Whitehall. Germany. In England. Next you will go directly above the fountainof Latona.

seems to have been planned without fountains. GHS OCCASIONAL PAPER2.are of "Neptuneand his Tritons"and set in ponds of geometrical design (p. or Buffet. painted green. or Fountain. An engraving of about 1720 in the possession of the present owner. simple yet majestic. to us.designed by Kent for Lord Burlingtonin the 1720s.This section of the gardenswas destroyedin the early eighteenthcentury. being properly disposed in a low wet Place.rivers and winding estuaries. But not so to Switzer.gardensare designed with fewer fountains. he says: "A Morass of Water.though fascinating. 1970 23 . for easy "serpentine but meanders".Plantane. on which are placed gilt Vessels. Walpole later wrote approvingly At that in Kent's gardens. and a series of wild and woolly ruins. than in any of the FrenchDesigns. but no fountains.and then. and Kent. was one of the most ardentadmirersof GaspardPoussin). shows the gardens with a plan very similar to that which still survives.but engravings show that.and not in straightcanals or geometricalponds. which cast out Waterfrom their Bills. one of the earliest of the new "naturalgardens". At the time these paintersbecame known in England.the one small fountain at Shotoveris a late Victorianaddition. which surroundsthis Morass of Water. Here men live simpler lives. such as Water-Dock. especially in the Middle of it.and on each side of the Walk."the forced elevation of cataractswas no more".At the four Comers are four Swans. Switzer goes back a bit.and of little Expence.there is a Cavity.immensely artificial. it would have seemed .. 407-408). Today.Canal and Pond. to returnmore closely to our subject. and in hot Weather. by the way.. and He is full of praise for what is "natural". a Squareof Waterboundedwith artificialReeds.admiringthe old formality.while acclaiming the new naturalness is called the Marais. GaspardPoussin's view of the falls of Tivoli in the Wallacecollection is typical. 1729). 198). there were no fountainsat any time. 1728) is close to Switzer in this respect. And.paintingsis shown as it flows naturallyin streams. "A DESIGN of this Kind I can't but recommendto the Curious." 11 to In his later and more famous Introduction a General System of Hydrostaticks (2 vols. Major Miller.the symmetricallayout. Poussin has chosen a relatively rustic scene.The ha-ha wall was invented. in which the overwhelmingevidence of man's present activity is replaced by the vision of an idealised Arcadian world.Switzer's Ichnographia Rustica recommendssimplicity with fountains(1718) " 'twould be ratherhonest to advise a Grassy. London." Batty Langley.can desire (II. "leaped the fence and saw that all naturewas a garden"(Kent.. far more formal than that at Chiswick.'" Shotover in Oxfordshire. "For this kind of Morass.&c. It was. Fountainsrarelyappear. but ratherthe more beautiful by it. then Pope began to write in favour of the "naturalgarden". which all cast out Water. as being very natural. His plans and designs include both gardensin the rigid French style.and the effects of tumbling water are displayed ratherin natural cascades. At Chiswick.firstAddison. as Horace Walpole said. in his New Principles of Gardening (London. and on each Side of them Spouts of Water. Instead of the urbanerefinementsof the nearbyVilla d'Este. An interestingexample of this mixtureof feelings . with no fountainsat all.by chance . In the middle is an OakTree. in a setting doubly ennobled by its natural grandeurand its associations with the fabled past. Wateris not the less.in as much as there is more of Nature in it.answers all the Purposes that a CuriousBeholder (and one who makes Naturehis Pattern). which casts out greatquantitiesof Waterfrom its Branches.strong Turf round the Edge of the Fountain. in his gardensthe fountains you might discover . as the at centuryadvances.. of Garden-writings the period betray a similar transitionalattitude.which in its Fall causes them to Glitter like Silver. The fountainarrangement HamptonCourt was drastically reduced around 1715. and gives many designs and pictures of Versailles-type fountains.set aboutwith Water-Weeds. An immense artificial canal.

"The fall of water"is "nature'sprovince" .or with paintings of Versailles by Martin and Portail made in the late seventeenthor early eighteenthcenturies. with its silent statue of Neptune. as the paintings (c. fountainsalreadyin place were removed or made less important. A few years laterWilliam Stukeley's drawing of a hermitage (1738) includes a minute fountain whose presence may have symbolic value. and not a point of movement.therewere i thte1720s severalprominentfountainsin front of the house. had no fountains.and not artificial. now fountainless. Le N6tre's formal marvels are dismissed with: Trifleslike those at proud Versaillescombin'd Fools to surprize.but fountains are not mentionedonce. One may comparethe paintingsand sketches of the Villa d'Este by Fragonard(1760) and Hubert Robert'spainting(also c. from the top of which it is designed thatwatershall fall". nor any formal genuine farm-garden. 1760) of the Fountainin the Villa Aldobrandiniwith Falda's engravingsof these same fountains made in the seventeenthcentury. we are told: . 1770) have thirtypages on the uses of water.The Leasowes. 1755) Shenstone emphasises again and again the need to be natural. Thomas Whately's Observations on Modern Gardening (London.. and nearerstill another"fountainthatplays 40 feet. the first createdby William Shenstone in the late 1740s. a centre. As the eighteenthcentury wore on. At Stowe. The authorgoes on to praise the "natural" cascade at VirginiaWater..the opinion of fountainshas changed radically. but which clearly has no genuine partin the design.they tendedto emphasisetheirdilapidated.The presentpedestal. Again. Nebot even shows one at the centralpoint of the moon-ponds. thefountain dares no more Tofling its wasted crystal thro'the sky.only the vulgarcitizen "squirtsup his rivulets in jetteaux". In the several descriptions of the Leasowes published in the 1770s and 1780s. still at Studley. and anothernearerthe house. So. quoted earlierin this study. A descriptionof 1724 mentions a "Gulio'2or pyramidat least 50 feet high.reveal.condition. is infinitely more tactful than the disturbancewhich the fountainmust have caused. 1970 .therewere at first two. Butpours salubrious o'er the parched lawn Rills offertility." 13 By the middle of the century. Whichpatt'ringfall with infantineeffect. an attemptto merge the fountainsinto a naturalsetting. 1730) is anothertransitionalexample. in Mason's poem of 1777. to water-garden frame them. at Nonesuch: The salientfountains (which have had their day) Thro'beaks of birs ridiculouslyplay. but its importancewas merely to provide a dot. often attached to descriptionsof the neighbouring"natural" gardensof Hagley and Enville. At StudleyRoyal in Yorkshire.and shock the tastefulmind.Kent's drawing of Venus's Vale at Rousham (c. Fountainsare openly mocked in the anonymousgarden-poemThe Rise and Progress of the Present Taste (London. fountains are deridedor con24 GHS OCCASIONAL PAPER2. while at Theobald's: Here marbledbasons limpidstreamseject. 1767).created at the same time as the lake itself in the 1750s.and hence less symmetrical. In his Unconnected Thoughts on Gardening (c. 4 When existing fountainswere shown by paintersof this period. The cascade in fact is the "natural"replacementof the "artificial"fountain.1730) by BalthazarNebot.

1970 25 . Repton's pictureof the greenhousedesigned for Harewood. by confining or forming them into any other shape. the "rosarium" In 1803. 168).because all the efforts in the world.be formal and artificial.with propriety. Typical is this comment on the unforced natureof a cascade at Enville: "Any attemptof art to impede the water from forming these whirlpools as they may be called.Throughouthis career. while cascades receive enthusiasticpraise. Humphry Repton (London. will never throw it into so pleasing a figure.the fountaincould . But his disciple and successor HumphryRepton weakens. 99). Reptonwrote "Flower-gardens a small scale may. shows a fountain. GHS OCCASIONAL PAPER2."16 on And with the "artificial"once restored.the change begins to be reversed. 'Capability' Brown had eschewed fountains. with propriety." " At the very end of the century.in the open air (p.there is no sign of them in any of his gardendesigns. In Miss D. as that which naturegives it. is ridiculous.rise again.though it is totaldesigned for Ashridgehas one . ly enclosed (p. 1962). Stroud'sbook. and in 1811.in 1800.spicuously absent.

Diary. in Oeuvres choisies (Paris. 3 vols. Ed. II. W. Chalmers. Upon the Gardens of Epicurus. Envil and the Leasowes (Birmingham. p. bk. 383. Trans.. p. 143. XVIII.). 26 PAPER2.consult H. 178-169. pp. V. I. 1907). II. Maniere de montrer les jardins de Versailles. I. in Anecdotes of Painting in England. 1849). For a fine and well-illustratedaccount of Roman fountains. 1765).n. Works of the English Poets (London. III. pp.2 vols. in H. A 'Gulio' is shaped more like an obelisk than a pyramid. 2 vols. 263-264. iii. 188. Temple. 1967) p. 2 (1742). A Description of Hagley. R. I. Ichnographia Rustica. 1773). Fugitive Pieces. Nolen (London. The Diary of John Evelyn. pp. 1970 GHS OCCASIONAL .The Waters of Rome (London. 802. J.ed.A Journey into England. Girardet(Paris. Ed. Stephen Switzer. p. 3 vols. 185.ed. p. Les Jardins (1780). 1810). 305. Repton. p. 1966). 118-119. 177. II. Dedeyan (Paris. pp. 1951). JacquesDelille. 121-122.Works. Ed. 1742). Works. 1945). The English Garden. Shenstone. Ed. 2. Cf. in W.. 1. R. Anon.and dischargesjets of water from its four sides. I. Quoted in ChristopherHussey's English gardens and landscapes 1700-1750 (London. 283. Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1803).2 vols. C. 1750). Ed. III. (London. Ichnographia Rustica. Morton. 801. H. pp.d. (London.N. Bray. pp. Paul Hentzner. p. 122. W. Louis XIV. Walpole. 122. 180. Essay on Modern Gardening (1770). 1946). Mason. Ed. 1887). (London. Ed. 244-245. pp. (London. pp. 297. (London. Wornum. in A.from Montaigne's Journal de voyage en Italie.REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 W. 2 vols. 121. 96. ch. (London.

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