Reproductive System: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: Overview

Begins

at puberty Produces 4 viable sperm

Spermatogenesis: Where
Happens

in seminiferous tubules, which make up each testicle

Spermatogenesis: How
Diploid

spermatogonia are located on outer wall of seminiferous tubules These increase in number via mitosis

Spermatogenesis: How
spermatogonia grow larger and become primary spermatocytes Notice their location: closer to the inside of the tubule
The

Spermatogenesis: How
Primary

spermatocytes undergo meiosis I to produce two secondary spermatocytes (haploid)

Spermatogenesis: How
Secondary

spermatocytes undergo meiosis II to produce 2 spermatids (haploid)

Spermatogenesis: How
Spermatids

are aided in their maturity process by Sertoli cells (nurse cells) This helps the cells to differentiate

Sperm

cells eventually detach from the Sertoli cells and are carried out by fluid in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenesis: How

Sperm cell: structure

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction: Males
GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates release of FSH, LH from anterior pituitary FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce mature sperm cells LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone

Oogenesis: overview

Begins

before birth; ends during menopause Produces 1 viable egg

Oogenesis: Where

Happens

in ovaries Begins during embryonic development

Oogenesis: Where

After

embryonic production of primary oocytes, egg development is determined by hormone levels during various cycles, beginning with puberty

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction: Females

Oogenesis: Days 1-13
Primary

follicle develops into secondary follicle, then Graafian follicle Estrogen, LH, FSH levels rise Progesterone levels are low Endometrium begins thickening

Oogenesis: Day 14
Ovulation

occurs as estrogen and FSH, LH levels peak Follicle ruptures at surface of ovary, ovum escapes Endometrium thickens more

Oogenesis: Days 15-28
Ovum

is viable for a few days (~5-6) Follicle secretes progesterone If no fertilization, follicle and ovum become corpora lutea and progesterone levels fall

Menstrual Cycle: Days 0-5

Endometrium

sloughs off as levels of progesterone fall This is the menstrual period

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