Reproductive System: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: Overview


at puberty Produces 4 viable sperm

Spermatogenesis: Where

in seminiferous tubules, which make up each testicle

Spermatogenesis: How

spermatogonia are located on outer wall of seminiferous tubules These increase in number via mitosis

Spermatogenesis: How
spermatogonia grow larger and become primary spermatocytes Notice their location: closer to the inside of the tubule

Spermatogenesis: How

spermatocytes undergo meiosis I to produce two secondary spermatocytes (haploid)

Spermatogenesis: How

spermatocytes undergo meiosis II to produce 2 spermatids (haploid)

Spermatogenesis: How

are aided in their maturity process by Sertoli cells (nurse cells) This helps the cells to differentiate


cells eventually detach from the Sertoli cells and are carried out by fluid in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenesis: How

Sperm cell: structure

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction: Males
GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates release of FSH, LH from anterior pituitary FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce mature sperm cells LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone

Oogenesis: overview


before birth; ends during menopause Produces 1 viable egg

Oogenesis: Where


in ovaries Begins during embryonic development

Oogenesis: Where


embryonic production of primary oocytes, egg development is determined by hormone levels during various cycles, beginning with puberty

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction: Females

Oogenesis: Days 1-13

follicle develops into secondary follicle, then Graafian follicle Estrogen, LH, FSH levels rise Progesterone levels are low Endometrium begins thickening

Oogenesis: Day 14

occurs as estrogen and FSH, LH levels peak Follicle ruptures at surface of ovary, ovum escapes Endometrium thickens more

Oogenesis: Days 15-28

is viable for a few days (~5-6) Follicle secretes progesterone If no fertilization, follicle and ovum become corpora lutea and progesterone levels fall

Menstrual Cycle: Days 0-5


sloughs off as levels of progesterone fall This is the menstrual period

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