SIXTH EDITION

Compiled and FAited by The Howard W. Sams Engineering Staff

Howard W. Sams & Co.
A Division of Macmillan, Inc. 4300 West 62nd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46268 USA

,:', 1959, 1962, 1964, 1968, 1973, 1979, and 1986 by Howard W. Sams & Co. A Division of Macmillan, Inc.

SIXTH EDITION 1:IRST PRINTING-1986
All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. International Standard Book Number: 0-672-22469-0 1.ibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-60032 Editor: Sara Black Illustrator: Ralph E. Lund Interior Design: 7: R. Ernrick Cover Art: Stephanie Ray
Shirley Engraving Co., Inc. Jutnes F: Mier, Keller, Mier, Inc. Composition: I-'horo Cornp Corp. Printed in the United Stales of America

Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v .. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ~ i List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Chapter 1 ELECTRONICS FORMULAS AND LAWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ohm's Law for Direct Current . . . . . 1 DC Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Ohm's Law Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ohm's Law Nomograph . . . . . . . . . . 2 Kirchhoff's Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Q Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1I Susceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Energy Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ohm's Law for Alternating Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Average. RMS. Peak. and Peakto-Peak Voltage and Current . . . . 21 Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Transformer Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Voltage Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 DC-Meter Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Frequency and Wavelength . . . . . . . . 28 Transmission-Line Formulas . . . . . . 30 Modulation Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Decibels and Volume Units . . . . . . . . 32

Chapter 2 CONSTANTS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ...
Dielectric Constants of Materials . . 39 Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Standard Frequencies and Time Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 World Time Conversion Chart . . . . . 57 Frequency and Operating Power Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Commercial Operator Licenses . . . . 64 Amateur Operator Privileges . . . . . . 69 Amateur ("Ham") Bands . . . . . . . . . 70 Types of Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Television Signal Standards . . . . . . . 74 Television Channel Frequencies . . . . 77 Frequency Spectrum-Sound and Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . 78 Audiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 Radiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 NOAA Weather Frequencies . . . . . . 83

Chapter 3

SYMBOLS D CODES . 85 AN .

International Q Signals . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Z Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 10-Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 1 1-Code Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 The International Code . . . . . . . . . . . 94

. . .220 Measures and Weights . 146 Three-Phase Power Formulas . . . . . . . .13 1 Speaker Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .133 Machine Screw and Drill Sizes . . . ... . . . .. . . and Seconds of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Degrees. . . . .227 227 Atomic Second . .. Chapter 6 MATHEMATICAL TABLES AND FORMULAS . . . . . . 150 Filter Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Common Logarithms . . . . . 141 . . . . . .229 64@ . . . .165 Fractional Inch. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 123 Miniature Lamp Data .223 I~ISCELLANEOU~ Appendix A CALCULATIONS USING COMMODORE COMPUTER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubes. . . . . .. . . . . . . and Reciprocals . . .. . . . . . . . . . .170 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . Square Roots. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 . . .. . .185 F'undamentals of Boolean Algebra . . . . . .. . . . . . . 217 Teleprinter Codes . . International and Absolute Units . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 95 Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 . Mathematical Constants . 130 Receiver Audiopower and Frequency Response Check . . . and Millimeter Equivalents . . . . . . . . . .133 Types o t' Screw Heads . . . . 253 . . . . . . . 105 Resistor Color Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Powers of 10 .137 Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . 135 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . .226 Cost of Operation . . . . . . . . .. . . . Vacuum-Tube Formulas . . . . . . . . . 225 225 Weight of Water . . . . . . . . . . .227 Grad . . . . . . .1 33 Sheet-Metal Gages .. . . .. . . . . . . . . 247 Index . . Characteristics of the Elements . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . Minutes.116 Chapter 4 SERVICED AN INSTALLATION DATA. . .. . Cube Roots. . . . .. . . . . . . . 95 Letter Symbols and Abbreviations . 226 Falling Objects . . . . .174 Binary Numbers . . 141 Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps) . . . . . . . . . . .193 Chapter 7 Chapter 5 DESIGN DATA . . . 224 Winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . 1 12 Semiconductor Color Code . . 166 Algebraic Operations . . . Properties of Free Space . .. . . .. . .. . . . .141 Transistor Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 219 219 Kansas City Standard . . 137 Copper-Wire Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 Conversion of Matter into Energy . . . . . . . . ASCII Code . . . . . . . . . . .. . 225 Hydraulic Equations . . . . . . 150 Attenuator Formulas . . . .188 Squares.145 Fiber Optics . . . . . . . . . .. . 227 . . . . .123 Test-Pattern Interpretation . . . . 126 Gas-Filled Lamp Data . . . .. . . . . .. 116 Electronics Schematic Symbols . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Coaxial Cable Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .SINPO Radio-Signal Reporting Code . 163 Metric System . . . . . Decimal. . . . . . . . . . .1 1 1 Capacitor Color Codes . . . . .. .. . . . .168 Geometric Formulas . . .. 97 Semiconductor Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Other Number Systems . . . .156 Standard Potentiometer Tapers . . . . .. . . . . . 147 Coil Windings . . . Appendix B PROGRAM CONVERSIONS . 147 Current Ratings for Equipment and Chassis Wiring . . 144 Heat . . . . .

technicians. and divide vectors on a computer as well as work ~ith natural logarithms in computer programs.The electronics industry is rapidly changing. For example. In addition. Dimensions of the electrical units are also discussed. each item in the sixth edition was reviewed. We have added new sections on resistor and capacitor color codes. and basic fiber optics. Chapter 1-The basic formulas and laws. so important in all branches of electronics. but hard-toremember constants and governmentand industry-established standards. most of them are incorporated in this volume. In addition. and hobbyists-have told us they would like to have in a comprehensive. Throughout the text we have attempted to clarify many misconceptions. Computer programs that calculate many of the electronics formulas that appear in the text are part of the two new appendices. New developments require frequent updating of information if any handbook such as this is to remain a useful tool. We also detail how to add. Chapter 3-Symbols and codes that have been adopted over the years. additions or changes were made. experimenters. and reactance. parallel resistance. Chapter 2-Useful. we clearly distinguish between the phys- ical movement of a free electron and the guided wave motion produced by the electron's field. We also make a distinction between formulas or mathematical concepts and physical objects or measurements. Hence. we present the volt as a unit of work or energy rather than a unit of electrical pressure or force. students. The latest semiconductor information is included. The comprehensive table of conversion factors is especially helpful in electronics calculations. laws of heat flow in transistors and heat sinks. With this thought in mind. this book contains the information that users of the first five editions-engineers. operational amplifiers. we have retained our comprehensive coverage of the broad range of commonly used electronics formulas and mathematical tables from the fifth edition. one-stop edition. . subtract. Many suggestions were received and considered. multiply. In previous editions. Nomographs that speed up the solution of DC power. we asked for recommendations of additional items to consider for inclusion in future editions. Where necessary.

in any branch of electronics.Chapter 4-Items of particular interest to electronics service technicians. and temperature scales. Once again your comments. Chapter 5-Data most often used in circuit design work. . The comprehensive table of powers. table of elements. criticisms. roots. Chapter 7-Miscellaneous items such as measurement conversions. No effort has been spared to make this handbook of maximum value to anyone. and reciprocals is a n important feature of this section. Appendices-Computer programs for basic electronics formulas. and recommendations for any additional data you would like t o see included in a future edition will be welcomed. Chapter 6-Mathematical tables and formulas. The filter and attenuator configurations and formulas are particularly useful to service technicians and design engineers.

64 2-13 Citizens Band Frequencies and Upper and Lower Tolerances . . . . . . . .. . . . 94 SINPO Signal-Reporting Code . . .113 Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitor Color Code . . . . . 73 2-17 Television Channel Frequencies . . 88 APCO 10-Signals . . 42 2-7 Metric Conversion Table . . . . . 64 2-12 Frequency Tolerances of Personal Radio Services Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 7 1 2-15 Maximum Power for the 160-m Band . . . . . . . 41 2-5 Units in Use with SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-15 3-15 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 5-1 5-2 Q Signals . . 40 2-2 SI Base and Supplementary Units . . . . . . .131 Drill Sizes and Decimal Equivalents . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 24 1-4 Dimensional Units of Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . 60 2-1 1 Power Limits of Personal Radio Services Stations . 65 2-14 "Ham" Bands . . 4 1 2-4 Common S1 Derived Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2-9 Binary and Decimal Equivalents . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 K Factors for Calculating Attenuator Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Common Gage Practices . . . . . . . . . . .116 Coaxial Cable Characteristics . 21 1-2 Time Constants Versus Percent of Voltage or Current . . .9 dB) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Resistor Color Code .124 Miniature Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .114 Ceramic Capacitor Color Codes .136 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . . .. . . . . . ... . . Peak. . . . . . . . .135 Comparison of Gages . . . . 36 2-1 Dielectric Constants of Materials . . . . . . . . . 33 1-6 Decibel Table (20-100 dB) . . RMS. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .1 14 Tantalum Capacitor Color Codes . 78 2-19 Frequency Classification . . . . . .126 Gas-Filled Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .130 External Resistances Needed for Gas-Filled Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Machine Screw Tap and Clearance Drill Sizes . 42 2-6 Metric Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . and Peak-to-Peak Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 41 2-3 SI-Derived Units with Special Names . . . . .. . 53 2-10 Other Standards Stations . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .112 Molded Paper Tubular Capacitor Color Code . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 1-5 Decibel Table (0-19. . . . . . 137 Copper-Wire Characteristics . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1-3 Dimensional Units of Mechanical Quantities . . . . . .. .1-1 Average. . . . . . . . 116 Semiconductor Color Code . . . . . . 77 2-18 Cable TV Channel Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . 93 Law Enforcement I ]-Code . . . . .138 Recommended Current Ratings (Continuous Duty) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 CBers 10-Code . . 95 Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .158 . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 43 2-8 Conversion Factors . 72 2-16 Types of Emission . . 92 Police 10-Code . . . . . 85 Z-Code for Point-to-Point Service . . 95 Greek Symbol Designations . .

. Decimal. . . . Excess-3 Code . . . . . . . . .228 .194 7-1 Moore ARQ Code (Compared with 5-Unit Teleprinter Code) . . . . . . .. .182 Basic Rules of Symbolic Logic .166 Trigonometric Formulas .. . . . . . . .189 6-10 Squares. . . . . . . . . . . . Square Roots. . . . . 175 Natural Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . and Keciprocals . . .. . . . .219 7-2 ASCII Code . Cube Roots. . . .220 7-4 Minutes and Seconds in Decimal Parts of a Degree . . . . . . . . . . . .Fractional Inch. . . . . .182 Gray Code . 176 182 Powers of 2 . . . .186 6-9 Common Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 7-3 Characteristics of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Millimeter Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . Cubes.. . . .186 Summary of Logical Statements . . .

According to Ohm's law. in ohms. referring to Fig. in volts. the volt is the basic unit of potential energy per unit of charge flow. in volts. R is the resistance. in watts. in amperes. OHM'S LAW FORMULAS Fig. 1-1: Note. the current that flows is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.Chapter 1 OHM'S LAW FOR DIRECT CURRENT All substances offer some obstruction to the flow of current. I is the current. I DCPOWER The power P expended in load resistance R when current I flows under a voltage pressure E can be determined by the formulas: where I is the current. R is the resistance. E is the voltage. Thus. where P i s the power. 1-1 A composite of the electrical formulas that are based on Ohm's law is given in Fig. in amperes. E is the voltage. The volt is the work that is done by a battery or generator in separating unit charges through unit distance. in ohms. .

E2 is a mathematical stepping-stone to g o from one physical reality to another physical reality. If a current of 1 A flows in ordinary bell wire (diameter about 0. Example. the electrical impulse would be evident at New York in less than 0. In other words. all values must be read in either the bold. disregarding losses due to the wire resistance. On the other hand. the formula P = EI can be used to calculate that P = 50 W. Thus. it would take more than 6025 years for an electron entering the wire at San Francisco to emerge from the wire at New York. Thus. then the formula I = E/R can be used to calculate that I = 5 A. E2is physiThe nomograph presented in Fig. 1-2 OHM'S LAW NOMOGRAPH Free electrons travel slowly in conductors because there is an extremely large number of free electrons available to carry the charge flow (current). the electrical impulse travels along the wire at the rate of 186. The value of the resistor is 20 R. 1-3 is a convenient way of solving most Ohm's law and DC power problems. Formulas are used to calculate unknown values from known values. as shown in Fig. although this formula is a physical fiction. What is the value of a resistor if a 10-V drop is measured across it and a current of 500 mA (0. 1-4: . the formula P= EZ/ R states a mathematical reality.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND 1-2.02 s.04 in). For a given problem. and the figures in lightface (on the left-hand side) cover another range. although E2is mathematically real. KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS According to Kirchhoff's voltage law. Unknown Value E=IR I=UR R=UI Formulas E=PII I=P/E R=E'P E = a I = ~ R=p/lZ cally unreal. Nevertheless.or lightface figures. Note. the formula P = EI can be used to calculate that P = E2/R. The same answer is obtained whether the formula P = EI or the formula P = E2/R is used. "The sum of the voltage drops around a DC series circuit equals the source or applied voltage. E is both physically and mathematically real. if it is known that E = 10 and R = 2. or 100/2 = 50 W.001 i d s . the two unknown values can be determined by placing a straightedge across the two known values and reading the unknown values at the points where the straightedge crosses the appropriate scales.5 A) is flowing through it? What is the power dissipated by the resistor? Answer. because each free electron exerts a force on its adjacent electrons. For example. If two values are known." In other words. if the wire were run 3000 mi across the country. Such relations are summarized by the basic principle that states equations are mathematical models of electrical and electronic circuits. These formulas are virtually indispensable for solving DC electronic circuit problems. that E is physically real and that E2 is physically unreal. Or.000 mi/s. Fig. however. the velocity of each free electron is approximately 0. Similarly. The figures in boldface (on the right-hand side of all scales) cover one range of given values. Since I = E/R. The power dissipated in the resistor is 5 W.

1-4 .ELECTRONICS FORMULAS LAWS AND Fig. Ohm's law and DC power nomograph. 1-3. Fig.

1-8): E. and E. is the total current. I. = E. are the currents flowing through the individual branches.. and E. are the voltage drops across the individual resistors." Hence. in volts. RESISTANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total resistance in a circuit. + I? I .. or: I.where E. and I. + E. According to Kirchhoff's current law. as shown in Fig. it is a misnomer in the physical sense of the words. if a circuit is divided into several parallel paths. are the voltage drops across the individual resistors. 12. Resistors in series (Fig. I. + E. 1-7): Fig. "The current flowing toward a point in a circuit must equal the current flowing away from that point. 1-6 Note.E. in amperes. 1-5. 1-9): where E. is the source voltage.. are the currents flowing through the individual branches. the sum of the currents through the individual paths must equal the current flowing to the point where the circuit branches. flowing through the circuit. the relationships are as follows: Resistors in parallel (Fig. Although the term "current flow" is in common use. E l . is the total current. 1-5 In a series-parallel circuit (Fig.. in amperes.. I. 1-6). = I . Voltage does not flow. El. in volts. and current does not flow. resistance does not flow.. .and I. Fig. Current is defined as the rate of charge flow. E. is the source voltage. I. where I.. flowing through the circuit. = I? Two resistors in parallel (Fig.

in ohms. Place a straightedge across the points on scales R. The point at which the Fig. Parallel-resistance nomograph. where the known value resistors fall. 1-10. of the circuit. 1-7 where R. 1-8 R1 RT (Total) R2 Fig. R. and R. are the values of the individual resistors. . 1-9 Fig.. 1-10. and R. . The equivalent value of resistors in parallel can be solved with the nomograph in Fig.-- R1 R2 R3 Fig. is the total resistance. R .

) Example. In turn. What is the total resistance of a 754. the effective resistance is a mathematical reality but a physical fiction. are used with the B. For example. Note.. the physical power is dissipated by the screen and not in the space from cathode to screen. Note. as required.then consider this 40 R and the 1204 resistor. What is the total resistance of a 1500-52 and a 14. C. What is the total resistance of a 50-R and a 75-Rresistor in parallel? Answer. or more. scale and rotated to find the various combinations of values on the R .. scales.000-Rresistor in parallel? Answer. (First. and R. 1-12): Fig. 100. If three resistors are in parallel. which will give 40 R. the straightedge can be placed at this value on the R. 1355 R. The power dissipated in the effective resistance is 7.7. 1-11 Capacitors in series (Fig. . may be in any unit of measurement as long as all are in the same unit.5 mA. C2.000V. The range of the nomograph can be increased by multiplying the values of all scales by 10. Example 2. C. From a practical viewpoint.. then consider this value as being in parallel with the remaining resistor. Scales R. (Use K . scale when the values of the known resistors differ greatly. if the beam current in a T V picture tube is 0. are the values of the individual capacitors. Capacitors in parallel (Fig. 1-13): 30R. Ohm's law states that R = E/I. scale will show the total resistance of the two resistors in parallel. scale. and R. which will give 30 R.straightedge crosses the R .) where C.. first find the equivalent resistance of two of the resistors. and the potential-energy difference from cathode to screen is 15. In other words. C.an 854. and R 2 scales that will produce the needed value. 1000.. 1-1 1): Fig. effective resistance is often calculated as an E/I ratio.and C. consider the 75-9and 85-9resistors. Two capacitors in series (Fig.. 30 R... then the effective resistance from cathode to screen is 30 MR. CAPACITANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total capacitance in a circuit.5 W. If the total resistance needed is known.C. will be in this same unit. read answer on R..is the total capacitance in a circuit. 1-12 Example I . .and a 120-Rresistor in parallel? Answer.

The drop across each individual capacitor is inversely proportional to its capacitance. in square inches. in volts.. with . E. where E. in farads. 1-10 can also be used to determine the total capacitance of capacitors in series. in joules (wattseconds). in coulombs. The parallel-resistance nomograph in Fig. is the total capacitance of the series combination. Charge Stored The charge stored in a capacitor is determined by: Q = CE where Q is the charge. equal to the applied voltage. 1-13 where W is the energy. E is the applied voltage. E is the voltage impressed across the capacitor. in farads. C. in volts. C i s the capacitance of the individual capacitor under consideration. in farads. C is the capacitance. such as air. in picofarads. The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is determined by: Voltage Across Series Capacitors When an AC voltage is applied across a group of capacitors connected in series (Fig. C. The drop across any capacitor in a group of series capacitors is calculated by the formula: where C i s the capacitance. C is the capacitance. 1-14 *For a list of dielectric constants of materials. in inches. 1-14). a unit capacitor could be a pair of metal plates separated by 0. in volts. see section entitled Constants and Standards.001 in. in farads. Energy Stored The energy stored in a capacitor can be determined by: Fig.. is the applied voltage. in volts. N is the number of plates. Since a capacitor is composed of a pair o f metal plates separated by an insulator.Fig. of course.. is the voltage across the individual capacitor in the series (C. k is the dielectric constant. or C.).* A is the area of one plate. the voltage drop across the combination is. d is the thickness of the dielectric.

+. if the separation between the plates is increased from 0. N is the number of plates. F is the potential-energy difference. When the separation between plates is doubled. and C i s halved (0. there are 454 g in 1 lb. 1-15 . in square inches. In other words. Initial unit separation was assigned as 0.002 in.001 in in the foregoing example. In other words. S is the separation between the plates. A dyne is about '/980 g. This unit capacitor lvill have a capacitance of 1 F.15): where C is the capacitance. In turn. in dynes. 1. E is doubled (2 V). with the result that a potential-energy difference of 1 V has been generated. or about two long tons. Then. The sepaunit charges has been ration bet\~~ceri increased through unit distance. be assigned as 1 mV when calculating basic relations. The formula for calculating the capacitance is: where F i s the attractive force. if this capacitor is charged to a potentialenergy difference of 1 V (potential difference of I V). The formula for calculating the force of attraction between the two plates is: L. = L. This force is exerted through a distance of 0. in centimeters.HANI)ROOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND an area of 4.. Inductors in series with no mutual inductance (Fig. + L.46 x 10' in'. suppose that the capacitor described above has been charged to a potential-energy difference of 1 V. k is the dielectric coefficient. The initial potentialenergy difference will. Q remains constant (1 C). A is the area of one side of one plate. INDUCTANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total inductance in a circuit.. in inches. Voltage is potential energy per unit charge. the plates will attract each other with a force of approximately 4400 lb. in turn.001 in to 0. in square centimeters. in farads. and E is inversely proportional to the separation between the plates. d is the separation between the plates. the potential-energy difference increases to 2 V.+ L. twice as much work has been done (the initial voltage has been doubled). Because the initial unit separation has been doubled. As an example of voltage generation (potential-energy generation) by charge separation.5 F).. Q = CE. in volts. the voltage (potential-energy difference) between the plates is doubled. the potential difference gives the plates potential energy (energy of position). Fig. but the charge and the force of attraction between the plates remain the same.001 in. A is the area of one plate. k is the dieleclric coefficient.

1-17): The coupled inductance can be determined by the following formulas. with fields opposing. = L . In parallel with fields opposing: In series with fields aiding: In series with fields opposing: Fig. + L. is the total inductance of the circuit. is the total inductance of coils L. In parallel with fields aiding: where L. L. and L. L . and L. L . L. in henrys. with fields aiding. 1-17 L.in henrys.ELECTRONICS FORMULAS D LAWS AN Inductors in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig. are the inductances of the 9 . 1-10 can also be used to determine the total inductance of inductors in parallel. is the total inductance. in henrys. and L. in henrys. Coupled Inductance Fig. 1-16 Two inductors in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig. are the inductances of the individual inductors (coils). and L. L. is the total inductance of coils L.-2M where The parallel-resistance nomograph in Fig. in henrys. 1-16): Mutual Inductance The mutual inductance of two coils with fields interacting can be determined by: where M is the mutual inductance of LA and LB.

where Q is a ratio expressing the factor of merit. in henrys. C is the capacitance.. is the resonant frequency. = X. in farads. L is the inductance. An inductor in a circuit has a reactance of j2nfL R. although the reactance opposes current flow. in henrys. in hertz. C is the capacitance. and L. where f . I is the current. Note. in henrys. L is the inductance. L is the inductance. M is the mutual inductance. The resonance equation for either L or C can also be solved when the frequency is known. in henrys. The operator j denotes that the reactance dissipates no energy. the coupling coefficient is determined by: For a capacitor where R and C are in series: where K is the coupling coefficient. Mutual inductance in a circuit also has a 2f reactance equal to j n M R . in hertz. Transposing the previous formula: Q FACTOR The ratio of reactance to resistance is known as the Q factor. R is the resistance. in amperes.). It can be determined by the following formulas. RESONANCE The resonant frequency. Coupling Coefficient When two coils are inductively coupled to give transformer action. is determined by: Energy Stored The energy stored in an inductor can be determined by: where W is the energy. in farads. in henrys. in henrys. L . in ohms. For a coil where R and L are in series: . in henrys. or the frequency at which the reactances of the circuit add up to zero (X. M is the mutual inductance.individual coils. are the inductances of the two coils. o equals 2nf and f is the frequency. in joules (wattseconds).

R is the resistance. and capacitive susceptance is positive. X i s the reactance. Admittance is equal to conductance plus susceptance. in siemens. R is the resistance. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. in ohms. 1-18. Simply lay a straightedge across the values of inductance and capacitance. in ohms. susceptance becomes the reciprocal of reactance. its corresponding admittance will have a negative phase angle. and read the resonant frequency from the frequency scale of the chart. X i s the reactance. in siemens.The resonant frequency of various combinations of inductance and capacitance can also be obtained from the reactance charts in Fig. Admittance is also expressed as the reciprocal of impedance. Inductive susceptance is negative. and capacitive reactance is negative. The unit of conductance is the siemens (formerly the mho). in ohms. where G is the conductance. in ohms. Inductive reactance is positive. Ohm's law formulas when conductance is considered are: . SUSCEPTANCE The susceptance of a series circuit is given by: ADMITTANCE The measure of the ease with which alternating current flows in a circuit is the admittance of the circuit. thus: CONDUCTANCE Conductance is the measure of the ability of a component to conduct electricity. If an impedance has a positive phase angle. and the values of the two phase angles will be the same. in ohms. thus: where B is the susceptance. Z is the impedance. Admittance of a series circuit is given by: When the resistance is zero. in siemens. R is the resistance. Conductance for DC circuits is expressed as the reciprocal of resistance. therefore: where Y is the admittance. in ohms.

in hertz. One joule is the amount of energy required to maintain a current of 1 A for 1 s through a resistance of I R .is the reactance. in hertz.) where P i s the power.1000 kHz. what is the reactance of the capacitor? What value of inductance will give this same reactance? Answer. in farads. where X. lay the straightedge across the values for the capacitor and the frequency. in siemens. in amperes. and frequency are shown in Figs. E is the voltage. by laying the straightedge across the capacitance and inductance values. Then read the reactance from the reactance scale.where I is the current.1000 Hz. The watt-hour is the practical unit of energy. Inductive Reactance The reactance of an inductor may be calculated by the formula: ENERGY UNITS Energy is the capacity or ability to d o work. is f is the frequency.at resonance. The chart in Fig. (Place the straightedge. Read the values indicated on the reactance and inductance scales. capacitance. in ohms. Fig. can be obtained. The number of watt-hours is calculated: where X. in ohms. Reactance Charts Charts for determining unknown values of reactance. REACTANCE The opposition to the flow of alternating current by the inductance or capacitance of a component or circuit is called the reactance. To find the amount of reactance of a capacitor at a given frequency. f is the frequency. If the frequency is 10 Hz and the capacitance is 50 pF. G is the conductance. Since X.. Capacitive Reactance The reactance of a capacitor may be calculated by the formula: . 310 R . = X. 1-18B covers 1. in watts. Thus. the resonant frequency of the combination can be determined. in henrys. 1-18A covers 1. 1-18A through 1-18C. 3600 Ws equals 1 Wh. and Fig. See the section entitled Capacitance to determine the energy stored in a capacitor and the section entitled Inductance to determine the energy stored in an inductor. the power is dissipated. on the proper chart [Fig. it follows that a 50-pF capacitor and a 5-H choke are resonant at 10 Hz. L is the inductance. inductance.1000 MHz. which will give the same reactance. in volts. 1-18C covers 1. T is the time. It is equivalent to a wattsecond. the reactance. The inductance needed to produce this same reactance is 5 H. The joule is a unit of energy. C is the capacitance. Example. in hours. By extending the line. the value of an inductance. across 10 Hz and 50 pF. I-18A].

Fig. 1-18A. 13 . Reactance chart-1 Hz to 1 kHz.

Reactance chart-1 kHz to 1 MHz.Fig. 14 . 1-18B.

Fig. 15 . 1-18C. Reactance chart-1 MHz to 1000 MHz.

. 1-23): +t--Fig. in ohms. in siemens. in siemens. 1-23 For capacitances in series (Fig. in ohms.XI.x.. m Fig.ft k- .IMPEDANCE The basic formulas for calculating the total impedance are as follows: For parallel circuits: 8 = 0" Rl R2 R3 -- Fig. The following formulas can be used to find the impedance of the various combinations of inductance. . + + Fig. in ohms.. and resistance. B is the total susceptance. 1-24): For resistances in series (Fig. R is the total resistance. 1-20): Fig. 1-22): where Z is the total impedance. 1-21): z = XI. 1-22 For a single capacitance (Fig. 1-19): C z = XI. capacitance. X i s the total reactance.>+ . G is the total conductance or the reciprocal of the total parallel resistance. 1-20 For a single inductance (Fig. 1-21 L For series circuits: For inductances in series with no mutual inductance (Fig. 1-24 CI c2 Cg +-H . For a single resistance (Fig.

. 1-29 For inductances in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig. 1-25 For resistance and capacitance in series (Fig.: z = x.. 1-30): 4 + Fig. 0 = 0"when XI = X. 1-28): 1 7 I I Fig. .X I Note.. 1-27 When X. R For resistances in parallel (Fig. and capacitance in series (Fig. R A C + Fig. 1-27): When X . . 1-26 I I I I I For inductance and capacitance in series (Fig. ) ~ - 0 = arc tan L 0 = arc tan X R Fig. I I For resistance. is larger than X.: Fig. 1-30 .. 1-28 x.. 1-25): Z= @--T(xL x . is larger than X. 1-29): Fig.. inductance.. 1-26): 0 = arc tan x..ELECTRONICS E~RMULAS LAWS AND For resistance and inductance in series (Fig.x..

: R 8 = arc tan - x. I When X.:. 1-35 Note.: Fig. is larger than X.: is larger than X. = X. 1-31): Fig. 1-32): For capacitance and inductance in parallel (Fig. 1-31 R IIn~edanceof R and (In Parallel Fig. 1-33): I 1 Fig.. 1-34): Fig. 1-33 The graphical solution for capacitance and resistance in series or in parallel (Fig. 0 = 0 when X . 8 = arc tan - R X C The graphical solution for resultant reactance of parallel inductive and capaci- .HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND For capacitances in parallel (Fig. 1-35): When X . 1-32 For capacitance and resistance in parallel (Fig.. 1-34 For resistance and inductance in parallel (Fig.

tive reactances (Figs.XL). In Figs. 1-36A and 1-36B): When X.Xc) XLXC Fig.R" RXC 8 = arc tan R(XL . the output impedance of any network can be similarly represented at a given frequency. is larger than X. The input impedance of any network can be represented at a given frequency by R and C connected in series or by R and L connected in series. Or the input impedance can be represented at a given frequency by R and C connected in parallel or by R and L connected in parallel. 1-39): For inductance. 1-38 For inductance and series resistance in parallel with capacitance (Fig. is larger than XL: 8 = arc tan XI R2 R12+ XI. 1-37): 8 = arc tan XL(X.: Fig. Fig.*+ R I R 2 Fig. 1-36B Note. and resistance in parallel (Fig. 1-38): When X. the base line 0-0 may have any finite length. Conversely. 1-39 . 1-36A and 1-36B. capacitance. 1-36A parallel with resistance (Fig. .

. in volts. In other words.and it is understood that where E is the voltage.X. is the capacitive reactance. On the other hand. Z is the impedance.' + XI. For example. wherein the signs of quantities and absolute values of quantities are implied rather than expressed. In the case of an ordinary R C series circuit. OHM'S LAW FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT Referring to Fig. depending upon the operating frequency. R2)' (X. 1-41. Fig. its impedance may be either positive or negative. the "shorthand" form for inductive reactance is Z = X.For capacitance and series resistance in parallel with inductance and series resistance (Fig. an LC series circuit has a phase angle of -90°. in ohms. However.2 + XC2)+ R2(R.. in ohms. the "shorthand" form for capacitive reactance is Z = X. at high frequencies. which abruptly changes at a critical (resonant) frequency to + 90". 8 = 90 ". the impedance is negative and that the phase angle is negative. its impedance is positive (the circuit is inductive). in ohms. I is the current. but its phase angle is negative. the fundamental Ohm's law formulas for alternating current are given by: E = IZ Fig. It is understood that the impedance is positive. In an ordinary L C series circuit.(Rz2 X<. in henrys.(R. 8 = 90". its impedance is positive.. L is the inductance. in amperes. these formulas state absolute values wherein signs are disregarded.. by which the current leads the voltage in a capacitive circuit or lags the voltage in an inductive circuit. 1-40 The formulas in this section are written in "shorthand" form. its impedance is negative (the circuit is capacitive). X. In turn. At low frequencies. 0" indicates an in-phase condition. 1-41 .') (R12 (RZ2+ X ) : (R. in ohms. 1-40): Z=J 8 + XI. at low frequencies. and that the phase angle is positive. 8 is the phase angle. in degrees.12 + + where Z is the impedance. X. In turn. in ohms. the appropriate signs must be supplied by the reader. when the formulas are applied to a circuitaction problem. is the inductive reactance.') XC(R12+ + = arc tan R. R is the resistance. .

in degrees. RMS. in volts.0 - .I. in volts. 6' is the phase angle.Multiplying factor ttr get For a resonant circuit: Given value Averrcgr R:I. AND PEAK-TO-PEAK VOLTAGE AND CURRENT Table 1-1 can be used to convert sinusoidal voltage (or current) values from one method of measurement to another. multiply the given value by the factor listed under the desired value.5 3. 8 = arc tan X R AVERAGE. in ohms. I is the current. in amperes. then find the desired type of reading across the top of the table.3535 1. PEAK.637 0. in degrees. where 8 is the phase angle.9 0.E 1-1 Average. in watts. the phase angle is determined by the formula: where P i s the power. in watts. E is the voltage. I is the current. RMS.32 1. R is the nonreactive resistance. 8 is the phase angle. To use the table. in ohms. In a series circuit.11 - 0.The power expended in a n AC circuit is calculated by the formula: For a purely reactive circuit where P is the power. What factor must pcak voltage be multiplied by to obtain root mean square (rms) voltage? Answer.14 2.T Pertk I'eakto-peak COS e = I average rms peak peak-to-peak 0. in degrees. in amperes. Peak. first find the given type of reading in the left-hand column. The phase angle is the difference in degrees by which the current leads or lags the voltage in a reactive circuit.57 1. To convert the given value to the desired value.707 0.828 2. Therefore: For a purely resistive circuit cos 8 = I TAB1. Example.414 0. 0. E is the voltage. and Peak-to-Peak Valtres .707. X i s the inductive or capacitive reactance.

in voltamperes.. erg).HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND POWER FACTOR Power factor is the ratio of true power to apparent power in an AC circuit. Thus.281 x lO'%lectrons. EI is the apparent power. 1-43. watt. thus. a horsepower is equal to 746 W and represents the application of 550 lbf through 1 ft each second (or. For example.000 Ib a distance of 1 ft in 1 min). . as when a weight has been raised above ground level. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Work is the product of force times the distance through which the force has been applied. using Fig. Potential energy is energy of position. in voltamperes.is the apparent power. Therefore: For a purely resistive circuit: Fig.+ EI = cos 8 Apparent power ( E I sin 8) does no work Reactive power is measured in vars (volt-amperes-reactive) Fig. 1-42: 1 POWER As shown in Fig. Power triangle. as when a weight falls to the ground. P. For a resonant circuit: For a purely reactive circuit: Power is the rate of doing work (kilowatt. A kilowatt is equal to 1000 W. 1-42 where pf is the power factor. the following relationships exist: True power ( E I cos 8) does work P EI cos 8 p f = I = p. P. it is basically potential energy. 1-42) is the true power.. raising 33. A watt equals 1 J/s. Energy is equal to work. One coulomb is the quantity of electricity that passes a point in 1 s when the current is 1 A and is equal to the passage of 6. One joule is equal to the movement of 1 C through a potential difference o f 1 V. is the true power. energy is measured in such units as kilowatt-hours and watthours. Voltage is basically a unit of work per unit charge. in watts. EI cos 8 (Fig. in watts. 1-43.

2% of full value. Theoretically. potential energy merely surges back and forth and does no real work. as when an AC voltage is applied across an ideal capacitor. For an RC circuit (Fig. when the voltage source is removed. L is the inductance. we speak of potential difference instead of potential-energy difference. in farads. Likewise. C i s the capacitance. 1-45 .ELECTRONICS FORMULAS D LAWS AN Generally. The time per time constant is calculated as follows. which is 36. 1-44 For an R L circuit (Fig. 1-44): TIME CONSTANTS A certain amount of time is required after a DC voltage has been applied to an RC or RL circuit and before the capacitor can charge or the current can build up to a portion of the full value. The term "electromotive force" is somewhat of a misnomer inasmuch as voltage and. if the power factor is zero. the capacitor is charged or the current builds up to 63. it is usually considered to be 100% after five time constants.7 1 Fig. after each time constant). of time constanis Percent charge or buildup Percent discharge or decay Fig. the capacitor will discharge or the current will decay 63. Electromotive force (emf) is source voltage and is measured in volts. Energy is transformed only when the power factor is unity.5 % of the full value. the time constant is not the time required for the voltage or current to reach the full value. 5 99. During the next time constant. However. in seconds.8 O/O of full value during the first time constant. in ohms.3 0. which is 86. in henrys. emf are potential energy.2 O/o of the remaining difference. instead. Table 1-2 also gives the percent of full voltage after each time constant for discharge of a capacitor or decay of the current through a coil. consequently. it is the time required to reach 63. However. When a potential difference is applied across a load resistor. 1-45): where T is the time. R is the resistance. This time is called the time constant of the circuit. Table 1-2 gives the percent of full charge on a capacitor (or current buildup in an inductance TABLE 1-2 Time Constants Versus Percent of Voltage or Current No. neither the charge on the capacitor nor the current through the coil can ever reach 100%.2'/0. potential energy is transformed into heat energy.

and the correct numerical value will be obtained for R. the resistance term is dimensionally correct. Dimensional units are used extensively in calculating with formulas and in analyz- Formulas are customarily simplified insofar as possible. seconds seconds microseconds microseconds microseconds microfarads microhenrys microfarads picofarads microhenrys TABLE 1-3 Dimensional Units of Mechanical Quantities Symbol Physical unit Dimensional unit ing circuit action. value cannot be assumed to be a sim- . Dimensional units for is mechanical and electrical units are listed in Tables 1-3 and 1-4.' . As a basic example. Example. In other words.SO that R.' Q 2 multiplied by FLTQT2 equal to T. A dimensional check of a derived electrical formula is comparable to a check of an addition problem by first adding the columns up and then adding the columns down. the formula R. In turn. This formula provides a resistance in ohms.l Q 2 . an ideal coaxial cable has a certain capacitance per unit length and a certain inductance per unit length.' L . when L is in henrys and C is in farads. work power velocity acceleration F L T FT:L .In addition. then QT-I = FLQ-'I FLTQ-: = Q T . no matter how the terms in a formula may be transposed or substituted back and forth.' L -lQ-' jFLTQ - -jF-. Accordingly.. In turn. For example. whereas a simple physical resistance dissipates power.\~(FLT?Q -?)/(F-'L-'Q?) or R. then FI-T-I = FI. = J F ~ L ~ T ' Q . In other words. if we write P = EI = E21N. = FLTQ-?.LQ-LI f-'L'TQ-? = FLT-1. the R. On the other hand..' . dimensional units provide a quick check concerning whether an algebraic error has been made. F . = . However. Thus. = m c is used to calculate the characteristic resistance of the cable. Resistance has the dimensions FLTQ-l.. is a representational resistance and not a simple physical resistance. the characteristic resistance R.. TABLE 1-4 Dimensional Units of Electrical Quantities Symbol Physical unit Dimensional unit charge current voltage resistance inductance capacitance inductive reactance capacitive reactance Q QT-I FLQ-I FLTQ -: FLT2Q -' F . R. the values can also be expressed by the following relationships: T K megohms megohms ohms megohms ohms Cor I.Q-IQT-l = F2L. Again.IIQ -> Dimensional units show why the product of capacitance and resistance is equal to time. the dimensional units must always be the same on either side of the equals sign.. inductance has the dimensions F L P Q .capacitance has the dimensions F-'L .1 FL FITt LT-I LT-? I f we write I = EIK. F L t M W P v a force length time mass energy.? . when the square root is taken of the LIC ratio. A representational resistance dissipates no power. the terms of a formula and the answer that is obtained may require interpretation.

the voltage across each winding. In this practical example. As previously noted. a new electrical unit is obtained. each term has a particular interpretation insofar as circuit action is concerned. any unknown can be determined from the following formulas: The impedance ratio of a transformer is determined by: . It is a fundamental principle of circuit action that whenever two electrical units are multiplied or divided (or squared or rooted). 1-46 The turns ratio of a transformer is determined by the following formulas: For a step-up transformer: For a step-down transformer: and By rearranging these equations and by referring to Fig.ple physical resistance. This and related principles of circuit action are summarized by the basic principle that although Y = 2X = d4yi is a mathematically correct series of relations. it is a representational resistance (since it cannot dissipate power). although some of its aspects are similar. the new electrical unit of representational resistance is obtained. the relationships between the number of turns in the primary and secondary. TRANSFORMER FORMULAS In a transformer. 1-46. and the current through the windings are expressed by the following equations: I i I Fig. The foregoing interpretation is based on the circumstance that the LIC ratio has the dimensions F2L?T?Q-"which are the dimensions of R'. the circuit action of representational resistance is not the same as the circuit action of simple physical resistance.

in volts. until halfscale deflection is obtained. N. The meter can be either a DC milliammeter or a DC microammeter. E. DC-METER FORMULAS where E. is the voltage across the secondary winding. Z. VOLTAGE REGULATION When a load is connected to a power supply. It is determined by the following formula: For a step-down transformer: where % R is the voltage regulation. A series resistor converts the meter to a DC voltmeter.is the impedance of the primary winding. is the number of turns in the secondary winding. Disconnect R. in parallel with the meter. Z. I. N. and measure its resistance. Voltage regulation is a measure of how much the voltage drops and is usually expressed as a percentage. is the current through the secondary winding.is the current through the primary winding. The resistance of the meter movement is determined first. as follows. in volts.. I. and a parallel resistor converts the meter to a DC ammeter. and adjust R. El is the no-load voltage. is the impedance of the secondary winding. Connects a suitable variable resistor R. is the number of turns in the primary winding. 1-47. T is the turns ratio. in volts. Then connect a variable resistor R..The impedance of an unknown winding is determined by the following: For a step-up transformer: ments of the power supply. in ohms. the output voltage drops because more current flows through the resistive eleFig. until full-scale deflection is obtained. in amperes. Z is the impedance ratio. The basic instrument for testing current and voltage is the moving-coil meter. in percent. and a battery as shown in Fig. in volts. Adjust resistor R. 1-47 . E2 is the voltage under load. in amperes. is the voltage across the primary winding. in ohms. The measured value is the resistance of the meter movement..

1 2 Ammeter Shunts (Fig.. R. is the current reading with unknown resistor connected. = R". in amperes. 1-48 where R is the multiplier resistance. 1-48) R . is the meter resistance. N is the scale multiplication factor. I. I? is the current reading with probes connected across unknown resistor. 1-49) 1 2 R. Series-Type Ohmmeter for High Resistance (Fig. in ohms. in ohms. in ohms. in ohms. is the current reading with probes open. in Fig. in ohms. Shunt-Type Ohmmeter for Low Resistance (Fig. in ohms. in amperes. 1-49 is a variable resistance for current limiting to keep meter adjusted for full-scale reading with probes open. is the current reading with probes shorted. is the full-scale reading. in ohms. is the shunt current. . in ohms. I. I.Voltage Multipliers (Fig. I. 1-49 where R. K. is the meter resistance. R. in amperes.{I . is the meter resistance. in amperes. R. R. is a variable resistance adjusted for full-scale reading with probes shorted together. in ohms. is the unknown resistance. in volts. in amperes. is the full-scale reading... is the unknown resistance. is the meter resistance. 1-50) Fig. . where R. E. 1-51) Fig. I.is the meter current. where R is the resistance of the shunt. in amperes. I. in amperes.

where f is the frequency. the other can be computed as follows: Fig. The distance between two corresponding parts of two waves (the two positive or negative crests or the points The preceding formula can be used to determine the length of a single-wire antenna.. To calculate wavelength in feet. in ohms. it follows that a complete cycle occupies a given distance in space. 1-51 Ammeter With Multirange Shunt (Fig. in kilohertz. is the meter resistance. Fig. the following formulas should be used: where R? is the intermediate value. A is the wavelength. I f either the frequency or the wavelength is known.where the two waves cross the zero axis in a given direction) constitutes the wavelength. in ohms. For a half-wave antenna: For a quarter-wave antenna: . R. 1-52 FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH Formulas Since frequency is defined as the number of complete hertz and since all radio waves travel at a constant speed. N is the scale multiplication factor. R . 1-52) where f is the frequency. + Rz is the total shunt resistance for lowest full-scale reading. A is the wavelength. in feet. in meters. in ohms. in kilohertz.

Frequency-wavelength conversion chart.Fig. 29 . 1-53.

1-54 n Answer. d is the outside diameter of the inner conductor. D is the inside diameter of the outer conductor. in megahertz. When a line of finite length is terminated with an impedance equal to its own characteristic impedance. the line is said to be matched. in ohms. To use the chart. in inches. is the characteristic impedance. in inches. in inches. in megahertz. in decibels per foot of line. in feet. Example. D is the inside diameter of the outer conductor. if the wavelength is known. Also. 75 r . 1-55 is determined by the formula: Z" = 7 138 D log dk d 20 276 Z .where L is the length of the antenna. in inches. Conversion Chart The wavelength of any frequency from 30 kHz to 3000 MHz can be read directly from the chart in Fig. 1-53. f is the frequency. 1-54) is given by: The characteristic impedance of parallel-conductor line (twin-lead) as shown in Fig. k is the dielectric constant of the insulating material* (k equals 1 for dry air). nal? What is the wavelength of a 4-MHz sig- where Z. Opposite 4 MHz on the frequency scale find 75 rn on the wavelength scale. and then read the corresponding value from the opposite side of the scale. the corresponding frequency can be obtained from the chart for wavelengths from 10 cm to 1000 m. f is the frequency.) The attenuation of a coaxial line in decibels per foot can be determined by the formula: TRANSMISSION-LINE FORMULAS The characteristic impedance of a transmission line is defined as the input impedance of a line of the same configuration and dimensions but of infinite length. (Find 4 MHz on the third scale from the left. Parallel-Conductor Line Coaxial Line The characteristic impedance of a coaxial line (Fig. Fig. d is the outside diameter of the inner conductor. where a is the attenuation. merely find the known value (either frequency or wavelength) on one of the scales.-log - " --Jk d .

Fig.1.X . the percentage of modulation can be determined by applying the modulated carrier wave to the vertical plates and the modulating voltage wave to the horizontal plates of an oscilloscope. The percentage of modulation can be determined by measuring the height of A and B and using the formula: '0M = 1 A-B A + B . in inches. This produces a trapezoidal wave.- 100 where '/OMis the percentage of modulation. 1-57 The sideband power of an amplitudemodulated carrier is determined by: . *For a list of dielectric constants of materials.. is the average amplitude of the modulated carrier. see Table 2. 1-55 MODULATION FORMULAS Amplitude Modulation The amount of modulation of an amplitude-modulated carrier shown in Fig. where '/OMis the percentage of modulation.where Z. in ohms. D is the center-to-center distance between conductors. The dimensions A and B are proportional to the crest and trough amplitudes. 1-57. E. 1-57. k is the dielectric constant of the insulating material between conductors* (k equals 1 for dry air). is the characteristic impedance.. as shown in Fig. A and B are the dimensions measured in Fig. 1-56 is referred to as the percentage of modulation. in inches.. E.. 1-56 Fig. d is the diameter of the conductors. Fig. E. respectively. I t can be determined by the following formulas: Also. is the amplitude of the trough of the modulated carrier.is the amplitude of the crest of the modulated carrier.

in the same units as f. The number of decibels corresponding to a given voltage or current ratio is 20 times the common logarithm of the ratio. and I. 15 kHz. in volts. PT is the total radiated power. and the number of times the changes occur per second is determined by the frequency of the modulating signal... Thus: The carrier power does not change with modulation. in watts. in watts. is the deviation in frequency. Thus. Note. (For commercial fm.is the modulating audio frequency. are the individual current readings. If the impedances across which the sig- . f. 75 kHz. Af is the change in frequency (or the deviation). the equations are: '/OM= Af A for 100°/oM f x 100 where '/OMis the percentage of modulation. 25 kHz. is the sideband power (includes both sidebands).) The modulation index of a frequencymodulated carrier is determined by: 2 dB = 20 log E El 2 dB = 20 log 1 where El and Ez are the individual voltage readings.. is the carrier power. for twoway radio. the amount the carrier frequency changes is determined by the amplitude of the modulating signal. O/OM the percentage of modulation. in watts. I. in hertz. is P. Af for 100 OO is the change in /M / frequency for a 100 OOmodulated carrier. DECIBELS AND VOLUME UNITS Equations The number of decibels corresponding to a given power ratio is 10 times the common logarithm of the ratio. where PI and P. when the impedances across which the signals are being measured are equal. are the individual power readings. in amperes. for television sound. in watts. The percentage of modulation of a frequency-modulated carrier can be computed from: p 2 dB = 10 log p. f.The total radiated power is the sum of the carrier and the radiated powers: where P. where M is the modulation index. Frequency Modulation In a frequency-modulated carrier.

~~ZZ I. 600 R (complex waveforms varying in both amplitude and frequency) E. and E .E 1-5 Decibel Table (0. when no reference level is given. first factor the ratio so that each factor will be a listed value. in amperes. which do have specific reference levels. it is a means of stating the ratio of a level to a certain reference level. Some of the more common are: dB Gain Loss Gain Loss dBs dBv Japanese designation for dBm system 1 V (no longer in use) dBvg voltage gain dBrap decibels above a reference acoustical power of lo-'" . are the individual current readings. it is 6 mV across a 500R impedance. then find the decibel equivalents for each factor and add them. are the individual voltage readings. To covert a ratio not given in the tables to a decibel value.nals are measured are not equal. with their decibel values. and I. I . in ohms.Y dB)* Power ratio Current or voltage ratio dB = 20 log - where E. the equations become: dB = 20 log l2v1L. Z. E ? V ~ VU 1 mW.I'ADI. . in volts. Figure 1-58 shows the relationship between power and voltage or current. Then multiply the ratios given in the chart for each value. first subtract one of the given values from the unlisted value (select a value so the remainder will also be listed). Usually.\% Decibel Table Tables 1-5 and 1-6 are decibel tables that list most of the power. Reference Levels The decibel is not an absolute value. the reference level should be stated whenever a value in decibels is given. and voltage ratios commonly encountered.1 . If a decibel value is not listed in Tables 1-5 and 1-6. have been established. current. and Z . are the individual impedances across which the signals were read. Other units. However.

0-10.'TABLE 1-5 Conf.9) Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Power ratio Current or voltage ratio dR Gain Loss Gain Loss dB Gain I&ss Gain lass . Ileribel Table (2.

1202 0.677 4.957 6.8 15.318 8.05 19.1035 0.3 11.661 9.6 16.2213 0.05623 0.72 0.54 28.0 15.2 19.624 4.44 74.6 18.90 39.1135 0.07 67.161 7.1 11.90 31.18 70.1585 0.2188 0.5 13.169 4.49 15.1084 0.0 11.416 4.92 27.710 8.2786 0.1072 0.918 6.06607 0.4 18.842 4.559 5.67 0.4 17.5 14.30 26.20 18.02692 0.07586 0.610 8.998 7.2570 0.0 19.1660 0.01479 0.65 44.03802 0.9 16.01047 0.571 4.226 9.02042 0.2 15.01445 0.42 20.1462 0.01230 0.715 3.1718 0.18 85.23 57.589 3.03548 0.8 14.03631 0.2723 0.06166 0.7 14.29 52.2512 0.499 7.890 3.98 50.1012 *For values from 20 to 100 dB.2089 0.6 19.888 0.01413 0.1679 0.20 30.07762 0.6 15.01072 0.04786 0.370 5.1023 0.02630 0.01905 0.1 15.62 79.38 21.01349 0.079 7.754 5.4 13.2 14.69 42.188 5.18 28.6 13.06761 0.5 18.9 18.1514 0.1109 0.02951 0.495 5.467 4.01778 0.1 19.3 15.03890 0.05129 0.18 13.6 12.310 6.62 32.943 8.1216 0.01096 0.05754 0.1972 0.7 16.1 13.01318 0.128 8.1995 0.333 9.2 16.6 11.846 3.1059 0.7 12.01738 0.5 12.2661 0.1841 0.328 7. see Table 1.1396 0.936 3.5 15.3 16.222 8.441 9. 1)ecihel Table ( 1 1.1175 0.02512 0.70 26.01622 0.2 11.0-19.1738 0.6 14.7 13.3 17.1496 0.03467 0.244 7.120 9.84 29.4 16.315 4.886 0.2291 0.03090 0.3 12.02239 0.20 93.1274 0.2239 0.02399 0.0 14.913 9.43 81.04898 0.631 3.248 5.15 38.1 16.04266 0.04365 0.217 4.78 18.0 16.02818 0.2371 0.02291 0.786 4.2399 0.98 17.1479 0.0331 1 0.586 7.4 12.2483 0.8 13.12 25.1567 0.1928 0.1413 0.44 23.1259 0.60 16.01023 5.2600 0.1 1 33.88 34.70 54.03715 0.01585 0.012 5.05370 0.66 43.1303 0.2 13.13 75.8 18.57 66.80 14.02089 0.54 58.51 30.61 69.88 60.1334 0.9 13.0 17.6 17.035 8.1862 0.2 17.1161 0.2 18.5 17.04677 0.05248 0.13 91.732 4.26 61.2692 0.9) Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss dB Gain Loss dB Gait1 I.05888 0.9 17.9 15.0 12.016 9.623 5.1603 0.89 21.8 11.2265 0.01259 0.1950 0.383 6.07943 0.39 22.02884 3.2344 0.71 46.66 63.36 35.758 3.4 19.03388 0.166 6.79 15.2065 0.519 4.3 13.1 14.95 20.7 17.1820 0.1531 0.05495 0.03162 0.1 12.1 18.50 97.2042 0.839 6.1884 0.7 18.01175 0.48 36.05012 0.04074 0.852 7.86 48.1 189 0.55 25.2163 0.550 9.99 24.02138 0.2541 0.095 6.1 122 0.13 14.1230 0.129 5.01820 0.oss 11.06457 0.762 7.1380 0.511 8.01995 0.03236 0.414 8.3 14.88 13.49 13.1905 0.06026 0.01698 0.1148 0.3 19.2317 0.02570 0.12 51.48 53.14 15.802 3.2018 0.1778 0.761 6.1549 0.22 16.02455 0.2138 0.9 14.01 148 0.9 19.2455 0.1622 0.266 4.02 38.2630 0.074 4.5 16.4 14.457 6.8 12.9 12.9 35.91 23.4 11.2754 0.0 13.04467 0.7 19.689 5.02754 0.6.121 4.01202 0.1096 0.0 18.4 12.31 37.955 5.03981 0.02188 0.62 19.04169 0.2427 0.027 4.02344 0.67 45.38 17.2818 0.898 4.85 16. 35 .10 89.06918 0.8 19.88 22.1698 15.683 6.1445 0.674 7.7 11.5 19.01122 0.86 77.810 8.821 5.673 3.1047 0.1318 0.1349 0.01380 0.01549 0.5 11.59 12.237 6.070 5.79 72.81 40.1288 0.3 18.01950 0.413 7.01288 0.45 14.1245 0.50 19.07244 0.03020 0.531 6.01862 0.01514 0.TABLE 1-5 C:ont.981 4.11 87.77 47.04571 0.8 17.026 6.772 9.33 95.1799 0.28 83.309 5.365 4.548 3.10 64.21 13 0.1365 0.7 15.2 12.95 56.1 17.1641 0.07413 0.1758 0.07079 0.74 41.607 6.06310 0.1429 0.01660 0.433 5.8 16.

but shift point one step to the right. 10. but shift point five steps to the left. 100 10'" Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. but shift 10. but shift point five steps to the right. 0.0.as 0-20 dB. 10 -‘ Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. . 0. 30 10. 10‘ Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB." Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. 10' Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.000 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. but shift point one step to the right. but shift point o n e step to the right. but shift point t\vo steps to the right. .1000 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. 10. but shift point four steps to the right. but shift point three steps t o the left. 60 70 1000 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. 50 10' Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. 10-4 Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. 100. -. lo-' Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. but shift point one step to the left. but shift point four steps to the left. but shift point t\vo steps to the left.' point two steps to the right.c. 10. but shift point two steps to the right. but shift point four steps t o the left. but shift point three steps to the right.001 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB.' 0. but shift point two steps to the left..10 dB.' Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. 10" 10. but shift poinr three steps to the ri~ht.000 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. but shift point five steps t o the right. but shift point three steps to the right. but shift point four steps to the right.00001 Use the same numbers a s 0-20 dB.1 O6 Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.~ Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss 20 10: Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.01 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. but shift point two steps t o the left. but shift point three steps to the left. . 10." Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. but shift point four steps to the left. but shift point three steps to the left.00 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. but shift point four steps to the right. -. 10. 80 - 90 Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.0001 Use the same numbers as 0-20 dB. but shift point one step to the left. ') 100 Use the same numbers . Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. but shift point one step to the left. 0.1" Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB. 0. but shift point five steps t o the left. 10" Use the same numbers as 0. 10 Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.Decibel Table (20-100 dB)* Power ratio dH Gain 1. 40 Use the same numbers as 0-10 dB.

2-dB loss.5 (First.5 or 43. Answer.) voltage ratio is 40 141. the decibel value for a voltage ratio of 1.41]. Find the decibel equivalent of a power ratio of 0.631. Find the current ratio corresponding to a gain of 43 dB. 1)ecibels and power.5 is 3. 43.5 dB. Answer.5 [approximately]. Find the decibel value corresponding to a voltage ratio of 150. or current ratios.Example I .) + Fig. then find the current ratio fbr 3 dB [1. . 1-58. Multiply 100 x 1. Example 3.41 = 141 . Therefore. (First. the decibel value for a 3. find the current ratio for 40 dB [loo]. Answer. factor 150 into 1.5 x 100. The decibel value for a voltage ratio of 100 is 40. Example 2. voltage.

.

The dielectric constants of some materials (such as quartz.-I5 + 10 U ..5 ? = u ( I 0 . . The values shown are accurate enough for most applications. Capacitance variation versus temperature for typical commercial capacitors.20 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Temperature I'CI Fig. small differences in the composition of materials cause differences in the dielectric constants. Likewise..-10 5 e w - -15 . . and Teflon) d o not change appreciably with frequency. 2-1.Chapter 2 CONSTANTS STANDARD AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS OF MATERIALS The dielectric constants of most materials vary for different temperatures and frequencies. A list of materi120 als and the approximate range (where available) of their dielectric constants is given in Table 2-1. Figure 2-1 shows the relationship between temperature and change in capacitance. ? L" 0 t-5 l Mylar 2 Paper Mylar 3 4 5 6 7 Polystyrene Mylar Metalized Paper (Res~n) Metallzed Paper (Waxl Metallzed Mylar Metallzed Paper Mylar 8 Polyslyrene 9 Teflon w w I " w c 0 . Styrofoam.

I Units and Symbols The seven base units and the two supplementary units with their symbols are given in Table 2-2.0 2.4-2.2 2.03 2.4-22. .0-3.3 3.2-5.0 Isolantite Lucite mica (electrical) mica (clear India) mica (filled phenolic) Micaglass (titanium dioxide) Micarta Mycalex Mylar neoprene nylon paper (dry) paper (paraffin coated) paraffin (solid) Plexiglas polycarbonate polyethylene polyimide polystyrene porcelain (dry process) 6.0 2.0-6.0 7.9 silicone (glass) (molding) 3.5 5.1250 2.5-4.9-4. This International System of Units (abbreviated SI) is divided into three classes-base units.5 4.5 34-78 2.1 ebonite 2.9 cellulose acetate 2. Certain derived units have special names and symbols.2-6.8-6.6-2.TABLE 2-1 Dielectric Constants of Materials Dielectric constant (approx.0 3.5-3.8-14.4-3.7-4.9 5.5 3.7 3.0 shellac (natural) 2.3 slate 7.0-4.4 1.7-5. along with their symbols and formulas.0 soil (dry) steatite (ceramic) steatite (low loss) Styrofoam Teflon titanium dioxide Vaseline vinylite water (distilled) waxes.4-2.5 2.5 2.7 3.0 2.3-9.17 4.8 100.7-7.7 silicone (glass) (laminate) 3.0 3. commonly called the metric system.6 2.7 ethyl alcohol (absolute) 6. supplementary units.78 2.4 selenium (amorphous) 6.16 2.5 7.4-3.3 1.7 4.0 2.6-3.7 epoxy resin 3.6-5.1 2.3 4.9-3.5 Durite 4.8 5. Derived units are formed by combining base units. are given in Table 2-3.5-25 fiber Formica glass (electrical) glass (photographic) glass (Pyrex) glass (window) gutta percha 5.3 4.2-2.2 9.8 4.2-4.0 7.5-4.0 5.5 7.4-3. and derived units.) Dielectric constant (approx. Other common derived units and their symbols are given in Table 2-4.5 4. supplementary units.0 3.6 METRIC SYSTEM The international system of units developed by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (abbreviated CGPM).5 porcelain (wet process) quartz quartz (fused) rubber (hard) ruby mica 5.0 2.1-4. These units.0-9.4-2.0-9.0-22 4.9-3.) Material Material Material air amber asbestos fiber Bakelite (asbestos base) Bakelite (mica filled) barium titanate beeswax cambric (varnished) carbon tetrachloride Celluloid 1. is the basis for a worldwide standardization of units.) Dielectric constant (approx.4 1.0 5.1 100 2. mineral wood (dry) 2.4-2.2-5.5 4.6-6.0-6. and other derived units.

radiant flux watt quantity of electricity.s Wb/m2 Wb/A cd-sr Im/m2 11s J/kg Bq Gy A/m joule per mole Jlmol joule per mole kelvin joule per mole kelvin newton meter henry per meter farad per meter watt per square meter steradian watt per steradian joule per kilogram kelvin joule per kilogram joule per kilogram kelvin cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per tneter kelvin . TABLE 2-4 Common S1 Derived Units Symbol m kg S Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin* mole candela radiant steradian' Quantity acceleration angular acceleration angular velocity area concentration (of amount of substance) current density density. potential difference. quantity of heat joule power.I W 11s kg.m/s2 NlmL N .m Jls A. work. stress pascal energy.TABLE 2-2 S Base and Supplementary Units I Quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity plane angle solid angle tSupplementarp units. mass electric charge density electric field strength electric flux density energy density entropy heat capacity heat flux density irradiance luminance magnetic field strength molar energy molar entropy molar heat capacity moment of force permcabilit y permittivity radiance radiant intensity specific heat capacity specific energy special entropy specific volume surface tension lhermal conductivity Lnit meter per second squared radian per second squared radian per second square meter mole per cubic meter ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per square meter joule per cubic meter joule per kelvin joule per kelvin watt per square meter candela per square meter ampere per meter Symbol A K mol cd rad sr "I'hc dcgree Celsius is also urcd for expressing temperature TABLE 2-3 SI Derived Units with S ~ e c i a Names l Quantity Unit Symbol Formula frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) hertz force newton pressure.s C V F R S Wb T H Im Ix W/A C/V VIA AN V. electric charge coulomb electric potential. electromotive force volt capacitance farad electric resistance ohm conductance siemens magnetic flux weber magnetic flux density tesla inductance henry luminous flux lumen illuminance lux activity (of radionuclides) becquerel gray absorbed dose Hz N Pa .

* t I " = (nIl80) rad lf=(1/60)" = (TI10.e"I. Common SI Derived Units Quantity Unit Symbol I! m/s Pa.g.rnd ccnti should be avoided for SI I I I I I I L ~ ~ I ~except for area and volume. The value labeled "Units" is the basic unit of measurement (e. square meter pelkinematic second volume cubic ~rieter wavenumber 1 per meter m '1s m' 1/m (U.) ex 'a ( a a s in about) as in petal as in terrace jig 'a (a as in about) as in megaphone as in kilowatt heck ' toe deck 'a (a as in about) as in decimal as in sentiment as in military as in microphone nan 'oh (an as in ant) peek 'oh fern 'toe (fern as in feminine) as in anatomy Some units. The accent is on the first syllable of each prefix.nits in lJse with SI Quantity Lnit Symbol IOls exa peta tera gigs mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro E lo1$ 10" 10" 10" 10' P T G M k h* da* d* c* Value 10: 10 I 10-I 10. TABLE 2-6 Metric Prefixes M~~ltiplicalion factor Prefix Pronunciation Abbreviation velocity 111eterper second viscosity.' 10. ohms and farads).reiorc.eek month pear plane anglc degree ~ninlctc second volume litc~ rn p 1 1 ' " I.1111 the r ~ l ~ r n b "Ir .TABLE 2-4 Cont.. : 10. The preferred U. These units (listed in Table 2-5) are acceptable for continued uses in the United States.~.~~ional \yrnhol for lire1 is the low. ~ n d clothit~g rncasurcn~cnrs.. or spelling oul thc t c r t i ~liicr i % prrf'e~red U l ~ i t e d tor Sl. the sy~nbol " c "1.OO) rad IL=ldrn' 1 t = 10' kg . find the desired Prefixes The sixteen prefixes in Table 2-6 are used to form multiples and submultiples of the S1 units.1: lo-'< 10-1s llano pic0 femto atto P f a mass metric ton area (land) hcctarc ha 1ha=10. use pico instead of mi- . are so widely used they are impractical to abandon. dcci.m2 "The use of hecro. 2-5 1.S. TABLE.ltc\ 1 1 s ~ .800) rad 1"=(1/60)' = (n1648. pronunciation of the terms is also included in the table.S.s cromicro and giga instead of kilomega). not part of SI. To use the table.g. The use of more than one prefix is to be avoided (e.: time minute hour day min h d I min = 60 s 1 h = 60min = 3600 s 1d=24h = 86.400 s \\." 10." \r 11icI1 can tic‘ easily 'onfused u. dcka.. dyria~nic pascal second viscosity. .erc. and the nontechnical usc '? of centimeter lor body . Conversion Table Table 2-7 gives the number of places and the direction the decimal point must be moved to convert from one metric notation to another. 1111it *The inrern."'I'lic.

S.Ilecto.. the most widely accepted U.S. Thus 0°C = 273.. Department of Commerce.l'rrits neci.1 6 7 8 4 5 6 3 '..3 4 l 2 I 1 2+ 13243546+ 5+ 9812.9 .- -24 '721 -18 -15 -12 -10 0 .9+ 6+ 312-• 9.6 3 .1110IS+ 1413181716+ + + -27 -24 -21 -18 -15 -13 -12 -11 ? -10 6 9 .--8 4 7 3 6 3. in kelvins..Ferrrro.615129.15 K . wide use is also made of the degree celsius ("C) in expressing temperature and temperature intervals in SI.8 -14 +I1 -12 ." and this spelling is recommended by the U..20-11 + + -13 -10 -11 . T is the thermodynamic temperature.. Do not use any prefix other than "milli" with "liter.11151418. While the SI unit for temperature is the kelvin (K).. Note. but use of this term should be restricted to measurements of liquids and gases.6 '-3 3+ 63- --30 -3. Miscellaneous The terms "liter" and "meter" are also spelled "litre" and "metre.." not to "kilogram.. value in the left-hand column. practice is with the "er...Pico..--.4 5 + 2 + 3 .5 ..:Mego.1 2+ 132I+ 65498+ 712.9 + --I5 -12 -13 -10 -18 -15 -14 +-I1 + 5 3 2 .:itto- 8 5 3 + + 9 6 6 -10 .tMis not normally ~ l t c d ..1721.Vono. in degrees Celsius.TABLE 2-7 Metric Conversion Table* Oriyinnl value - Desired value Exa- 121314151821242730- 7-• 101 3 6 9 22- 12+ 34710131619- 'Arrow it~dicares direction decimal moves.. However. I'rhe pretix "rn?ri.('enri- mi Micro+21 -18 --IS +I2 9 7 6 . The number and arrow at this point indicate the number of places and the direction the decimal point must be moved to change the original value to the desired value. to form multiples. The Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade) is directly related to thermodynamic temperature (kelvin) as follows: A temperature interval of 1 "Cis exactly cqual to 1 K ." Note that "kilogram" is the only base unit employing a prefix.15 K .3 .5 4 3 ... The special name "liter" is used for a cubic decimeter...4 1 2 3 I 2 1.6 .5 + 7 8 2 36891011- -3 356789+ 1011121518212427- 234-+ 5678-• 91215182124- 123456- -12 8 9 9 +I0 + 6 + 7 -." The megagram may be used for large masses.3 63...W~ria-*Kilo.Deka. then follow the horizontal line across to the column with the prefix in which the original value is stated. However. the term "metric + exapeta[eragigamegamyria-: kilohectodekaunits deciccntimillimicronanopicofemtoatto- 3689lo4 I 12-+ 131415182124+ 27303336- 35678910111215182124273033+ .2 1 + + .I6 -15 -12 ... Toequals 273.9 - .7 -30 -27 --24 ---22 -21 --20 -19 --I8 --I7 -. the prefix is added to "gram.8 -30 -27 +24 -21 -18 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -33 -30 -27 -24 -21 -19 -18 -17 +I6 --I5 +ll -14 -10 -13 9 -12 . where t is the temperature.3 6 3 + t'etu- Bra.Gigs.." However..

To use this table. CONVERSION FACTORS Table 2-8 lists the multiplying factors necessary to convert from one unit of mea- Conversion Factors To ennvert Into Multiply by Conversely. Avoid using them in SI. For these conversions. Conversions from one metric prefix to another (e. locate either the unit of measure you are converting from or the one you are converting to in the left-hand column. see the preceding section. gram carats (metric) Celsius square feet square mcters square miles coulombs gilberts ampere-turns per inch inches meters square meters feet of water inch of mercury at 0 "C kilogram per square meter millimeter of mercury at 0 "C pascals pounds per square inch square centimeters atmospheres dynes per square centimeter pascals pounds per square inch cubic mcters ergs foot-pounds joules kilogram-calories horsepower-hours cubic feet cubic meters joules grams Fahrenheit . multiply by acres acres acres ampere-hours arnpere-turns ampcre-turns per centimeter angstrom units angstrom units ares atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres at rnospheres at rnospheres barns bars bars bars bars board feet Btu Btu Btu Htu Btu per hour bushels bushels calories.. from kilo to mega) are not included in Table 2-8." Other units have been used through the years as part of the metric (cgs) system. No prefixes should be used with "metric ton. Note. sure to another. Opposite this listing are the multiplying factors for converting either unit of measure to the other unit of measure.ton" is also used in commercial applications.g.

) cubic feet cubic yards cubic centimeter becquerels hertz mils radians pounds joules foot-pounds joules watts watts per square centimeter kelvin Rankine ampere-hours feet meters centimeters meters mils inches of mercury at 0 "C kilogram per square meter pascals meters lux candelas per square meter gram-centimeters horsepower-hours kilogram-meters kilowatt-hours ounce-inches meters per second cubic meters gallons (liquid British Imperial) . Conversion Factors Ib convert Into Multiply by Conversely.TABLE 2-8 Cont.S.iquid U.) gallons (liquid U.) kelvin feet square centimeters square mils cubic meters cords gallons (liquid U.) liters cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic meters gallons (liquid U.S.S.S. multiply by Celsius chains (surveyor's) circular mils circular mils cords cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic meters cubic meters cups curies cycles per second degrees (angle) degrees (angle) dynes electron volts ergs ergs ergs per second ergs per square centimeter Fahrenheit Fahrenheit faradays fathoms fathoms feet feet feet feet of water at 4°C feet of water at 4 "C feet of water at 4 "C fermis foot candles foot lamberts foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds gallons gallons (1.

multiply h) gammas gausses paurses gausses gausses gilberts grads prams gratns grams grams grams per centimeter grams per cubic centimeter grams per square centimeter hectares horsepower horsepower horscpower horsepower horsepower horsepo\$cr (metric) horsepower (metric) horsepower (metric) inches inches inches inchcs inches inches inches o f mercury at 0 "(1 inches of mercury at 0 "(' iriches of water at 4 "C inchcs of water at 4°C inches of water at 15.TAHI.6"(' joules joules kilogram-calories kilograms kilograms teslas lines per square centimeter lines per square inch tcslas webers per square inch amperes radians dynes grains ounccs (avdp) poundals pounds per inch pounds per cubic inch pounds per square foot acres Mu per minute foot-pounds per minute foot-pounds per second horsepower (metric) kilowatts Btu per minute kilogram-calories per tninutc watts centimeters feet meters miles rllils yards pascals pounds per square inch iriches of mercury kilograms per square meter pascals foot-pounds watt-hours kilogram-meters tonncs tons (long) tons (short) pounds (avdp) pounds per square foot kilograms kilogran~s kilograms per square .Cont.b: 22. Conversion Factors 'lb convert Into M~iltiply hy Conversel~.

S.TABLE 2-8 Cont. leet inches light years feet per niiriute knots Btu foot-pounds horsepo~ver-hours joules kilogram-calories kilogram-meters pounds water evaporated from and at 212 "1.) cubic centimeters cubic inches cubic rneters gallons (liquid U. multiply I)) kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers per hour kilometers per hour kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kriots k~lots knots larnberts larnberts leagues lirlks links (surveyor's) liters liters liters liters liters liters log. N foot-candles foot-candles foot-candles kilolines rnegalines uebers feet inches lniles yards feet per n~iriute kilometers per hour siemeris feet meters feet kilornctcrs light years miles (nautical) yards feet per rninute . Conversion Factors To convert Conversely.S..) id log.) pints ( l i q ~ ~ I1. !V lumens per square foot lumens per square meter lux maxwells nlaxwells ~naxwells meters meters meters rneters meters per minute rneters per minute Mhos rniles (nautical) miles (nautical) rniles (statute) milcs (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles per hour .. watt-hours feet per second rneters per minute niiles per hour candles per square centimeter candles per square inch miles chains inches bushels (dry US.

1020 I 0.438 1.467 1.6214 37.937 x lo.686 10' 0.6818 0." 8.TABLE 2-8 Cont.94 x lo4 0.152 25. liquid) radians radians radians revolutions per minute revolutions per minute revolutions per minute rods rods rods roentgens feet per second kilometers per hour kilometers per minute knots inches microns meters minutes degrees radians decibels dynes kilograms pascals pounds (avdp) amperes per meter ohms (international) ohms per square millimeter per meter ohms per meter quarts pounds quarts (liquid U.682 x 10-2 0.609 2.909 x 10.8684 3.1151 lo-" 9.2 10' 2.' 3.S.S.' 3.) dynes pounds (avdp) grams newtons Btu horsepower-hours kilowatt-hours cubic feet gallons kilograms per meter dynes per square centimeter pascals degrees radians cubic centimeters cubic centimeters mils minutes seconds degrees per second radians per second revolutions per second feet miles yards coulombs per kilogram 1.28 1.2909 60 3484 0.4 10.54 x 10.807 1 . Conversion Factors ---- To convert Into Multiply by Conversely. mullipiy by miles per hour miles per hour miles per hour miles per hour millimeters millimeters mils mils minutes (angle) minutes (angle) nepers newtons newtons newtons per square meter newtons oersteds ohms ohms circular-mil per foot ohms per foot ounces (fluid) ounces (avdp) pints poundals poundals pounds pounds (force) pounds carbon oxidized pounds carbon oxidized pounds carbon oxidized pounds of water (dist) pounds of water (dist) pounds per foot pounds per square inch pounds per square inch quadrants quadrants quarts (U. dry) quarts (U.666 x lo-' 2.S.

536 x 10. 10.174 929.5.273 1 lo-.196 640 3.6854 3.' 0. multiply by slugs slugs square feet square feet square feet square feet square feet square inches square inches square inches square inches square kilometers square meters square miles square miles square millimeters square mils steres stokes tablespoons teaspoons tonnes tonnes tons (long) tons (metric) tons (short) torrs varas watts watts watts watts watts watts watt-seconds watt-seconds webers webers per square meter yards yards kilograms pounds (avdp) square centimeters square inches square meters square miles square pards circular mils square centimeters square mils square millimeters square miles square yards acres square yards circular mils circular mils cubic meters square meter per second cubic centimeters cubic centimeters kilograms pounds pounds (avdp) kilograms pounds newtons per square meter feet Btu per hour Btu per minute foot-pounds per minute foot-pounds per second horsepower kilogram-calories per minute gram-calories (mean) joules maxwells gausses feet varas 1.55 x l o .587 x 11.764 27.' 3.108 x 10.77 4.' 1.TABLE 2-8 Cont. WWVH.341 x 10.464 x 10.186 1 10-s 10.' 0.562 x 10.228 x 10.7777 3. Colorado 80521.29 x 3. Conversion Factors To convert Into Multiply by Conversely.356 746 69.' 6.3861 1.3333 0.273 x 6.452 loh 645.9259 2.589 x 10.26 0.7378 1.88 x 10' 9 7.58 2.944 x 10.8361 1. The WWV broadcast frequencies are 2.' 14.' lo-' 5 x lo-' 7.' 5.034 144 9.433 x 0.' IOh 10" 0." 4.36 0.) 0.32 10." 0.5 x l o . and 15 MHz and the I-s marker tone consists of a 5-ms pulse at 1000 Hz.: 1.076 x 10.929 10' 2204.63 2240 10' 2000 133. 44.79 4.08 STANDARD FREQUENCIES AND TIME SIGNALS WWV." 10. 5.11 x 1.067 x 10.2389 1 1O E 10' 3 1.7854 1 10.155 lo-" 1.459 32.2 0.413 6. A simi- .' 10.59 0.854 x 10. operated by the National Bureau of Standards at Fort Collins.203 lo-' 4.098 x 1973 1. and WWVB Time signals and audiofrequencies are I broadcast continuously day and night from WWV.293 17." 6..26 x 10.761 x lo-? 0.' 1.' 2.

.

2-2 .The 29th Second pulse om~ned Beg~nn~ng each mlnute ~ d e n t ~ l ~ e d of by 08 sec long 1200 Hz tone Fig.

The code is synchronous with the frequency and time signals.7 second. it is necessary to make 1-second adjustments each year. two groups for hours. BIH will announce this occurrence of adding to the second two months in advance. The minute contains seven bcd groups. are available for satellite telemetric signals and other scientific data. both by WWV and WWVH. The second is inserted between the end of the 60th second of the last minute of the last day of a month and the beginning of the next minute. the need of periodic adjustment to agree with the earth's rotation is not needed. hour. 23 h 59 m + 1 July 0 h 0 m M~nuteW ~ t hLeao Second Added 30 June. Since the new UTC rate became effective January 1. The code format is a modified IRIGH time code that produces a 1-pps rate and is carried on the 100-Hz modulation. Minute. 0 h Om Fig. France. on either December 31 or June 30 when BIH determines they are needed to keep broadcast time signals within & 0. on a 100-Hz subcarrier. Normal Minute (No Leap Second Added) It now is transmitted continuously. The binary-to-decimal weighting scheme is 1-2-4-8 with the least significant binary 30 June. Fig.9 second astronomical time U T l . UTC departs from the UTI (earth's rotation time).Bureau International de 1'Heure (BIH) in Paris. 1971. Accurate time markers. and day of year are contained in this UTC time-of-year information. 1972. This time code provides a standardized time base for use when scientific observations are being made at two widely separated locations. 2-3 . Corrections are made at the rate of about 1 second each year and are adjusted by 1 second exactly when required. To prevent this difference from exceeding 0. The "on time" occurs at the positive-going leading edge of all pulses. I t is analogous to adding the extra day in the leap year. 2-4 was initially broadcast on July 1. The complete time frame is 1 min. The code binary-coded decimal (bcd) as shown in Fig. to an accuracy of 10 ms. The WWV timing code shown in Fig. two groups for minutes. and three groups for the day of year. 23 h 59 m !- 1 July. The second information is obtained by counting the pulses. 2-5 contains the time-of-year information. gaining about I second each year. 2-3 illustrates how the second is added.

TABLE 2-9 Binary and Decimal Equivalents Binary group Decimal I 2 4 8 equivalent In the standard IRIG-H code. If fewer than nine decimal digits are needed. B1"d' One Ourlng "Daylight' Time 170 Second UTC At Polnl A= 173 Days 21 Hours. IS ComDosed 01 the follow~ng 1 1 ppm lrame reference marker R=IPO and 1 0 3 second "HOLE 'I 2 B~narycoded decvmal Ilme-01-year code word 123 d~gits) 3 Control tunctions 19 dlgllsl used for UTI corrections.-- 1 I UTI Corredlon - Po PI Poslllon ldenltf~ers(0 770 Second Durallonl W Welghted Code Olgll 10 470 Second Durat~anl C We~ghtedControl Element 10 470 Second Ourallon) Control Fonctlon r 6 1 Blnarv Zero Durlnp. . . s~gnalH001. 21 Hours. . 10 Minutes UTl At Polnl A = 173 Days. Unwelghled Code. 4 0 ? On Time Polo1 A It ~ 0 3 . The binary sequence 1010 in the 1-2-4-8 scheme means ( 1 x 1) + (0 x 2) + (1 x 4) + (0 x 8) = 1 + 0 + 4 + 0 = 5.=0 of Notc Bep~nningof pulse IS represenled by pas~tive golng edge Fig. 2-4 digit always transmitted first.Formal H. however.Minutes I Days . Example. all tones are suppressed briefly while the seconds pulses are transmitted. J tor 0 SeEond Pulse -. . The decimal equivalent of a bcd group is derived by multiplying each binary digit times the weight factor of its respective column and adding the four products together. whereas a binary I consists of 50 cycles of 100 Hz (500-ms duration).- * ---. . s e c o n d I C Code llole .0 3 Second Dural~on Index Markers. one or more of the binary columns may be omitted. Slandard. .40 50 ... a binary 0 pulse consists of exactly 20 cycles of 100-Hz amplitude modulation (200-ms duration). The binary groups and their basic decimal equivalents are shown in Table 2-9. . elc 4 6ppm p o s ~ t ~ o n ldentll~erslP0 through PSl 5 1 pps Index markers Time F tame IMinute x Counl(1 Secondl 30 -- -. 10 M~nules. In the WWVl W W V H broadcast format. and Unweighled Control ~lemenl.

it has the effect of deleting the first 30-ms portion of each binary pulse in the time code.Because the tone suppression applies also to the 100-Hz subcarrier frequency.5-Second Elnary 1 (Typ~cal) ---! I- 1. lrom coded llme ~n m ~ l l ~ s e w n d s Marker i Group 12 Pulse / - - - Poslllon Marker and Pulse Per~odlcUncoded Marker and Pulse Uncoded Marker and Pulse Elnary 1 Fig. 18 hours 42 mlnules. - -.'I 7- l I p5 1 UT1 Set Dlnerence of UT.----I & Reference Time F R e l e r e n c e Marker lor M~nutes Signal I "ON' 1 : * t. . The leading edge of every pulse coincides with a positive-going zero crossing of the 100-Hz subcarrier. L-- 20 10 ~ ~ n u Set ~ t. 2-5 ..0 Second (Typical) Days Set / UTI Relat~onsh~p Tlme at this polnt equals 253 days. ---. 35 seconds To oblaln the coresspond~ngUTI scale read~ngsubtract 41 m~ll~seconds P4 800 400 200 100 80 20 10 2 I 407--. Hours Set - -1 k0. a binary 0 contains only 17 cycles of I Tlme L - - 100-Hz amplitude modulation (170-ms duration) and a binary 1 contains 47 cycles of 100 Hz (470-ms duration).Second Elnary 0 (Typlcall I I I ---- 40 20 . Tlme Frame 1 Mlnute (Index Count 1 Second) . 10 . 8 4 2 -. .. Thus. I Pll 1 0.2.8 4 .

6 allows clocks o r digital recorders operating on local time to be programmed to make a n automatic 1-hr adjustment in changing from Daylight Saving Time to Standard Time and vice versa. 7. this schedule allows several hours for the function t o be received before the change becomes effective locally (i. 57. When representing units. the hours set follows P2. Figure 2-4 shows one frame of the time code as it might appear after being rectified. The U T l . tells whether the UTI correction is negative or positive. The coded pulses that occur between the 50th and 59th seconds of each frame are called control functions. Similarly. 1. Thus. o r 100 as appropriate. which occur. or hundreds. . 1 is a binary 0.1 when applied to these control functions. U T l corrections to thc nearest 0. a I-s space or hole occurs in the pulse train at that time. and 9. and the applicable weighting factors are printed beneath the coded pulses in each bcd group. filtered. If control function No. In this example..03 s) prior to the leading edge of the first pulse in the new frame. P. at 2:00 AM local time). The first 10 s of every frame always include the 1. and recorded.. T h e coded information always refers to time at the beginning of the I-min frame. respectively. Because all pulses in the time code are 30 ms late with respect to UTC. Seconds may be determined by counting pulses within the frame. P. Within a time frame of 1 min. P.. T h e setting of this function is changed at 0000 U T C o n the date of change. and extends for two pulses beyond P . which occurs at 50 s.. the basic binary-to-decimal weights are multiplied by 0. and day of year. and U T l sets are marked by brackets. specify the amount of U T l correction. For synchronization purposes. Throughout the U. every 10 s a so-called position identifier pulse is transmitted. is programmed as a binary 1 throughout those weeks when Daylight Saving Time is in effect and as a binary 0 when Standard Time is in effect. tens. enough pulses are transmitted to convey in bcd language the current minute. each minute actually begins 1030 ms (or 1. hour. mainland. Two bcd groups are needed to express the hour (00 through 23). the leading edge of each pulse is considered t o be the positive-going excursion. The six position identifiers are denoted by symbols P I . the basic 1-2-4-8 weights are simply multiplied by 1. T h e pulse train in the figure is annotated t o show the characteristic features of the time code format. days. three groups are needed t o express the day of year (001 through 366).I I ' second. T h e minutes. 6. at 56. and 58 s. Instead. . all uncoded pulses are set permanently to binary 0. if it is a binary 1. No pulse is transmitted during the first second of the minute. control function No. the position identifiers consist of 77 cycles of 100 Hz (770-ms duration).e.. 10. Control functions No. P. to allow enough elements t o represent three decimal digits. Because the U T I corrections are expressed in tenths of a .but it occurs 30 ms after the beginning of the second. T h e minutes set follows P I and consists of two bcd groups separated by a n uncoded pulse. The days set follows P . the correction is positive. Control function No. With the exception of the position identifiers..S. and P. Unlike the bcd data pulses. Each frame starts with a unique spacing of pulses to mark the beginning of a new minute.. hours.03-s hole followed by eight uncoded pulses and the position identifier P . 8. Control function No.1 s are broadcast via bcd pulses during the final 10 s of each frame. which occurs at 55 s. the correction is negative.

the correct time on the UT1 scale is 173 days.3 s. 1700. at point A . In Fig. When a marker is generated.670 kHz. with one marker occurring each second. If U T l is slow. Station identifications are made by voice every 30 min by WWV and WW VH. as shown in Fig. and 2300 U T C by W WV and 0000. the time of day is in the 21st hour on the 173rd day of the year. These broadcasts are given in voice during the 8th. and 50th minute from WWVH. Weather information about major storms in the Atlantic and Pacific areas is broadcast from WWV and WWVH. 6th..03-s hole in that frame. binary 1's labeled ADD will be broadcast during the 37th and 39th seconds of the minute. Canada. 0. 1200. like other radio navigation systems. The International Omega Navigation System is a very low frequency (VL17) radio navigation aid operating in the 10. The signal consists of 60 markers each minute. the time was exactly 10 min past the hour. and 0.2 s later for an uncoded marker o r binary 0.set follows P. Therefore. the least significant digit of the minutes set is (0 x 1) + (0 X 2) + (0 x 4) + (0 x 8) = 0. the most significant digit of that set is ( 1 x 10) + (0 x 20) + (0 x 40) = 10. T h e 8th bcd group specifies if the UTI is fast or slow with the respect to the code time. which is synchronized with the 60-kHz car- rier signal. T h e 12th bcd group is not used to convey information. Omega. 9th. at the beginning of the 1. is subject t o signal degradation caused by ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes. 1 . T h e transmitter has a power output of 3 kW at frequencies of 3330 and 14. 2-5. the carrier power is reduced by 10 dB at the beginning of the corresponding second and restored 0. By decoding the hours set and the days set. broadcasts time signals that can be heard throughout North America and many other parts of the world. and 1800 U T C by WWVH. i CHU The National Research Council of Ottawa. and 14. 1 100. The frequencies and time signals are derived from a cesium atomic clock that is ac- 1/ I 1 56 . 10 minutes.. the 3rd and 4th bcd groups specify the hour of the day. The frequencies are 3330. 49th. and the transmission is continuous o n all frequencies.to 14-kHz frequency band. 21 hours. Ontario. a binary 1 labeled SUB (subtract) will be broadcast during the 38th second of the minute. The bcd are set up in groups. WWVB uses a level-shift carrier time code. Times of broadcast are 0500.3 second. and 10th minute from WWV and during the 48th. 0. The 1st and 2nd bcd groups specify the minute of the hour.8 s later for a 10-s position marker or for a minute reference marker. Station WWVB broadcasts a continuous binary coded decimal (bcd) signal.5 s later for a binary I . Eight stations operate around the world. If U T l is fast. T h e Omega announcements on WWV and W W V H are given to provide users with immediate notification of such events and other information o n the status of the Omega system. 2-4. loth.670 kHz and a power output of 10 kW at 7335 kHz. and 1 l t h bcd groups specify the number of milliseconds to be added o r subtracted from the code time in order to obtain U T l (astronomical time). and the 9th. Omega Navigation System status reports are broadcast in voice from WWV at 16 minutes after the hour and from WWVH at 47 minutes after the hour. Hence. The UT1 correction is + 0. and 7th bcd groups specify the day of the year. the 5th. 7335. and the last pulse in the frame is always P. 0600.

From one time zone. broadcast similar data. I t also lists some other stations in the low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) bands. To use this chart. There is n o date change when passing both the international date line and midnight.0 Sec. Moving to the left (clockwise). minutes. T h e beginning of the pip marks the exact second. A voice announcement of the time is given each minute during the 10-s interval between the 50th and 60th second when the pips are omitted. visualize the horizontal line as making a complete circle.5 Sec 1000 Cycles of 1000 Hz (1.isc). it will be yesterday when passing midnight and tomorrow when passing the international date line. the 1st to 10th pips are omitted during the first minute of the hour. but not o n the frequencies assigned for standard-frequency operation. it will be tomorrow when passing through midnight and yesterday when passing the international date line.curate t o within a few microseconds per year. Always trace in the shortest direction between time zones.hours. counterclockwise). which At 9 P M in New York Eastern Standard Time.e. and the zero pip of each hour has a duration of 1 s. The seconds pips are broadcast continuouslv excet>t for the 29th and the 51st to the 59th pips.'which are omitted each minute.1 / - 1st to 10th Pulses (Incl) Om~tted Fig. clockwise). At 10 A M in t he Philippines. In addition. . Eastern Standard Time. trace horizontally to the right (counterclockwise). A chart o f t h e broadcast signal is shown in Fig. it is 10 P M in Tokyo.3 s. The announcement is as follows: "CHU. Other Standards Stations Throughout the world. Table 2-10 lists some of them as well as some other data about stations operating on the standards frequencies. clocku.. Japan the same day (moving left.5 s. i t is 4 AM tomorrow in Moscow." The time given refers t o the beginning of the minute pip that follows and is o n the 24-hr system. it will be 4 P M yesterday in Hawaii (moving right. At 7 A M Chicago Central Standard Time. moving in one direction. The zero pip of each minute has a duration of 0. 1I WORLD TIME CONVERSION CHART The standard time in any time zone can be converted to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (i. The remaining seconds pips have a duration of 0. An FSK time code is inserted after 10 cycles on the 3 1st t o 39th seconds. 2-6 . 2-7. Dominion Observatory Canada. UTC) o r to any time zone in other parts of the world by using the chart in Fig. The seconds pips consist of 300 cycles of a 1000-Hz tone. 60 Mln 1st Min p$+#!C-!#Voice Recording Voice Recording 'Hours Exactly" 1 300 Cycles of 1000 Hz ( 0 3 Sec I 29th Pulse Om~tted 500 cycles of 1000 Hz 10. there are many other stations that broadcast similar data. Russia (moving left. Example. 2-6.

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ocation Frequency (kHz) Schedule (UT) ATA Greater Kailash New Dehli India Pucheng China Chung-Li Taiwan China Elmshorn Germany. 13h. 12h 30m to 3h 30m continuous 3h 30m to 12h 30m 14h to 24h continuous Oh to 14h continuous (except interruption between 35m and 40m) BPM BSF DAM 23h 55m to 24h 06m from 21 October to 29 March 23h 55m to 24h 06m from 30 March to 20 October DAN DAO DCF77 DGI Osterloog Germany.R. F. 22h 30m (may be cancelled) 2h 55m to 3h OOm 8h 55m to 9h OOm 14h 55m to 15h OOm 20h 55n1 to 21h OOm continuous GBR Rugby United Kingdom Prangins Switzerland . Kiel Germany. F.R. R.TABLE 2-10 Other Standards Stations Station 1. I l h 55m to 12h 06m 23h 55m to 24h 06m continuous 5h 59m 30s to 6h OOm 1 l h 59m 30s to 12h 00m 17h 59m 30s to 18h OOm advanced 1h in summer EBC FFH San Fernando Spain Ste Assise France Ste Assise France continuous from 8h to 16h 25m except on Sunday at 9h and 21 h at 8h and 20h at 9h 30m. Main tlingen Germany. F.R. Dem. F. Rep. Oranienburg Germ.

20 and 25. and national holidays. 10 and 15. 10h. I l h . 14h to 15h. Other Standards Stations Station 1.40 and 45. 21h Rugby United Kingdom Rugby United Kingdom continuous except for an interruption for maintenance from IOh Om t o 1411 Om on the first Tuesday in each month between minutes 0 and 5. 30 and 35. 20h to 21h. 23h to 24h l h . 13h. 17h. of Korea Rome Italy Ih t o 8 h Monday to Friday 7h 30m t o 8h 30m 10h 30m to I l h 30m except Saturday afternoon. 14h. 9h. 16h. 13h. 12h. except interruptions during communications continuous.ocation Frequency (kHz) Schedule ( U I ' ) H LA Taedok Rep. Sunday. 15h. advanced by 1 h in summer continuous. IXh. 17h to 18h. advanced l h in summer during 15m preceding 7h. 50 and 55 continuous except from 6h to 12h on the first 'Clredncsday of every month continuous except from 6h to 12h o n the first Wednesday of every month emitted from Podebrady with reduced power continuous except from 6h to 12h o n the first Wednesday of every month OLB5 OMA Podcbrady Czechoslovakia Liblice Czechoslovakia Liblice Czechoslovakia Rio-de-Janeiro Brazil OM A PPE . except interruption between 35m and 39m I AM IBF JG2AS Torino Italy Sanwa Ibaraki Japan Sanwa l baraki Japan JJY Buenos-Aires Argentina Buenos-Aires Argentina MSF l l h to 12h.TABLE 2-10 Cont.

Molodechno U.4 22.004 15.000 15.R. 25 .S.S.000 l h 30m.194.S.S. 10h 43m to 10h 52m.S. Other Standards Stations Station Location Frequency (kHz) Schedule (LT) PPR Rio-de-Janeiro Brazil 435 4244 8634 13. 40nl and 50m from 7h 43m to 7h 52m and 19h 43m to 19h 52m in winter from 7h 43m to 7h 52m and 20h 43m to 2Oh 521n in summer from 8h 43m to 8h 52m and 1I h 43m to I 1h 52m from Oh 43m to Oh 52m.S.S. ending 22h to 23h 51n in winter from Oh to 19h 5m and 21h to 23h 5m in summer the station simultaneously operates on three frequencies between IOm and 20m. 9h 43m to 9h 52m. and 2111 43m to 21 h 52m in winter from 4h 43ni to 4h 52m.500 10. Tashkent U. 21h 30m RBU RCH Moscow U. continuous between minutes Om and 10m. 30m and 40m Oh to 3h 40m.R.105 17.S.TABLE 2-10 Cont.S. Moscow U.S.603 66% 2.000 RTA RTZ lrkutsk U. from Oh to 20h j m .R. and 17h 43m to 17h 52m in winter from 2h 43m to 2h 52m.R.S.S. 5004 10.R.S.S.S.S.S. 30m and 40m Oh to 5h IOm 14h to 23h 40m 6h 30m to 13h 10m between Om and 5m. 6h 43m to 6h 52m.S. 25 25 Frunze U. 50m and 60m between Om and lorn.004 10. 611 43n1 to 6h 52m. and 22h 43m to 22h 52m in summer RID Irkutsk U. and 18h 43m to 18h 52ni in summer from 4h 43m to 4h 52m.R. 50 RWM 4996 9996 14. Chabarovsk U.S.S.R.R. 5h 30m to 23h 40m 5h OOm to 13h 10m 10h to 13h 10m the station siniultaneously operates on three frequencies between minutes 20m and 30m. Novosibirsk U.996 25 UNW3 Arkhangelsk U.R.R. 14h 30m.

25 from 5h 43m to 5h 52m.000 FREQUENCY AND POWER OPERATING TOLERANCES AM Broadcast The operating frequency tolerance of each station shall be maintained within + 20 Hz of the assigned frequency. The operating power as so monitored shall be maintained as near as practicable to the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 10% above and 20% below the authorized power except in emergencies.S. TV Broadcast The carrier frequency of the visual transmitter shall be maintained within + 1000 Hz of the authorized carrier frequency. Other Standards Stations Station Ir~cation Frequency (kliz) Schedule (IJT) UTR3 Gorki U.TABLE 2-10 Cont. 13h 43m to 13h 52m.yndhurst Australia Nauen Germ. Rep.S. 1 the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 5 % above and 10% below the authorized power except in emergencies. The operating power of each station shall be maintained as near as practicable to .000 4525 6 1 00 Y3S Y VTO ZUO ZUO 2500 5000 100. FM Broadcast Operating frequency tolerance of each station shall be maintained within + 2000 Hz of the assigned center frequency. Caracas Venezuela Olifantsfontein South Africa Johannesburg South Africa 4500 7500 12. and 19h 43m to 19h 52m in summer 9h 45m to 21h 30m continuous except 22h 30m to 22h 45m 21 h 45m to 9h 30m continuous except from 8h 15m to 9h 45m for maintenance if necessary continuous 18h to 4h continuous continuous VNG L. current. The operating power of each AM broadcast station shall be maintained as near as practicable to the licensed power and shall not exceed the limits of 5 O/O above and 10% below the licensed power except in emergencies.R. 14h 43m to 14h 52m. The center frequency of the aural transmitter shall be maintained 4. Dem.5 MHz & 1000 Hz above the visual carrier frequency. and 18h 43m to 18h 52m in winter from 7h 43m to 7h 52m. The peak power shall be monitored by a peak-reading device that reads proportionally t o voltages. or power in the radiofrequency line.

A Restricted Radiotelephone general radio service remote control (R/C) service citizens band (CB) service --.005* 0. The assigned channel frequencies and upper and lower tolerance limits for citizens band (CB) radio service are listed in Table 2-13. or other impedance-matched radiofrequency load shall not exceed the values in Table 2-1 1 under any condition of modulation.- 0.00025 0.255 MHz remote control (R/C) service-26. Class of station Personal Radio Service (CB) The maximum power at the transmitter output terminals and delivered to the antenna. They are: 1 .995-27. TABLE 2-12 Frequency Tolerances of Personal Radio Services Stations Frequency tolerance ('10) Class of station Fixed and base Mobile COMMERCIAL OPERATOR LICENSES Types of Licenses Currently. used solely for remote co~itrol objccts or devices hy radio of (orher than de\:ices used solely as a means of attracting attention).01 Oo of the authorized power for stations / of 3 W or less and within + 0.The operating power of the aural transmitter shall be maintained as near as practicable to the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 10% above and 20°/o below the authorized power except in emergencies. general mobile radio service remote control (R/C) service-27.255 of MlIz only. 5 W or less.005 - *Kcmotecontrol stations that have a transmitter output of 2 . TABLE 2-11 Power Limits of Personal Radio Services Stations Maximum transmitter output power (W) Industrial Radio Service The carrier frequency of stations operating below 220 MHz in the Industrial Radio Service shall be maintained within k 0. the FCC issues six types of commercial radio licenses and two types of endorsements. arc permitted a frequency tolerance of 0.005 O/O for stations with an authorized power of more than 3 W. . The carrier frequency of a station in this service shall be maintained within the percentages of authorized frequency shown in Table 2.75 4 12 *A maxinlum trarlsnlitter otllp~lt 25 W is permitted on 27. antenna transmission line.0005 0. Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit.01 %.12. The frequency tolerance of Industrial Radio Service stations operating between 220 and 1000 MHz is specified in the station authorization.195 MHz remote control (R/C) service-72-76 MHz citizens band (CB) radio service-carrier (where applicable) citizens band (CB) radio service-peak envelope power (where applicable) 50 25* 4 0.

It does not Operator Permit allows operation of most aircraft and aeronautical ground . To be eligible for it you must: Be at least 14 years old Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U.S. 2 . and most VHF marine coast and utility stations. TV. There is no examination for this license. and certain maritime coast radiotelephone stations. or an FCC radio station license in your name Be able to speak and hear Be able to keep at least a rough written log Be familiar with provisions of applicable treaties. FM. repair. laws. and maintenance (including acting as chief operator) of all types of AM. or the open sea. and international broadcast stations. and rules that govern the radio station you will operate A Restricted Radiotelephone Operator License is normally valid for the lifetime of the holder. It is also required to operate certain aviation radiotelephone stations. or (if not so eligible) hold an aircraft pilot certificate validin the U.S. Marine Radio Operator Permit. A Marine Radio Operator Permit is required to operate radiotelephone stations on board certain vessels sailing the Great Lakes. any tidewater. maritime radiotelephone stations on pleasure vessels (other than those carrying more than six passengers for hire).TABLE 2-13 Citizens Band Frequencies and Upper and Lower Tolerances Assigned frequency (MHz) Lower limit (MHz) llpper limit (MHz) Channel stations. It is the only type of license required for transmitter operation.

. It also conveys all of the authority of the Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate.S. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. Operator License is normally valid for the lifetime of the operator. maintenance. It also conveys all the authority of both the Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit and the Marine Radio Operator Permit. and adjustment of FCC licensed radiotelephone transmitters in the Aviation. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 16 code groups per minute and 20 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. operating procedures. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. and International Public Fixed radio services. and basic electronics The General Radiotelephone I 5 . A Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required to operate certain coast radiotelegraph stations. To be eligible for this license. A Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required to operate ship and coast radiotelegraph stations in the maritime services and to take responsibility for internal repairs. FM. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass a written examination covering basic radio law and operating procedures The Marine Operator Permit is normally valid for a renewable fiveyear term. To be eligible for this license. It is also required for operation of maritime land radio transmitters operating with more than 1500 W of peak envelope power and maritime mobile (ship) and aeronautical transmitters with more than I000 W of peak envelope power. or TV broadcast stations. Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. and adjustments of any FCC-licensed radiotelegraph transmitter other than an amateur radio transmitter.S. To be eligible for this license. General Radiotelephone Operator License. maintenance. Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. Maritime. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. basic operating procedures (telephony).authorize the operation of AM. and basic operating procedures (telegraphy) The Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable five-year term. 4. A General Radiotelephone Operator License is required for persons responsible for internal repairs.S. 3.

S. you must: Be at least 21 years old Have at least one year of experience in sending and receiving public correspondence by radiotelegraph at ship stations.S. and electronics technology as applicable to radiotelegraph stations The Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable five-year term.S. cargo ships. Hold a valid First or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate or a General Radiotelephone Operator License Pass a written examination covering the technical fundamentals of radar and radar maintenance techniques 8. coast stations. The Six-Months Service Endorsement is required to permit the holder to serve as the sole radio operator on board large U. 6 . basic operating procedures (telephony). basic operating procedures (telephony). A First Class Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 20 code groups per minute and 25 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. you must: Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required only for those who serve as the chief radio operator on U.S. Ship Radar Endorsement. basic operating procedures (telegraphy). Six-Months Service Endorsement. and electronics technology as applicable to radiotelegraph stations The First Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable five-year term. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. To be eligible for this endorsement. To be eligible for this license. The Ship Radar Endorsement is required to service and maintain ship radar equipment. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 16 code groups per minute and 20 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. basic operating procedures (telegraphy). First Class Radiotelegraph Operator Cerfificate. It also conveys all of the authority of the Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. passenger ships. 7 . To be eligible for this endorsement. you must: Hold a valid First Class or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate . or both Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U.To be eligible for this license.

or TV broadcast station.S. request issuance of a Marine Radio Operator Permit at time of renewal. The Radiotelephone First Class Operator License have been abolished and the requirements for holding such licenses to operate and maintain broadcast transmitters have been eliminated. If you operate stations that require you to hold a Marine Operator Permit and you also operate the transmitter of an AM. equipped with a radiotelegraph station in compliance with Part I1 of Title I11 of the Communications Act of 1934 Have held a valid First Class or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate while obtaining the six months of service Have been licensed as a radio officer by the U. 1948 (46 U. (No examination is necessary if your Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit expired not more than five years before application. while obtaining the six months of service renamed the General Radiotelephone Operator License.Have at least six months of satisfactory service as a radio officer on board a ship (or ships) of the U. Radiotelephone First Class Operator License. Broadcast Endorsement. in accordance with the Act of May 12. Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. Persons holding the Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License will be issued a General Radiotelephone Operator License when they apply for renewal. Discontinued Licenses The FCC no longer issues the Radiotelephone First or Second Class Operator Licenses. the Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. Persons holding such a license will be issued a General Radiotelephone Operator License when they apply at renewal. 229 a-h). FM. Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License.C. The requirement for its use with a Broadcast Endorsement has been abolished.S. the Broadcast Endorsement or the Aircraft Radiotelegraph Endorsement. The Broadcast Endorsement to the Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit formerly required for operations of some classes of broadcast transmitter has been abolished along with the requirement 2. you should apply for both a Marine Operator Permit and a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit at time of renewal. apply for a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit at time for renewal.) If you hold a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit With Broadcast Endorsement for operating a broadcast station. 4. Coast Guard. Holders of such licenses should follow the following instructions pertaining to the license held when it is time to renew their license. If you are employed as a radio operator aboard vessels or aeronautical stations where its use is required. 1 .S. The Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License has been . The Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit has been converted to the Marine Radio Operator Pemit.

General Kegulutions. Element 6. Holders of this type of license a n d endorsement who have been using it for broadcast transmitter operation shoiild apply for a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit during the last year of the license term. Element l(C). Busic Operating Practice. 5 . Radio operating practices generally followed or required in communicating by radiotelephone in the maritime radio services. Basic Marine Kudio Law. Specialized theory and practice applicable to the proper installation. and regulations with which every radio operator in the maritime radio service should be familiar. a n d t h e types of qiiestions in each. Involving intermediate level for general . the endorsement will be eliminated at renewal. Element 5. Expert's Code Test. Element 4(A). Rules and regulations essential to beginners'-operation. follo\ved or required in communicating by radiotelephone in the maritime radio services. including electronics technology and radio maintenance and repair techniques applicable to all classes of radiotelegraph stations. GeneruI Radiorelephone. including sufficient elementary radio theory to understand these rules. AMATEUR OPERATOR PRIVILEGES Examination Elements Examinations for amateur operator privileges are composed of questions from various categories. treaties. Examination Elements Written examinations are composed of questions from various categories called elements. General Code Tesr. and maintenance of ship radar equipment. E:lement 3. Technical matters including fundamentals of electronics technology and maintenance techniques as necessary for repair and maintenance of radio transmitters and receivers. Tcch~lical. and regulations with which cvery operator in the maritime radio services should be familiar. Radio-operating procedure and practices generally followed or required in operation of shipboard radiotelegraph stations. Intermediate Amateur Pructice. statutes. called elements. These elements.for a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. If you hold a license with such an endorsement. and other matters. legal. Radio operating procedures and practices generally Element 1(B). are: Element 1 . Provisions of laws. The use of radiotelegraphy aboard aircraft has been discontinued and the Aircraft Radiotelegraph Endorsement has been abolished. Code test at 20 words per minute. Beginner's Code Est. treaties. I 69 Element 3. T h e various elements a n d their requirements are: Element 1(A). Busic Law. Element 2. Aircruft Rudiotelegruph Endorsement. Code test at 5 words per minute. Element 2. Amateur radio operation and apparatus and provisions of treaties. Element 4. Advanced Radiotelegruph. i Provisions of lays. Ship R ~ d a r Techniques. servicing. Hadiotelegraph Operuling Practice. and rules and regulations affecting all amateur stations and operators. Code test at 13 words per minute.

5 . 2. 4. and 4(B).20 and 28. 3. Advanced Class. Elements 1(B). All amateur bands except those frequencies reserved for Amateur Extra Class. All amateur bands. 3700-3750 kHz 7100-7150 kHz 21. Technician Class. Novice Class. and the transmitter shall be crystal controlled. Elements 1(A) and 2.14. General Class. 4. Advanced radio theory and operation applicable to modern amateur techniques. The number of meters approximates the wavelength at the band of frequencies being designated. including these privileged frequencies: 3800-3890 kHz 7 150-7225 kHz 14. Note. Complete details are given in the FCC rules. Advanced Amateur Practice. Element 4(R).S. 3. 3500-3525 kHz 3775-3800 kHz 7000-7025 kHz 14.1-28.14. Novice Class. The various bands of frequencies used by amateur radio operators ("hams") are usually referred to in meters instead of the actual frequencies.225-21. Since January 1 . using only Type A 1 emission.225 kHz 2. 2.000-2 1. AMATEUR ("HAM") BANDS The frequency bands for various amateur licenses follow.S. Elements 1( C ) . and transmission of energy for ( I ) measurements and observations applied to propagation. 1. The meter Examination Requirements An applicant for an original license must be a U. and 4(A). and 3.350 kHz 21. Technician Cluss. All authorized privileges on amatcur frequency bands above 50 MHz and those assigned to the Novice Class.10-21. and 3.300 kHz 3.175.025 kHz 14.amateur practice in radio theory and operation as applicable to mod err^ amateur techniques. General Class. radiotelegraphy. 2. national and will be required to pass examinations as follows: 1. including-but not limited to-radiotelephony. Amateur Extra Class. and (3) similar experimental purposes. Elements 1(B).2 MHz The DC power input to the stage supplying power to the antenna shall not exceed 250 W. (2) radio control of remote objects. 2. 1985 all examinations for amateur radio licenses are given by volunteer amateur examiners.025 kHz 21.175 kHz 2 1. including these privileged frequencies: . Amateur Extra Class.000. 3. Advanced Class. The following selected bands.150-14. All amateur bands except those frequencies reserved for Amateur Extra Class and Advanced Class. including-but not limited to-radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy. citizen or other U. 5. Elements 1(A). 4(A).200-21. 2.

350 kHz 21. A5. A1.OW-21. AO. F5. F3. F4.S. A3J AI t:l A3. FI. F5 A5. FO. F1 A1 F1 A3. F4. A4. F4. P P P P bands and their frequency limits are given in Table 2.5 kHz 7000-7300 kHz 7000-7150 k H r 7075-7100 kHz 7150-7300 kHz 10. FO. FO. FO. A2. A l . F2.150 kHz 14. A5. Below 10 kHz. F2.100-10.E: 2-14 "Ham" Bands Band Frequency band limits 1800-2000 kHz 3500-4000 kHz 3500-3750 kHz 3750-4000 kHz 5 167. F l . A l . A4. F5. . FO A1 AO. F'4. FO. A5. AO. type of transmission. A3 . F3 A3.25 G H z 48-50. A1 F1 A3. AO. AO.5 F3. A3.s of emission (meters) F3.000-54. F1. FO. F l . A3. FO.000-21. A4.A5. A l . F2. A4. AO. A l . F5.450 MHz 28. F l . A l . A4. F2.000-14. F5 F5 F5 F5 F5. A2.0 MHz) is shown in Table 2-15 for all states and U. and supplementary characteristics.43. These classifications are given in Table 2-16. F2. F1. AO. F4. A5. FO. 71 -76 G H z Above 300 G H z A1. F3. F l . AO.000 MHz 144.r m.700 MHz 28.100-148. A4. A4.350 kHz 14. A2. A3. the symbols in Table 2-16 are prefixed by a number indicating the bandwidth in kilohertz. F3. A3. F3. A3. A5. AS. F3. Note. A5. A4.000 MHz 5 1. AO. F3. F3.150 kHz 14.700 MHz 50.TABI. A3. F4.000-14. F3. AO. A3. Frequencies between 220 and 225 MHz are sometimes referred to as I '/a m and between 420 and 450 M H z as '1. F. AS. F3. this number is given t o two significant figures. AO. 71 . A l . A3A. F4. F4. AS. A4. F1.500-29. A I . F5 F3. A I . A3.000-54. A4. F3. F5 A4. A2. F4.14.115-10.450 MHz 21 . A3.0-24. A3.0-10. A0.8-2.140 MHz 144. F4. F2. A1 rTI A3. A2. A4.500 MHz 28. A2. F I . A3. F1. F4. A5. F4. A5. F5 A4. A4. FO. A l . F2. F4. F4. F5 F3. F2. T h e maximum DC plate input power in watts for the 160-m band (1. A2. F4. Fl A l . A2.109 kHz 10. '1'ypr. A5. F2. A4. F I . A5. A5. possessions. F3. F2. FO.150-14. F4. F4. A2. A4. A4.A I F1 /\3. A5.F3. A2. F2.200 MHz 21. F1. F2.000-28.5 G H z 24. A2. A l .000 MHz 220-225 MHz 420-450 M H z 1215-1300 MHz 2300-2450 MHz 3300-3500 M H z 5650-5925 MHz 10. 1 TYPES OF EMISSIONS Emissions are classified according t o their modulation. F F3. F5 P F5. A2.200-21.000-29. When a full designation of the emissions-including bandwidth-is necessary.

TABLE 2-15 Maximum Power for the 160-m Band Maximum D<: plate i n p ~ power in watts ~t 1800-1825 1825-I850 1850-1875 1 8 7 5 .1 9 0 1900-I925 1925-1950 1950-1975 1975-2000 kIIz kHz kfiz kliz kHz kliz kHz kHz Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Colum bia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 50011 00 5001100 5001100 5001100 5001100 0 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 50011 00 5001100 50011 00 5001100 10001200 10001200 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 5001100 50011 00 10001200 5001100 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 5001100 5001100 5001100 10001200 10001200 50011 00 10001200 5001100 5001100 .

Midway American Samoa Wake Palmyra. Howland Guam. Johnston. full carrier single sideband. Enderbury.TABLE 2-15 Cont. Jarvis TABLE 2-16 Types of Emission Type of modulation 1 . amplitude Type of transmission Supplementary characteristics Symbol absence of any modulation telegraphy without the use of modulating audiofrequency (on-off keying) telegraphy by the keying of a modulating audiofrequency or audiofrequencies or by the keying of the modulated emission (special case: an unkeyed modulated emission) telephony - A0 Al - double sideband. Maximum Power for the 160-m Band Maximum DC plate input power in watts 1800-1825 1825-1850 1850-1875 3875-1900 1900-1925 1925-1950 1950-1975 1975-2000 kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz Area DayINighr DaylNighr DaylNight DaylNighl DayINight DaylNighl DaylNighl DaylNight Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Swan lsland Serrana Bank Roncador Key Navassa Island Baker. reduced carrier A3 A3a A3b facsimile television - A5 . reduced carrier two independent sidebands. Canton.

. telegraphy by the keying of a modulating audiofrcqucncy or audiol'requencies or by the keying of the modulated emission (special cxse: an unkeyed emission modulated bv audiofrcauencv~ l'acsimile .. . F4 . .. pulscd emissions absence of' any modulation-carrying inforrrlation . -. amplitude . .~IANI>ROOKL E C T R ~ N I C : ~ A N D FORMULAS OF E TABLES TAUI... television . ... and cases riot covered by the above . telegraphy without the use of modulating audiot'rcquc~icp (I'rcqucncy -. -. composite transmissions. ..I I Lor alldiofreq~~ericies ~ U C ~ rnodulat ing the width of the nulse audiofrequency or audiofrequencies modulating the phase (or position) of the ~ u l s e amplitude-modulated pulse width-modulated pulse P3d I'3e P3f P9 tclcphony . - telegraplly \vithout the use of modulating . ....audiofrequency ... .. . ...E 2-16 Cont. .. - - .keying) shift. .. A9 A9c F O FI ...... .--. ... . 2-8.. . the standards are the same except the color burst signal is omitted. - composite transmissions . . -- cases composite transrnissior~rar~tl not covered by the above --. - - F2 .... reduced carrier - 2. . ..-. For monochrome transmission. ..phase-(or position-)modulated pulse .... .. . .. absence of any modulation... in iI i !Vote. -- . -. audiofrequency or audiofrequencies modulatine the nuke in arnnlitude telegraphy by the keying of' a modulating audiofrequency or of the modulated pulse (special casc: an urikcycd modulated pulse) - P2d P2c P2f audiofre-.. . frequency (or phase) modulated . The standards given here are for color transmission. - .. .....-... - F5 F9 PO P1 composite transmissions and cases not covered by the abovc 3. . .. Types of Emission T) pe of modulation Type of transmissinn Supplementary characteristics - Symbol 1.. --.. .. ....... - TELEVISION SIGNAL STANDARDS Thc signal standards for tclcvision broadcasting are gi\~en Fig... -..

and C Not Fig. Television signal standards.' I- - Hortzonlal Sync Pu!ses -- Vert~calBlank~ng 0 07V '!fV Top o l Ptclure Zero Carrter Bottom of P~cture(See Noles 3 and 51 Relerence Wh~leLevel Rear Sope of Verttcal Blanklng (See Note 31 Color Bursl (See Note 81 Zero Carrler / C 1/10 o l Max. 2-8. B. 75 . . Blanking Deta~lBetween 3 3 In B 5 Hor~rontalD~mens~ons to Scale In A./ .I [Blank~ngLevel Reference Wh~teLevel Equal~zing Pulse lnlerval Verf~calSync Pulse Interval Equal~z~ng Pulse Internal I ! rReference Black ~ e v e l ' / I Max~rnumCarrier Voltage .

8. 10. Color burst to be omitted during monochrome transmlsslons. Lead~ng and trailing slopes of horizontal blanking must be steep enough to preserve minimum ond maxlmum values of (x y) ond (z) under all cond~t~ons plcture content.0004H -11II -I)-- -1 10 004H Max 0 004H Max 9110s Equal~z~ng Pulse Blanking Level.0003% wath a maximum rate of chonge of frequency not to exceed 1/10 Hz per second. Television signal standards.5 of ore0 of o hor~zontoisync pulse s the equol~zrng pulses ond d u r ~ n g the b r w d Color burst follows each horizontol pulse. of Dimensions marked wlth oster~sk n d ~ c athat tolerances glven are permitted only for long tlme voriat~ons ~ te and not for successive cycles. Equol~z~ng pulse areo sholl be between 0. 1 1. The color burst consists of ompl~tude modulation of o conilnuous sine wave. but 8 omitted follow~ng vert~colpulses. The horizontol scanning frequency shall be 21455 times the burst frequency. 5. 3. H=Time from stort of one ljne to ston of next ilne. . 2. 4. 2-8. D~mens~on IS the peak corrler "C" chrominance signal. Vertical Sync Pulse 0. 7. V = T~me from stort of one field to stort of next f ~ e l d . 12. The dimensions specifled for the burst determ~ne tlmes of storr~ng the ond stopplng the burst but not its phase.45 ond 0. - 0 125H Max 0 145H Min -+ Deta~l Between 5-5 In C E 6. Leoding and troil~ngedges of vert~colblonk~ng should be comptete i n less *hen 0.5H H Detail Between 4 4 In B 0 I NOTES 1. - Fig. I H. The burst frequency shall be 3. 9.579545 MHz The tolerance o r the frequency sholl be r 0.04H see Note 61 0. Dimension "P" represents the peak excursion of the lum~nonce signol ot blonk~ng level but does not ~nclude the "S>s the sync amplitude above blonk~ng level. Cont. Dimens~on ampl~tude.

83 744.25 693.25 187.83 690.25 723.83 80.83 762.75 799.83 882.25 873. 1 In : Charlrlrls 70-X7 (806-XYOXIHI).83 756.83 816.25 861.25 813.83 208.83 666.83 510.75 787.75 709.25 663.75 673.75 793.75 517. t'orn~erl! allocated t o ~ c l e \ i .25 648.83 486.25 561.83 810.25 837.83 774.25 67.25 205.25 627.83 570.83 708.75 631.75 781.75 51 1.83 516.83 636.25 83.83 840.75 493.83 522.25 58.75 859.83 828.75 595.83 768.83 474.83 492.75 559.25 193.25 651.are nou allocated to the land mobile cervice5. The frequencies of the signals are altered on most cable systems.83 834.83 630.83 564.75 751.25 525.25 603.75 589.75 613.25 199.25 61.75 481.83 480.83 864.25 783.75 661. Freq rdngc I quency of the video.75 475.25 831.83 852.25 519.25 825.25 777.25 555.83 504.83 70.75 191.25 795.75 577.75 697.75 209.25 591.75 487.25 753.83 780. ~ i b l 2-18 lists the cable channel frequency e assignments generally used.75 499.75 535.25 867.25 843.25 657.83 678.83 876.75 757.75 841.83 588. I itleo ('arriers ('olor .25 543.83 86.75 721.83 196.75 553.75 847.25 681.75 547.83 528.83 888.Solmd (.75 703.75 179.25 735.83 702.83 870.25 879.75 817.83 214.75 655.75 763. of \ome relc\i\iori trari\lalor\ ma! c'ontinllc on Ilic<c frcqt~cncics.25 729.25 687.25 855.25 765.75 203.75 745.75 871.75 835.83 792.25 633.25 58.75 877.83 202.83 498.83 190.25 573.25 669-25 675.25 77.75 505.25 549.25 639.25 747.25 699.75 625.25 181.75 727.25 567.75 889.83 612.83 720.83 600.75 823.75 87.83 64.25 597.75 197.TELEVISION CHANNEL FREQUENCIES Table 2-17 lists the broadcast frequency limits of all television channels and the freTABLE 2-17 Television Channel Frequencies* Channel no.25 477.83 696.75 829.25 175.83 576. ~ vhro.75 853.25 801.75 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70' 71' 72' 73' 74' 75' 76' 77' 78' 79' 80' 81' 82' 83' 644-650 650-656 656-662 662-668 668-674 674-680 680-686 686-692 692-698 698-704 704-710 710-716 716-722 722-728 728-734 734-740 740-746 746-752 752-758 758-764 764-770 770-776 776-782 782-788 788-794 794-800 800-806 806-812 812-818 818-824 824-830 830-836 836-842 842-848 848-854 854-860 860-866 866-872 872-878 878-884 884-890 645.25 759.75 691.25 621.83 660.75 733.75 685.75 775.25 807.25 849.83 552.75 565.83 672.25 711.75 601.83 606.75 607.83 558.25 471.75 185.83 624.75 71.25 489.25 819.25 771.83 618.83 654.75 571.75 215.75 541.83 804.75 81 1.83 684. I I a n O secondary baslc.83 540.83 184.83 582.25 211.83 738.25 507.75 805.75 583.25 513.25 717.83 786.83 846.83 726.25 531.83 714.83 178.75 65.75 769.83 822.83 594.83 546.75 81.83 798.25 789.83 534.75 523.25 579.75 643.25 705.75 679.25 495.75 667.83 649.83 750.75 715.75 739.25 615.75 529.75 637. 77 .25 885.75 865.'hannel no. and sound carriers of each channel.75 883.25 537. Opcrario~l.83 732.25 483.75 4 1 i r e q u c ~ ~ c i c \ mcgahcrtc.25 501.~dca\linp. color.25 741.75 619.83 642.83 59. Freq range Video ('arriers <'olor Sound 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 54-60 60-66 66-72 76-82 82-88 174-180 180-186 186-192 192-198 198-204 204-210 210-216 470-476 476-482 482-488 488-494 494-500 500-506 506-512 512-518 518-524 524-530 530-536 536-542 542-548 548-554 554-560 560-566 566-572 572-578 578-584 584-590 590-596 596-602 602-608 608-614 614-620 620-626 626-632 632-638 638-644 55.25 609.83 858.

Following the allocation chart frequencies are infrared TABLE 2-18 Cable 'TV Channel Frequencies* Channel no.25 139.25 145.75 185.83 136.25 187.75 11.58 40.83 208.75 29.83 244.75 233.75 41.75 215.25 157. Fret1 rdnge Video Carriers ('olor Channel .75 149.83 226.83 80.75 81.83 86.83 160.75 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 246-252 252-258 258-264 264-270 270-276 276-282 282-288 288-294 294-300 300-306 306-312 312-318 3 18-324 324-330 330-336 336-342 342-348 348-354 354-360 360-366 366-372 372-378 378-384 384-390 390-396 396-402 72-78 78-84 84-90 90-96 96.75 137.75-1 1.75 173.75-29.75-17.83 124.102 102-108 108-114 114-120 * All frequencies in megahertz. The sound or audiofrequencics start about 8 Hz and the top of the range is around 20 kHz.75 19 1.58 58.75 227.75 65.108 120-126 126-132 132-138 138-144 144-150 150-156 156-162 362-168 168-174 216-222 222-228 228-234 234-240 240-246 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 55.5 41.75 167. 2-9.83 238.75 197.25 175.75 209. shown in Fig.5 59.25 217.25 205.75 143.83 11.25 61.75 131.5 41.58 22.75-23.25 193.25 223.83 202.25 83.83 142.25 235.FREQUENCY SPECTRUMSOUND AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION The spectrum of electromagnetic waves.83 348.25 151.25 21 1.25 229.5 17.83 220.83 172.58 34.83 232.25 169.75 17.55 54-60 60-66 66-72 76-82 82-88 174-180 180-186 186-192 192-198 198-204 204-210 210-216 88.58 46.75 7 1.58 40.5 47.75 203.75 161.-10 'T-1 1 T-12 '1'-13 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 FM 14 I5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 5.83 154.25 181.75-47.25 77.25 10.83 184. Freq range Video Carriers Color Sound 7 T-8 ' 9 '1.25 163.83 196. All of the different classes of radiowaves are in this region.75-41.75 179.Sounrl no.25 127.75 245.75 23. The FCC allocation chart starts just below 10 kHz and ends at about 100 GHz.25 143.75 125.75 87.75 155.25 121. 78 .83 178.75 239.83 130.83 190.83 166.58 16. covers a range of 10" to 1 1/ I i 1 about lo-' nm.75 221.5 23.5 35.75 35.83 214.83 64.25 241.75-35.25 199.83 70.25 07.

and further evolution can be anticipated. Figure 2-1 1 shows the frequency range of various musical instruments and of other sounds. visible light frequencies.F VF I 30-300 k H z 300-3000 kHc. 2-1 1. Unisons have a 1:1 frequency ratio. The frequency range of the human ear and the various broadcasting and recording media are also included in Fig. Figure 2-10 presents the frcquencies for each tone of the standard organ keyboard. and its complcmcnt (the perfect fourth) has a 4:3 frequency ratio. TABLE: 2-19 Frequency Classification Band AhhreClassification viation I 1 : Prequenc? nu. The prevailing musical temperament is the result of a long history of experimentation with various temperaments (an infinite spectrum is possible). 30-300 Hz 300-3000 H z 2 3 i I extrert~elylow f'rcqucncics voice frequer~cies E1. Xrays. These are known as cosmic rays. The frequency range shown for each sound is the range needed for faithful reproduction and includes the fundamental frequency and the necessary harmonic frcquencies.frequencies. The additive numerical measure for intervals is a logarithmic function wherein the octave is divided into 1200 cents: Cents = 1200 x log of frequency ratio log 2 RADIOFREQUENCY SPECTRUM The radiofrequency spectrum of 3 kHz to 3.000 MHz is divided into the various bands shown in Table 2-19 for easier identification. based on the current musical pitch of A = 440 Hz. For the rt~ajorthird. Examnple. AUDIOFREQUENCY SPECTRUM The audiofrequency spectrum is generally accepted as extending from 15 to 20. The perfect fifth has a 3:2 frequency ratio. 3 . but thousands of color frequencies are present in this region. and 5.000 Hz. The visible light spectrum covers a very small area. Little is known beyond the gamma-ray frequencies.000.955. and octaves have a 2: 1 frequency ratio. I All musical intervals are based on ratios of products of the prime numbers 2. vcry low frequencies low freq ~ ~ e l ~ c i e s medium frequencies high HF frcquencies very high VHF frequencies ultrahigh UHF frequencies supcr-high freq~~encies ext renicly high frequencies . they arc 5:4 and 386. and gamma rays. 7-he ratio arld cenrs I'or the perfect fifth arc 3:2 and 701.314.

m= m~crometers - 400 nanometers - 700 nanometers I I Fig.----I Cosmic Ray oolnm H i Gamma nm = nanometers p. 2-9 .

2-10 81 .Fig.

-. ..- Y U Y W _ Y I R X 8 z % " 0 T I 1 I I 0 - * N . 0 5 O Fig. . 2-11 .HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND I . . 5 N 2 CI - 5 5 % 9 Y ) Y W * I Y .

S. National \+'cather Serv- ice for thc dissemination of weather information to the public.475 MHz 162.55 MHz . Departrncnt of Comniercc.40 MHz 162. T h e frcquencics assigned arc: 162.NOAA WEATHER FREQUENCIES T h e FCC has allocated three frequencies to the U. National Occanic and Atmospheric Adnlinistration (NOAA).

.

Stop sending. Do not interfere. I am returning t o . I am headed for . Speak slower. The legibility of' your signal is . 1 am troubled by static. I cannot receive you. Your tone is -. Decrease power.r o m . The signals consist of a series of three-letter groups starting with Q and havTABLE: 3-1 Signals Signals Question ing the same meaning in all languages. I am busy (or I am busy with ) . The question is designated by the addition of the question mark after the Q signal. . I am being interfered with. Speak faster. Increase power. f My ETA is hours.Chapter 3 INTERNATIONAL Q SIGNALS The international Q signals were first adopted to enable ships at sea to communicate with each other or to contact foreign shores without experiencing language difficulties. Today. Your frequency varies. Q signals serve as a convenient means of abbreviation in communications between amateurs. Each Q signal has both an affirmative and an interrogative meaning. Answer or advice QRA QRn QRD QRE QKF QRG QRH QRI QRJ QRK QRI. Your signals are too weak. QRM QKN What station are you? How far arc you from me? Where are you headed and from where? What is pour estimated time of arrival? Are you returning to ? What is my exact frequency? Does my frequency vary? How is the tone of my transmission? Do you reccivc me badly? How do your read my signals? Are you busy'! Arc you bein8 interfered with? Are you troubled by static? Shall I increase power'? Shall I decrease power? Shall I speak faster? Shall 1 speak slower? Shall I stop transmitting? QRP QRQ QKS QRT Q KO . The most common Q signals are listed in Table 3-1. Your exact frequency is kHz. My station name is I am from your station.

My true speed is -. your signals are bad. I hours. . At what time did you depart from -.if not sent. Distress calls from Reply on this frequency. Or no. Fix your bearing and distance on my radio signal. Yes. or reply on kHz. I heard you on -kHz. I can communicate with direct (or through the medium of -1.will call you at Your turn is . I am sending two dashes of ten seconds each times on kHz at with my call sign hours. I give you acknowledgment of receipt. True bearing from me is Your bearing is -. Please tell that 1 am calling him on kHz.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS A N D FORMULAS OF TABLES TABLE 3-1 Cant. Change to transmission on kHz without changing the type of wave. I left port at hours. Wait . My location is -. Say each word or group of words twice or tlmes. degrees. Q Signals Signals Question Answer or advice QRU QRV QRM QRX QRY QRZ QSA QSB QSD QSG QSK QSL QSM QSN QSO QSP QSQ QRR QSU QSV QSW QSX QSY QSZ QTA Q'I'B QTC QTE QTF QTG QTH QTI T I QTL QTM QTN QTO QTO Have you anything for me? Are you ready? Shall I inform t h a t you are calling him on kHz? When will you call me again? What is my turn? Who is calling me? What is the strength of my signals'? Are my signals fading? Are my signals mutilated? Shall I send messages at a time? Can you hear me between your signals? Will you send me a confirmation of our communication? Shall I repeat the last message? Did you hear me on kHz? Can you communicate with direct or by relay? Will you relay to free of charge? Have you a doctor aboard? Have the distress calls from been cleared? Shall I send reply on this frequency or on kHz? Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency? Will you send on this frequency? Will you listen to on -kHz? Shall I change to transmission on another frequency? Shall 1 send each word or group more than once? Shall I cancel message number? Do you agree with my counting words? How many messages do you have for me? What is my true bearing from you? Will you give me the position of my station according to the bearings of your direction finding station? Will you send two dashes of ten seconds each follo\ved by our call sign-repeated t i m e s on kHz? What is your location in latitude and longitude? What is your true track-in degrees? What is your true speed? What is your true heading-in degrees? Send signals to enable me to fix my bearing and distance. as Cancel message number . have cleared. I agree. I departed from (place) at hours. I am entering port. 1 am ready. I can hear you. Repeat the last telegram you have sent me. we have no doctor. Have you left portldock? Are you going to enter portldock? I have nothing for you. or word count i s . My true track is degrees. Your keying is incorrect. . My true heading is degrees. The strength of your signals is Your signals are fading. Send a series of Vs. Send messages. Yes. 1 will listen to on kHz. I will relay. You are being called by -. I will send on this frequency. I have messages for you.

Barometric pressure at sea level is now Follow course degrees true. Can you give me. Q Signals Signals Question Answer or advice Can you communicate with my station by means of the International Code of Signals? What is the correct time? Will you send your call sign for minutes now. Information desired follows: visibility is clouds are wind is knots from a tlatitude longitude. I will keep my station open for further communication with you until further notice (or until hours). for emergency use only. Will you be forced to alight (or land)? Will you give me the present barometric pressure at sea level? Will you indicate the true course for me to follow? Is the distress traffic ended? (Official ARRI. . I will send your call sign for now. It is the equivalent of SOS as used by ships at sea and must receive the same attention and priority. y . and if you hear it keep off the frequency except to listen. The correct time is hours. Have you received the distress signal sent 7 by -. My station is open from to hours. or at hours on kHz so that your frequency may be measured? During what hours is your station open? Shall 1 stand guard for you on kHz? Will you keep your station open for further communication with me for hours? Are you proceeding to the position of incident and if so when do you expect to arrive? Are you continuing the search? 7 Do you have news of -. or at hours on kHz so you can measure my frequency.TABLE 3-1 Cont. in the following order. direction and velocity of ground wind at (place of observation)? What is the number (or other) of the last message you received from me? Have you received the urgency signal sent 7 by -. It is the official ARRL land distress call. I am proceeding to the position of incident and expect to arrive at hours. QUC QUF I have received the distress signal sent b I must land now. The number of my last message to you is I have urgency signal sent b y . information concerning visibility. unless you are in a position to help. -. Listen for me on channel (from to hours). land distress call) I will communicate with you by International Code of Signals. QUM QRRR Distress traffic is ended. 1 am continuing the search f o r . 1 have news o f . This is a special signal. height of clouds.

will advise. Shall I send by (method). listen for telephony. Do not use break-in. sb). You are causing interference. Put (spccd opr. Check Keying. Using concentrator.S. ( 1 ) Characters indistinct. mux. Signal unheard. Following was sent (time). TRANSMIT CALI. Punching tape for transmission. Cease Sending. Unable to receive you. Blurring Signals. LETTERS 1NTELLIGIRI. 1-5. priority . The U. Break and go ahead with New slip. ( I ) Will keep trying.Y. military also uses these codes. *ZBQ ZBR *ZBR ZBS *ZBT *ZBU *ZBV *ZBW ZRY ZCA ZCB ZCC ZCD ZCF ZCI ZCK ZCL ZCO ZCl' ZCR ZCS ZCT ZCW *ZDA *ZDB ZDC ZDE *ZDE ZDF *ZDF *ZDG ZDH -. You are sending uppercase. USE TELEGRAPH.EASE. Work (simplex. W E CAN RECEIVE ABSOLUTELY NOTHING. Retuning. Run (foxes. Your tape reversed. (2) Dots light. Transmit only messages of above precedence . Answer on . ads. ACKNOWLEDGE.Z-SIGNALS The Z-code signals shown in Table 3-2 are used to communicate at sea. Message received by addressee (time). Pull Back your tape one Yard. We file. I shift (or ask ) to (kHz). C Circuit affected. Expedite reply to my . duplex. Last word received (sent) was -. (3) Canceling. Make call before transmitting traffic. try.). Circuit broken. Circuit Interrupted. mk. etc. Message undelivered. (2) Not held. Send Code Twice. Reroute the circuit by patching. increase to maximum. Signal (I) Not understood. *ZAL ZAN *ZAN *ZAO ZAP *ZAP *ZAQ ZAR *ZAS *ZAT *ZAV *ZAX *ZAY *ZRA *ZBD *ZBE *ZBG *ZBH *ZB1 *ZBL *ZBM ZBN *ZBN *ZBO *%BP A YOU ARE NOT OBSERVING CIRCUIT DISCIPLINE. Count . PLEASE. Your Dots arc too Heavy (long). Retransmit message to . Send blind until advised. Are you in direct Communication With 7 1) Hr. due to . I HAVE TRAFFIC. When and on what frequency was message received. Send on (kHz). CAN'T UNDERSTAND VOICE. Revert to Automatic Relay. B Cause of delay is . Will confirm later. (4) Rtr. TABLE 3-2 Z Code for Point-to-Point Service* Signal Message Signal Message *ZAA *ZAB ZAC *ZAC *ZAD *ZAE *ZAF *ZAH *ZAl *ZAJ ZAL.as groups. ( I ) Dots heavy.MHz. Break circuit. make warning signals. RYs.) this frequency. via -. YOUR SPEED KEY IMPROPERLY ADJUSTED. Advise (Call sign of) frequency you are reading. Conditions poor. formal messagc. (2) Advise disposal. Collate code. CHECK YOUR CENTER FREQUENCY. Alter your wavelength. Have been unable to break you. Rerun tapes run on since P . Unable to relay. Running and available. Report when in communication with -. (2) Spacing bad. Your Collation is Different. Closing down. 88 . Make readable signals. Accuracy of followin_gdoubtful. Your Collation Omitted. Diagnosing Circuit faults. Frequency is Drifting to degree indicated. Cease using speed key. PL. Message undelivcred.

Report disposal of message .shall 1 I ( o r ) reports into circuit (net). please. ZHY I Industrial or Medical interference. ZLP WE ARE SUFFERING FROM Z LS 1. We are Experiencing Garbles. Not Received. Stand by for ZMQ mark bias. Who is controlling station? or I am . ZHA ZHC H How are conditions for Auto reception? HOW ARE YOUR RECEIVING CONDITIONS? %HM/x Harmonic radiation from transmitter. ZLD Ilistorted Land Line control signals. Following transmitters running dual. ZblG STAND BY MOMENT. at relayed to . Message intercepted or copied blind. 1-5. Depth of Fading is as indicated. We are Experiencing Fill-ins. Your Dots Varying length. Parts marked ZEP coming later. 89 . Pass this message to Check your FSK shift. ZbIO MisPunch or Perforator failures. Message for ( 1 ) Action. 1-5. ZJI: 1-5. ZMP . Private message received for -. 1-5. Please Give Priority. Say when ready to resume. ZIP You have strong Idle Radiation. please remedy. 1-5.IGHTNING STORM. Pern~issionnecessary before transmitting messages. ZIR ZIS Atmospheric Interference. (3) Comment. Advise when message received by -. This message is correction to . Cancel transmission -. Your Dots are Missing. This message is a suspected duplicate. Receiving conditions No Good for code. ZHS We are Holding Your . ZKW L Z1. We are Experiencing Drop-outs. YOUR SIGNALS GETTING STRONGER. This message is classified. Revert to FSK. *ZKE *%KF Station leaves net temporarily. Signals are Fading Slightly. We are getting Long Dash from you. This is a multiple-address message. ZLL LOW(minimum) Power. Accuracy of heading doubtful. 1-5. . Correct version is . signals Good For wpm. You are misusing authenticator. No private messages until ordered. ZMU/x MUltipath making *ZKA *ZKB N ZNB *%NB ZNC *ZNC *ZND ZNG ZNI ZNN ZNO ZNR No Breaks. M Magnetic activity. ALL CLEAR O F TRAFFIC. please. Send High Speed auto w p m . Take control of net . All stations authenticate. Hz. . 1-5. Z Code for Point-to-Point Service* Signal Message Signal Message ZDL ZDM *ZDM *ZDN *ZDQ *ZDS ZDT *ZDT ZDV *ZDV *ZDY *ZEC ZED ZEF ZEG *ZEI *ZEK *ZEL *%EN *ZEI' *ZEU ZM *ZFA ZFB *%FB ZFC ZFD *ZFD *ZFF *ZFH *ZFI ZFK Z FO ZFQ/x ZFR *ZFR ZFS *ZGB ZGF *ZGF ZGP ZGS ZGW Your Dots are too Light (short). (2) Info. Message just transmitted erroneous. ZIM Increase Power. Reply message? There is no reply. No answer required. Advise. YOUR SIGNALS GETTING WEAKER. *ZKD or . Authentication is NO COMMUNICATIONS WITH . Not On the air.TABLE 3-2 Cont. F Failing Auto. we send twice. Make call signs more distinctly.B Give Long Breaks. J Frequency Jumping to degree indicated. Closing down (until ) .Message by . K E 7 Have you received message -. NO CALL LETTERS (IDENTIFICATION) HEARD. SIGNALS FADED OUT. Frequency shift your signal is Rapidity of Fading is as indicated. SIGNALS ARE FADING BADLY. ZKQ What Stations Keeping watch on ? *ZKS Keying weight is (percent). Don't transmit exercise messages until advised. Exercise (drill message). 1-5. *ZKJ %KO REVERT T O ON-OFF KEYING. G Send (answer).

Wipers or Clicks here. . Send Plain Once. *ZOM ZOR *ZOU *ZOZ ZPA *ZPA ZPC *-I 3 C L ZPE ZI'F ZPO ZPP ZI'R ZPS ZPT ZRA *ZKA ZRB *ZKB ZRC *ZRC *ZRE *ZRF ZKK ZRI. Relay to your substations. Printer Carriage-return not received. N Noise. W Name of operator on watch.TABLE 3-2 Cont. Y WHAT IS YOUR SPEED O F TRANSMISSION? Z Incorrect. Negative (No). 0 Overall readability. Send Plain Twice.. Transmit by Hand. Wait. Transmission temporarily Interrupted. Rerun slip before one now running. Plcasc Remove blodulation from . ZKM *ZRM ZRN ZRO ZRR ZRS ZRT ZRY ZSF Here New Slip. UNABLE T O COMP1. Signals fading. 1-5. Signals Varying in Frequency. ARE YOU KECEIVINC. adjust receiver. YOUR SIGNALS STRONG AND READABLE. OK? Run Reversals. Rerun message No. SEND WORDS TWICE.Y. You are correct. Transmit your tnessage (give info. Can you accept message? (or) Give me message. Relayed signal Bad. Timing signal will be transmitted. 0 Have checked (call letters) OK. V Varying Bias. S Signal strength. Observing will transfer when better. Transmit Only Reversals. Give SINPO report on -. Send Slower. isb). My f'rcquency OK? Your frequency is -. Printer motor Slow. please.). Your Speed Varying. Mail delivery permissible. Punch Everything. Printer motor 1-'ast. . Run tcst slip. ZSH ZSlIx ZSMIx ZSN ZSO ZSR ZSS ZST ZSU ZSV ZTA ZTH ZT1 ZUA *ZUA ZUB ZUC *ZUE *ZUG *ZUH *ZUJ ZVB ZVF ZVP *ZVR ZVS *ZWB ZWC Z\VO ZWR ZWS ZWT ZYS *ZZF *ZZG P Printer line Advance not received. Relay this message. Relay this message via OK. Obtain retrans~nissionof message -. Signals Varying in intensity. Unable to comply. Please furnish Signal Intensity. Wavelength (frequency) is Swinging. YOUR SIGNALS WEAK BUT READABLE. Act as radio link between me and . Microvolt input to receiver is . Stand by. YOUR SIGNALS ARE UNREADABLE. Rcruns slip at Present Running. Hear you best on (kHz). Transmit Slips Twice. Isb. Send tuning signals on present frequency. or tune your transmitter to -. Pass at once to substations. 1-5. WE HAVE BEEN UNABLE T O BREAK YOU. Check your frequency on this circuit. Punch Plain only. I Interference. C Conditions Unsuitable for Automatic recording. WILL DO SO AT -. On Line. Affirmative (Yes). STATIC HEAVY HERE. R Reverse Auto tape. Reversed Keying. P Propagation. ROUGH NOTE. Send Vs Please. Give instructions for routing traffic. 90 . Revert to Traffic. \Vhal traffic have you On Hand? WE ARE RECEIVING OK. Can you Receive Code? Shall I. S SEND FASTER. Your speech distorted. SEND WORDS ONCE. T Transmit by Auto. % Code for Point-to-Point Service* Signal Message Signal Message ZNS ZOA *ZOC ZOD *ZOL) *ZOE *ZOF *%OG ZOH ZOK *%OK ZOI. l receive (usb. Transmit Slips Once.

Go ahead with Pix. Cycling on ARQ. ZXA ZXC ZXD ZXF ZXH ZXJ ZXK ZXL ZXO ZXP ZXS ZXV Radiophoto and Facsimile Adjust to receive speeds . Revert to MUX frames channels. military usage. Inc. Army Communications Manual SIG 439-2. Allied Cornmunication Procedures. also sometimes used by law enforcement agencies. You are Jumping out of phase. Check Your Keying on channel . You are Floating Fast. Your modulation is Varying. Check Your Thyratrons.. 'Asterisk indicates U. Meaning Number Meaning signal weak signal good stop transmitting affirmative (OK) relay (to) busy out of service in service say again negative o n duty stand by (stop) existing conditions message information message delivered reply to message enroute urgent (in) contact location call ( ) by phone disregard arrived at scene assignment completed report to (meet) estimated arrival time licenselpermit information oa-nership information records check dangerlcautioll pick-up units needed specifylnumberltype help me quick time . it is easier to memorize than the others. 11-CODE SIGNALS Table 3-6 is the 11-code. (5) extreme. adopted by the Associated Public Safety Communications Officers. (3) illoderate. ACP-131 ( A ) . You are floating Slow. Sources: Cable and Wireless Ltd. (4) severe. send As on A channel. please. Two other versions. Multiplex Cease traffic. Limits High. are given in Tables 3-4 and 3-5. reduce Hz. Z Code for Point-to-Point Service* Signal Messslge Signal Message ZYA ZYC ZYK ZYM ZYN ZYP ZYR ZYT ZY Xlx TRY AGAIN. Containing only 34 signals. Change from single printer to Multiplex. increase Hz. Last run defaced due to .S. Change from multiplex to single Printer. \V. PIX Conditionally accepted. (2) slight. Numbcrs 1-5 following the "2" signal mean: ( I ) very slight.?AFI\I.TABLE 3-2 Cont. Please put o n MUX revolutions. (APCO). one used primarily by CBers and the other by police agencies. The one in Table 3-3. yet most of the needed sigTABLE 3-3 APCO 10-Signals Number Meaning Number nals are included. Is your synchronizing correct? Limits are Low. lo-signals Numerous versions of 10-signals are in use. is the result of an indepth study to develop a uniform code that could be used by all radio services. L. Make bias Neutral. Send Dashes. errors stored your end.S.

Relay message. I have a message for you (or ) . Weather and/or road conditions. Urgent business. Traffic accident at . Report in person to . Trouble at this station. Awaiting your next message/assignment. Frequency check. Out of service (leaving air). Transmit dead carrier for 5 seconds.phone. Wrecker needed. You are causing interference. Please tune to c h a n n e l . What is next message number? Unable to copy. all units secure. acknowledgment. I have TVI. Your message delivered. Proceed with transmission in sequence. Please give me a long count. or number by . All units within range.? Disregard last information. Transmission completed. Mission completed. Correct time. Negative contact. Ambulance needed at -. . Transmitting (talking) too rapidly. Fire at -. Your transmitter is out of adjustment. Stand by. need help. Can you contact . Completed last assignment. Reserve hotel room for . Traffic tie-up at -. I am moving to c h a n n e l . I will give you a radio check. Talk closer to mike. Does not conform to FCC Rules. All units comply. Visitors (or officials) present. Location. Speed trap at . Stop transmitting. Break channel. signal weak. Net directed to -. message received. Reserve lodging (room). return to base. Anything (message) for us? Nothing for you. My address is Radio repairmen needed at -. or relay to . stand by. Time is up for contact. Wrecker needed at . OK. Emergency traffic at this station.TABLE 3-4 CBers 10-Code Number Meaning Number Meaning Receiving poorly. Rest room pause. Identify your station. Confidential information. Police needed at . Call . please report. or repeat message. Receiving well. Ambulance needed. Busy. Assist motorist. In service (subject to call). Repeat. Make pickup at . standing by. use phone. . Net clear. signal good. Telephone number.

Fire alarm. Notify coroner. Out of service (give location). Prepare to make written copy. Complete assignment quickly. stand by unless urgent. Check records for wanted. Squad in vicinity. Personnel in area.phone. Nothing for you. Ending tour of duty. Acknowledgment. no light and siren. Traffic standard needs repair. Major crime alert. Net message assignment. Bank alarm a t . Direct traffic. Prisonerslsubject in custody. ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival). Stop transmitting. by Disregard. Vehicle registration information. Improperly parked vehicle. Repeat. Intoxicated driver. Information. Advise nature of fire. return t o . Riot. Smoke report. Investigate suspicious vehicle. Report progress on fire. Detaining subject. Advise present telephone number. Civil disturbance. Request permission to leave patrol for P. Negative. Work school crossing a t . In service. Unable to copy. (F. Clear to read next message. Silent run. Report of prowler. Hit and run. Convoy or escort. Need assistance. Reserve lodging. Blockade. Enroute. Records indicate wanted or stolen. Stopping suspicious vehicle. I f meeting. Check (test) signal. Livestock on highway. change location. due to . Correct time. Illegal use of radio. Meet complainant. Crime in progress. Assignment completed. Signal good. Breathalizer report. Drivers license information. Fight in progress. Message cancellation. PD). Reply in message. Pick upldistribute checks. Drag racing.TABLE 3-5 Police 10-Code Number Meaning Number Meaning 10-0 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-17 10-18 10-19 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25 10-26 10-27 10-28 10-29 10-30 10-31 10-32 10-33 10-34 10-35 10-36 10-37 10-38 10-39 10-40 10-41 10-42 10-43 10-44 10-45 10-46 10-47 10-48 Caution. Emergency road repairs needed. Man with gun. . Call . Officerloperator on duty. In contact with.PI. Report in person t o . 10-49 10-50 10-5 1 10-52 10-53 10-54 10-55 10-56 10-57 10-58 10-59 10-60 10-61 10-62 10-63 10-64 10-65 10-66 10-67 10-68 10-70 10-71 10-72 10-73 10-74 10-75 10-76 10-77 10-78 10-79 10-80 10-8 1 10-82 10-83 10-84 10-85 10-86 10-87 10-88 10-89 10-90 10-91 10-92 10-93 10-94 10-95 10-96 10-97 10-98 10-99 Traffic light out. Intoxicated pedestrian. . Accident . advise ETA. Road blocked. Dispatch information. Busy. Pick up prisonerlsubject. . Domestic trouble. expedite. Emergency. Dog case. Beginning tour of duty. Urgent-use light and siren. Delayed. Arrived at scene. Message for local delivery. Animal carcass in -lane a t Assist motorist. Mental subject. Location. Chase in progress. Wrecker needed. Prisonljail break. Relay (to). Stand by. Weather and road report. Ambulance needed. Bomb threat.

Special detail. Traffic accident-no injury. Fire alarm. Provide transportation. Direct traffic. Traffic signal light out. Traffic accident-ambulance sent. Wires down. THE INTERNATIONAL CODE d dah i duh d d d t i ii i duh d duh dt i dah d d t ii dt i d d dah d t i i i duh dah d t i d d d dt i i ii d dt ii 1 2 3 4 5 question mark error wait d dah dah doh i dah d dah i d dah d dt i ii dah dah dah d t i duh dah duh i d dah dah d t i dah dah d doh i d dah d t i i 6 7 8 d d dt i ii dah d d dah i i d d d duh i i i di dah dah doh d d doh i i duh d dah duh i dah dah d d t ii d dah dah dah doh i d d dah dah dah i i d d d dah dah i i i d d d d dah i i i i d d d d dt i i i ii d d dah dah d df i i ii d d d d d d d dt i i i i i i ii d dah d d d t i i ii 9 0 dah d d d d t i i ii doh duh d d dt i ii dah dah doh d dr ii dah dah dah dah dt i dah dah duh duh duh d dah d dah d duh i i i dah dah d d dah dah i i rli duh d dah d t i i period comma end of message . Abandoned vehicle. Person calling for help. 11-43 11-44 11-45 11-46 11-47 11-48 11-65 11-66 11-70 11-71 11-79 1 1-80 11-81 11-82 11-83 1 1-84 11-85 11-86 11-87 1 1-98 11-99 Doctor required. Traffic accident-serious injury. Ball game in street. Take a report. Traffic signal out of order. Meet officer. Person down. Officer needs help. Death report. Rush vehicle registration informationdriver is being detained. Prowler. Female motorist needs assistance. Traffic accident-minor injury. Subject has no record and is not wanted. Advise if ambulance is needed. Traffic accident-no details. Injured person. Dead animal. Dispatch tow truck. Request ambulance.TABLE 3-6 Law Enforcement 11-Code Signal Meaning Signal Meaning 11-6 11-7 11-8 11-10 11-12 11-13 11-14 11-15 1 1-17 11-24 11-25 l 1-25X 11-27 1 1-28 11-29 11-30 11-31 11-40 1 1-41 11-42 Illegal discharge of firearms. Fire report. Animal bite. Coroner required. Ambulance not required. Attempted suicide. Incomplete phone call. Vehicle-traffic hazard. Subject has felony record but is not wanted. Injured animal. Assist other unit.

and provides a rapid and fairly accurate means for evaluating and reporting the quality of a received radio signal. TABLE 3-8 Greek Alphabet Letter Small Capital (Y Letter Name Small Capital v Name A /3 7 B A 6 t r .sturbance Overall readability (QRK) 5 4 3 2 1 excellent good fair poor barely audible nil slight moderate severe extreme nil slight moderate severe extreme nil slight moderate severe extreme excellent good fair poor unusable .SINPO RADIO-SIGNAL REPORTING CODE SINPO is an acronym for Signal Strength. ' 1 B 1 x H O I K A X p alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda t o T N & 0 e o 7 n P C T 'T u 6 y . Noise. $ o M mu X 9 fl + nu XI omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega TABLE 3-7 SINPO Signal-Reporting Code Degrading effect of Rating scale Signal strength Interference fL)RM) Noise fQRN) Propagation di. Interference. as shown in Table 3-7. Propagation. r E % GREEK ALPHABET The Greek alphabet is given in Table 3-8. and Overall merit. The items for which each letter is a symbol are listed in Table 3-9. The code has a five number rating scale.

(circumference divided by diameter) volume density of charge. determinant linear strain. wavelength. relative permittivity. linear density charge critical wavelengths wavelength in a guide resonance wavelength logarithmic decrement. phase angle heat flow.1416 . transmittance signaling speed angle (plane). phase coefficient. resistivity. luminous efficiency. cylindrical coordinates thermal resistivity wavenumber. volume strain. angular phase displacement. base of natural logarithms complex dielectric constant relative capacitivity. surge i~npedance permeability. linear current density angles. electrostatic potential. angular velocity critical angular frequency synchronous angular frequency resonance angular frequency resistance in ohms. propagation coefficient. magnetic flux linkage amplification factor. angles (solid) . Poisson's ratio. . angular acceleration. propagation constant electric constant magnetic constant density. damping coefficient. reluctivity Avogadro's constant coordinates 3. absorptance. coupling coefficient. angle length thermal conductivity. transfer ratio magnetic induction electrical conductivity. normal stress. permeability magnetic susceptibility initial (relative) permeability relative (magnetic) permeability permeability of vacuum frequency. dielectric constant total emissivity electric susceptibility emissivity (a function of \vavelength) energy. magnetic flux radiant power luminous flux cartesian coordinate electric susceptibility magnetic susceptibility angle (plane) electric flux angle. efficiency. electric field strength coordinate.TABLE 3-9 Greek Symbol Designations Symbol Designates Symbol Designates angles. . capacitivity. angular frequency. permittivity. shear stress. Poisson's ratio. Boltzmann's constant. specific quantity reciprocal inductance. coefficients characteristic impedance. sign of variation permittivity. luminous flux. radiant power. circular and angular wave number eddy-current coefficient form factor hysteresis coefficient electric field strength. modulation index (FM) magnetic field strength temperature. angles. surface density of charge sign of summation time constant. coefficients. susceptibility conductivity.

The preferred SI unit may be included in parentheses ( ) following the previously used unit. An abbreviation is a letter or a combination of letters (with or without punctuation marks) that represent a word or name in a particular language. An abbreviation. with few exceptions. therefore.LETTER SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Although letter symbols are often regarded as being abbreviations.gauss* (tesla) g-gram g/cm3-gram per cubic centimeter gal-gallon Gb-gilbert* (ampere turn) GeV -gigaelectronvolt GHz-gigahertz gr-gram Gy -gray H-henry h-hecto (10'). Letter Symbols A-ampere.day da-deka (10) dB-decibel dyn-dyne* (newton) E-exa (10") erg-erg* (joule) eV-electronvolt F-farad OF-degree Fahrenheit f-femto (10. Unit symbols are most commonly written in lowercase letters except when the unit name is derived from a proper name.-giga (lo9). hour hp-horsepower* (watt) Hz-hertz in-inch in2-square inch in3-cubic inch inls-inch per second J-joule . may be different for different languages. and is the same in all languages. The distinction between capital and lowercase letters is part of the symbol and should be followed. each has a separate and distinct use. They have been included because they are used frequently.") fc-footcandle* (lux) fL-footlambert* (candela per square meter) ft-foot ft 2-square foot ft3-cubic foot ft3/min-cubic foot per minute ft3/s-cubic foot per second ftlmin-foot per minute ftls-foot per second ft/s2-foot per second squared ftalbf -foot-pound (force) (. The terms marked with an asterisk (*) in the following list are not the preferred unit in SI. ampere turn Ah-ampere-hour A/m-ampere per meter A-angstrom* (micrometer) a-atto (lo-'') B-be1 b-bit. are restricted to the Greek and English alphabets. A symbol represents a unit or quantity. barn Bd-baud Bq-becquerel Btu-British thermal unit C-coulomb "C-degree Celsius c-centi cycle cd-candela cd/m2-candela per square meter Ci-curie* (becquerel) cm-cent imeter cm3-cubic centimeter cmil-circular mil CIS-cycle per second* (hertz) d-deci (lo-'). Letter symbols.

poise* (pascal second) Pa-pascal p-pico (10.kilogram kHz-kilohertz kg-kilohm km.') pA-microampere pF-microfarad pH-microhenry pm-micrometer ps-microsecond 98 .radian rd-rad* (gray) rlmin-revolutions per minute rls-revolutions per second S-siemens (R-') s-second time sr-steradian T-tera (10").JIK-joulc per kelvin K-kel\~in k-kilo (10') kg.kilovoltampere kW-kilowatt kwh-kilowatthour L-liter.s-lumen second Ix-lux (Im/m2) M-mega (10") MeV -megaelect ronvolt MHz-megahertz MR-megohm Mx-maxwell* (Weber) My-myria* (10') m-meter.") N em-newton-meter N/m2-newton per square meter* (pascal) N*s/m2--newton-second per square meter nA -nanoampere nF-nanofarad nm-nanometer ns-nanosecond Oe-oersted* (ampere per meter) P-peta (10 I'). tesla u-(unified) atmoic mass unit V-volt VIA-voltampere Vlm-volt per meter var-var W-watt W/(m.kilovolt kVA.kilometer km/h-kilometer per hour kV.") pF-picofarad pt-pint pW -picowatt qt-quart H-roentgen OH-degree Rankine rad.K)-watt per meter kelvin Wlsr-watt per steradian W/(sr-m2)-watt per steradian-square meter Wb-weber (V-5) Wh-watt-hour yd-yard yd2--square yard ydJ-cubic yard p-micro (10.001 in) min-minute (time) mol-mole N-newton n-nano (10. lambert* (candela per square meter) lb-pound lm-lumen Im/m2--lumen per square meter Im/w--lumen per watt 1m. milli (lo-') m2-square meter m3-cubic meter m3/s-cubic meter per second mA-milliampere mH-millihenry mho-mho* (siemens) mL-milliliter mm-millimeter ms-millisecond mV-millivolt mW-milliwatt milh-mile per hour mil-mil (0.

back-connccted DPDT-double-pole. attenuator aud-audible. automobile aux-auxiliary AVC-automatic volume control avg -average AWG. coulomb "C-Celsius temperature scale DB-double break dblr-doubler dB-decibel DC-direct current.balance BC-broadcast BFO-beat frequency oscillator bnd.American Wire Gage BA-Buffer amplifier bal. double-throw DPFC-double-pole."-degree (plane angle) '-minute (plane angle) "-second (plane angle) Abbreviations AC-alternating current AF-audiofrequency AFC-automatic frequency control AGC-automatic gain control AM-amplitude modulation amm-ammeter amp-ampere amp hr-ampere hour ampl-amplifier amptd-amplitude AN1. single-throw DPSW-double-pole switch DSB-double-sideband 1)SC-double silk-covered DSSB-double single-sideband DT-double throw 99 . audio auto-automatic. double contact DCC-double cotton-covered deg-degree degusg-degaussing demod-demodulator det-detail. collector. front-connected dplxr-duplexer 1)PST-double-pole.band BO-blocking oscillator bp-bandpass buz-buzzer bw-bandwidth byp-bypass B&S-Brown & Sharpe Wire Gage Btu-British thermal unit cal-calibrate cap-capacitor carr-carrier cath-cathode CB-common base CC-color code CCW -counterclockwise CE-common cmittcr cermet-ceramic metal element CF-cathode follower chan-channel ckt -circuit CRT-cat hode-ray tube cls-cyclc pcr second CT-center tap C to C-center to center CW-continuous wave. clockwise cy -cycle C-capacitance. capacitor.-automatic noise limiter ant-antenna APC-automatic phase control ASCII-American Standard Code for Information Interchange assy -assembly atten-attenuation. detach DF-direction finder disc-disconnect disch-discharge DL-delay line dly -delay dmgz-demagnetize dmr-dimmer DP-double-pole DPBC-double-pole.

graphic ammeter galvnm-galvanometer gdlk-grid leak gl~g-glowplug gnd-ground G-gain. duty factor. infinity inp-input insp-inspect inst-install.filament FM-frequency modulation foc-focus freq chg-frequency changer freq con-frequency converter freqm-frequency meter FSC-full scale fu-fuse fubx-fuse box fuhlr-fuse holder FV-full voltage FW-full wave OF-Fahrenheit temperature scale FET-field-effect transistor g-grounded ga-gage. voltage f -frequency. horsepower HSII-hot side HT-high tension HV-high voltage HVR-high-voltage regulator hyb-hybrid hyp-hypotenuse ID-inside diameter IF-intermediate frequency illurn-illuminate impd-impedance imprg-impregnate incand-incandescent incr-increase. gate GMT-Greenwich mean time hdst -headset HF-high frequency HFO-high-frequency oscillator hifi-high fidelity hkp-hook-up hndst -handset hp-high pass. electric flux density EBCDIC-extended bjnary-coded decimal interchange code KC-enamel covered ECO-electronic checkout EDT-electronic discharge tube EF-emitter follower elctd-electrode elec-electric elek-electronic elex-elect ronics EM-electromagnetic-epitaxial mesa EMF-electromotive force emsn-emission EMT-electrical metallic tubing emtr-emitter engy -energy env-envelope EP-epitaxial planar ER-electrical resistance ERP-effective radiated power es-electrostatic EVM-electronic voltmeter EVOM-electronic voltohmmeter exctr-exciter E-east. high pressure. insulation . emitter.DTVM-differential thermocouple voltmeter dty cy-duty cycle dyn-dynamo dynrn-dynamotor dynmt-dyamometer D-drain. force FATR-fixed autotransformer FB-fuse block fdbk-feedback FF-flip-flop fil. increment ind-indicate ind Ip-indicating lamp inf-infinite. installation instm-instrumentation instr-instrument insul-insulate.

mode MA-mecury arc 101 mag-magnet.SR-load-switching resistor It sw-light sivitch lyr-layer LSHI-large-scale hybrid integration LSI-large-scale integration m-magnaflux. oscillator OSMV-one-shot multivibrator out-output ovld-overload ovrd-override p-pole.F-low frequency 1. probe PA-pulse amplifier PAM-pulse-amplitude modulation PB SW-pull-button switch PC-printed circuit . multichip mdl-module melec-microelectronics MF-microfilm mg-magnetic armature mgn-magneto.SB-lower sideband 1. magnetron mic-microphone mom-momentary mt-mount MOS-metal-oxide semiconductor MOSFET-metal-oxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor NC-No coil. magnetic mag amp-magnetic amplifier mag mod-magnetic modulator MC-momentary contact.kilowatt-hour meter I-length. inductance.FO-low-frequency oscillator 1. no connection. inductor. noise frequency nfsd-nonfused nmag-nonmagnetic NO-normally open NOL-normal overload nom-nominal norm-normal ntn-neutron nyl-nylon N-north OC-over current OCO-open-close-open OCR-over-current relay ohm-ohmmeter opr-operate ORLY-overload relay osc-oscillate. luminance lam-laminate Ic-line-carrying 1. intercommunication inv-inverter 110-input-output IR-insulation resistance IT-insulating transformer I-current IC-integrated circuit IGFET-insulated-gate field-effect transistor JB-junction box jct-junction jk-jack JAN-Joint Army-Navy JANAF-Joint Army-Navy-Air Force JFET-junction field-effect transistor K-dielectric constant kn sw-knife switch KO-knock out kWhm.intercom-intercommunicating.H-left hand lim-limit lim sw-limit switch LIRLY-load-indicating relay Ikg-leakage Ikrot-locked rotor Ilres-load-limiting resistor LO-local oscillator loff -leakoff LP-low pass LPO-low pourer output LR-load resistor (relay) 1. normally closed nelec-nonelectric neut -neutral N1:-noise figure.

repeat rtr-rotor RTTY -radio teletypewriter R-resistance.Y -relay rms-root mean square rmt -remote rot -rotate rpm-revolutions per minute rps-revolutions per second rpt. pulse frequency PFM-pulse-frequency modulation pF-picofarad ph-phase phen-phenolic phm-phase meter PIM-pulse-interval modulation pk-peak PLB-pull button plnr-planar pls-pulse plyph-polyphase plz-polarize plzn-polarization PNP-positive-negative-positive pos-positive pot-potentiometer pr-pair preamp-preamplifier pri-primary PRV-peak reverse voltage psiv -passive PU-pickup PVC-polyvinyl chloride pwr-power pwr sply-power supply qtz-quartz Q-merit of a capacitor or coil. single cottoncovered SCE-single cotton enamel schem-schematic SCR-short-circuit ratio scrterm-screw terminal see-second. sensitivity seq-sequence servo-servomechanism sft-shaft sh-shunt SHF-superhigh frequency 102 .PCM-pulse-code modulation. resistor RC-resistance-capacitance RC cpld-resistance-capacitance coupled RL-resistance-inductance RLC-resistance-inductance-capacitance RTL-resistor-transistor logic SB-sideband SC-single contact SCC-single-conductor cable. secondary sel -selector semicond-semiconductor sens-sensitive. pulse-count modulation pct -percent PDM-pulse-duration modulation PEC-photoelectric cell pelec-photoelectric pent-pentode permb-permeability PF-power factor. quantity of electricity r-radius rad-radio rcdr-recorder rcv -receive rcvr-receiver rechrg -recharge rect-rectifier ref -reference reg.regenerate res-resistor resn-resonant rev cur-reverse current RF-radiofrequency RFC-radiofrequency choke RFI-radiofrequency interference rgltr-regulator RH-right hand RIFI-radio interference field intensity rinsul-rubber insulation RI.

Y -series relay SS-subsystem SSB-single-sideband SSBO-single swing blocking oscillator SSC-single silk-covered SSW-synchro switch ST-sawtooth. single-throw switch SP SW -single-pole switch sq-square sqcq-squirrel cage sqw-square wave SR-slip ring. shielding short-short circuit SHTC-short time constant sig-signal sig gen-signal generator slp-slope slv-sleeve SLWL-straight-line wavelength SNR-signal-to-noise ratio snsr-sensor sol-solenoid SP-single pole spdr-spider SPDT-single-pole.O-stabilized local oscillator STAMO-stabilized master oscillator st & sp-start and stop stbscp-stroboscope stby -standby stdf -standoff subassy -subassembly submin-subminiature substr-substrate sup cur-superimposed current suppr-suppressor svmtr-servomotor svo-servo sw-shortwave. switch swbd-switchboard swgr-switchgear swp-sweep swp exp-sweep expand swp gen-sweep generator swp integ-sweep integrator SWR-standing-wave ratio (voltage) sym-symbol syn-synchronous sync-synchronize sys-system syncap-synchroscope S-signal power.temperature templ-template term-terminal tet -tetrode TF-thin film TFT-thin-film transistor thermo-thermostat thms-thermistor thrm-thermal thymo-thyratron motor thyr-thyristor tlg-telegraph tlm-telemeter tlmy -telemetry TM-temperature meter TMX-telemeter transmitter tpho-telephotograph tpr-teleprinter TRF-tuned radiofrequency tsteq-test equipment 103 . split ring SRI. single-throw SPST SW-single-pole. double-throw SPDT SW-single-pole.shld-shield. Schmitt trigger. double-throw switch spk-spike spkr-speaker SPST-single-pole. time constant TCU-tape control unit tel-telephone telecom. time tach -tachometer TB-terminal board TC-thermocouple. voltage standing-wave ratio SCR-semiconductor-controlled rectifier SH-shield (electronic device) SWG-Stubs Wire Gage t-temperature.telecommunications temp. single throw STA1.

visual vidamp-video amplifier VF-video frequency VLF-very low frequency vm-voltmeter vo-voice vol-volume VOM-volt-ohm-milliammeter VR-voltage regulator VRLY -volt age relay VSM-vestigial-sideband modulation VSWR-voltage standing-wave ratio VT-vacuum tube VTVM-vacuum-tube voltmeter VOX-voice-operated transmitter keyer VU-volume unit w-wide wh-wide band wd-watt demand meter wdg-winding wfr-wafer WG-waveguide.four-pole 4Pl)T-four-pole.-inductive reactance y -admittance yr-year ZA-zero adjusted %-impedance. single-throw . voltage vac-vacuum vam-voltammeter var-variable. voice frequency VFO-variable-frequency oscillator vfreq clk-variable-frequency clock VHF-very high frequency vib-vibrate. double-pole switch 3PH-three-phase 3PST-three-pole. single-throw 3PST SW -three-pole. varistor varhm-var-hour meter varistor-variable resistor VC-voice coil VCO-voltage-controlled oscillator VU-voltage drop vdet-voltage detector vern-vernier VF-variable frequency.-capacitive reactance X. single-throw switch 3W -three-wire 3way -t hree-way 4lC-four conductor 4P. zone Ilc-single conductor 1 PH-single-phase 3lC-t hree-conductor 3P-three-pole 3PDT-three-pole.four-pole. double-throw 4PDT SW-four-pole.T SW-temperature switch. test switch TT-teletype TTY -teletypewriter TV-television TVM-tachometer voltmeter TS-telegraph system UF-ultrasonic frequency UHF-ultrahigh frequency undc-undercurrent undf -underfrequency unf -unfused unrgltd-unregulated USB-upper sideband util-utility UJT-unijunction transistor USG-United States Gage v-vertical. double-throw switch 4PST. wire gage WHIIM-watt-hour demand meter WHM-watt-hour meter WL-wavelength WM-wattmeter wnd-wound wpg-wiping WR-wall receptacle wrg-wiring wtrprf-waterproof WV-working voltage ww -wire-wound X -reactance X. double-throw 3PDT SW -three-pole. vibration vid-video.

.-breakdown voltage. b-base electrode for units employing a single base h. with gate connected to the guard terminal of a threeterminal bridge C........-short-circuit reverse transfer capacitance (common collector) C. emitter-to-base C.-short-circuit output capacitance (gatedrain short-circuited to AC) C...4PST SW-four-pole.. collector-toemitter Cd.-short-circuit output capacitance (common emitter) C.. forwardcurrent..... with gate short-circuited to source C..-interterminal capacitance. transfer-ratio cutoff frequency (common emitter) f.-short-circuit output capacitance (common base) C.. transfer-ratio cutoff frequency (common base) fh. c-collector electrode Ccb-interterminal capacitance....--gate-source capacitance.. common-base short-circuit current gain B. short-circuit. 4W-four-wire 4way -four-way single-throw switch SEMICONDUCTOR ABBREVIATIONS T h e following abbreviations have been adopted for use with semiconductor devices..-open-circuit input capacitance (common emitter) Ci.-drain-source capacitance.-drain-substrate capacitance....-maximum frequency of oscillation f .-small-signal transconductance (common base) g..c-static transconductance (common collector) g.-open-circuit input capacitance (common base) Cib.-interterminal capacitance.. with gate and source connected to the guard terminal of a three-terminal bridge C.-drain-source capacitance.. b..-short-circuit input capacitance (common emitter) Ci. transfer-ratio cutoff frequency (common collector) fh. short-circuit.-short-circuit reverse transfer capacitance (common base) C.-small-signal transconductance (common collector) .-small-signal. common-emitter short-circuit current gain BY.. a-alpha.-short-circuit input capacitance (common base) Ci.-open-circuit output capacitance (common base) Cob. short-circuit.. etc.-open-circuit drain-source capacitance C..--open-circuit gate-drain capacitance C. with drain shortcircuited to source C. forwardcurrent. e-emitter electrode fhib-small-signal.-open-circuit output capacitance (common emitter) C...-static transconductance (common base) g. reverse C..-open-circuit gate-source capacitance Cib. with the source connected to the guard terminal of a threeterminal bridge D-duty cycle d-damping coefficient E.d.-small-signal. forwardcurrent. collector-tobase C..-short-circuit reverse transfer capacitance (common emitter) C..-base electrodes for more than one base B-beta..-drain-gate capacitance.-transition frequency g.

reversevoltage transfer ratio (common collector) h.-base current (DC) ..-small-signal transconductance (common emitter) Ge-germanium G.-small-signal transducer power gain. common source h.-small-signal transducer power gain (common emitter) G.-small-signal transducer power gain (common collector) G..g..-large-signal average power gain (common base) Gp.-small-signal average power gain (common base) G...-small-signal value of short-circuit input impedance (common base) h.-small-signal value of open-circuit.-small-signal average power gain (common emitter) Gp. -static transconductance (common emitter) g...-static value of open-circuit output conductance (common emitter) h.. i-intrinsic region of a device (where neither holes nor electrons predominate) I.. short-circuit...-large-signal transducer power gain (common base) GI....-small-signal average power gain (common collector) G.-small-signal. reversevoltage transfer ratio (common base) h.-static value of the forward-current transfer ratio (common collector) hi.-large-signal average power gain (common emitter) G..-small-signal insertion power gain.-small-signal transducer power gain. short-circuit.-static value of open-circuit output conductance (common base) huh-small-signal value of open-circuit output admittance (common base) h. common gate G.. (real)-real part of small-signal value of short-circuit input impedance (common emitter) h.-large-signal average power gain (common collector) GI.... forward-current..-static value of the forward-current transfer ratio (common base) hi..-static value of open-circuit output conductance (common collector) hot-small-signal value of open-circuit output admittance (common collector) h..-static value of the forward-current transfer ratio (common emitter) h.-small-signal value of open-circuit output admittance (common emitter) h..-small-signal transducer power gain (common base) G...-static value of the input resistance (common emitter) hie-small-signal value of short-circuit input impedance (common emitter) hi. forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common base) HI..-small-signal..-small-signal insertion power gain..-large-signal transducer power gain (common collector) G.-small-signal.-small-signal value of open-circuit. forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common collector) h. transfer ratio h. common gate G. forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common emitter) h.. short-circuit.-inherent large-signal....... common source G. reversevoltage transfer ratio (common emitter) I..-large-signal transducer power gain (common emitter) G.-small-signal value of open-circuit.-static value of the input resistance (common collector) hit-small-signal value of short-circuit input impedance (common collector) h..-static value of the input resistance (common base) hi..

base open I.-reverse current (instantaneous) i.. repetitive In..-collector leakage current (cutoff current) I..-drain current (DC) I.. base shortcircuited to collector I.I.... (external) gate-source resistance specified I1..-base current (rms) i..-emitter current (instantaneous) I.-source current.-peak on-state current...-base current (instantaneous) I........ reference current (DC nar breakdown knee) I..-regulator current.-peak-point current (double-base transistor) I.-forward current.-source current......-substate current I..-drain current.-reverse current...-holding current (DC) 6-infection-point current I(.-collector cutoff current (DC). reference current (DC maximum rated current) KO-thermal derating factor LC--conversion loss M-figure of merit N.-overload on-state current I..--emitter cutoff current (DC).*-drain current.-collector current (rms) i..-collector current (DC).. gate-source condition specified I....... zero gate voltage ].-collector cutoff current with specified voltage between base and emitter I. gate-drain condition specified I..--forward gate current (DC) IF(.. reference current (DC) I.-emitter-collector offset current I.-forward current..-forward gate current I. direct I.-forward current.-regulator current.-emitter cutoff current (DC). total rms value I..... peak total value IF.... peak surge I.........-breakover current..:. alternating component &-forward current (instantaneous) I.-forward current....-total power input (DC or average) to the base electrode with respect to the emitter electrode .Ss-drain current. collector open I.-emitter current (rms) i...-output noise ratio P.-reverse gate current I..-alternating component of reverse current (rms value) i.-collector current (DC) I.. DC value with alternating component I.-collector cutoff current (DC)...-gate current (DC) I(... emitter open I.....-peak reverse current... zero gate voltage Is...... -collector current (instantaneous) I.-peak forward gate current I..-forward current.o--reverse recovery current I. repetitive I.. with base short-circuited to emitter I..-reverse current (DC) I.. overload I..-forward current.....--on-state current surge (nonrepetitive) I.-current cutoff current (DC)..-drain cutoff current I.-forward current (DC) I..O-collector cutoff current (DC). with specified circuit between base and emitter I...-average output rectified current I.... peak repetitive I. with specified resistance between base and emitter I.-source current 15.. -valley-point current (double-base transistor) I..:-emitter current (DC) I.-emitter cutoff current (double-emitter transistors) I.. p-region of a device where holes are the majority carriers P.-regulator current. n-region of a device where electrons are the majority carriers NF-noise figure NFo-overall noise figure NR..

-small-signal output power (common collector) P. case-to-ambient Re..P..-large-signal output power (common base) Po... total peak value PI.-total power input (instantaneous) to the base electrode with respect to the emitter electrode PI.-collector-base time constant &.-delay time ?....-total power input (DC or average) to the emitter electrode with respect to the base electrode P...-total power input (instantaneous) to the collector electrode with respect to the emitter electrode P. -forward power loss (instantaneous) P.-large-signal output power (common collector) Po... junction-to-case r.-fall time t..-reverse power loss pa-reverse power loss (instantaneous) P.t hermal resistance....-emitter-base junction resistance (assume 4 R average) re.-small-signal emitter-emitter on-state resistance (double emitter transistors) ri-dynamic resistance at inflection point R....-operating temperature ?.-turn-off time tan-turn-on time Tug...-total power input (instantaneous) to the emitter electrode with respect to the base elect rode P..-small-signal output power (common base) Po.-surge nonrepetitive power P.-thermal resistance..-external collector resistance r.. emitter zero (double-base transistor) r.-forward recovery time T.-rise time ?..-large-signal output power (common emitter) Pa.-small-signal output power (common emitter) P.-large-signal input power (common base) Pi. 'C.-small-signal input power (common emitter) PO.-small-signal input power (common base) P.-forward power loss...-recovered charge (stored charge) R.-collector-to-emitter saturation resistance r..-large-signal input power (common emitter) Pi....-reverse recovery time .-total power input (DC or average) to all electrodes p.-total power input (DC or average) to the collector electrode with respect to the emitter electrode PC. junction-to-ambient Re.-total power input (instantaneous) to the collector electrode with respect to the base electrode P.-slope resistance Si-silicon T-temperature T.-thermal resistance.....-large-signal input power (common collector) Pic-small-signal input power (common collector) P.-total power input (DC or average) to the collector electrode with respect to the base electrode PC.-total power input (instantaneous) to all electrodes Q.-resistance between two bases.-forward power loss (DC) p.-ambient temperature Tc-case temperature ?.-external emitter resistance RE.-damping resistance R.-junction temperature to...-load resistance Re--thermal resistance R.-external base resistance r.-drain-source power dissipation P.-pulse time t...

-drain-to-substrate voltage (DC) V.. drain short-circuited to source V(.-emitter supply voltage (DC) V..-breakdown voltage.-breakdown voltage. base open V......-breakdown voltage.. base to emitter Vb.......-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC).. collector-to-base V.. with specified resistance between base and emitter VC...-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC).-DC open-circuit voltage.-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC) V. collector-toemitter..-pulse average time VR-base voltage (DC) V......-base-to-collector voltage (instantaneous) VR..--storage temperature t..-reverse breakdown voltage VR.-collector-to-base voltage (DC).-breakdown voltage. floating potential..-emitter-to-base voltage (DC) V.. nonrepetitive V... drain shortcircuited to source VlRRIGssH-breakdown voltage.-peak off-state voltage....-breakdown voltage..-drain supply voltage (DC) Vl. collector-toemitter.-breakover voltage (instantaneous) V..-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC).-collector-to-emitter voltage (rms) V....R....... emitter-tocollector.-base-to-emitter voltage (rms) vb... collector-toemitter.. emitter-to-collector V..ssF-br~akd~wn voltage.-peak off-state voltage...-emitter voltage (DC) V...-breakdown voltage... with base short-circuited to emitter V. collector open V.k.. with specified resistance between base and emitter V.... gate-to-source......-peak off-state voltage repetitive V.) V.. collector-toemitter... emitter-to-base..-peak off-state voltage Vl.. floating potential. voltage between base and emitter V...b-collector-to-base voltage (rms) v. floating potential..-bias DC voltage between base 2 and base 1 (double-base transistor) V...-saturation voltage.-breakdown voltage......... collector-to-base.-base-to-collector voltage (DC) Vb. with collector open V.. with base open V...-base supply voltage (DC) V. drain short-circuited to source V(nn.. circuit between base and emitter V... emitter open V...-breakdown voltage..-saturation voltage..-drain-to-gate voltage (DC) VI. with voltage between base and emitter V.-DC open-circuit voltage.-breakdown voltage... floating potential. reverse voltage to gate-source.-emitter-to-base voltage (DC). collector-to-emitter V.-storage time TSS-tangential signal sensitivity T.... with base short-circuited to emitter V. forward voltage applied to gate-source.-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC)... -breakdown voltage..... collector to emitter Vc........R....-collector-to-emitter voltage (DC)... emitter-to-base V...-base-to-emitter voltage (DC) V.-drain-to-source voltage (DC) V.-base-to-collector voltage (rms) vb. collector-toemitter......-base-to-emitter voltage (instantaneous) V... base open (formerly B V.-collector voltage (DC) VCR-collector-to-base voltage (DC) VCR. emitter-to-emitter (double-emitter transistor) V...-emitter-to-collector voltage (DC) V............ with emitter open VcC-collector supply voltage (DC) V..-forward voltage (DC) . working V.-DC open-circuit voltage. with circuit between base and emitter VI..-off-state voltage (direct) Vl...-DC open-circuit voltage.-collector-to-base voltage (instantaneous) Vc......t..

.. -valley-point voltagc (double-base transistor) V... common collector Yi. -source-to-substrate voltage (DC) V. peak total value V.. -gate-to-substrate voltage (DC) V.. total rms value V.... maximum recurrent V. reachthrough voltage V...-impedance..-transient thermal impedance.......-small-signal.h. common emitter Y.-projected peak-point voltage V...) .-video impedance 2... (peak) working V..-small-signal.... reference voltage (DC working voltage) V...-regulator voltage...--reverse voltage..-regulator voltage...-forward gate voltage (direct) V. junctionto-ambient Z$.-source supply voltage (DC) V.-reverse voltage. short-circuit reverse transfer admittance...-gate trigger voltage (direct) V.-small-signal... common emitter Y.i.-small-signal.. -forward \roltage (instantaneous) V..-impedance.-reverse voltagc (instantaneous) V. short-circuit forward transfer admittance.. short-circuit input admittance.-reverse collector-to-base voltage.. junctionto-case 2. common collector Y.-small-signal... common emitter %.-gate-to-source theshold voltage V..-peak-point voltage (double-base transistor) V.. short-circuit output admittance. radio frequency %... reference impedance (small-signal at I... common source Y.....) z/.-small-signal. reference impedance (small-signal at I..-gate-to-source cutoff voltage Vf....-reverse gate-to-source voltage (DC)..V.-on-state voltage..-small-signal. total rms value V. short-circuit reverse transfer admittance.. short-circuit input admittance.-fornard \...-gate nontrigger (direct) voltage V....-gate supply voltage (DC) V.... direct V... reference voltage (DC at maximum rated current) Y.. short-circuit input admittance.-small-signal.. short-circuit reverse transfer admittance....-minimum on-state voltage V.. common emitter Y..-minimum gate trigger voltage V..-source-substrate voltage V.-alternating component of forward voltage (rms value) t-..-gate turn-off voltage (direct) V... -punch-through voltage V. of such polarity that an increase in its magnitude causes the channel resistance to increase V.-peak forward gatc voltage V. common collector Y..-reverse voltage.-regulator impedance.... short-circuit output admittance......-reverse voltage.. common base Yi. short-circuit forward transfer admittance....-transient thermal impedance %.. short-circuit output admittance...-rcvcrsc voltage (DC) V....-for\r:ard gate-to-source voltage (DC).. short-circuit forward transfer admittance.-small-signal.-forward voltagc.. common base Y. modulator frequency load zK.. of such polarity that an increase in its magnitude causes the channel resistance to decrease V.. common base Y.-threshold voltage V.-small-signal.-alternating component of reverse voltage (rms value) v.-inflection-point voltage V. peak transient V.-small-signal........--gate-to-source voltage (DC) V.-regulator impedance. common base Yo.oltage...-transient thermal impedance..-small-signal.

Table 3-10 gives the significance of each color.. The various rnethods of marking the resistors are shown in Fig. 1st S~gnlticantF~gure m I I I .g~irc Bocly-end-clot system Body-end band sy.\ I 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant Res~storsw ~ t hblack body are composlt~on non~nsulated Res~storsw ~ t h colored body are composlt~on Insulated Wlre wound Res~storshave the 1st color band double width Color-band sysleni (two significant fig~ilrs) Color-band systetn (1llrc.sietn -+ j / Fig.: Mult~pl~er Tolerance I 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant 2nd S~gnif~cant Figure 2nd Slgn~llcantF~gure Body-dot system Dot-band systetti lolerance htdi:ipl~e~ 211dSlgn111:dnt ':go:? & i 121 S~g~l~l~can! i . 3-1. /. Mult~pl~er Tolerance 2nd S~gn~llcant Flgure 1st S~gnit~cant Figure ! / I Mult~plier #* : '. \'.esign! ficanr figures) .RESISTOR COLOR CODES Both composition resistors and the smaller types of wirewound resistors are 1 q~* * 2nd Slgnll~cantFlgure color-coded for values. 3-1 Mult~pl~er 2nd S~gnlticanlFigure 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant Dash-band systrtn Miniature resistor code .

000 100.1 0. However. Ceramic and Molded Insulated Capacitors Ceramic and molded insulated capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig.1 0.000. 3-4 and Table 3-13.000 1. Is! S1gmflrant m o: 'lgure Add two x r o s l o slgn bcanf .O 0.000. 3-2 .000 10. 3-3 and Table 3-12.lotiage f~gures One band :ndlca:Ps voltage rallilgs u.go:e hlull~pl~er \ \ / lole~ancp Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitors Molded flat paper and mica capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig.000 0.01 0. Some of the ones listed in the following are no longer in use.iaer 1000 V I Fig. the age of the unit.000. and the manufacturer's preference.000 1 00.01 + 20 &I 2 3 &4 & - 1. depending on the type of capacitor. Is! 2nd S~g~llllcanl Sign:l cant F:gure F. O n film r e s i b l o r i n d i c a t e s s o l d e r a b l c t c r r r l i l l a l . Molded Paper Tubular Capacitors Molded paper tubular capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig.000 10.001 - - - - Solderable* - + 10 + 20 2 5 - *01i o ~ i i p o s i t i ~cn i s t o r i n d i c a t e s f a i l u r e & p c r 1000 h o u r s . 3-2 and Table 3-11. Indicates outer !a. c r ) CAPACITOR COLOR CODES There are several methods of color coding capacitors.: Mdy 11e on edher end \>nd S ~ g n ~ l ~ c Voltage F~gure ani May also be lnolcated by olher inelhacs such as lypograph~~al d r k ~ r ~ g blach s l ~ ~ i l e . they are included for reference.TABLE 3-10 Resistor Color Code Color Significant figures Multiplier Tolerance (%) Failure rate* Rlack Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 - 7 8 9 1 10 1 00 1.

000.TABLE 3-1 1 Molded Paper Tubular Capacitor Color Code* Color First & second significant figures Multiplier Iblerance ('10) Black Brown Red Orange Yeliow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color *All values in picofarads.000 100.000 10. 3-3 Silvered mica bullon .000 + 20 - - +5 - - - 8 9 - + 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 10 100 1. +5 2 10 + 20 - 1st Significant Figure Black or Brown Body m Multiplier 1st Slgnlftcant F~gure ldentlfter 2nd Slgnlllcant F~gure Whlte (EIAI Black ( M ~ c a l 2nd S~gnificant Figure lnd~catorStyle Opt~onal Characlerlstlc Capacrlance Tolerance Multlpl~er Voltage Molded mica (6-dot) DC Work~ng Voltage Molded flat paper (commercial grade) 1st Significant Figure 2nd Significant Figure Wh~le lElA ldent~f~erl V ~ b r a l ~ oGrade (Mil I n %& Operating Temperature Range lnd~catarOpt~onal Molded mica (9 dot rearfront is same as for 6-dot code) Molded flat paper (military grade) Characteristic Tolerance Multiplier Significant Figures 1st (When Applicable) 2nd (or 1st) 3rd (or 2nd) Fig.000 1.

Tolerance Multiplier 1 10 100 1. All other5 arc specified lolcrailcc or + I . high insulation resistance and stability are not of major irnportar~cc. . 'Denotes specifications of tlesign involving Q l'actors. Class 2 are for circuits where 0 . figs. Class I Multiplier I0 pF or less Over I0 pF Tolerance1 Class 2 'I'emperature coefficient Significant figure Color Black Brown Red Orange YcIIo\v Green Blue Violet Gray White Silvcr Gold pprn "C' MuNiplier *All values in pic. figs. temperature coefficients. and production test requirements.TABLE 3-12 Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitor Color Code* Capacitance Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Bluc Violet Gray White Gold Silver Characteristic' A (EIA) B C Ist & 2nd sig.000 (EIA) (%) DC working voltage Operating temperature range -55 to -55 to -55 to -55 to Vibration grade (MIL) 10-55 HZ D E F - 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + 20 +l +2 +5 - I00 (EIA) + 70°C (MIL.) - - + 85 "C + 125 "C + 150°C (MIL) 300 500 10-2000 Hz - 9 0.lnd stability are not required.ot'.5 (EIA)' + 10 1000 (EIA) - - - "All talues i l l picofarad\.1 0. t o r + 5.01 (EIA) - - - + 0. -20% where space permits.0 pt. whichever is greater.000 l0. 'lblcrance of Class 3 ceramics is typographically marked with code \l for + 20% or code % foi + 80%. ('la\\ 3 arc low voltilgc ceritinics where dielectric loss. wliicl~cvcr greater.0 PI:.~rads. tClabc I cnpacltors are for circuits requiring tcnlperaturc coinpel~sationand high 0. is TABLE 3-13 Ceramic Capacitor Color Codes* Capacitance Ist & 2nd sig.

c~ent M~ri!~pl~er loleraiice COPII.Lel11 :Vhlte Banu D ~ s t ~ t ~ g u ~ s h e siolerance Capac~tot From Res~stor Mult:p!~er Tolerance Molded insulated faxiul 1eud) Molded insulated (using resistor color code) Stundoff IS: Signif!can.petalure Coelt~c~ent !~ull.gn$t~cant Figure I st 2nc S:gn$t:rant 15: r. 3-5 and Table 3-14.?iler S ~ e n ~ l ~ c a n l Coeft~c~ent I lgure Mrtlt~vi~er Tubular high capacitance Fig. 3-5 . ~ ~ : ~ fdultijtl~er Feedthrougl? 1st Sign~!~cant 2no Si~~i~t~car~t Tet?Iperdluie Coeft. 3-4 Tubular tetnperature compensating Tubular extended runge temperuture conlpensating Tantalum Capacitors Tantalum capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig.!st 2% Signrficanl 1st S:gn than1 2nd S. ' 2r'd S~giicltcant .~ W IU Disc ( M o t ) Is: Scgniftcan: Button 2nd Slgntlrcar~t F . i!gure 2nd SI~III~IC~III F~gure Ist 2nc S~en~t~cantS~gn~t~caril i~gure F~gure Tolerance 2nd 1st Sign~t~cant S~ge~~t~catrt Feg. 1st S ~ g n ~ l i c a F ~ g u r e nl 2nd Signif~cantFigure I Fig.gure !t!ultioiter Slgn~licar:: pl~hlre 1y 6 2r!d S~gn~t~rant Figure !OIUIIIP~I~~ ~cmperature' Coett~c~ent Tolerar~ce Temperature Coetl~c:enl a Tolerance Disc (3-dot) IS1 Slenltlcanl %we.lle Figure iolerance t.lult~pl~ei Tslerance Voltage lo~tioilat~ 1en.

TABLE 3-14 Tantalum Capacitor Color Codes 1st X H . An R included in the digits indicates a decimal point. Typographically Marked Capacitors A system of typographical marking to indicate the various parameters of capacitors is becoming popular. The colors conform to EIA standard for numerical values.5 8 lr~icrofaradt 9 8 9 - ' SEMICONDUCTOR COLOR CODE The sequence numbers of semiconductor type numbers and suffix letters may use the color-coding indicated in Table 3-15.GMV 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white not applicable A B C D E F G H J .01 0. fig.1 pF & - 0.1 6 7 - 25 3 35 6. fig. voltage. The actual method of marking will vary with manufacturers but one group of markings will usually indicate the type. A letter following the value indicates the tolerance. and dielectric. 2nd sig.3 16 20 C D - 0.2 3 O/o Color sig.alusb ill 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 1 10 100 10 - 1 '10 20. the multiplier or number of zeros to add to obtain the value in picofarads. The first two (or three) digits in the value indicate the significant digits of the value and the last digit. TABLE 3-15 Semiconductor Color Code ~p Yurnber Color Suffix letter 0 1 P .Special . The significance of these letters is as follows: ELECTRONICS SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS The most common schematic symbols are illustrated in Fig 3-6. Rated DC Multiplier voltage G F B - + 2 O/o k Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Pink 'All \. and another group the capacitance value and tolerance.25 pF pF k 0.

3-6A. Electronics schematic symbols. .D~ode Tr~ode Tetrode Pentode or Sheet Beam Beam Power f Pentagrld Converter & Eye Tube Gas F~lledRect~f~er @ Photo Tube Q Hlgh Voltage Rectlf~er Full Wave Rect~f~er Duo D ~ o d e Tr~ode 4 -k Filament --+ Two Sect~on Dual Tr~ode ea. Tubes (1 n -< Cathode 1 Eye-Tube DeflectIan Plate Photo Cathode --I Gr~d Plate r Cold Cathode Beam Formlng Plate Gas Fllled Tube elements Fig.

118 .* Diode or Metallic Rect~fler Zener b o d e Elpolar Voltage Llm~ter (Symmetr~cal Zener D~ode) Va(actor Tunnel D~ode -@ Pln Dlode Vollage Dependent Res~stor % Photod~ode IPhotosens~t~ve Type) Current Dependent Res~stor Llght E m ~ d ~ n g D~ode (LED1 4 Res~slor Temperature Sens~t~ve D~ode -@-69Bldirectronal Trlgger Dtac (PNP) -@ @ Tugger D~ac lNPNl -63- -3 6Llghl Dependent Temperature Dependent Res~stor T T Tr~ggerD~ac (PNPI @ T Q Or $ c q Un~junct~on Trans~stor IProgrammableI B~d~rect~onal Tugger D~ac (NPNl Phototrans~stor INPNI w : m:: e a: 3 a: Un~lunct~on Tfanslstor (N Type Basel Un~~unct~on Translslor IP Type Base) N Channel Juncl~onGate P Channel Junct~onGate F~eldEffect Transistors (FETI v v Trans~stor (PNP) Trans~stor INPNI @$LIB N Channel Deplet~on S @m : N Channel Enhancement MDSFETS S @$LIB P Channel Enhancement P Channel Deplet~on G N Channel Deplel~on Insulated Gale P Channel Deplet~on Insulated Gate m : u B S B !&$ U P Channel Enhancement Insulated Gate N Channel Enhancement Insulated Gale Dual Gate MDSFETS Semiconductor devices Fig. 3-6B. Electronics schematic symbols.

- N Type Gate P Type Gate Semtconductor Controlled Rectitlers ISCRSI Thyr~stor Bldlrectlonal Triode Darllngton-Type Trans~stor PNP Transverse-B~asedBase Trans~stor Semiconductor devices (conr) Common 6D. 3-6C.P. DP Common Cathode Dtsplay Pln Dlagram Common Anode Display 'Decimal polnt ID P available for r~ghthand. - - RHDP' L. or untversal-must specify 7-Segment led indicator A >A-B B Buffer lnverter A N D Gate A 6 B A + B -? I -X - N A N D Gate OR Gate N O R Gate I g " " A - D ) A B E x c l u s ~ v e Gate OR Exclusive N O R Gate Logic synzbols Fig. Electronics schematic symbols. 119 . left hand..r a&& . I 7.

120 .Ammeter V-Voltmeter G.Galvanometer MA-Milliammeter pA.Translormer Variable Core 4 Shielded ++s+ Fuses Grounds i7unsfortners General Dynam~c Electrostatic Stereo Speakers Electr~~stafic ~ransducer Fig. 3-61). Electronics schematic symbols.M~croammeter Neon Air Core Iron Core IF Latnps meters Power Auto.+ ~1~1~1~1~tMult~cell Frequency Determining Monaural Phono Cartridges Stereo One-Cell Piezoelecrric crystal Bar reries Fixed Wires Connected W~res Crossed W ~ r eConnecting Var~able Tapped Resistors Male Female AI~ Core Powdered-Iron Core Iron Core Var~able Core Wiring Inductors ti Filament A.

. R = Record RIP = RecordlPlay P = Playback E = Erase =c Non.Polar~zed =a AC receptucles d o 0 =a d o Polartred zr oO 6PST Magnetic recording head A 0 -' o 40 / P o 0 0 o d"o PLP SPST SPDT DPST DPDT Push Bunan Wafer Switches Fig.---.---.-&-Shlelded Wlre ! I L -------. 3-6E. etc.-- -- n .I 6 -L - 7 Sh~eldedPalr -D Microphones Sh~eldedAssembly lndlcate type by note: Ceramic. Dynamlc. - Circuit breakers ------I I I I ----- --L. Shields General Telescop~ng D~pole Loop Jacks Antennas 'Indicate type by letter. Electronics schematic symbols. A C voltage sources 12 1 .- n. Crystal.. - I I I I I 4 /7 - A b Capacitors .i+ i ----. 4 I Polarized Non-Polarized Electrolytics spark plate I -.T T T Flxed -I Reset Button --.

.

Chapter 4 COAXIAL CABLE CHARACTERISTICS Table 4-1 lists the most frequently used coaxial cables." indicating proper operation of the transmitter equipment. if the test pattern has a vertical wedge. and linearity. The point where the vertical lines are no longer clear indicates the extent of horizontal resolution. which has been in use since the start of television broadcasting. a color bar pattern. and appropriate adjustments can be made on the receiver. That would indicate a problem associated with the receiver. The vertical wedges (E) or any other pattern details in the vertical plane are used to determine horizontal resolution. The electrical specifications include the impedance in ohms. or a combination of color bars and test pattern. 4-l). It is also a check of performance for the receiver. attenuation in decibels per 100 ft and 100 m. and the outside diameter in inches or millimeters. The roundness of the circles (A and G) in the test pattern provide a quick check on the width. and diagonal lines (C) can be used to check interlace. Horizontal and vertical lines (B) may be used to check linearity. Generally. they serve to check the overall video-amplifying circuits and receiver alignment. the significance of various test patterns is given. the test pattern is transmitted before the station starts its broadcasting day. capacitance in picofarads per foot. The test pattern is broadcast as a "station check of performance. There should not be any black or white trailing edges from the vertical wedge or circle.) TEST-PATTERN INTERPRETATION Many television stations transmit a test pattern. A person trained in electronics can see at a glance if a receiver is operating properly. Hence. Also. In the following explanation. . the wedge has separate lines that seem to come together at a certain point and become one wide vertical line. (See page 30 for formulas. height. The test pattern broadcast from the television station follows the characteristics of the Indian Head test pattern (Fig.

9 55.1 2.6 6.9 34.2 6.95 0.2 41.8 15.06 4.95 4.1 7.95 0. purpose gen. gen.5 10.4 13.2 12.336 7.2 9.5 6.9 3.60 6.5 29.5 30.9 2.2 14.1 68.6 95.0 20.8 - 29..160 7.4 0.5 0.195 0.1 4.83 4.0 max 29.3 95.405 0.2 10.0 2.15 6.1 6.5 29.2 10.8 6.49 - - - - .1 23.5 65. TV mil.885 1.0 6.15 6.48 28.95 6.8 22.9 2. trans.29 30.6 6.1 2.1 4.4 0.3 23.1 0.242 0.53 10.5 13.405 10.53 30.1 0.5 max 9.4 2.425 10.8 29.23 4.6 6.2 4.7 95.5 20.5 92.8 68.5 53. purpose.5 53.95 2.3 33.8 3.1 44.880 22. impbdancx Nominal Nominal cnpncltnnrr Nominal OD Nominal attenunUon I MHz W 2 MHz W 400 Mffz 9W MHz 6 6A 8 8A 9 9B 11 I1A 12A 14A 17A 19A 228 55 55B 58 58 58A 58A 58C 59 59B 62 62A 62A 628 638 718 122 141A 142B 174 1788 1798 180B 187A l88A 195A I%A 212 213 214 215 217 218 219 223 316 75 75 52 52 51 50 75 75 75 52 52 52 95 53.4 4.45 30.2 14.0 97.0 3.1 3.5 9.0 4.8 16.8 21.7 95.8 101. Teflon.1 3.7 20.4 max 65.8 13.080 2. trans.1 12.3 6.9 7.2 4.3 33.95 4.67 5.5 53. mlnlature Teflon.6 10.8 2.6 max 55.0 28.8 3.0 2.5 28.7 13.290 0.56 2.8 30.7 95. .3 4. small double braid U/L listed double shield test leads double shield mil.1 15.5 1.9 5.9 max 65.140 19.2 4.4 4.7 20.0 15.5 2.5 95.2 9. spec.1 6.1 17.6 6.260 0.9 4. purpose gen.1 14.195 0. spec.195 30.1 101.1 0.9 22.0 6.5 16.5 9.0 max 21.8 9.0 max 29.5 95. mlnlature pulse.5 4.6 8.5 30.110 27.5 1.4 1.0 7.23 5.5 92.0 97.3 3. with armor RF power gen. Teflon.0 10.5 13.45 30.195 0.0 49.3 34. gen.7 4.412 10. purpose gen.242 0.4 4.1 17.15 6.5 66.0 2.5 92.3 0.8 max 95.1 41.29 10.3 4.5 10.100 29.8 7.0 20.9 1.8 17.7 4.0 13.135 0.4 15.TABLE 4-1 Coaxial Cable Characteristics Type RG .4 10.6 max CATV-MATV IF & video small. purpose.5 28. purpose double braid low attenuation low attenuation1 armor double braid. mlnlature Teflon.555 14.8 10.3 1.9 4.0 1.1 4.3 3.9 11.80 30.3 0.5 12.0 5.4 11.8 23.3 44.2 11.7 4.29 12.195 0.206 0.28 4.0 2.0 max 17.0 max 17.15 10.1 4.5 7.0 2.6 6.9 3.8 2.216 95.5 92.5 max 20.5 16.8 3.5 14.4 3.5 10.1 0.21 0.5 28.8 9.1 9. trans.7 3.81 2.405 0.5 7.242 0.5 92.4 2.7 97.8 23.206 0.5 29.3 20. purpose double shield flexible.3 6.070 28. tv mil.6 44.1 29.9 5.95 4.6 26.8 4. trans.2 6. 2 shield miniature Teflon.8 4.1 3.1 0.0 0.8 9.4 14. IFIvideo gen.5 13.2 10.2 7.2 6.3 0.9 4. spec.5 11.880 22.5 9.2 6. small mil.0 21.6 7.6 8. purpose.7 26.6 3.5 29.4 11.5 88.1 1.0 29.1 1.4 14.0 3.2 6.9 23.4 2.5 13. miniature double braid gen.1 2.3 0.23 4. purpose gen.3 97.3 44. trans.2 30. mil.83 10.3 20.5 2.8 15.8 10.2 0.5 20. purpose gen.3 1.3 66.5 64.475 0.0 56.3 21.8 15.9 8.6 0.3 15.54 3.9 2.0 42.9 13.1 0.190 8.7 0.30 2.3 23.5 7.4 16. Fiberglas Teflon.8 5.7 - - - - 64.0 2.96 2.54 1.07 14.1 5.5 29.8 67.2 4.0 3. .0 20.0 95.5 66. low cap.242 0.15 6.242 0. low capacity.5 101.5 0.14 30.4 31.0 max 9.336 0.9 67.420 0.0 0.1 20.2 10. 95.1 4.1 0.5 7.0 19.7 36.8 4.1 2.17 22.5 13. spec.8 13.8 101.430 0.1 28.405 0.5 29.155 2.67 10.4 15.0 30.37 7.3 9.5 0.8 4.098 5.0 2.0 3.9 9.3 6.9 6.6 7.4 15.7 5.95 5. Teflon.4 9.0 11.0 max 20.8 3.0 3.92 10.5 50 50 50 73 75 93 93 93 93 125 93 50 50 50 50 50 75 95 75 50 95 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 17. Teflon.206 0.29 10.4 14.250 0.69 3.3 101.81 3.7 52. mil commun.9 16.4 3.9 9.3 47.5 95.5 99.8 4.1 68.78 2.415 0.54 6.5 18.6 6.4 34. mil.100 - - 15.5 14.2 2.0 max 21.7 7.29 10.5 30.0 97.1 3.9 4.9 54.1 16..1 101. U/L listed transmission low capacitance transmission Teflon.03 29.0 97.46 30.7 20. spec.110 57.558 0.8 30.8 101.420 0.405 0.

ranging from black at the center to light gray at the outermost point o n the wedge. brightness. four degrees of shading should be observed. It is also used for "receiver color setup. then to blue. There are one or two diagonal wedges (F) that indicate the contrast ratio. When video-amplifying and picture-tube circuits are operating properly and the con- I I I I i trols arc properly adjusted.C Fig. 4-2. they can be used to check the adjustments of the contrast." . The color pattern consists of rcd to yellow t o green. and is used for a station check of the color transmitter. Generally these wedges have numbers. Therefore. Highfrequency ringing can be checked using the single resolution lines (I). and automatic gain controls. Another test pattern is the color bar pattern shown in Fig. The horizontal bars (H) are used to check for low-frequency phase shift. as wcll as the video-amplifying and picture-tube circuits. Various breaks in the lines indicate the number of lines the receiver is capable of producing. 4-1 A horizontal wedge (D) in the test pattern is used to indicate the vertical resolution and interlace of the receiver.

MINIATURE LAMP DATA Table 4-2 lists the most common miniature lamps and their characteristics. Volts Amps Bead color Base Bulb type Outline fig. 4-4. The outline drawings for each lamp are shown in Fig. The test pattern is also a part of the information for overall setup of the station transmitter or of the color receiver. blue green yellow brown white green blue white white blue green t blue brown pink flange flange flange flange flange flange flange flange flange 2-pin screw screw 2-pin bayonet bayonet screw bayonet bayonet bayonet screw bayonet screw 126 . 4-3 The test pattern of Fig. 4-2 I Fig. TABLE 4-2 Miniature Lamp Data Lamp no. 4-3 is a hybrid in which the test pattern is a set of color bars of different widths.Fig.

Miniature I.1 T.1314 T.l T.amr. Volts Amps Read color Base Bulb type Outline fig.1314 T.amp no. pink white white white white white bayonet screw bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet ba).13/4 'r-1 314 T.l B-6 B-6 S-8 S-8 RP-I 1 .13/4 'r-1 3/4 T.TABLE 4-2 Cont.l T.I '14 T.1314 T. Data [.1 '14 T.1 T.1 T.onet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet screw screw bayonet wedge wedge Lvedge wedge screw bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet flanged flanged flanged flanged grooved flanged flanged flanged grooved wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet T-3'/4 G-3'/2 (3-3 ' / 2 G-3 '/z G-4'12 G-4'h G-5 G-6 G-5 G-5 S-8 S-8 G-5 S-8 TL-3 (3-3 '/2 Ci-4'/2 T-3 '/4 T-3 '/4 T-3 '/4 T-3 '/4 TL-3 G-5 G-5 G-6 S-8 S-8 S-8 S-11 T-3 '/a T.1 T.l T.

4 18.24 0. 1156 1157 1176 1183 1195 1445 1447 1490 1495 1728 1738 1764 1784 1813 1815 1816 1819 1820 1829 1847 1850 1864 1866 1869 1888 1889 1891 1803 1895 2162 2182 21 87 6832 6833 6838 6839 7152 7327 7328 7344 7382 7387 793 1 " I.ireterminal wise terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal S-8 S-8 S-8 RP-11 RP-11 Ci-3I/2 G-3'h T-3 '/4 'r-4'/2 T-1"4 T-1% T-1% T.17 0.10 0.TABLE 4-2 Cont.07 0.'ro.0 14.135 0.24 0.0 5.20 0.1'/4 T.1 3/4 T.0 14.0 28.10 2.06 0.10 0.0 6.04 0.08 0.l T-14 T.1 T-1% K (2 Q CC CC E B D 7- N N N N D D D L) D D D D D D N D D D D F N N N 0 0 M Y I.10 0. t.04 0.0 28.25 3.0 0.0 14.Stior~.0 28.8 12.0 28.0 28.l3/4 T-I$ T-7/4 T.08 0.014 0.0 13.09 0.5 14.1 3/4 T.5 12.10 1. Volts Amps Bead rvlor Rase Rulh tlpe Outline fig.0 1.8 12.0 28.8 5.0 1.15 0.0 5.0 6.0 5.27 0.0 6.35 2.0 28.1 '/4 T-1% T.l T.04 0.0 28.0 3.0 14.0 14.1" 4 T-3 '/4 T-3 'A T-3 '/4 T-3 '/4 G-4'h T.lcd.20 0.15 0.24 0.33 0.34 6.25 0.0 14.0 14. V \ I I\ V V V tSo~ne brands are 0.014 0.3 14.46 0.2 28.7 28.33 0.20 0.13/4 T.0 28.3 5.I -%I '1. 12.115 0.4 14.0 10.06 0. Miniature Lamp Data - Lamp nu.3 10.06 0.35 2.0 6.30 0.0 6.40 0.-3 l/4 T-3 '/4 T-3'h '1'-3 '14 T-3 'kt 1'-3 '/a T-3 ]/4 T-3 v4 T-3 '/4 T-3'/4 T.06 \vIiite white white white pink bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet screw baponct bayonet wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet wire terminal wire terminal \+.16 0.04 0.06 0.27 0.5 A and w l ~ i r e bead. .

4-4 .Fig.

.1 SE-2V NE-2AS KL-3 riE-4 NI.02 0. 111e .1 0.~riori.-I 6 KE-I7 NE-23 NE-30 NE-32 NE-45 NE-47 NL1-48 NE-5 I NE-5 I H NE-51s NF-56 NE-57 N1:-58 NE-67 NL-68 NE-75 YE.0024 0.25 0.ifr.5 0.000 25.002 0.0019 0.012 0. 1)asc \liol~I(lI).25 0.005 0.02 0.04 0.000 25.000 25.03 0. o n UC is appt.04 0. C.002 0.25 0.25 0.0003 0.000 over 25.000 25.oxiliiarely 60% of AC values.0005 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 60-90 55-90 60-90 53-65 105-125 60-90 105-125 105.25 0.002 0.000 5000 over 7500 25.0003 0. flanged 2-in wire terminal 2-in wire terminal telephone slide telephone slide double-contact bayonet double-contact bayonet I-in wire terminal medium screw double-contact bayoncts candelabra screw single-contact bayonet double-contact bayonet miniature bayonet miniature bayonet miniature bayonet medium screws candelabra screws candelabra screw miniature bayonet 2-in wire terminal 1-in wire terminal I-in wire terminal l-iri wire terminal 1-in wire terminal I-in wire terminal I -in wire terminal l-in wire terminal 0.04 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.14 0. The I I value of external resistancc needed for operation with circuit voltages from 110 to 600 V is given in Table 4-4.5 0.003 0. Slri I)(' circui~?.GAS-FILLED LAMP DATA Thc charactcristics of thc more common gas-fillcd lamps are given in Table 4-3.04 0.0003 0.0065 0.04 1 0.ro 125-V opsr.000 5000 2000 2000 5000 5000 5000 6000 6000 argon argon arson neon neon neon neon neon neon ncon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon ncon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon mediurn screw candelabra screw double-contact bayonet 1-in wire terminal 2-in \\.000 25.0012 0.25H-B 0.0003 0. t l'lic dimcririon is for plass orily. riegari\e.02 0.0002 0.08 0.0003 0.125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 105-125 55-90 210-250 105-125 105-125 55-90 52-65 60-90 68-76 64-80 60-100 55-90 60-80 60-80 2 0.0035 0.018 0.002 0.007 0.005 0.7 0.0015 0.03 0.0005 0. 1'AHI.003 0.0002 0.25H-B 0.000 25.04 *I.0015 0.08 0.03 1 1 0.03 0.03 0.000 10.0035 0.000 25. mid: flanged 2-in wire terminal 2-in wire terminal S.25 0.000 10.I: 4-3 Cas-Filled Lamp Data Number Average life (h)* Type gas Maximum length (in) Type of base Amps Volts Wattst AK-I AR-3 A K-4 NE-2 SE-2A NI'-21) NE-2E !SL:-2H NE-2.002 0.:-76 YE:-8 1 NE-83 NE-86 NL-96 NE-97 3000 1000 1000 over 25. t k o r I(.012 0.007 0.0004 0.002 0.000 over 5000 over 5000 1000 5000 6000 10.0019 0.50 0.000 25.ire terminal S.25 0.000 over 7500 5000 over 7500 over 15. C. mid.

10 W.E 4-4 External Resistances Needed for Gas-Filled L a m ~ s AK. 2-1 1). This determines whether the receiver is dead.000 100.000 200.000 includcd in base 7. .000 30.000 100.TAB1.500 included in basc 30.000 100.000 47. respectively.1 . If it is found that audiopower output is as specified.000 200.I AR-3 AR-4 NE-2 NE-2A YE-2D NE-2E NE-2H NE-2H NE-2\' NE-17 NE-30 NE-32 NE-45 NE-47 NE-48 NE-5 1 NE-5 1H NE-56 NE-57 NE-58 included in base included in base 15.1.000 30.000 30.000 200. This check shows the overall ability of the receiver to pass all audiosignals in the voice communications range (Fig. Figures 4-5 and 4-6 provide conversion charts of audiovoltage to audiopower for 0.000 30.000 included in base included in base includcd in base RECEIVER AUDIOPOWER AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE CHECK Normally the first receiver check performed is the audiopower check. it will show whether it can deliver appropriate audiopower.O. then the frequency re- sponse can be quickly and easily checked by comparing the audio output power at 400 and 2500 Hz to a 1000-Hz reference. If not.0 W and 1 .

Fig. 4-5 .

a No. 4-7. For example.SPEAKER CONNECTIONS Figures 4-7 through 4-10 show the proper connection methods for single. T h e number listed under the "Type" column is actually a combination of the screw size and the number of threads per inch. are given in Table 4-6. 4-8. together with the tap and clearance drill sizes. 6-32 screw denotes a size no. Fig. Fig. 70. 80 to 1in drills are in Table 4-5. . 6 screw with 32 threads per inch. Two speakers in series.7-V hook-op using matching transformers. 4-10. Single speaker. 4-9. MACHINE SCREW A N D DRILL SIZES The decimal equivalents of No. Fig. Speakers in parallel. Fig. T h e most common screw sizes and threads.or multiple-speaker operation.

TABLE 4-5 Drill Sizes and Decimal Equivalents Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal .

telephone. and BWG hoop iron. I Flat Round Oval F:ll~ster I B~nd~ng Stove Her Washer Ph~lllps Allen Recess Br. except telephone and telegraph \I. While materials can usually be had specially in any system.k: 4-6 Machine Screw Tap and Clearance 1)rill Sizes Type Tap drill Clearance drill I1 Poz~dr~vk' Robertson!" Fig. sheet 3&S copper B&S AWG(B&S) iron. TABLE 4-7 Common Gage Practices Material Sheet Wire aluminum B&S AWG (R&S) brass. steel. bronze.'&M steel sheet US tank steel BWG zinc sheet "zinc gage" proprietary . band.slo Clutch TABI.TYPES OF SCREW HEADS The most common types of screw heads are listed and illustrated in Fig. some usual practices are shown in Tables 4-7 and 4-8. 4-11 SHEET-METAL GAGES Materials are customarily made to certain gage systems. steel. and telegraph wire BWG steel wire. 4-1 1.

2830 0.0348 0.265625 0.01730 0.454 0.020 0.2253 0.460 0.4096 0.0915 0.400 0.01 1 0.0250 0.1285 0.06408 0.0230 0.03015625 0.165 0.04526 0.203 0.03 175 0.134 0.34375 0.006250000 - - - 0.04030 0.160 0.028 0.140 0.324 0.2294 0.2043 0.01126 0.008928 0.006640625 0.ondon or Old English - United States Standard (US) American Standard preferred thickness* - 0.300 0.00859375 0.0562500 0.1205 0.01040 0.01620 0.01280 0.192 0.0540 0.0100 0.01810 0.021 8750 0.148 0.3249 0.0052 0.092 0.0205 0.180 0.018 0.171875 0.013 0.035 0.0124 0.007 0.050 0.0108 0.0136 0.180 0.014 0.0475 0.180 0.014 0.05707 0.116 0.0410 0. Courtesy Whitehead Metal Prodi~cts Co.008 0.0250000 0.01 56250 0.1483 0.095 0.01 16 0.187500 0.00570 0.03589 0.01003 0.02300 0.0720 0.340 0.036 0.02040 0.490 0.028 0.009 0.1920 0. & Moen (W&M) 0.03 15 0.430 0.37500 0.125 0.010 0.078 125 0.003145 - 0.02257 0.220 0.104 0.007950 0.0500000 0. rhcy are approxitnately rclarcd lo AWti sizes 3-34.0165 0.00900 0.020 0.01093750 0.3648 0.3065 0.048 0.006305 0.005 0.0155 0.234375 0.0343750 0.0092 0.016 0.01400 0.454 0.0164 0.040 0.080 0.022 0.00800 0.5800 0.007 0.02860 0.50000 0.109 0.0270 0.1 144 0.00750 0.2070 0. Inc.010 0.032 0.018 0.00450 0.340 0.093750 0.425 0.2815 0.049 0.ition to gage numbers.045 0.01020 0.238 0. 'l'l~eyhave no rc1.009 0.4600 0.0375000 0.049 0.0171875 0.0048 1.5165 0.148 0.095 0.31250 0.00850 0.1443 0.372 0.028 1250 0.01594 0. 136 .134 0.03196 0.025 0.040 0.00750 0.203125 0.042 0.3625 0.056 0.01120 0.028 0.0800 0.0625 0.252 0.0703 125 0.01372 0.0140625 0.065 0.064 0.380 0.08081 0.300 0.500 0.065 0.259 0.01 180 0.425 0.120 0.003965 0.125000 0.140625 0.032 0.1620 0.01420 0.2576 0.01500 0.00950 0.07 196 0.01790 0.02010 0.01320 0.432 0.212 0.109 0.01220 0.083 0.1019 0.218750 0.0625000 0.022 0.284 0.46875 0.259 0.0060 0.090 0.1770 0.0148 0.00353 1 0.00781250 0.128 0.112 0.063 0.024 0.2437 0.300 0.018 0.008 0.056 0.348 0.00700 British Standard (NBS SWG) 0.2625 0.109375 0.100 0.00650 0.00900 0.022 0.012 0.02580 0.016 0.0187500 0.012 0.00937500 0.032 0.09074 0.165 0.004 - 0.2893 0.035 0.007080 0.00500 0.07 1 0.007031250 0.1350 0.40625 0.1819 0.058 0.0125000 0.3310 0.176 0.040 0..120 0.006 - - 'These thicknesses are intended to express he tlebired thickness in decimal l'racrions of an inch.080 0.380 0.072 0.224 0.0084 0.276 0.05082 0.232 0.238 0.200 0.156250 0.01264 0.025 0.160 0.0187 0.1055 0.00950 0.020 0.284 0.220 0.250000 0.036 0.072 0.0076 0.1620 0.0312500 0.083 0.02535 0.004453 0.0068 0.072 0.203 0.005000 0.464 0.0437500 0.0295 0.TABLE 4-8 Comparison of Gages Birmingham or Stubs (RWG) Gage 0000000 OOOO00 0000 0000 000 00 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 AWG (B&S) - \\'ash.3938 0.005615 0.43750 0.02846 0.058 0.144 0.

pure phosphor-bronze high-brass potassium molybdenum tungsten rhodium aluminum chromium gold copper silver selenium Ni-Fe-Cr Ni-Cr Ni-Cr Cr-Ni-Fe C-Cr-Ni-Fe Ni-Cr Mn-C-Fe Ni-Co-Mn-Fe Ti Cu-Ni Cu-Mn-Ni Ni-Cu-Fe-Mn As Ni-Al-Mn-Si Cu-Zn-Ni Pb C-Fe Ni-Mn Ta Sn Pd Pt Fe Ni Sn-P-Cu Cu-Zn K Mo W Rh A1 Cr Au Cu Ag Se . of many of the materials used for conductors or heating elements is given in Table 4-9. L is the length of the wire. stainless chrome1 steel. current-carrying capacity. d is the diameter of the wire. nichrome tophet A nichrome V chromax steel. The resistance shown is for 20°C (68 O F ) . area in circular mils. in ohms per circular mil foot. COPPER-WIRE CHARACTERISTICS Copper-wire sizes ranging from American wire gage (B&S) 0000 to 60 are listed in Table 4-10. feet per pound. in ohms per circular mil foot. diameter. The turns per linear inch. in ohms. in mils. unless otherwise stated. The resistance.RESISTANCE OF METALS AND ALLOYS The resistance for a given length of wire is determined by: TABLE 4-9 Resistance of Metals and Alloss Material Symbol Resistance (Rlcir mil foot) where R is the resistance of the length of wire. manganese kovar A titanium constantan manganin monel arsenic alumel nickel-silver lead steel manganese-nickel tantalum tin palladium platinum iron nickel. and resistance per 1000 ft are included in the table. K is the resistance of the material. in feet.

TABLE 4-10 Copper-Wire Characteristics Nominal hare diameter (in) Nominal circitlar mils Nominal feet per pound (bare) Nominal ohms per 1000 f i @ 20 "C Currentcarrying cdpacily 0 7 0 0 CMlA Turns per linear inch AW(. Singe film coated Hea vJ? f l coated im .

filnr coated .Single Ileavy filtn coated 1000 ft @ 20 "C AW<.SERVICEN D INSTALLATION DATA A TABI.E 4-10 Conl. Copper-Wire Characteristics Nominal hare diameter (in) Nominal circular mils Nominal feet per pound (bare) Nominal ohms per (:urrentcarrying capacity @I 700 CMlA Turns per linear inch .

.

Amplification Factor: p = AEb (with I.. 5-1): A . Ec is the grid voltage. constant) - AE: A is the variation or change in value.Chapter 5 DESIGN DATA VACUUM-TUBE FORMULAS T h e following formulas can be used to calculate the vacuum-tube properties listed... Input Resistance: r. = M: (with - Gain of a n Amplifier Stage: Gain = p R. = . + r. E. - 4 constant) The current gain of the common-base configuration is alpha (a): a = M<(with i/:constant) - where p is the amplification factor.. i A C (Dynamic) Plate Resistance: 1 TRANSISTOR FORMULAS The following formulas can be used to calculate the transistor properties listed. r... R. constant) AEc Current Gain (Fig. R. AIc . in ohms.. = AEb (with E..is the plate current. constant) AIb Mutual Conductance (Transconductance): AIb g. I. in volts. in ohms. is the plate voltage.is the mutual conductance.. in volts.(with E.. g. in siemens. in amperes. is the A C plate resistance. is the plate-load resistance.

5-11).I b = aIc = h. Emitter Current: A direct relationship exists between the alpha and beta of a transistor: + 1..!. Voltage Gain: A. = I.r. P. 5-1B.Fig. Basic current paths. v. = 2 (with A v. = y..constant) I.Jh Collector Power: AIc -- (with AI. Collector Current: The current gain of the common emitter is beta (0): /J = rc = r c . Base Current: Fig. Common base. Common collector. 5-1C. 5-1A. (Total Current) . Power Gain: Fig. A Vb I<constant) Output Resistance: Fig.Common emitter.

is /3 = a/(l . [ is the input voltage. is the current gain. Ktis the collector-emitter voltage. in volts. is the output power. is input capacitance. is the output resistance. in amperes. rc is small-signal emitter resistance. is the power gain. 13 is the current gain in a commonemitter configuration. J. in amperes.. = forward short-circuit current amplification factor . is the emitter current. = input impedance with output short-circuited (CE mode) h...o r h. R. in amperes. is total capacitance.. in watts..is the input power. in watts. is upper frequency limit (unity gain).Small-Signal Emitter Resistance: where I.. Transconductance: where I. is the input resistance.?. is emitter current. in amperes. in microsiemens. = output admittance with open-circuit input where a is the current gain of a common-base configuration. in watts. in ohms. is transconductance. o r hz.is the base current... C. in volts... I. P. K is the output voltage. is the output current. in picofarads. I: is the input current. g.a ) . Input Capacitance: Upper Frequency Limit: Bandwidth: C. A. in volts. is the alpha cutoff frequency (3-dB point). in amperes. h. in volts. in volts. in milliamperes. in ohms. in volts. in megahertz. A. P. is emitter current. R. in amperes. or h?. V.is the beta cutoff frequency (3-dB point). Terminology: hi. I. in amperes... f. in farads.. A . in watts. or h. P. in ohms. is the base voltage. A. I. in amperes.. h. is the collector current. is the voltage gain. I. = reverse open-circuit voltage amplification factor h. I/: is the collector voltage. in milliamperes. is collector power..

The op amp is almost always operated with a large amount of negative feedback so that it has an essentially flat frequency response. various o p amps can operate from a single power-supply source.005 Dual Power Supply Fig. the voltage gain of the am- Vlrlual Ground 10 kl ! lllLlul +'-I 0. Typical o p amps have very high input impedance and very low output impedance. limiters. . A general-purpose op a m p may have a rated slew rate of 0. and filters with optimized characteristics. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP AMPS) An o p a m p is a DC-coupled high-gain differential amplifier in integrated-circuit (IC) form. In turn. +12v Single Power Supply Fig. 5-3. This type of op amp can provide an output-voltage swing of + 10 V. o p amps are also used as basic amplifiers. A general-purpose op amp typically develops an open-loop gain of 100. Audio amplifier. magnetic recording pickup head amplifiers. and a wide range of instrumentation applications. with progressively falling frequency response. the input terminal is regarded as a virtual ground that is almost at ground potential.5 Vlps at unity gain. or its maximum possible rate of change in output voltage (transient response). capital letters denote DC relations.Conventionally. comparators. o p amps are now used in radio and TV receivers. As shown in Figs. A basic rating is its slew rate. Open-loop gain refers to the voltage gain of the op amp (without feedback) and working into its rated load value. An o p a m p has very high open-loop gain at zero frequency (DC). 5-2.000 times. 5-2 through 5-6. and some operate from the same power supply as the digital ICs in a computer. Op amps are used as electronic integrators and differentiators to obtain characteristics that approximate mathematical integration and differentiation. with an input impedance of 5 MR and a low output impedance rated for working into a 1000-R load. Although many op amps require a positive as well as a negative power-supply source. Since a typical op amp has very low input impedance due to substantial negative feedback. mixers. Audio amplifier. A typical generalpurpose o p amp provides full power output to 10 kHz and decreases to unity gain at 1 MHz. and lowercase letters denote AC small-signal relations. Although originally designed for analog computers.

HEAT When working with po\vcr transistors. Limiting amplifier. Note that the inverting input of an o p amp is indicated by a minus sign. For example. points having a potentialenergy diffcrcncc of 1 V. and heat sinks. intcgrated circuits. .000/ 1000.18605 J. 1 cal equals I / M O Wh. Active filter (1200 Hz). 0.Inputs A u d ~ oM~xer 11200 1111 T\ -%Y? 2 Virtual Ground . 5-5. Electrical Equivalent o f Heat plifier is equal to the sum of the series input resistance and feedback resistance.000 cal.293 Wh will heat 1 Ib of water lot'. divided by the input resistance. 5-4. Calorie: 1 cal is cqual lo 4. 252 cal will heat 1 Ib of water 1°F. if the series input resistance is 1000 R and the feedback resistance is . or 101 times. the following equations will be useful: Joule: The unit of energy rcquired to move one coulomb bctwecn two Fig. Audio mixer. ' Low Pass 0 47 It-0 outpul Fig. 5-6.000 R. Fig. 1 kWh cquals 860. the voltage gain of the op amp is essentially 101. the noninverting input is indicated by a plus sign. 1 cal will hcat 1 g of water by 1°C.100.

so that the light is continually refracted back toward the center of the core. in turn. then the thermal resistance from transistor case to heat sink can be neglected.. miniature construction. it has the advantages of unusually high information capacity.. or it may be a different type of glass with a widely different index of refraction. are generally used. = junction to case temperature O. The junctionto-case thermal resistance is added to the sink-to-ambient thermal resistance to obtain the total thermal resistance. This increase in te~nperatureof 60°C will result. A multimode fiber is formed like a coaxial cable.Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity. silicone grease. 5-7.5"C'/rnW. Although fiber-optics transmission is very costly at present. If the ambient tempcrature is 2S°C. = sink to ambient temperature O.. and transmission. = ambient temperature O. A graded index fiber is formed with a gradual change in refractive index from the core to the surface. = junction to ambient temperature . while the other half transmit data in the opposite direction. = junction temperature T.. Circular fibers.. as shown in Fig. A small transistor has a maximum rated junction temperature of 85°C and a thermal rcsistance o f 0. where electromagnetic radiation is transmitted along an arbitrary path. Bundles of fibers are analogous to coaxial cables and waveguides.k(unple..= ambient temperature junction thermal resistance P. into the optic fiber.. An optic-fiber cable is composed of hundreds of fibers. thc transistor may dissipate an amount of powcr to raise the junction tcmperature to 85°C. absorption. and fiber optics is based on principles of reflection. P. = power dissipated 8. At the receiving end. The unit of thermal conductivity is one calorie of heat flow per second per square centimeter per centimeter of thickness per degree Celsius temperature difference from one surface to the next. O. and immunity to various types of electromagnetic interference. from a power of 120 mW in the transistor: If a heat sink is correctly installed with thermally conducting washers. Thermal Resistance The value of thermal resistance specified in a transistor data sheet is used to calculate the maximum permissible power dissipation at a given ambient temperature. each of which may have a diameter of 50 or 100 mm. -I. FIBER OPTICS Glass fibers (thin strands) are used to transmit light in curved paths. which in turn feeds into a photodetector. Oj. and proper bolting pressure. irl [his case. = temperature rise I. Coherent light sources require either graded-index fibers or single-mode fibers. A simple round fiber (single mode fiber) is less efficient than a multimode fiber. = 8 + O.. A light source feeds into an optical coupler and. the glass fiber is surrounded by a tubular cladding. . This cladding may be plastic.. Half of the fibers transmit data in one direction. refraction. the optic fiber drives a n optical coupler.

COIL WINDINGS Single-Layer Coils (Fig. Y connection. 5-8A. THREE-PHASE POWER FORMULAS In a three-phase system. Multimode fiber. Epis the primary voltage. Fig. Fig. 5-7A. in volts. x N where E. there are three voltages. Figure 5-8 shows how the terminals are placed in relationship to the coils. The voltage between two terminals of the Y-connected coil is equal to a t i m e s the voltage across one winding. In the delta connection. Single-mode fiber. 5-7C. 5-7B. is the secondary voltage. each separated by a phase difference of 120 ". 5-8B.. Delta connection. in volts. N is the turns ratio. in the Y connection. Graded-index fiber. 5-9) The inductance of single-layer coils can be calculated to an accuracy of approximately 1 O/O with the formula: . there are two. there is one coil between each pair of terminals. Cladding Core E== Fig. = E.Fig. The formulas for determining the voltage across the secondary winding for each of the four possible connections are as follows: Fig. Yto Y: E. The power-supply input transformers may be connected in either a delta or a Y (star).

The point at which this line intersects the "Inductance" scale indicates the inductance. in inches. of the coil. in microhenrys. 5-10 where L is the inductance. 5-9 To find the number of turns required for a single-layer coil with a given inductance. 5-1 1 provides an easy 130 pH. 5-10) The inductance of a multilayer coil of rectangular cross section can be computed from the formula: where L is the inductance. the diameter. (First lay the straightedge as indicated by the line labeled "Example IA. the foregoing formula is rearranged as follows: Fig. A is the mean radius. A is the mean radius. in microhenrys. consult Table 4-8 to determine the size of wire t o be used. After finding the number of turns. What is the inductance of a single-layer air-core coil having 80 turns wound to 4 in in length on a coil form 2 in in diameter? Answer. When the length of the winding. in inches.:xample. in microhenrys. B is the length of the coil. N is the number of turns. in inches.") . t. C i s the depth of the coil. in inches. Then lay the straightedge from the point of intersection of the "Axis" scale to the "Diameter" scale. N is the number of turns. B is the length of the coil.Fig. Multilayer Coils (Fig.length) scale and noting the point where the straightedge intersects the "Axis" scale. the inductance can be found by placing a straightedge from the "Turns" scale to the "Ratio" (diameter . method for determining either the inductance o r the number of turns for single-layer coils. in inches." Then lay the straightedge as indicated by the line labeled "Example 1B. The number of turns can be determined by reversing the procedure. and the number of turns of the coil are known. Single-Layer Air-Core Coil Chart The chart in Fig.

Single-layer coil chart. 5-1 1 . .Fig.

Itarnrtses. i es . 'l'hese ratings approximate 60% of the frce-air ratings (with home \. and impedance characteristics of the three types of constant-k low-pass filters. FILTER FORMULAS Constant-k Filters A constant-k filter presents an impedance match to the line at only one fre- 1 l quency and a mismatch at all others. and pi. contluil.free air Wiring confined* . r p p ~ o a c l ~ the single-wire c o ~ ~ d i t i o n .lres. in a billidle. L (halfsection). The impedance of the filter is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line (Z. attenuation characteristics. cable. The three basic configurations are the T.lriarions due t o r o u ~ ~ d i n g I) hcy should be ucetl for uirc i r ~ .HANDBOOK ELIXTRONICS OF TABLESN D FORMULAS A CURRENT RATINGS FOR EQUIPMENT AND CHASSIS WIRING Table 5-1 lists the recommended current rating (for continuous duty) for various wire sizes used on electronic equipment and chassis wiring. The attenuation of the L section is equal to half that of the T or pi sections.s ( ~ / 1 0 0 0t ) f '"Wiring confined" ratings arc based o n I or more wire. I3undle\ of fewer [ha11 I5 \vires (nay have the allowal)le s u ~ i of rhe load Cllrrcrllh increased a s tlic bundle .4luminum wire Wiring in jree air Wiring confined* A LVG C'ircular nli1. A constant-k low-pass filter will pass frequencies below and attenuate those above a set frequency. Figure 5-12 gives the circuit configurations. witli the \ u ~ n a11 the acrual load current\ of the I)ul~dledwires not of cscueding 20% of the purniitrcd "'UI irine conl'inctl" sun1 [oral carrying capacity ol'llic bundled u.) at the zero TABLE 5-1 Recommended Current Ratings (Continuous Duty) Maximum current ( A ) Wire size Cnpper cunduclur ( 100clC:) nominal resistance Copper wire Wiriug in . and pcncral chassis conditionr.

can be computed from the following formulas: are equal to one-half the computed value. Z. must be divided in half.. '. and the capacitors in the L and pi sections. For all other frequencies. . The circuit configurations. That is. attenuation characteristics..frequency only. and f. as shown in Fig. a n d f . 5-13. the coils in the T and L sections. The formulas for computing L. C. and impedance characteristics of constant-k high-pass filters are given in Fig. the input and output impedance of the filter are equal to Z. and C. are as follows: The values computed for L. The values for L . where specified in Fig. or Z.. Z. . Cz.. A high-pass filter will pass all frequencies above and attenuate all those below a set frequency. 512. 5-12.

c Notice that the values computed for C i n the foregoing formulas must be doubled in the T and L sections. Fig. T section.~~ i '1 j fc f Fig. zi . 5-13A. The configuration and the transmission characteristics for a constant-k bandpass filter are given in Fig.C. Likewise. 5-13C. 5-14.Fig. Bandpass filters will pass frequencies of a certain band and reject all others. L section. Configuration. The formulas for computing the various values are: f"! = m = 2na 2nlIL. 5-14A. 5-13B. 1 Fig.F'T. Transmission characteristics. Pi section. . 5-L4B. 1 1 (Z 1 Fig. the value computed for L must be doubled in the L and pi sections.

5-15A. in hertz.Configuration. Figure 5-16 shows the effect different values of m have on the impedance characteristics. in henrys.15. C . Two frequencies . and line impedance are: Fig. A band-rejection filter will reject a certain band of frequencies and pass all others.As before. some values must be doubled or halved. By selecting the proper value for m.. it is possible to control the spacing between the two frequencies. in hertz. Z. Its value governs the characteristics of the filter.the cutoff and the frequency of infinite attenuation . and L. in farads. where L. The values are first computed as for a constant-k filter and then modified by an algebraic expression containing the constant m. is the line impedance.6. f is the frequency at the center of the . as shown in Fig. andf. . 5-15B.are involved in the design of m-derived filters. 5-17. in ohms. 5-14. The term m is a positive number between zero and one. hence. the designer can control either the impedance or the attenuation characteristics. are the frequencies of infinite attenuation.Transmission characteristics. are the inductances of the coils. in hertz.. passband. The configuration and the transmission characteristics of a constant-k band-rejection filter are given in Fig. The formulas for computing the component values. The attenuation characteristics for the various values of m are given in Fig. The best impedance match is obtained when m is equal to 0. frequencies. this value is usually employed. 5. f. f. Fig. are the frequencies at the edge of the passband. and C2are the capacitances of the capacitors. m-Derived Filters In an m-derived filter. a n d f .

wh~cheveris greater than I 0 Fig.If 1. 5-17 .Frequency ---c Fig. 5-16 20 Ratio of 11 or !.

the formulas are: Select the formula that will give a positive number. . The value of m is determined from the formulas: For a series m-derived high-pass filter (Fig. The configurations for m-derived filters are classified as either series or shunt. Fig. Fig. 5-18C. 5-18. T section. 5-18A. 5-19). The formulas are as follows: The configurations for shunt m-derived low-pass filters are given in Fig. The formulas for computing the component values are: Fig.The attenuation rises to maximum and then drops on all curves. 5-20. L section.and high-pass filters. Those for the series m-derived low-pass filters are given in Fig. 5-18B. Pi section. This graph applies to both low.

Fig. the formulas are: where L. Pi section. Fig. f.are the capacitances of the capacitors. rn is a constant between 0 and 1. 0 1 1 C Fig. 5-19B. and C. Fig. Fig. Fig. and L. in hertz. in ohms. For shunt m-derived high-pass filters (Fig. L section. C. 5-21A. 5-20A. T section. 5-20B. L section. 5-19A. in henrys. is the line impedance. 5-20C. are the inductances of the coils. 5-21).:is the cutoff frequency. 2. L section. 5-21B. T section. ATTENUATOR FORMULAS General An attenuator is an arrangement of noninductive resistors used in an electrical 156 . Fig. 5-19C. 5-21C. Fig.Fig. Pi section. Pi section. in farads. T section.

voltage.circuit to reduce the audio.Z7 or Z2:Zi Fig. it is the ratio of current. Any attenuator working between unequal impedances must introduce a certain minimum loss. (2) If impedances are unequal. 5-22 . (3) From Table 5-2. they are often used as impedance-matching networks. Table 5-2 gives the value of K for the more common loss values. Called K. The resistors may be fixed or variable. hence. The impedance ratio is the input impedance divided by the output impedance. or vice versa-whichever gives a value of more than one. 5-23) Impedance Ratlo Z!. The four steps in the design of a pad are: (1) Determine the type of network required. Attenuators can be designed to work between equal or unequal impedances. 522 for the minimum loss value. A factor is used in the calculation of resistor values in attenuator networks. calculate the ratio of input to output impedance (or output to input impedance) and refer to Fig. These values are given in the graph of Fig. or power corresponding to a given value of at- tenuation in decibels. find the value of K for the desired loss.or radiosignal strength without introducing distortion. 5-22. Combining or Dividing Network (Fig. (4) Calculate the resistor values using the following formulas.

TABLE 5-2 K Factors for Calculating Attenuator Loss

where R, is the resistance of the building-out resistors, in ohms, N is the number of circuits fed by the source impedance, Z is the source impedance, in ohms.

T-Type Attenuator (Between Equal Impedances) (Fig. 5-24)
R and I?, =

(=)

K - 1

Z

where K is the impedance factor, K,, Rz, and R, are the measured resistances, in ohms.

3

1

Fig. 5-23

Fig. 5-24

1.58

H-Type Attenuator (Balanced-T Attenuator)
Calculate the values for R , , R,, and R, as for an unbalanced T-attenuator (Fig. 5-24). Then halve the values of K ,and R?, as shown in Fig. 5-25. The tap on R, is exactly in the center.

Bridged-T Attenuator (Unbalanced) (Fig. 5-27)

R, and R, are connected to a common shaft, and each varies inversely in value with respect to the other.
Fig. 5-25

Taper Pad (T-Type Attenuator Between Unequal Impedances) (Fig. 5-26)

Fig. 5-27

Balanced Bridged-T Attenuator
Calculate the values for R , , R,, and R, as for a n unbalanced bridged-T attenuator (Fig. 5-27). Then halve the values as shown in Fig. 5-28. where K is the impedance factor, R , , Rz, and R, are the measured resistances, in ohms, Z , is the larger impedance, in ohms, Z, is the smaller impedance, in ohms.

Fig. 5-26

Fig. 5-28

L-Type Attenuators
An L-type attenuator can supply an impedance match in only one direction. If the impedances it works out of and into are unequal, it can be made to match either-but not both-impedances. The arrows in Figs. 5-29 through 5-32 indicate the direction of impedance match. Between equal impedances and with the impedance match in the direction of the series arm:

Between unequal impedances and with the impedance match toward the larger value:

where S equals

a.

Fig. 5-31

Between unequal impedances and with the impedance match toward the smaller value:
Fig. 5-29

Between equal impedances and with the impedance match in the direction of the shunt arm:

where S equals

a.

Fig. 5-30

Fig. 5-32

Pi-Type Attenuator (Between Equal Impedances) (Fig. 5-33)

0-Type Attenuators
Calculate the values for a pi-type attenuator (Figs. 5-33 and 5-34), then halve the values for the series resistors as shown in Figs. 5-35 (balanced) and 5-36 (unbalanced).

Fig. 5-35

Fig. 5-33

Pi-Type Attenuator (Between Unequal Impedances) (Fig. 5-34)

Fig. 5-36

U-Type Attenuator (Figs. 5-37 and 5-38)
For impedance match in the direction of the series arms:

where S equals

Fig. 5-34

Fig. 5-37

HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND For impedance match in the direction of the shunt arm:

Ladder-Type Attenuator (Fig. 5-40)

R, =

(3

(K-S)

where The arrows indicate the direction of the impedance match, S equals

~/z,/z~.
where K depends on the loss per step-not the total loss.

on

Fig. 5-38

Lattice-Type Attenuator (Fig. 5-39)

Fig. 5-40

Fig. 5-39

Note. An instructive special case of an L-section resistive network with equal input and terminating resistances, regardless of the number of sections, is shown in Fig. 5-41. Observe that if 10-R series resistors and 100-R shunt resistors are used with a 27-R terminating resistance, the input resistance will always be 37 R , regardless of the number of sections. (The characteristic resistance of the network is 37 R.)

'More precisely 31 015621 1! "More precisely 21 015621 !! Fig. audio) 10% resistance at 50% clockwise rotation left-hand 5 O/O resistance at 50% of clockwise rotation Taper T Taper Y Taper V . 5-41 STANDARD POTENTIOMETER TAPERS (Fig. 5-42 Taper W Taper Z left-hand 20% resistance at 50% of clockwise rotation left-hand (log. 5-42) Taper S straight or uniform resistance change with rotation right-hand 30% resistance at 50% of counterclockwise rotation right-hand 20% resistance at 50% of counterclockwise rotation Fig.

.

9943 log & = 0.4971 0.Chapter 6 MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS logn log n + =0. multiplied by .2486 MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS x or .divided by = equals Z does not equal < is less than + plus or minus .

negative. are: 166 . some of the multiples of 10 from 1 to 1.000001. and minus > is greater than I equal I equal I i to or greater than to or less than .square root ' FRACTIONAL INCH.1 to 0.000. and Millimeter Equivalents f'ractinnal inch 1)ecimal Millimel~r Fractional Vecimal Millimeter inch inch equivalent inch equivalent . therefore I I parallel to L angle 6 is much less than + is much greater than I perpendicular to In 1 absolute value of n E is approximately equal to v. with their equivalents in powers of 10. POWERS OF 10 Exponent Determination Large numbers can be simplified by using powers of 10. are: *Any number to the zero power is 1 . subtract. DECIMAL. and plus I TABLE 6-1 Fractional Inch. AND MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS Table 6-1 gives the decimal inch and millimeter equivalents of fractional parts of an inch by 64ths to four significant figures. add. Some of the submultiples of 10 from 0. For example.000.= identical with I + positive. with their equivalents in powers of 10. Decimal. Likewise.'. powers of 10 can be used to simplify decimal expressions.

Addition and Subtraction To add or subtract using powers of 10. add the exponents. Multiplication To multiply using powers of 10. Division To divide using powers of 10. subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the numerator. . If the decimal point is moved to the right.Any whole number can be expressed as a smaller whole number. Example. and any decimal can be expressed as a whole number. If the decimal point is moved to the left. the power is positive and is equal to the number of places the decimal point was moved. and the answer will be in the same power of 10. the power is negative and is equal to the number of places the decimal point was moved. Example. first convert all numbers to the same power o f 10. Example. by moving the decimal point to the left or right and expressing the number as a power of 10. The numbers can then be added or subtracted.

and divide the power of 10 by 2. as called for. Reciprocal o f 0. but it will have the opposite sign. then: . 400 ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS Transposition of Terms Example. (If the number is an odd power of 10. Example.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLESN D FORMULAS A Combination Multiplication and Division Problems involving a combination of multiplication and division can be solved using powers of 10 by multiplying and dividing. do the opposite. ' Square and Square Root 1 i To square a number using powers of 10. The power of 10 in the answer will be the same value as in the original number.0025 = 0.) Extract the square root of the number. I Reciprocal of 400 = . first (if necessary) state the number so the decimal point precedes the first significant figure of the number. multiply the number by itself. Reciprocal To take the reciprocal of a number using powers of 10. Example. I To extract the square root of a number using powers of 10. and double the exponent.0025 1 I The following rules apply to the transposition of terms in algebraic equations: If A = BIC. I Example. Example. until the problem is completed. Then divide this number into 1. first convert it to an even power of 10.

then: A = - Laws of Exponents BC D A power o f a fraction is equal to that power of the numerator divided by the same power of the denominator: The product of two powers of the same base is also a power o f that base.then: A = C-B The quotient of two powers of the same base is also a power of that base. with a positive exponent numerically equal to the original exponent : . the exponent o f the product is equal to the sum of the exponents of the two factors: IfA +B = C. the exponent o f the product is equal to the product of the exponents: If A = m. The power of a power of a base is also a power o f that base. then: A negative exponent of a base is equal to the reciprocal of that base. the exponent o f the quotient is equal to the numerator exponent minus the denominator exponent: If A 2 = I / ( D ~ )then: .If AIB = CID.

6-2): area (A) = b2 Quadratic Equation The general quadratic equation: ux' + bx may be solved by: +c=0 Fig. 6-3): area (A) = ab I 170 Fig. 6-3 . 6-2 Rectangle (Fig.A fractional exponent indicates that the base should be raised to the power indicated by the numerator of the fraction. the root indicated by the denominator should then be extracted: GEOMETRIC FORMULAS Triangle (Fig. 6-1 Square (Fig. 6-1): area ( A ) = - bh 2 A root of a fraction is equal to the identical root of the numerator divided by the identical root of the denominator: I A root of a product is equal to the product of the roots of the individual factors: Fig.

6-5 IFig. 6-7 Trapezoid (Fig.598 a' Fig. 6-4): area (A) = ah Regular pentagon (Fig.Parallelogram (Fig. 6-6 I 171 Fig. 6-8 a - -1 Trapezium (Fig. 6-7): area (A) = 1. 6-9 . 6-6): area (A) = - 1 [b(H 2 + h) + ah + CHI Octagon (Fig. 6-4 Fig. 6-5): area (A) = - h (a 2 + b) Regular hexagon (Fig.720 a Z Fig. 6-9): area (A) = 4. 6-8): area (A) = 2.828 a2 Fig.

7854 ( D 2-d2) Fig.Circle (Figs. 6-14 172 . 6-13 Ellipse (Fig.r Z )= 0. 6-14): circumference (C) = Fig. 6-13): area ( A ) = n(R2 . 6-10 through 6-12): circumference ( C ) = 2nR = nD area (A) = nR2 Circular ring (Fig. 6-10 " ' 1 D chord (c) = d 4 ( 2 h ~ h 2 ) - Fig. 6-12 Fig. 6-1 1 area (A) = - bR 2 area ( A ) = nab Fig.

15 Cube (Fig. 6-16 . 6-17 Cone (Fig. 6-18 Fig.18): area ( A ) = nRS . 6-15): Rectangular solid (Fig.! ~ : Fig. 6-17): area ( A ) = 2 (ab + bc volume ( V ) = abc + uc) 4 volume ( V ) = --nR' 3 Fig. 6.6-16): area (A) = 6b' volume ( V ) = b' volume ( V ) = - nK2h 3 Fig.n ~ v : + h.6.Sphere (Fig.

b equals the acute angle formed by the hypotenuse and the base leg. Fig.19): cylindrical surface = n 0 h total surface = 2nR(R volume ( V ) = nR'h . A equals the side adjacent to L h and opposite L u. the values in Table 6-2 are valid if: a equals the acute angle formed by the hypotenuse and the altitude leg.Cylinder (Fig. 6-21 Ring of (Fig. 6-20 C equals the hypotenuse. 6-22) In any right triangle.4n Torus-ring (Fig.c2h . 6-20): rectangular cross section volume ( V ) = nc - 4 ( D ?.d ? ) TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Plane Trigonometry (Fig. 6-21): of circular cross section + h) total surface = 4n2Rr = n2Dd volume ( V ) = 2nR x r' = 2. .4630 X d' Fig. 6. 6-19 Fig. B equals the side opposite L b and adjacent to L a .

TABLE 6-2 Trigonometric Formulas
Known vnlues Formulas for unknown values of .4

B

C'

Lb

La
H A

arc tan

arc tan arc sin

A H

A arc cos -. C
A tan ~b
A

A C

cos ~b
A

90" - ~ 1 )

tan

LU

sin

LO

arc sin

-

B C

B arc cos -. C

B tan Lb

B-.-. . sin L I ~
.-

B
C cos ~h Csin La
' I I I c ~spression "arc [;inpent i \ . . .".

Csin ~b ccos
L U

\ill"

or "\i~l-l" ' ~ l d i c a t e \ ~ "the ;ri~glc\c.ho,c hint i\ . . . ." Silnilarly, ";trc tail" or

"r;trl

1"

indic;tic\ " ~ l l c;rr~glcwllo\c

the headings at the top of the table and the degree listings in the left-hand column. For angles from 45 " t o 90°, use the headings at the bottom of the table and the degree listings in the right-hand column.

IFig. 6-22

A

-

-I

Note.

Read the degree listings in the right-hand column from bottom to top; thus, the 10' listing directly above 89" signil'ies 89" I0 '.

/
Table of Trigonometric Functions
Table 6-3 gives the natural sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents of angles. To find these values for angles from 0 " to 45 ", use

BINARY NUMBERS
Binary Digits
In the binary system of numbers, there are only two digits-0 and I . A11 numbers

I

175

TABLE 6-3 Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
sin
cos
tan

rot
w

0" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 l o00' 10 20 30 40 50 2" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 3" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 4" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 5 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 6 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 7 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50

0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.01 16 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0436 0.0465 0.0494 0.0523 0.0552 0.058 1 0.0610 0.0640 0.0669 0.0698 0.0727 0.0756 0.0785 0.0814 0.0843 0.0872 0.0901 0.0929 0.0958 0.0987 0.1016 0.1045 0.1074 0.1103 0.1132 0.1161 0.1190 0.1219 0.1248 0.1276 0.1305 0.1334 0.1363
cos

1. O O OO 1 .0000 1 .OOOO 1. O O OO 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994 0.9993 0.9992 0.9990 0.9989 0.9988 0.9986 0.9985 0.9983 0.9981 0.9980 0.9978 0.9976 0.9974 0.9971 0.9969 0.9967 0.9964 0.9962 0.9959 0.9957 0.9954 0.995 1 0.9948 0.9945 0.9942 0.9939 0.9936 0.9932 0.9929 0.9925 0.9922 0.9918 0.9914 0.991 1 0.9907
sin

0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.01 16 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0437 0.0466 0.0495 0.0524 0.0553 0.0582 0.0612 0.0641 0.0670 0.0699 0.0729 0.0758 0.0787 0.08 16 0.0846 0.0875 0.0904 0.0934 0.0963 0.0992 0.1022 0.1051 0.1080 0.1110 0.1 139 0.1 169 0.1 198 0.1228 0.1257 0.1287 0.1317 0.1346 0.1376
rot

343.77 171.89 114.59 85.940 68.750 57.290 49.104 42.964 38.188 34.368 31.242 28.636 26.432 24.542 22.904 21.470 20.206 19.081 18.075 17.169 16.350 15.605 14.924 14.301 13.727 13.197 12.706 12.251 11.826 1 1.430 11.059 10.712 10.385 10.078 9.7882 9.5144 9.2553 9.0098 8.7769 8.5555 8.3450 8.1443 7.9530 7.7704 7.5958 7.4287 7.2687
tan

90" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 89" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 88" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 87" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 86" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 85" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 84" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 83" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees

TABLE 6-3 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
sin cos tan cot

8 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 9 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 10" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 11" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 12" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 13" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 14" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 15" 00' 10 20 30 40 50

0.1392 0.1421 0.1449 0.1478 0.1507 0.1536 0.1564 0.1593 0.1622 0.1650 0.1679 0.1708 0.1736 0.1765 0.1794 0.1822 0.1851 0.1880 0.1908 0.1937 0.1965 0.1994 0.2022 0.2051 0.2079 0.2108 0.2136 0.2164 0.2193 0.2221 0.2250 0.2278 0.2306 0.2334 0.2363 0.2391 0.2419 0.2447 0.2476 0.2504 0.2532 0.2560 0.2588 0.2616 0.2644 0.2672 0.2700 0.2728
cos

0.9903 0.9899 0.9894 0.9890 0.9886 0.9881 0.9877 0.9872 0.9868 0.9863 0.9858 0.9853 0.9848 0.9843 0.9838 0.9833 0.9827 0.9822 0.9816 0.981 1 0.9805 0.9799 0.9793 0.9787 0.978 1 0.9775 0.9769 0.9763 0.9757 0.9750 0.9744 0.9737 0.9730 0.9724 0.9717 0.9710 0.9703 0.9696 0.9689 0.968 1 0.9674 0.9667 0.9659 0.9652 0.9644 0.9636 0.9628 0.9621
sin

0.1405 0.1435 0.1465 0.1495 0.1524 0.1554 0.1584 0.1614 0.1644 0.1673 0.1703 0.1733 0.1763 0.1793 0.1823 0.1853 0.1883 0.1914 0.1944 0.1974 0.2004 0.2035 0.2065 0.2095 0.2126 0.2156 0.2186 0.2217 0.2247 0.2278 0.2309 0.2339 0.2370 0.2401 0.2432 0.2462 0.2493 0.2524 0.2555 0.2586 0.2617 0.2648 0.2679 0.271 1 0.2742 0.2773 0.2805 0.2836
cot

7.1154 6.9682 6.8269 6.6912 6.5606 6.4348 6.3138 6.1970 6.0844 5.9758 5.8708 5.7694 5.6713 5.5764 5.4845 5.3955 5.3093 5.2257 5.1446 5.0658 4.9894 4.9152 4.8430 4.7729 4.7046 4.6382 4.5736 4.5107 4.4494 4.3897 4.3315 4.2747 4.2193 4.1653 4.1 126 4.061 1 4.0108 3.96 17 3.9136 3.8667 3.8208 3.7760 3.7321 3.6891 3.6470 3.6059 3.5656 3.5261
tan

82" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 81" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 80" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 79" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 78" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 77" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 76" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 75" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees

TABLE 6-3 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees

sin

cos

tan

cot

cos

sin

cot

tan

Degrees

TABLE 6-3 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions
--

Degrees

sin

EOS

tan

cot

24" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 25" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 26" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 27" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 28" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 29" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 30" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 31" 00' 10 20 30 40 50

0.4067 0.4094 0.4120 0.4147 0.4173 0.4200 0.4226 0.4253 0.4279 0.4305 0.433 1 0.4358 0.4384 0.4410 0.4436 0.4462 0.4488 0.45 14 0.4540 0.4566 0.4592 0.4617 0.4643 0.4669 0.4695 0.4720 0.4746 0.4772 0.4797 0.4823 0.4848 0.4874 0.4899 0.4924 0.4950 0.4975 0.5000 0.5025 0.5050 0.5075 0.5100 0.5125 0.5150 0.5175 0.5200 0.5225 0.5250 0.5275
cos
sin

0.4452 0.4487 0.4522 0.4557 0.4592 0.4628 0.4663 0.4699 0.4734 0.4770 0.4806 0.4841 0.4877 0.4913 0.4950 0.4986 0.5022 0.5059 0.5095 0.5 132 0.5169 0.5206 0.5243 0.5280 0.5317 0.5354 0.5392 0.5430 0.5467 0.5505 0.5543 0.5581 0.5619 0.5658 0.5696 0.5735 0.5774 0.5812 0.585 1 0.5890 0.5930 0.5969 0.6009 0.6048 0.6088 0.6128 0.6168 0.6208
cut

2.2460 2.2286 2.21 13 2.1943 2.1775 2.1609 2.1445 2.1283 2.1 123 2.0965 2.0809 2.0655 2.0503 2.0353 2.0204 2.0057 1.9912 1.9768 1.9626 1.9486 1.9347 1.9210 1.9074 1.8940 1.8807 1.8676 1.8546 1.8418 1.8291 1.8165 1.8040 1.7917 1.7796 1.7675 1.7556 1.7437 1.7321 1.7205 1 .7090 1.6977 1.6864 1.6753 1 .6643 1.6534 1.6426 1.6319 1.6212 1.6107
tan

66" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 65" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 64" 00 50 40 30 20 10 63" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 62" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 61" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 60" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 59" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees

5299 0.4370 1.7813 0.6383 0.5783 0.6338 0.7753 0.3032 1.7907 0.8355 0.6619 0.3190 1.7986 0.7089 0.5697 1.5446 0.6248 0.8342 cot 1.8090 0.4019 1.6830 0.1988 tan 58" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 57" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 56" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 55" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 54" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 53" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 52" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 51" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 Degrees .6959 0.7536 0.6745 0.6088 0.8004 0.7880 0.5348 0.7934 0.5948 0.7716 0.6536 0.7844 0.7898 0.2723 1.8050 0.6873 0.6330 0.6065 0.8323 0.5373 0.5544 0.7177 0.3680 1.6041 0.7808 0.4826 1.7310 0.3934 1.5616 0.8146 0.5760 0.2203 1.5398 0.5324 0.2647 1.2954 1.6003 1.3848 1.5972 0.2876 1.4460 1.8480 0.6293 0.7581 0.8465 0.4550 1.5640 0.3764 1.6225 0.8073 0.5995 0.795 1 0.3351 1.2423 1.7862 0.4106 1.8274 0.6787 0.5901 0.61 1 1 0.627 1 0.8124 0.8403 0.8243 0.8021 0.3270 1.2131 1.637 1 0.5664 0.5925 0.8002 0.6916 0.5736 0.7954 0.5301 1.8241 0.7679 sin 0.6134 0.5568 0.6703 0.8290 0.3432 1.8158 0.8292 0.7627 0.7766 0.8225 0.TABLE 6-3 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions Degrees sin cos tan COI 32" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 33" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 34" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 35" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 36" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 37" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 38" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 39" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 0.6157 0.5854 0.8339 0.8 175 0.3597 1.7490 0.4281 1.5497 1.8098 0.5900 1.6406 cos 0.7046 0.5013 1.8039 0.6361 0.8434 0.7355 0.7673 0.583 1 0.5204 1.6661 0.7400 0.5471 0.8387 0.7445 0.2059 1.8195 0.6180 0.7720 0.7916 0.5422 0.8371 0.7969 0.4641 1.7133 0.4193 1.5807 0.6249 0.8418 0.2572 1 .5597 1.5399 1.4733 1.7221 0.6577 0.7265 0.5592 0.8208 0.8056 0.5878 0.5798 1.4919 1.6316 0.5108 1.2349 1.6018 0.2276 1.3514 1.7002 0.2497 1.6453 0.6202 0.5519 0.8450 0.7826 0.6289 0.5712 0.7698 0.7860 0.8107 0.5495 0.6412 0.8192 0.8258 0.5688 0.7790 0.6494 0.8307 0.7735 0.3111 1.2799 1.7771 0.8141 0.

7547 0.1571 1.0786 1.7642 0.1708 1.7528 0.OOOO tan 50" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 49" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 48" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 47" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 46" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 45" 00' Degrees are written as successive powers of 2. TABLES N D FORMULAS A TABLE 6-3 Cont.0355 1 . Binary 1010 actually means: 3487 With binary numbers.6799 0. 101.6626 0.6604 0.9163 0. 1 1 1.0538 1. Decimal 3487 is actually: 10.71 12 0.8441 0.6691 0.7030 0.7294 0.6713 0. 10.6884 0.rarnple.8591 0.6539 0.1918 1 .1436 1.9217 0.9601 0.7274 0.707 1 sin 0.1778 1.9057 0.9545 0.6926 0.7470 0.7490 0.7566 0. Natural Trigonometric Functions Ilcgreeq \in cos tan cot 40" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 41 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 42" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 43" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 44" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 45 " 00 ' 0.0477 1.01 17 1.6756 0. Each number is written as a succession of powers of 2.0913 1.0058 1.6841 0.8796 0.6734 0. Actually.0850 1.OOOO rot 1.9004 0. 1.9657 0.7214 0.6472 0.6583 0.7314 0.0724 1.7071 ros 0.7660 0.9325 0.91 10 0.0416 1.6670 0.9713 0.MATHEMATIC:AI.6494 0. E.7623 0.8693 0.0176 1.9942 1 .1171 1.7133 0. 11. For example.6648 0.1504 1.9884 0.7234 0.7604 0.6905 0.0977 1.6988 0.8952 0. 110. all numbers are written as successive powers of 10.6947 0.1106 1.1369 1.745 1 0.1237 1.7373 0.6428 0.6777 0.8541 0.6820 0. Exumple. 1000.7509 0.0235 1.6450 0.6517 0. a like system is used except the base (radix) is 2 instead of .6967 0. the binary numbers corresponding to decimal numbers 0 through 10 are 0.7392 0.7353 0.8899 0.8491 0.9435 0.8642 0.9271 0.0661 1.7254 0.6561 0.8391 0.1303 1. 1010.8847 0.7173 0.(I295 1.9770 0.1640 1.7193 0.9490 0. in the decimal system. 1001.7333 0.9827 0.7050 0.743 1 0.7412 0.0599 1.7163 0.9380 0.8744 0.7585 0.6862 0.1041 1.7009 0.I847 1.7092 0. 100.

until the division gives a 0. thus. Exumple. from 0 to 20. are given in Table 6-4.056 using binary numbers requires a minimum of 21 digits! TABLE 6-4 Powers of 2 Power Decimal Power 1)ecimal Power Decimal TABLE 6-6 Gray Code (. you could use Table 6-4 and compute the equivalent in the other numbering system. take the first binary digit. Thus. Write down a 1 if there is a remainder and a 0 if not.. To convert from binary to decimal. double it. To covert decimal 22 to binary. Then double this number.048.) TABLE 6-5 Excess3 Code Decimal Binary rode 14 15 1001 1000 I ( i I I ber by 2. successively divide the decimal num- 1 1 i The least significant figure is at the top. the binary number corresponding to decimal 22 is 101 10. (See also the discussion of the ASCII Code in Chapter 7. Con- 182 . I Binary numbers are also arranged into widely used codes such as the Excess-3 and Gray Codes shown in Tables 6-5 and 6-6. j Conversion To convert from binary to decimal or from decimal to binary. respectively.The powers of 2. and add your answer to the second digit. However. there are simpler methods. and write the sum under the third digit. add it to the third digit. To convert from decimal to binary. Write this sum under the second digit.ray code ~)ecirna~ U.(I~U~N. to write a number above decimal 1.

any binary number can be added. the same as before. the answer is 1000 (decimal 8). To divide 1101001 by 101: Subtraction Binary numbers can be subtracted directly. Hence. The first digit in the answer is disregarded. Then add the partial total and the carries. All products are the same as in decimal multiplication. as follows: . 1111 -01 1 1 complemented - The number under the last digit (45) is the decimal equivalent of binary 101101. Binary multiplication is similar to decimal multiplication.tinue this process up to and including the last digit. + 1001 11000 1111 Addition Binary addition has only four rules Answer. Example. Example. Example. place the carry under the next digit. as follows: Division Binary division is similar to decimal division. a number is complemented by merely changing all 0's to 1's and all 1's to 0's and adding 1 to the final digit. as follows: However. In the binary system. it is simpler to complement the subtracted number and add. To multiply 1011 by 101: To simplify the carry when 1 + 1 = 10. That is: Example. Multiplication Following these rules.

there were n o remainders smaller than the divisor. This positive remainder is shifted left but is still smaller than the divisor. decimal 25 in BCD is 0010 0101 and decimal 372 in BCD is 001 1 01 1 1 0010. For example. the remainder was larger than the quotient. Here. the computer must restore the remainder t o the original value before the next dividend is used. Each digit position has a definite value o r weight in the order 8. One indication is that the highest order will require a borrow. 2. Therefore a 0 was placed in the quotient. Binary Coded Decimal Various codes based on the binary 1 and 0 concept have evolved to meet the needs of digital equipment operation. the number is positive. .Handling Negative Remainders In the preceding example of binary division. T h e successive-subtraction method used by a computer follows: Quotient Subtract 101101 100100 Shift Restore-add Shift 010010 100100 101110 100100 010010 100100 100100 0 1 After the first subtraction. When the next digit was transferred down. When a subtraction causes a negative number. 1 and each four digit combination in the BCD represents one digit of a decimal number as follows: Bringing down the next digit resulted in a remainder smaller than the divisor. additional four-bit BCD combinations are used. The binary coded decimal (BCD) is widely used. T h e following example shows what steps must be taken when a 0 is generated. Example. Dividing 45 by 9: that the remainder is larger than the divisor until the subtraction operation is performed. four bits are used t o represent each digit of the decimal number. where two o r more decimal digits are needed. 4. Subtracting now would result in a negative number. o r what is termed a n overdraw. A computer has n o way of detecting For larger decimal numbers. That is. there was n o 0 generated in the quotient. This is done by adding the divisor to the remainder prior to the next shift operation.

Thus. Given any statement. and C a r e used to designate various conditions.) or no sign at all. Two logical connectives-AND and OR-express relationships between two statements. Similarly. 21 in hexadecimal is the equivalent of decimal 33 and binary 100001. the opposite or contradiction of that statement can be formed. Similarly. the digits 0 through 7 are used as follows: Decimal Octal equivalent Thus. if a switch has two positions. 21 in octal is the equivalent of decimal 17 and binary 10001. B. It is symbolized by a plus sign. Since 8 is a power of 2. Two or more statements connected by the word "or" are considered to form a single true statement if at least one of the original statements is true. Thus. If A is true. which may be characterized by statements. which requires that a statement be either true or false-it can be nothing else. if two parallel switches are connected in a circuit. AND is the logical equivalent of a series switch circuit. The conventional numbers are used from 0 through 9 and the letters A through F for decimal 10 through 15. The symbols A . Hexadecimal numbers (often abbreviated hex) also find wide usage. the circuit is considered to be closed if all of the switches are closed. OR is the logical equivalent of a parallel switch circuit. The contradiction of any statement A is called the negation of A. if two series switches are connected in a circuit. and vice versa. then the open position may be considered the opposite or negation of the closed Thus. FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Boolean algebra is based on symbolic logic. Likewise 1A in hexadecimal is the equivalent of decimal 26.OTHER NUMBER SYSTEMS Octal is a numbering system with a base of 8. the circuit is considered to be closed if at least one of the switches is closed. ANDis symbolized by a multiplication sign (. Similarly. then the negation of A is false. Two or more statements connected by the word "and" are considered to form a single true statement if all of the original statements are true. conversion between the octal and binary systems is a n easy operation. The hexadecimal system has 16 as its base. Thus: Hexadecimal equivalent Decimal . Thus.

the symbol for the gate is given. The circuit is closed. i f A = I .ogir Switch Meaning Circuit 1 true false series closed open A and H The statement is true. the gate is represented by an appropriate electrical circuit. at B. a false statement. explains their meanings. A closed in series \vith a closed is closed. A = 0). or an open switch in the circuit. and hence TABLE 6-8 Summary of Logical Statements - 1I Circuit Logic Meaning 0. The various symbols are given in Table 6-7. and hence a closed circuit.K 6-7 Basic Rules of Symbolic Logic Symbol I . and shows the equivalent switch circuits for the statements. Table 6-8 summarizes the various logical statements. /i = 1 . or a closed switch. The gate is not limited to two inputs. A closed in parallel . 'The circuit is open. which shown AND. In the A N D truth tables. The A N D gate is shown as having two inputs A and B and an output C. An open in parallel with a closed is closed. tu - r 9 " i an open circuit. A 1 represents a true statement. Applying the AND and OR (. The truth table for the AND . A is iri 0 / -- series with H. is generally said to have a truth value of 0.0 = 0 0. Opposire of A (if A = 0.? - -4- - 1 = 1 ' & a L ' - 0 +0 = 0 e I I 0+ I = I I+ I = I with a closed is closed. Regardless o f the number. An open in parallcl with an open is open. Negation is indicated by a superior bar (-) or prime ( '). OR. 1 8 + parallel AorB A is in parallel with B.'I'ABI. and NOR gates. NAND. Conversely. A true statement. An open in series with a closed is open. and + ) relations to the truth values (0 and 1) yields the multiplication and addition tables of binary arithmetic. At A in each figure. they would all be shown in series in the circuit of f3 (Fig. a 0 represents a false statement. and a truth table for each circuit is given at C. 6-23).1 =0 1 I I I An open in series with an open is open. 6-23 through 6-26. A further explanation of these Boolean algebra concepts is given by Figs. is generally said to have a truth value of 1. any number could be used. The statement is false. position.

or both. The input that produced an output with the A N D gate now produces no output with the NAND gate. no output is obtained. 6-24 A B ) 1npu1 output 1 1 0 1 OR Gale 1 gate shows. then. 6-24) is represented by switches in parallel. switches are closed. and vice versa.A NAND gate is represented in Fig. and. a statement can be negated or contradicted by any device that inverts the input by 180 ". The output column for the AND gate is the direct opposite or contradiction of the output column for the N A N D gate. d o not forget that a 0 in the truth table now produces a closed switch and a 1 produces an open switch. the inputs that produced no output with the A N D gate now produce outputs with the N A N D gate. The negation of an A N D gate is a NAND gate (short for NOT AND). The circuit shows that a n output is obtained when one or the other. This means that an input that would normally produce an output produces no output. a circuit. 6-25. If both switches are open (first line of the table). instead of in series as they were for thc A N D gate. or both. 6-23 AND Gale Fig. as shown by the first three lines of the truth table. or by an open switch in place of a closed one. are 0. Also. Figure 6-26 shows a NOR gate. If either A or B.Fig. and vice versa. In the gate circuits. In logic circuits. These examples are represented by the last three lines in the truth table. and a truth table. 6-25 A 8 F Input output 1 1 NAND Gate Fig. 6-26 1 1 1 NOR Gate 0 . this would be represented by a closed switch in place of an open one. conversely. The OR gate (Fig. that an output is obtained in only one case: when both A and B are 1. Notice in the circuit that switches are now shown in parallel. Since this is a contradic- Fig. then the output is 0.

The characteristics of numbers between 0. Logarithms with the base 10 are known as common. To find the logarithm of 6673. The foregoing example demonstrated how to obtain the logarithm for 6670 (3.999 are: For most computations. To find the mantissa for the logarithm of any number. in the column under the third figure of the number. when applied to the number 10 as an exponent. the logarithm for 6673 is 3.0001 and 99. The output column is the direct opposite. and a 1 input produces an open switch.8243. has a positive value equal to one less than the number of digits preceding the decimal point. 3 is the logarithm of 1000. If accuracy to four places is desired. Use of Logarithm Table The mantissa. or simply log. A common logarithm of a given number is the number which.8241. 2 is the common logarithm of 100. since 10' equals 1000. or Briggs. whereas a characteristic may be either positive or negative. they are written log. or 3.8241 plus 0. the base 10 is understood. the mantissa for that number will be found.tion of the OR gate. of the output column for the OR gate. first locate 66 in thc left-hand column ( N ) . The most common system is the base 10. From this we can see that the logarithm of any number except a whole number power of 10 consists of a whole number and a decimal fraction. The characteristic of a decimal fraction has a negative value equal to one more than the number of zeros immediately following the decimal point. will produce the given number. The mantissa of a logarithm is usually positive. any number may be used as the base. The characteristic of a whole number. Thus..0002. A 0 input produces a closed switch. since 10' equals 100. the circuit shows the switches in series instead of in parallel. logarithms. of a logarithm is obtained from Table 6-9. The charactcristic for the logarithm of 6673 is 3. Characteristic of a Logarithm The whole-number portion of a logarithm is called the characteristic. then follow across to the column numbered 7. These columns list the numbers to be added to the logarithm to obtain four-place accuracy. the columns labeled "Proportional parts" may be used. Using the "Proportional parts" column to find the proportional part for 3. or of a whole number and a fraction. When the base is omitted. greater accuracy will not be required. or contradiction.. or decimal-fracton portion. The mantissa for 667 (8241) is located at this point. the logarithm of 6670 is 3. which is 2. Thus. Therefore.. Example.8241). then. Numbers Characteristic COMMON LOGARITHMS The logarithm of a quantity is the power to which a given number (base) must be raised in order to equal that quantity. locate the first two figures of the number in the left-hand column (N). The total logarithm is the sum of the mantissa and the . not the logarithm for 6673.

TABLE 6-9 Common Logarithms N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Prvporiivnal parts .

TABLE 6-9 Cont. Common Logarithms N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts . W 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Prupurlional parts .

A negative logarithm is difficult to use.3692 -10.0234 would be written 8.3692 -10. and the characteristic is -2.3692 0. Antilogarithms An antilogarithm (abbreviated antilog or log. This logarithm may equals 8 now be used like any other positive logarithm. or a multiple thereof. the mantissa of 0. it is more convenient to convert the logarithm to a positive number. The total logarithm is -2 + 0.0234 is 3692.MATHEMATICAL AND FORMULAS TABLES TABLE 6-9 Cont.1. except that the -10 must be consid- ered in determining the characteristic of the answer. to the characteristic when it is negative. Thus. Next determine where the decimal point is located by counting off the number of places indicated by the character- + . Thus. To find an antilog. or . since -2 + 0.6308. the logarithm of 0. locate in the logarithm table the mantissa closest to that of the given logarithm.') is a number corresponding to a given logarithm. Record the number in the N column directly opposite the mantissa located. This is possible by adding 10. therefore. and compensating for this by indicating the subtraction of 10 from the entire logarithm.3692. Common Logarithms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts Proportional parts characteristic. and annex to this the number on the top line immediately above the mantissa.

in the same manner already described for finding the mantissa. Find the antilog of 3.6320 = 42.1587 antilog 3. to obtain 2850. Multiplication Numbers are multiplied by adding their logarithms and finding the antilog of the sum.5302 = 339.0-the antilog of 3. To multiply 0. lows: log N = log 39.3 = .0285-the antilog of -2 + 0.4771 + 0.6320 .8451 .10 = 8.2 log 39.30 = -4 + 0. The decimal point in this example would be located by starting at the point between the 2 and the 8. count to the right if the characteristic is positive. and counting two places to the left to obtain 0.istic.4771 . Locate 4548 in Table 6-9.10 log N = 1.5 log 0.86 + log 497 log 682 = 2. the three figures of the antilog are 285. 10\vs: log N = log 682 To n~ultiply682 x 497. Example.03 X 0. Then read the first two figures of the antilog from the Ncolumn (28) and the third figure directly above the mantissa (5).log 27.200 by 27.4346 log N = 3. if the logarithm had been -2 + 0. Locate the decimal point by counting off three places to the right.4771 ~ Division antilog -4 + 0.3010 .4771 . proceed as fol- In the foregoing example.3 by 0.2.4771 .03 + log 0. from the point between the 2 and the 8.3 .8338 = 2.log 0.4771 = 0.8451 = 9.200 = 4. antilog 5. Example.5933 -log 27. and to the left if it is negative. Example.03 + log 0.4771 + 0.4548. I f greater accuracy is desired.1587 = 1441 To divide 39. the procedure would have been the same except for the location of the decimal point. lows: To divide 0.5302 Raising to Powers A given number can be raised to any power by multiplying the logarithm of the given number by the power to which the number is to be raised and finding the antilog of the product.10 = 7.02 + log 0.0 + log 497 antilog 1.02 x 0. proceed as fol- log N = log 0.0003 Numbers are divided by subtracting the logarithm of the divisor from the logarithm of the dividend and finding the antilog of the difference.200 . 1 1! I log N = log 0.2 = 1.4548.007 = -1 -3 + 0.5. proceed as fol- /kample.10 = 9.4548.3010 + 0. Thus.007.6990 = 8. Starting between the first and second digits.007 log 0. proceed as follows: .10 log N = 26.02 = -2 = -2 = -1 + 0.000 Example.6990 .5 ~ + log 0. the "Proportional parts" columns of the logarithm table can be used.4548.6964 log N = 5.log 0.

lln). log.7244 = 5. square roots. AND RECIPROCALS Table 6-10 gives.lO. In turn. write the given number as the product of a number between 100 and 1000. the programmer must convert terms with common logarithms into corresponding terms with natural logarithms.x = log.7244 antilog 0.301 Natural Logarithms Natural logarithms are similar to common logarithms. The " 10001n" column contains the product of lln and 1000. To find the square root of a number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000.. move the decimal point three places to the left). the value of a?or a%eing read from the table.570 SQUARES.e. = log 39. Thus. To raise 39. and reciprocals multiplied by 1000. and a power of 10.1732 -+ 3 = 0. Disregard the nonzero digits. Example. cube roots. the squares. Natural logarithms are important because many desk-top computers process natural logarithms but d o not process common logarithms. cubes.7 = 1. To extract the cube root of 149. if any. to the right of the decimal point of the number between 100 and 1000.) Using the equations: Extracting Roots Any root can be extracted from a given number by dividing the logarithm of the given number by the index of the root and finding the antilog of the quotient. To find the reciprocal of n (viz. ( P 2 P l ) and (a x lob)' = a 3 x the square or cube of the given number may be obtained. For any number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000. SQUARE ROOTS.3 log 149 = 2.71828 instead of the base 10.7964 antilog 4. First.. (P2/PI)/logC(10) x 3 log 39. Example. its square and cube may be quickly. the square or cube obtained will be approximate.5988 log N = 1. though perhaps approximately. dB power gain = 10 * log.1732 log N = 2.71828. for the natural numbers up to 1000. proceed as follows: log N = log 149 . (If there are any numbers to the right of the decimal point.7 Programmer writes: dB power gain = 10 * log.7964 = 62. CUBE ROOTS.. obtained as follows.MATHEMATICAL TABLESN D FORMULAS A Example. proceed as follows: log A. Note that e = 2. .7 to the third power. except that a natural logarithm uses the base 2. The term 1 O 2 9 r may be calculated mentally.5988 x 3 = 4. divide the entry for n in the "10001n" column by 1000 (i.. CUBES.

and 9.or three-digit number a in the n column. (If there are any. To find the cubc root of a number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000. Various kinds of' numbers are used in electric and electronics formulas. . where a is between 1 and 1000 and b is divisible by 3 and can be positive or negative. the cubc root obtained will be approximate.) 1. 5 . Disregard thc nonzero digits. where a is between 10 and 1000 and b is even and can be positive or negative. Disregard the nonzero digits.write the number in the form a x lo". Multiplying this cube root by lob3 the cube root of the given number. if any. the binary numbers arc 0 and 1 . to the right of the decimal point of the number a. write the given number in the form a x loh. and Keci~rocals .ocate the two. 3 . The negative numbers are -1. and such formulas must bc converted into square.v ' q . square root. Small computers cannot process imaginary numbers. 2 v ' 7 . if any. 4 . I . 7 . and so on. The absolute value of -2 is greater than the absolute value of -1. (If there are any numbers to the right of the decimal point. Sauare Koots. +j denotes inductive reactance. Note. and read its cube gives root. 2 . -3. -2. the square root obtained will be approximate.3 v q . Cubes. and the computer processes absolute values accordingly. Although 2 is greater than 1. and read its square root. 8 . -2 is less than -1. 6 . . and trigonometric terms. and so on. The \ q 'is called the j operator in electricity and electronics. and -j denotes capacitive reactance. The imaginary numbers are +q. and the computer processes negative numbers accordingly. Cube Roots. The decimal numbers are 0. Multiplying this square root by 10" :gives the square root of the given number. to the right of the decimal point of the number a.) Locate the number a in the n column of Table 6-10. + + TABLE 6-10 Sauares.

Sauare Roots. and Recisrocals . Squares. Chbes. Cube Roots.TABLE 6-10 Cont.

and Reciprocals n n ' n! \ n <F 1000 n . Squares. Square Roots.TABLE 6-10 Cont. Cube Roots. Cubes.

9087 9.TABLE: 6-10 Cant. Cube Roots.6301 10.77193 8.5830 10.62069 8.92857 8.8629 4.54701 8.84956 8.7238 10.7703 10. Squares.8059 4.09091 9.8203 4.69565 8.8346 4. and Reciprocals n II-' nr \ n <K 4.47458 8.8628 10.40336 .8770 4.8910 4.5357 10.9049 4.6488 4.9187 1000 n 110 11 1 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 12100 12321 12544 12769 12996 13225 13456 13689 13924 14161 1331000 1367631 1404928 3442897 1481544 1520875 1560896 1601613 1643032 1685159 10.7914 4. Square Kools.4881 10.677 1 10. Cubes.0090 1 8.8167 10.

Cube Roots. and Reciprocals n n* n ' v'y .r : loo0 n . Square Roots. Cubes.TABLE 6-10 Cont. Squares.

Square Roots. Squares. Cubes. Cube Roots.TABLE 6-10 Cont. and Reciprocals n n2 n' . \ n 3:\ n loo0 n .

Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n n-'

11
I 11

1,-

\

n

I000 I1

Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, and Reciprocals
n nJ nI .
v' n

-

v 11

1

IOU0 n

TABLE 6-10 Cont. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n
tt2

JI.~

v' n

(:z

. -

1000

n

TABLE 6-10 Cant. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals

TAH1,E 0-10 Cont. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n

?I-' N-'
\'

n

.I\'

n

1000 n

and Reciprocals . Cube Roots. Cubes. Squares. Square Roots.TABLE 6-10 Cant.

Cubes. Square Hoots.TABLK 6-10 Cont. Squares. and Reciprocals .

Square Roots. Cubes. and Reciprocals .TABLE 6-10 Cont. Squares.

.

and Reciprocals .52207 1.5343 25.5930 25. n n-' t ~ .6710 8.6668 8. Square Roots.53610 1..6757 8.6845 8.52672 1.7022 1.5734 25.6801 8.53846 1.5539 25. Cubes. Squares.6978 8.6713 8.51976 1.495 1 25.6624 8.6934 8.6515 25.MATHEMATICAL TABLES D FORMULAS AN TABLE 6-10 Cont.52439 1 .52905 1.6890 8.51745 . Cube Roots.53374 1.6320 25.5147 25.53139 1. ~ v' n v 11 -4 : I000 n 650 65 1 652 65 3 654 655 656 657 658 659 422500 42380 1 425 104 426409 4277 16 429025 430336 43 1649 432964 434281 274625000 27589445 1 277 167808 278445077 279726264 28101 1375 2823004 16 283593393 2848903 12 286191 179 25.6125 25.

Square Roots. and Reciprocals .TABLE 6-10 Cont. Squares. Cube roots. Cubes.

.3313 27.0735 9.2764 27.0613 9.0450 9.2947 27.2029 27.I.34953 1.34409 1.0532 9.0491 9.34048 1.3679 1.35135 1. Squares.33690 1. 9.08 16 1000 I 1 740 74 1 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 547600 54908 1 550564 552049 553536 555025 5565 16 558009 559504 56 100 1 405224000 40686902 1 4085 18488 4 10 172407 41 1830784 41 3493625 415160936 416832723 4 18508992 4201 89749 27.3130 27. Cube Roots.2580 27. Square Hoots.34590 1.335 1 1 .3496 27.2397 27.0775 9.TABLE: 6-10 Cont. Cubes. and Reciprocals n tr2 tlJ v' n - .3477 1 1.0694 9.0572 9.34228 1.0654 9.33869 I .2213 27.

and Reciprocals . Square Roots. Cubes. Squares.TABLE 6-10 Cont. Cube Roots.

9310 28.19760 1.9137 28.19617 1.20337 1.8791 28.19332 1.20482 1. \: n 1000 n 830 83 1 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 688900 690561 692224 693889 695556 697225 698896 700569 702244 70392 1 571787000 573856191 575930368 578009537 580093704 582182875 584277056 586376253 588480472 590589719 28.19189 .4204 9. and Reciprocals n n2 11' v' n - 3.8271 28. Cube Roots.8964 28.4053 9.I9904 1.4241 9.9482 28.20048 1 .4166 9.4279 9. Squares.8444 28.9655 9.TABLE 6-10 Cont.3978 9.4316 1.19474 1. Cubes.4129 9.4091 9. Square Hoots.8097 28.20192 1 .4016 9.8617 28.

Square Roots.14025 1.5756 9. Squares. Cubes.13766 .5719 9.6142 29.14155 1. Cube Roots.6479 9. and Reciprocals 11 11! n' \ n i 11 z- 1000 n 876 877 878 879 767376 769 129 770884 772641 67222 1376 674526133 6768361 52 679 151439 29.5683 9.TABLE 6-10 Cont.63 1 1 29.5973 29.13895 1.5792 1.

and Reciprocals n ' n 11 ~RMUI. Cubes.-- . : ( I1 1000 . Squares.AS ' L' n . Cube Roots.MATHEMATICAI. Square Roots. TABLES D AN TABLE 6-10 Cont.

Square Roots.( : 1000 n . and Reciprocals n n-' nq v' n - . Cubes. Squares. Cube Roots.TABLE 6-10 Cont.

For all practical purposes. The Fahrenheit absolute scale is called the Rankine-OOR = -459.67 O F OR = 915 (K . Two absolute temperature scales are also in use. the two terms are interchangeable.16"C. The term Celsius was officially adopted. The Celsius absolute scale is the Kelvin-0 K = .67 ("C X 915) + 491. Note the degree sign (") is not used with Kelvin. by international agreement in 1948.273. though. .01 "C).Chapter 7 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION The nomograph in Fig. Celsius and centigrade scales differ slightly-the Celsius scale is based on 0" at the triple point of water (0. The following formulas can be used to convert from any temperature to the other: O = ("C F O = R O = R + 459. and centigrade has 0" at the freezing point of water. Actually.16) + 491. the SI unit of temperature. in place of centigrade.67 x 915) + 32 TELEPRINTER CODES Letter and figure assignments for teleprinter codes are given in Table 7-1. 7-1 can be used to convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius (or vice versa) for any temperature between absolute zero and 540°F (281°C).273.67"F.

Fig. Temperature nomograph. 7-1. .

Each bit starts with a 3700-Hz frequency and ends with a 2400-Hz frequency. and each bit has the same duration (7. is shown in Table 7-2. It is a frequency-shift keying (FSK) mode of operation using tone bursts. consisting of 1's represented by eight cycles of 2400 Hz. which is produced by most computer keyboards. A variation of the Kansas City standard employs the same frequencies for 1 and 0. Monre ARQ Hve-unit code TTY code Bit Letters case Figures case numbers 7654321 Bif numhers 54321 11 10000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 10 0 0 0 0 1 0001 10 1 000 10 0101 100 0001 1 space 000101 100100 apostrophe 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 S 1 8 0 0 0 0 11 1 0 0 1 1 0 u 7 0100110 00111 carriage return carriage return I 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 D $3 001 110001001 R 4 001001 101010 J bell 1 100010 0101 1 N comma 0010101 01 I00 I' .452 ms).TABLE 7-1 Moore ARQ Code (Compared with Five-Unit Teleprinter Code) Code assignments - ASCII CODE T h e American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Code is used extensively in computer data transmission. 100001 1 11010 figures figures 01 10010 1101 1 M 1000101 11 100 X 1 0110100 11101 1001001 1 1 110 v letters letters 0 I I 1000 1 1 1 11 blank E line feed A space blank 3 linefeed KANSAS CITY STANDARD The Kansas City standard is a widely used digital tape format. 7-2). 7-2 . whereas a 0 has its frequency-transition point two-thirds from the start of the burst. a 1 has its frequency-transition point one-third from the start of the burst. T h e ASCII Code. but with different durations. and 0's represented by four cycles of 1200 Hz (Fig. C 1100100 01 101 C 001 1001 01 110 K ( 1101000 01 1 1 1 T 5 IOlOOOI 1 0 0 0 0 Z 1000110 10001 L 1 0100011 10010 W 2 1010010 1001 1 H ri 0100101 10100 Y 6 1010100 10101 P 0 0101001 101 10 Q 1 I 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 11 0 9 0110001 11000 B ? 1001 100 11001 G L. + signal 1 idle a idle /3 signal 1 idlea idle /3 001 01 10 1001010 00 1 I 0 10 1200 Hz &our Cycles1 2400 Hz ~ E ~ gCycles! ht Notc: Transmission Order: Bit ]-Bit 7 Fig. However.

J b.2 (820)t - 3220 2467 7600 1380 -185.82 9. SI US / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .TABLE 7-2 The ASCII Code Bit numbers n n n II 1 1 1 I b.62 1. Element Symbol Melting point ("C) Boiling point ( "C) Density (LO "C) (glcm actinium aluminum americium antimony argon arsenic astatine barium berkelium beryllium bismuth boron Ac A1 Am Sb A As At Ba Bk Be Bi B 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 227* 26.91 210* 137. L b. NUL DLE SP S O H D C l STX DC2 ETX DC3 # EOT DC4 $ ENQ NAK O/O ACK SYN & BEL ETB ' BS C A N ( H T E M ) LF S U B * V T E S C + F F F S I C R G S S O R S . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1.1 1000 630. 1 b.-. the melting and boiling points of each element are also given.36 247* 9.97 243 * 121. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEMENTS A list of all the known elements (105) is given in Table 7-3. 1 b.76 39.73 3.30 725 - 1140 - 1350 271. Where known. @ A B C D E F G H 1 < = ? > J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ a b c d e f g h i j k 1 m n P q r s t u v w x y \ ] z { .50 1. J b. b.7 615 - 2.013 209. atomic TABLE 7-3 Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight number.82 1050 660.78' 5. - A i o DEL.70 6.944 74.00 10. and atomic weight are included for each element.3 2300 2970 1560 2550 220 . The symbol.80 2.5 -189. J Column Howl .

-c Kr I.. 2! Mo Nd Nc Np Ni Nb N No .TABLE 7-3 Cont. gold hafnium hatimiurn helium holmium hydrogen indium iodine iridium iron krypton lanthanuni lawrencium lead lithium lutetium magnesium manganese niendeleviurn mercury molybdenum neodymium neon neptunium nickel niobium nitrogen nobcliurn I.d Ga Ge Au Hf Ha Hc Ho H In I Ir J.a LM' I'b lai Lu klg Mri Mv H.r C. Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight Melting point ( "C) Boiling point ("C) Ilensity (20 "C) (glcm ') Element Symbol bromine cadmium calcium californium carbon cerium cesium chlorine chromium cobalt copper curium dysprosiunl einsteinium erbium europium fermiurrl fluorine francium gadolinium gallium germanium Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs C1 Cr Co Cu Crn Ily E Er Eu Frn 1.

48 1.91 85. Element Symbol 1)ensity (20 "C) (glcm ') osmium 0s oxygen 0 palladium I'd phosphorus platinum Pt plutor~ium Pu poloniun~ Po potassium K praseodymium P r promethium Pni protactinium Pa Ka radium radon Kn rhenium Ke rhodium Rh rubidium Rb Ku ruthenium rutherfordium Rf' or or kurchatoniurn K u samariunl Sni scandium Sc sclcniun~ Se silicon Si silver Ag sodium Na strontium Sr sulfur S tantalum Ta technetium Tc tellurium Te terbium 'l'b tlialliu~n TI thorium 'fh thuliu~n Tm Sn tin titanium 'Ti tungsten W uranium U vanadiurri V xenon Xe yrterbiunl Yb yttri~~ni \i zinc %n zirconi~lrn Zr 190.cts\ 11131 11ie \illuc niiiy be lower: > indicates that the value ma! he Iiiglict. IGrit~iisper 111cr.2 16.2 - - 1140 -62 5627 3960 700 4111 J 260* 'hlaxc nulnbcr of thc lo~igc\t-li\ed the known avit~lahlc of l'orriic o f the elcrnent.rlr~cs i l l parcl~tlleses indicate an approxilllatc \slue.92 145* 23 1 * 226.7 30.00 4.40' 20. 4 < iridic.45 - - 0.100 140.183 2927 280 3800 3250 960 760 3127 2730 22.TABLE 7-3 Cont. .48 101. tV.000 106.33181 12.44 1.05 222 186.63 5.86 6.53 12.31 102.00 1. Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight Melting point ( "C) Boiling point ( "C) .82 2 1. .23 244 210 39. il\uall! \ y ~ ~ [ l i c t ~ c .975 195.00 12.1 ( > 5300):~ .

S.560 square feet 223 = 7056 cubic inches .605 cubic inches I bushel = 4 pecks 1 1 acre 1 acre = 2150.28 1 bushels rods = 43.MEASURES AND WEIGHTS Linear Measure 1 inch 1 square mile = 640 acres Volume Measure = 1000 mils = 4 inches = 12 inches = 3 feet I hand 1 foot 1 yard 1 fathom 1 rod 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard = 1728 cubic inches = 27 cubic feet = 23 1 cubic inches 1 U.419 cubic inches I barrel = 3. gallon = 6 feet = 5 l/2 yards = 40 rods = 8 furlongs = 5280 feet 1 furlong I statute mile 1 statute mile Liquid Measure 1 pint 1 quart 1 gallon 1 barrel (petroleum) 1 barrel 1 hogshead = 4 gills = 2 pints 1 nautical mile 1 nautical mile 1 league = 6076.1508 statute = 4 quarts = 42 gallons miles = 3 miles = 3 1 l/2 gallons = 2 barrels (63 gallons) = 252 gallons Square Measure 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square rod 1 section (of land) = 144 square 1 tun inches Dry Measure 1 quart = 9 square feet = 301/4 square yards = 1 square mile = 6 miles square (36 square miles) = 160 square I = 2 pints = 67.1 feet = 1.2006 cubic inches = 8 quarts 1 peck 1 township = 537.

etc. etc.0648 gram I 1000 cubic decimeters 224 . silver. silver.3437 grains* = 16 drams = 16 ounces = 25 pounds = 4 quarters = 20 hundredweights = 2000 pounds = 2240 pounds 1 scruple (s ap) = 12 ounces apoth = 96 drams apoth = 288 scruples = 5760 drams = 20 grains* 1 pound (Ib) 1 quarter 1 hundredweight (cwt) METRIC SYSTEM Linear Measure 10 millimeters 10 centimeters 1 ton (tn) I short ton 1 long ton = 1 centimeter = I decimeter = I meter = I kilometer 10 decimeters Troy Weight (for gold.) 1 pennyweight (dwt) I000 meters 1 = 24 grains* Area Measure 100 square millimeters 100 square centimeters 100 square decimeters 1 1 ounce troy (oz t ) = 20 pennyweights 1 pound troy (Ib t) = 12 ounces troy = 240 pennyweights = 5760 grains = 1 square centimeter = 1 square decimeter = 1 square meter Apothecaries' Weight (for drugs) I = 3 scruples = 8 drams apoth Volume Measure 1000 cubic millimeters 1000 cubic centimeters 1 dram apoth (dr ap) 1 ounce apoth (oz a ~ ) = I cubic centimeter = 1 cubic decimeter = 1 cubic meter I " 1 grain = 0.) 1 dram (dr) 1 ounce (oz) 1 pound apoth (lb ap) = 27.Avoirdupois Weight (for other than drugs. gold.

S. in feet.0 pounds = 2240.0 pounds = 2240. D is the diameter. V is the velocity of flow.96 cubic feet 1 imperial gallon 11.S. it is common to consider this value as being equal to the sum of the friction head and the actual head: 1 cubic foot .434 x head of water in feet calm light air light breeze gentle breeze moderate breeze fresh breeze strong breeze moderate gale fresh gale strong gale whole gale storm hurricane less than I 1-3 4-7 8-12 13-18 19-24 25-3 1 32-38 39-46 47-54 55-63 64-72 above 72 head in feet = 2. in feet per second.0 pounds = 2240. In calculating the total head t o be pumped against.0 pounds = 10.2 imperial gallons 224 imperial gallons = 1 12. in feet. gallons = 8.0360 pound = 0.45 U.4 pounds = 7.48052 U.0 pounds = 1 kilogram = 1 metric ton HYDRAULIC EQUATIONS pounds per square inch WINDS Designatinn Miles per hour = 0.S.0 pounds = 112. gallon 13.0 U.31 x pounds per square inch Approximate loss of head due to friction in clean iron pipes is: WEIGHT OF WATER 1 cubic inch 12 cubic inches 1 cubic foot = 0. gallons where L is the length of pipe.Liquid Measure 10 milliliters 10 centiliters 10 deciliters 1 = 1 centiliter = 1 deciliter = 1 liter 1. gallons 269.433 pound = 62.8 cubic feet 35.33 pounds = 112.S.0 pounds Weight Measure 10 milligrams 10 centigrams 10 decigrams 10 grams 10 dekagrams 10 hectograms 1000 kilograms = 1 centigram = 1 decigram = 1 gram = 1 dekagram = 1 hectogram 1 U.

The distance traveled by a falling object is determined by the formula: (tr = 376. f is the time. in feet per minute.Horsepower of waterfall - 6 2 x A x V x H 33. H i s the head of fall. in degrees Celsius. 1130 ftls. W is the wattage of the device. in seconds. where A is the cross section of water. . The speed of sound through any given temperature of air is determined by the formula: Wtc c=- 1000 where C i s the cost of operation. = 4n x lo-? = 1.42 ftls.280 mils = 984 x lo6 ft/s permeability = p.998 x lO%ls = 186. in watts.85 x lo-" = (36n x lo9)-'Flm characteristic impedance = Z.257 x lo-(' Hlm permittivity = E. and at normal temperature. in hours. in square feet. = where V is the velocity.I (~. in feet. I is the time. in feet per second. COST OF OPERATION The cost of operation of an electrical device is determined by the formula: SPEED OF SOUND The speed of sound through air at 0 ° C is usually considered to be 1087.7 . I is the time. PROPERTIES OF FREE SPACE velocity of light = c -.= 12071 S2 where d is the distance traveled. c is the cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity. V is the velocity of flow.000 where V is the speed. = 8. in feet. in feet per second. t is the temperature. in seconds.&r) ? ' FALLING OBJECT The speed acquired by a falling object is determined by the formula: V = 32t = 2.

It was chosen to be identical with the ephemeris second.000495 absolute ohm = 0.296.999505 where E is the energy. MINUTES.2832 . INTERNATIONAL AND ABSOLUTE UNITS The following list shows the international unit values compared to the absolute values.192.00049 absolute henry = 0. Each degree is made up of 60 equal parts called minutes. radians. 1 international henry II 1 international farad absolute farad ATOMIC SECOND The atomic second was permanently adopted as the International Unit of Time by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures. Table 7-4 converts minutes and seconds to decimal parts of a degree.999835 absolute coulomb = 1. There are 2 n (6.01 of a right angle. The values used will vary from one country to another. or 1. 1 international volt = 1.000 seconds. in grams. 1967.00033 absolute volt . GRAD A grad is equal to 0.CONVERSION OF MATTER INTO ENERGY The conversion of matter into energy (Einstein's theorem) is expressed by: 1 international ohm 1 international coulomb = 1. in Paris on October 13.600 minutes. and each minute is made up of 60 seconds. a circle consists of 360 degrees or 21. or grads. .63 1. in ergs. 1 international joule = 1. c is the speed of light. in centimeters per second (c' = 9 x 10"). AND SECONDS OF A CIRCLE A complete circle consists of 360 equal divisions called degrees. .000165 absolute joule = 1. Computers designed for engineering applications may provide a choice of degrees.000165 absolute watt 1 international watt DEGREES.770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two specific hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the cesium-133 atom. Thus. m is the mass of the matter. The atomic second is defined as the duration of 9.) radians in 360 ".

TABLE 7-4 Minutes and Seconds in Decimal Parts of a Degree Minutes Degrees Minutes Degrees Seconds Degrees Seconds Ilegrees .

2. 4.Appendix A Robert L. Unsymmetrical two-section lead circuit (with or without resistive load). Conversion of vectors from rectangular to polar form and polar form to rectangular form. Impedance and phase angle of For each application two programs are included. 6. T h e first is for use without a printer and the second for use with a printer. Input impedance and phase angle of R L C parallel resonant circuit. Conversion of impedance to . 5. admittance and admittance t o impedance. Unsymmetrical two-section lag circuit (with or without resistive load).I resultant for two vectors (phasors) in parallel. . 3. Kruse The following pages contain programs which may be run on the Commodore 64 @ computer to perform the following calculations: 1.

(***":pRINT 910 END 5 REm PRG 1 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*" 15 OPEN1.B 180 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 190 PRINT "Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)-"."G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS)-".RUN 2YO":END 90 PR1NT:INPUT "R (OHMS)-".''R (OHMS!-".X 115 OPENl.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA.I'HOGRAM 1 -Conversion of impedance to admittance and admittance to impedance 5 REM PRG 1 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*" 20 PRINT " *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 30 P R I N T : P R I N T : R .01*INT(Z*100) 350 PRINT " 2 IMPEDANCE (OHMS)-"..01*INT(R*100) 300 PRINT "R RESISTANCE (OHMS)-".GG 260 INPUT "B (SIEMENS)-".:CLOSE1.:CLOSEl.2832)*100) 370 PRINT " Z PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".X:PRINT#l.:CLOSE1.Y 110 INPUT "X (OHMS)-".9 30 PR1NT:PRINT:R-O:X-O:G-O:B-O:Y-O:GG-O:BB-O:PH-O:TH~O:Z~O YO PRINT "IF IMPEDANCE DATA."*CONUERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*":CLOSE1.PL 355 LA-.RUN 290" 50 OPENl.B 170 OPEN1.Y:PRINT#l.2832~*100) 210 PRINT "Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".S:TH-ATN(X/R) 295 TP-.OlaINT(X*lOO) 320 PRINT "X REACTANCE (OHMS)-".O : Y ~ O : G G .'-l:PRINT#l.R:CLOSEl.Y:INPUT "R (OHMS)-".'+:PRINT#l.G 160 PRINT "B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)-".Ol*INT(CPH*360/6."X (OHMS)-".O : X .PZ 230 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT:END 240 INPUT "G (5IEflENS)-".Y 195 PZ-.O : B B ~ O : P H .R 10G OPENl.X 120 G-R/CRt2+Xt23:B-X/CRt2+XT2):PRINT 130 Y-CGT-2+BtZ)T.:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#1.9:END 90 PR!NT:OPENl."BSUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)-".LP 390 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 395 PL-.G:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.Ol*INT((TH*360/6." *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 27 PRINT#l.LA 390 PRINT "(POLAR F0RR)":PRINT 900 PRINT ""*'*****************O***********.O : T H ~ O : Z ~ O 90 PRINT "IF IMPEDANCE DATA.B:CLOSE1.9 20 PRINT " *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 25 OPENl.9:PRINT#l.R 110 INPUT "X (OHMS)-"..5: PH-ATNCBIG): pH--PH 190 PRINT "G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS)-".:CLOSEl.S:PH-ATN(B/G):PH--PH 140 PRINT "G CONDUCTANCE CSIEMENSI-".(*.BB:PRINT 280 R-GG/ (GG TZ+BB t 3 : X-BB/(GG ?2+BB t ) 2 2 290 Z-(RTZ+XT2) t.TP 310 LP-."IF IMPEDANCE DATA.G 150 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.O : G .4 120 G-R/(RT2+Xt2l:B-X/(Rt2+Xt2):PRINT 130 Y'(Gt2+BT2>t.4 160 PRINT "B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)-".9 .RUN 240" 60 PRINT#l.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA.O : B .

LP:CLOSE1.LA 380 OPEN1.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE OATA.BE-03 B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS).6.Y:PRINT#l.LA:CLOSE1.Ol*INT(Z*lOO) 350 PRINT "Z IMPEDANCE (OHMS)-".~ 910 END "CONUERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE* *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE* IF IMPEDANCE DATA.9 900 PRINT "*********************I.Y 260 INPUT "B (SI EMENS I .9 230 PRINT "(POLRR FORM)" 235 OPENl.PL:CLOSE1.9.Y:PRINT#l."R RESISTANCE (OHMS)-".Y:CLOSE1.9:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.Y 310 LP-.Y 290 PRINT:OPEN1.01*INT(R*100) 300 PRINT "R RESISTANCE (OHMS)-".9 390 PRINT "(POLAR FORM)" 395 OPEN 1.Y 193 OPENl.PZ:CLOSE1.:CLOSE1.BE-03 Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)--53."B (SIEMENS)-".GG:CLOSEl."Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)-"." .9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.2B32)*100) 210 PRINT "Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES>-".TP:CLOSEl.9 390 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 392 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl."Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".2B32)*100) 370 PRINT "2 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".T TH-ATN(X/R) :PRINT .:CLOSEl.01*INTCX*100) 320 PRINT "X REACTANCE (OHMS)-".9:PRINT#l.L*****":pRINT 905 OpEN1.PL 353 OPENl.Y 280 R-GG/ (GG.LP 330 OPENl.Ol*INT((TH*360/6.5: 295 TP-. BB 270 OPEN1.***********.9:PRINT#l.~:pRINT#1.13 (POLAR FORM) .RUN 290 G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS).Y:PRINT#l.9E-03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)."Z IMPEDANCE COHMSI-".9:PRINT#1.9 395 PL-.9:INPUT "G (SIEMENS)-".180 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 185 OPENl."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.PZ 220 OPENl."CPOLAR FORM)":END:CLOSEl.GG 250 OPENl.T2+BB.9:PRINT#l.T2)X-BB/(GG f2+BB~t2) : 290 Z-(Rf."(POLAR FORM)":CLOSE1.9 195 PZ-.TP 305 OPENl.Y 190 PRINT "Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)-".Ol*INT(CPH*360/6.:CLO~E~.2+XT2I."X REACTANCE (OHMS)-".BB:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9 355 LA-."G (SIEMENS)-"."Z PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-"."****~**II********~*I*i**~****************":pRINT#~.Y:PRINT#l.

99 X REACTANCE (OHMS).5: 72) QPpATNCB/A) 115 LM-.B 100 OPENl.. RUN 170" 60 PRINT#l."IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR."Z (REACTIVE COMPONENT.99 2 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR..LM 130 ML-. OHMS)-".5:QP-ATN(B/A) . OHMS)-"..QZ 260 PRINT H**************rr*********************~~:p~~~~ 270 END 5 REU PRG 2 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM...99.9:PRINT#l.. RUN 170" 90 OPEN1.. OHMS)-".9 90 INPUT "2 (REACTIVE COMPONENT.ML 150 PRINT "**********************************i*..Y:END 7 PR1NT:INPUT " 2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT."*CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULRR TO POLAR FORM... DEGREES)-"...A 0 80 OPENl.D 210 JK-C*COSCDi6. OHMS)-".R RESISTANCE (OHMS)..C 190 INPUT "2 (ANGLE.2832~*100) 190 PRINT " 2 (ANGLE...B:CLOSEl. OHMS)-"..9 25 PRINT#l.B 110 PQ-CA.9 50 PRINT#l..79..01*INT~JK*1001 220 PRINT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT.99 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 2 IMPEDANCE (OHMS)..:CLOSEl..."Z CRESISTIUE COMPONENT.2832/360):KJ-C*SIN(D*6.Y:PRINT#l..01*INT(KJ*100) 290 PRINT "2 (REACTIVE COflPONENT..... RUN 170":END 7 PR1NT:INPUT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT." 15 PRINT "AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORMf":PRINT 30 PRINT "IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR.01*INTCPQ*100) 120 PRINT "2 (MAGNITUDE.129..Y 13 PRINT#l. OHMS)-".Z+B f ." 12 OPEN1.QQ 230 QZ-..2832/3601 215 QQ-..01*INT(CQP*360/6.T.Y 110 PQ-(A T2+BT2) T." 19 CLOSE1. DEGREES)-".. OHMS)-"."AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM*":PRINT#l. OHMS)-".:CLOSEl.53.A:CLOSE1.. PROGRAM 2-Conversion rertang~~lar form l4'i!/!oi(t Printer of vectors from rectangular to polar form and from polar to 5 REM PRG 2 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM..9 30 PRINT "IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR.A 0 90 INPUT " 2 (REACTIVE COMPONENT...Y 15 PRINT "AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM*":PRINT 20 OPEN1 . OHMS)-"..12 (POLAR FORM) .. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR.I**'@ 160 END 170 PR1NT:INPUT "2 (MAGNITUDE. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR.OHflS)-"...

01*INT(PQ*100) 120 PRINT " 2 (MAGNITUDE.69..01*INTC(PP*360/6. OHMS). OHMS)-".~ 270 END Sample Kun *CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM...QZ 250 OPENl.Y 190 INPUT "2 (ANGLE.... DEGREES)-"...... DEGREES)-".. OHMS)...C 150 INPUT "22 REACTANCE (OHMS)-"...2832/360):KJ-C*SINCD16..9:PRINT#l..79... 155 OPEN1.115 LM-.....2832/360) 215 QQ-..C:CLOSEl.95 37.. OHMS)- ...QQ:CLOSEl.69. OHMS)..Y 130 ML-......Ol*INT(KJ*lOO) 290 PRINT "Z CREACTIUE COMPONENT..****il*********":pRINT 6 265 OPEN1.."Z CANGLE....9:PRINT#l. OHMS)-".Y:PRINT#1. OHMS)-"...37.. OHMS)-"... 0HnS)-"..... DEGREES)...2B32)*100) 190 PRINT " 2 CANGLE. 2 Z 2 Z .75 CANGLE....."*********************il***************~* 160 PRINT#l....B 130 INPUT "22 RESISTANCE (OHMS)-"....Ol*INTCJK*lOO) 220 PRINT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT.30 Z (REACTIVE COMPONENT."*****W111*(.."Z CRESISTIVE COMPONENT..... OHMS)..D:PRINT:GOTO 265 .. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA..QZ:CLOSE1... OHMS)-".. AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM* IF POLAR TO RECTANGULRR.QQ 225 OPENl."Z CMAGNITUDE.Y:PRINT#l.C 180 OPENl.... OHMS).95 (REACTIUE COMPONENT.A 110 INPUT "21 REACTANCE (OHMS)-". DEGREES).9 2 0 PRINT lJ*********************wII....5 PROGRAM 3-Impedance and phase angle of resultant for two vectors (phasors) in parallel Withouf Prinfer 5 REM PRG 3 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS CPHASORS)" 12 PRINT 30 PRINT "IF POLAR DATA.D:CLDSEl.."Z (REACTIUE COMPONENT.LM 125 OPENl.Y 230 QZ-.ML:CLOSE1..'-k:ENO 170 PR1NT:INPUT "Z (MAGNITUDE..D 200 OPENl. DEGREES)-"...."Z (ANGLE.. OHMS)-"...'-k:PRINT#l..Y 210 JK-C*COSC0*6. DEGREES)-".****************************":CLOSEl."Z CMAGNITUDE.:CLOSEl...99 2 CANGLE.5 Z (MAGNITUDE.... RUN 80":END 80 PR1NT:PRINT 90 INPUT "21 RESISTANCE (OHMS)-"....30 (RESISTIUE COMPONENT...9:PRINT#l..LM:CLOSEl.... RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR.. OHMS)-"..Y:PRINT#l.. RUN 170 Z (RESISTIVE COMPONENT. (MAGNITUDE..9:PRINT#l.ML 195 OPEN1....9 150 PRINT .....

5:NJ-B/A: PH-ATNCNJ) WE-.Ol*INTCSB*lOO) 285 290 295 300 310 320 325 330 335 390 360 370 375 380 385 330 910 920 925 930 935 INPUT "21 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".2B32)*100) 234 .01*INT(Y*100) 530 PRINT "21+22 (OHMS)-".WJ 960 PRINT "CRECTANGULRR FORRIn:PRINT 970 NN-E*G:MM-PH+HP 975 WK-.01*INT(O*100~ PRINT "X2 (OHMS)-".01*INTCCTH*360/6.WB WC-.Ol*INT(RZ*lOO) 580 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)-".WO PRINT "(RECTANGULAR COMP0NENTS)":PRINT E-(A 72+B 721 7.WC UD-.01*INT(BS*100) 680 PRINT "21 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE>-".Ol*INTCNN*lOO) 980 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS)-".01*INT(E*100) PRINT "21 (OHMS)-".We WB-.US 685 WT-.WO 585 WP-.01*1NT(CQR*360/6.T2)7.WQ 635 WR-.WH PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT Q-A+C:QQ-B+D WI-.E INPUT "21 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".2832)*100) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".UP 610 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 620 AQ-NN/Y:QA-MM-TH 625 WQ-.2832~*100) 590 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".01*INTC(PH*360/6.WK 985 WL-.01*INTCAQ*100) 530 PRINT "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS)-".170 190 210 230 250 260 265 270 275 280 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WE WF-.5:XY-QQ/Q: TH-ATNCXY 525 WM-.01*INTCQ*100) PRINT "21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)-".2832/360) WA-.01*INT(G*100) PRINT "22 (OHMS)-".2832)*100) 990 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WN 560 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 570 RZ-NN*COSCMR):XZ-NN*SIN(VM) 575 WO-. WG WH-.WM 535 WN-.G INPUT "22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Ol*INTCQQ*lOO) 990 PRINT "21+22 (OHMS REACTANCE)-".01*INT(CHP*360/6.WL 510 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 520 'i-(Q't2+QQ.2832)*100) 690 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WF PRINT "CPOLAR F0RfI)":PRINT G-(Ct2+OT2)T.01*INT(A0100) PRINT "R1 (OHMS)-".5:JJ-D/C:HP-ATNCJJ) WG-.2832/360):B-E~SIN~F*6.01*INT(XZ*100) 590 PRINT "21022 (OHMS RERCTANCEI-".01*INT(C*100) PRINT "R2 (OHMS)-".2832/360):0-G*SINCH*6.H:PRINT A-E*COS(F*6.WR 660 PRINT "CPOLAR F0RM)":PRINT 670 BS-AQ*COS(QA):SB-AQ*SIN(QA) 675 WS-.2832/36O~:PRINT:PRINT C-G*COS(H*6.WI WJ-.F INPUT "22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".Ol*INT(CRM*360/6.Ol*INT(B*lOO) PRINT "XI (OHMS)-".

01*INTCD*100) 300 PRINT "X2 (OHMS)-".Y 235 .Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#1.:CLOSEl.WB 283 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."IF POLAR DATA.01*INT(C*1001 2 0 PRINT "R2 (OHMS)-"."Rl (OHMS)-".Y 130 INPUT "22 RESISTANCE (OHMS>-". RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA.E:CLOSEl."Zl MAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".5:N.Y:PRINT#l.Y 0 210 INPUT "22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".WB:CLOSEl.G 220 OPENl."IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS" PRINTBl." "THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER."22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y:PRINT#1.WA:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSE1.Y 230 INPUT "22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".A:CLOSEl."Zl REACTANCE (OHMS)-".~ 310 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS1":PRINT 315 OPENl.Y 275 WB-. WC 9 293 OPENl.WE 333 OPENl.C:CLOSEl."Xl (OHMS)-".WC:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l." (PHASORS)":PRINT#l.B:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.WA 273 OPENl." Wirh Printer 5 REM PRG 3 WITH PRINTER PRINT "IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS (PHASORS)" OPENl.2832)*100) 390 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".2832/360):D-G*SIN(H*6."22 RESISTANCE (OHMS)-".Y 285 WC-.D:PRINT#l."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".F:CLOSEl.2832/360):B-E*SIN(F*662832/36O~:PRINT:PRINT 10 15 20 30 YO 50 260 C-G*COS(H*6.Y:GOTO265 170 INPUT "21 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".H:PRINT#l."RZ (OHMS)-".Y 130 INPUT "21 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y:PRINT#l.H:PRINT 290 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."Zl PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".F 2 0 OPENl.G:CLOSEl.:PRINT#l." "TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.WF:CLOSEl. RUN 80" OPENl. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA.01*INT(B*100) 280 PRINT "XI (OHMS)-".Y 320 E-(AT2+B-f-t) T.A 100 OPENl.Y 295 WD-.Y 150 INPUT "22 REACTANCE (OHMS)-".Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l. RUN 80" PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.Y 110 INPUT "21 REACTANCE (OHMS)-".01*INTCCPH*360/6.WD:CLOSEl.:CLOSE1. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" "THE UECTOR DIAGRAM.WT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT "****************************************":PRINT "WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.WE:CLOSEl.9:END 8 PR1NT:PRINT 0 30 INPUT "21 RESISTANCE (OHMS)-"."Zl (OHMS)-".J-B/A: PH-ATN(NJ1 325 WE-.Y:PRINT#l."Zl RESISTANCE (OHMS)-".WF 350 OPENl."X2 IOHMSI-".Ol*INTCE*lOO~ 330 PRINT "21 (OHMS)-".WD 305 OPENl.Y 250 R-E*COS(F*6.70 0 720 730 750 760 770 780 70 9 80 0 PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT 810 END "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)-"."(RECTANGULAR COflPONENTS)":PRINT#l.D:PRINT 160 OPENl.:CLOSEl.E 180 OPENl.":PRINT "SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED URLUES MAY OCCUR DUE TO" "SINGLE-PRECISION AND ROUNDING-OFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING.Y:PRINT#1.C 190 OPENl.01*INT(R*100) 270 PRINT "R1 (OHMS)-".B 120 OPENl.:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.2832/360) 265 WR-."22 REACTANCE COHMS)d".Y 335 WF-.9 PRINT "IF POLAR DATA."ZZMAGNITUDE (OHMS)-".

9 WH-.9:PRINT#l.Ol*INT((HP*360/6.5: JJ-D/C:HP-ATNCJJ) WG-.Y 660 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 665 OPENl.WQ 633 OPENl."PHRSEANGLE (DEGREES)-"."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".9 535 WN=.01*INT(Q*100) 930 PRINT "Zl+ZZ COHMS RESISTANCE)-".WK 983 OPEN1.2832)*103) 990 PRINT "PHASE RNGLE (3EGREES)-".:CLOSE1.Q Q / ~ TH-ATN(XY) rz) X : 525 Wflo.?:?RINT#l.9 985 WL=.s: Y ."Zl*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)-"."Z1+22:OHMS.Li:PR!NT#l.01*!NT(RZ*100) 560 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)-".01*INT((TH*360/6.WK:CLOSE1.WG:CLOSE1.9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.01*INTCAQ*1001 630 PRINT "21 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS)-".2632~*100) PRINT "PHRSE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y 570 RZ-NN*COS(MR):XZ-NN*SIN(MM) 575 WO=.:CLOSEl.WP:CLOSEl.WQ:CLOSEl.? 935 WJ-."!POLAR FORM)":PRINT#l.WR 650 OPENl."Zl 9ND 2 2 IN PARQLLEL (OHMS)-"."PHASERNGLE (DEGREES)-".WJ:CLOSEl.Y 685 WT-."Zl AND 22 IN PARALLEL COHMS RESISTANCE)-".WL 500 OPENl.:CLOSE1.9 670 BS-AQ*COS(QA):SB-AQ*SIN(QA) 675 WS-.360 PRIYT "<POLAR FORR1":PRINT 365 370 375 380 383 385 390 900 910 915 OPENl.9:PRINT#l.UP 600 OPEh1.9:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l."(PGLRR FORR)":PRINT#l.9 610 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RR)":PRINT 615 OPENl.9 520 Y-(9 ~ Z + Q Q ! .?:PRINT#l.3l*!NT(CflM*360/6.?:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.01*INT(SB*100) 236 .WN:CLOSEl.Y 585 WP-.:CLOSE1.9 PRINT "(POLAR FORU1":PRINT OPENl."(POLAR FORM)":PRINT#l."Z1*22 (OHMS)-".WL:CLOSEl.01*INT(G*100) PRINT "22 (OHRS)="."CRECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l."Z2 COHYSI-".9:PRINT#l.WI 933 OPENl.:CLOSEl.Y 970 NN-E*G:UR-PH+HP 975 WK-.01*INT<NN*100) 980 PRINT "ZlfZ2 <OHflS)-"."CPOLAR FOREI":PRINT#l.Cl*INT(BS*lOO) 680 PRINT "I1 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE)-".Y 635 WR-.-".WO:CLOSEl."Zl*Z2 (OHRS RESISTANCEIP".WI:CLOSEl.WO 583 OPEN1."(POLAR FORR)":PRINT#l.9:PR!NT#l.? 510 PRINT "CPOLRR FORR1":PRINT 515 OPENl."Zl+ZZ{OHMS RESISTANCE)-".WG OPENl."Zl+ZZ(OHMS REACTANCE)-".WU 533 OPEN1.9:PRINT#l.WN 550 OPENl.-"."PHRSEANGLE (DEGREES)-".9 620 AQ-NN/Y:QA-RM-TH 625 WQ-.? 560 P!?INT "(POLAR F0Rfl)":PRINT 565 OPEN1.Ol*INT(XZ*lOO) 590 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)-".9:PRINT#l.9 G-(C:Z+D : Z ) t .WJ 950 OPEN?.01*INT((QA*360/6.9:PRINT#l.2832)*100) 690 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WH:CLOSE1.WR:CLOSEl.9 960 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F3RM)":PRINT 965 OPENl.Y:PRINT#I.9:PRINT#l.28321*100~ 590 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)=".WH OPENl.9:PRiNT#l.Oi*!NT<Y*lOO) 530 PRLNT "Z?+22 (OHUS.US 683 OPENl.9 920 Q-.:CLOSE1.9:PRINT#l.WR:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.A+C: QQ-B+D 925 WI-.Ol*INTCQQ*lCO) 990 PRINT "Zl+Z2 (OHRS REACTANCE)-"."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.WS:CLOSEl.

Y PRINT#l. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA. RUN 80 21 21 22 22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS). . MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" OPEN1.Y PRINT "SINGLE-PRECISION AND ROUNDING-OFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING. . . ."WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.Y:PRINT#l."THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE ARBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER.":PRINT OPENl.60 MAGNITUDE (OHMS). .Y PRINT "THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE ARBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER."Zl AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)-". .75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)= 20 R1 (OHMS).Y:PRINT#l.WT:CLOSEl." CLOSE1. . ." OPEN1. ." OPEN1. 6 5 (RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS) - 21 (OHMS).5 0 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).20 (POLAR FORM) . . . . . . ." CLOSE1. ."SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED UQLUES RAY OCCUR DUE TO" CLOSE1. .53 (POLAR FORM) 22 (OHMS>. .700 710 720 725 730 750 755 757 760 763 765 767 770 773 775 777 70 8 785 7 0 9 793 795 797 80 0 803 805 807 810 81s 820 PRINT "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)-".50 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). . .:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l. .93.:CLOSEl. . . . ." OPENl. ."SINGLE-PRECISION AND ROUNDING-OFF PROGRAMRING AND PROCESSING.Y PRINT#l. .":PRINT#l."THEUECTOR DIAGRAM.Y PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RR)":PRINT OPENl.2 5 ."TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.99 X1 (OHMS)."(RECTRNGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.29. .:PRINT#l.97 X2 (OHMS).Y PRINT#l.~****I*~~~******~********~******~****~*~* END IRPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS ( PHASORS 1 IF POLAR DATA.~:~RINT#~. . ." CLOSE1. . . .Y PRINT "SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN CORPUTED UALUES RAY OCCUR DUE TO" OPEN1. . .WT OPENl.Y PRINT "TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.Y:PRINT#l. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" CLOSE1.75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).55.Y PR1NT:PRINT PRINT "WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED. . . O~EN~. .Y PRINT#l.Y PRINT "THE UECTOR DIAGRAR. .3 R2 COHRS) 70.Y PRINT . .

18 (RECTANGULAR FORM) WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED..80 (POLAR FORM) 21+22 (OHMS)...25 REACTANCE (OHMS).16 21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE).99.16 (POLAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARnLLEL COHPlS RESISTANCE)...77 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). R1 (OHMS).99 CPOLAR FORM) 21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE).70.03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS). SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED VALUES MAY OCCUR DUE TO SINGLE-PRECISION AND ROUNDING-OFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING.35 (RECTANGULAR FORM) Zl*ZZ (OHMS).25...59.. TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE APlBIGUITY.99 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)...65 .99.3750. THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER..97 Zl+Z2 (OHMS REACTANCE). MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF THE VECTOR DIAGRAM.117.19.70.651.29 R! (OHMS)..89 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL COHl'lS REACTANCE).99 (POLAR FORM) .22..79....35.....83 CPOLAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)..99 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS)......75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)..38 REACTANCE (OHMS).3693.25 X1 (OHMS)= Y3..68..31.97 21+22 (OHMS REACTANCE)..95.68.89 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).3750 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).97 E X2 (OHMS).22..21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE).25...3 RESISTANCE (OHMS)...93.99 (POLAR FORM) 22 (OHMS)..95..03 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). 21 21 22 22 RESISTANCE (OHMS)...69 (RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS) 21 (OHMS).

83 (POLAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE).89 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE). TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.19 (RECTANGULAR FORM) WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.C parallel resonant circuit 5 REM PRG 9 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PRRALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 20 PRINT 3 0 INPUT "L CMHI-"."INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 17 PRINT#l..16 (POLAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE).......S:LZ-ATN(XL/RL):CZ--ATNCXC/RC) RT-RL+RC:XT-XL-XC:DE-(RTT2+XTT2lt.2832*F*L*.. lBROGRAM 4-Input Wirhour Printer impedance and phase angle of KI.77 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).....35 21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE). MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF THE UECTOR DIAGRAM..q 15 PRINT#l...35..2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-". .RL 60 INPUT "RC COHMSI-"..:CLOSE1..22..651.2R32*F*C*10f-6) 100 110 120 125 130 135 190 150 ZL=(RLt2+XLTZ)?..QP END 5 REM PRG 3 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PRRALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 12 OPEN1.. THERE IS A POSSIBLE 190 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER.117...21+22 (OHMS).89 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).31..9 20 PRINT ..3633..001:XC-1/C6.QQ QP-INT(SH*360/6..L 90 INPUT "C CMFDI-".C 50 INPUT "RL (OHMS)-". SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED VALUES nAY OCCUR DUE TO SINGLE-PRECISION AND ROUNDING-OFF PROGRAMflING AND PROCESSING.RC 7 INPUT "F (HZ)-"....99.S:ZC-(RCT2+XCt2)t........F 0 90 PRINT 90 XL-6.03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS).22..5:ED-ATNCXT/RT) BS-ZL*ZC:SB-LZ+CZ:HS-BS/DE:SH-SB-ED QQ-INT(HS1 PRINT "ZIN (OHMS)-"..

9:PRINT#l.-XC: DE-CRT t2+XT..L 35 OPENl. 5:ED-ATNCXT/RT) V 120 BS-ZL*ZC:SB-LZ+CZ:HS=BS/DE:SHHSB-ED 125 QQ-INTCHS) 130 PRINT "ZIN (OHMS>-".itlhoul Prit~ler 5 REn PRG 5 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL ?-SECTION LAG CIRCUIT" 20 PRINT " CWITH/WITHOUT RESISTIVE LOAD)" 30 PRINT n********************************~**ll:p~~~~ 90 PR1NT"COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE" 50 PRINT "CTHEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLElu:PRINT 60 PRINTnCOMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.2832*F*L*.RL 180 INPUT "F (HZ)-"."RC COHMS)=".F 0 75 OPENl.RL:CLOSE1.?:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.Y 150 END INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT ZIN (OHMS).CO 190 INPUT "C2 CMFDI-"." 7 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLEm:PRINT 0 8 INPUT "R1 (OHMS)-".RT 120 INPUT "C1 (MFDI-". ~ : Z C .2832) 190 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".F:PRINT#l."C CMFDI-"."ZIN (OHMS)-".Y:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9 7 INPUT "F (HZ)-".C:CLOSE1.RC 6 5 OPENl.T2) .9 135 QP-INT(SH*360/6.C R C T Z + X C T ~ ) T .2B32*F*C*lOt-6) 100 Z L .RO 0 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)-".CT 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)-".9 50 INPUT "RL (OHMS)-"."PHRSE ANGLE CDEGREESI-".QP 192 OPENl.:CLOSE1.QP:CLOSEl."F (HZ)-".C 9 5 OPENl.B5 I'KOGRAM 5-llnsymmetrical two-section lag circuit.C R L T ~ + X L ~ ~ ) ~ ~ . with and without resistive load I.OOl:XC-l/C6.9:PRINT#l."L (MHI-".19099 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).30 INPUT "L CMH)-".b'.QQ 132 OPENl."RL (OHMS)-".A T N ( X C / R C ~ 110 RT-RL+RC: XT-XI.9:PRINT#l.A T N ( X L / R L ) : C Z .2832*F*CO*lOf-6) 202 XT-l/C6.RL 55 OPENl. ~ : L Z .9 90 INPUT "C CWFD)-".QQ:CLOSE1.9 60 INPUT "RC (OHMS)-".9 8 PRINT 0 90 XL-6.2832*F*CT*lOt-6) .F:PRINT 200 XO-l/C6.RC:CLOSE1.L:CLOSE1.

9 120 INPUT "C1 (MFD)=".9 60 PRINT"COUPUTE5 UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE. RO 90 OPEN1.5:XW--ATN(XY/RT) UW-WX*YZ:WU-XW+ZY:UU-UW/XO:UUC!WU+6.2B32)*100) 910 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y:PRINT#l.2832/9 RL-CRGt2+AKt2)T.9:PRINT#l.CO 130 OPENl. 5 UL--ATN(JU/KU):NU-GU/LU:UN-UG-UL WD-.5:CA--ATN(XO/RO) AD-AB/RC:DA-BA-CA:AE-RD*COS(DA) AF-AD*SINCDA):AG-AE+RT:AH-(AGt2+AFt21. ~ 90 PRINT"C0MPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE QNGLE" 9 5 DPENl.Ol*INT((-UP*360/6.Y:PRINT#l.WH:PRINT 930 PRINT u * * * * w * + * * * * * w * * ~ * ~ * * i i * * i * a * t * * * * * * * * * s 2 : p ~ ~ ~ ~ 990 END 310 315 320 325 330 390 350 360 370 WB-INTC-NA*360/6.WA XY-XO+XT:WX-CRTf2+XY!2)?.5: ZY--ATN(XO/RO) WA-INTCAN) PRINT "ZOUT (OHMS)-".9:PRINT#l."COUPUTES UNLOADED ECUT/EIN AND PHRSE ANGLE.9:PRINT#l."Cl CNFDI-"."R2 (CHMSln".T.Y 20 PRINT " (WITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LORD)" 25 OPEN1.2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".9 24 1 .9:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.205 210 215 220 225 230 235 290 295 297 250 255 260 265 270 290 295 300 305 307 AB-RO*XO:BR--6.RT:CLOSE1.WC KU-HU-RL: LU-(KU t2+JUT2) T .2832/9:AK-AF-XT:KAAFA-6.9 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)-".":CLCSEI."LOADEDEOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE":PRINT#l.WD WE-INTCAN) PRINT "THEUENIN IMPEDANCE COHUSI-".Y 3 0 PRINT 3 B * * i * * * * * * * * * + * * * * * * * * * * * i * * * * ~ * * * * * i i : p ~ ~ ~ ~ 35 O P E N 1 ."CTHEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE)":PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l."UNSYMUETRICAL 2-SECTION LAG CIRCUIT":CLJSEl.RT 110 OPENl.9 50 PRINT "(THEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHRSE ANGLE2":PRINT 55 OPEN1.:CLGSE1.WB TU-UU*COS(UU):UT-UU*SIN(UU):ZW-UT+XO RS-(TUt2+ZWfZ).WG 900 WH-.WF 380 WG-. : C ~ C S E ~ .9:PRINT#l.5:LA--QTN(AK/AG) RM-AJ/AL:MA-JA-LA:AN-RU:NAAMA:PFFF*NA YZm(RO t2+XOt2) T .Ol*INTCC-UN*360/6." 6 5 OPENl.5 HA--ATN(AF/AG):RJ-RH*XT JA-HA-6.2) T. " * * * * * * * L * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * H # .Y 80 INPUT "R1 ( OHMS)-" .2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE.En 96 CLOSE1.'t 70 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLEn:PRINT 7 5 OPEN1.2B32/9:GUuPU*RL HU-AN*COS(NR):JU-AN*SIN(NR):UGGUP WC-.RO:CLOSE1.01*INT(PU*100) PRINT"EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN)-".CO:CLOSE1.WE WF-INTC-NA*360/6.5:SR--ATNCZW/TU) PU-XT/RS:UP--SR-6.DEGREES CRL OPEN)-".Y:PRINT#l.2832/9 ACm(RO TZ+XO-1.2B32/'-i PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-"."COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE ANC PHQSE ANGL."Rl (OHUS)=".2832)*100) W i f h Printer 5 REM PRG 5 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LAG CIRCUIT" 15 OPENl.t. ~ : P R I N T # 1 ." (WITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LDADI":CLOSEl.01*INT(NU*100) 390 PRINT "EOUT/EIN (LORDED)-".

"PHASE ANGLE.WC 312 OPENl.5:ZY--ATNCXO/ROl 2 WA-INTCAN) PRINT "ZOUT (OHMS)-".01*INTCPU*100) 310 PRINT"EOUT/EIN CRL OPEN)-". WA OPENl. DEGREES (RL OPEN)-"."EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN)-".WH:PRINT 920 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y 330 PRINT ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ Y35 O P E N ~ .Y 290 TU-UU*COS<UU):UT-UU*SINCUUl:ZWWUT+XO 295 RS-(TU12+ZWTZ) T.Y INPUT "RL (OHMS)-".2832*F*CT*lOT-61 AB-RO*XO:BA--6.2832*F*CO*lOr-6) XT-l/C6.Y 380 WG-. Y : P R I N T # ~ .Y:PRINT#l.2832) 270 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE. DEGREES (RL OPEN)-".:CLOSEl.WE:CLOSEl.WE 355 OPENl.28321~100~ 910 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".5:LA--ATNCAK/AG) AM-AJ/AL:WA-JA-LA:AN-An:NFI-MA:PFFF*NA YZ-(R0 T2+XO T ) 1.WG 395 OPENl.5:SR--ATNCZW/TU) 300 PU-XT/RS:UP--SR-6.Y:PRINT#l.2832> 370 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y 360 WF-INTC-NA*360/6."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y:END 1Y0 150 160 170 180 190 200 202 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 2Y0 295 297 250 253 255 ."C2 CMFD)-".Y INPUT "F (HZ)-".Y:PRINT#l."ZOUT (OHMS)-".Y XO-1/(6.01*INTCNU*100) 390 PRINT "EOUT/EIN (LOADED)-".Y XYmXO+XT:WX-CRT T2+XY 1 1 f -5: 2 XU--ATN(XY/RT) 260 UW-WX*YZ:WU-XW+ZY:UU-UW/XO:UU-WU+6.INPUT "C2 (MFD)-".WA:CLOSEl.Y 315 KU-HU-RL:LU-(KUT2+JUl2) 7 .Y:PRINT#l.Y 3Y0 WE-INTCAN) 350 PRINT "THEUENIN IMPEDANCE (OHMS)-".WH:PRINT#l.2832)*100) 330 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WF 375 OPENl.2832/Y AC-(RO 72+XO 1 ) 7 -5: 2 CA--ATNCXO/RO) AD-AB/AC:OA-BA-CA:AE-AD*COSCDA) AF-AD*SIN(DA):AG-AE+RT:AHHCAGT2+AFT2)tt5 HA--ATNCAF/AG):AJ-AHSXT JA-HA-6.WB 280 OPENl.2B32/Y 265 WB-INTC-NA*360/6.F:PRINT#l.01*1NT((-UN*360/6. 5 320 UL--ATNCJU/KU):NU-GU/LU:UN-UG-UL 325 WD-.WG:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.RL OPENl.CT:CLOSEl.WC:CLOSEl.01*INT((-UP*360/6.2B32/Y:GUuPU*RL 305 HU=AN*COSCNA):JU-AN*SINCNA):UGGUP 307 WC-.2832IY AL'CAGT2+AKT2) t.Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.WF:CLOSEl.WD 335 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.RL:CLOSEl.WO:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.CT OPENl.?:PRINT#l."RL (OHMS)-".WB:CLOSEl.F:PRINT OPENl."THEUENIN InPEDANCE (OHMS)-". " * V O * O * S * O i * ~ O * S * * O ~ * ~ * * * * ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ S ~ * ~ S ~ ' ~ ~ p '+YO CLOSE1."F (HZ)-"."EOUT/EIN (LOADED)-".Y YO0 WH-.2832/Y:AK-AF-XT:KAAFA-6."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".:CLOSEl.

91735 PHASE ANGLE.V-61 205 RSmRO+RT : AB-C RS-T 2+XT 1.2832*F*CO*lOf-6) 203 XT-1/(6.108.. LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE ZOUT (OHMS>.KAM 6-Unsymmetrical Withour Prinrrr 5 REM PRG 6 W/O PRINTER two-section lead circuit..2E32:KAAKA-180 290 IF ABSCKA>>lBO THEN KA-KA+lBO 250 IF N-1 THEN 295 255 WA-.UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LAG CIRCUIT CWITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD) ********************a************** COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE (THEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE) COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.63 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).01*INT(AK*100) .17 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). DEGREES (RL OPENI.RT 120 INPUT "C1 CMFDI-".CT 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)-".2 .CO 190 INPUT "C2 (MFD>=".RO 0 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)-". 5 1 210 BA-ATNCXT/RS):AC-CROTZ+XO~T2)t.T-2) JA-RTNCAG/AHI t.RL 180 INPUT "F (HZ)-".191 EOUT/EIN (LOADED).F:PRINT:N-0 20 PRINT" 200 XO-1/(6. with and without resistive load 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT" (WITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)" 30 PRINT "******irr****rrar**a****************":pRINT 5 0 PRINT "COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE." 6 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE" 0 70 PR1NT:PRINT 8 INPUT "R1 (OHMS)-".191 EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN). 5: 230 AK-RT/AJ:KA--JA:KA-KA936O/6.2832*F*CT*lO.79.T.62 THEUENIN IMPEDANCE COHRSI.92 I'KO(..2+AG.5 215 CA-ATN(XO/ROl:AD-AB*AC:DAABA+CA:AE=AD/RO 220 EA-DA:AF-AE*COSCEA):AGGAE*SINCEA) 225 AH-AF-RO : AJ-CAH.T.91735 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).

9 265 WB-.260 265 270 290 295 300 305 310 330 390 PRINT "UNLOADED EOUT/EIN-".*":PRINT 90 OPEN1.Y:PRINT#l."Rl (OHMS)-"."C2 (flFD)-".Ol*INTCRK*lOO) 260 PRINT "UNLOADED EOUT/EIN-".RL 170 OPENl.2832*F*CO*lOT-6) 203 XT-1/(6.Y:PRINT#l. JA-ATNCAG/AH) 5: 230 AK-RT/RJ:KA--JA:KAPKA*360/6.Y 120 INPUT "C1 CMFD)=".C R O T ~ + X O F .Y:PRINT#l.01*INTCKA*100) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y 6 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.t."R2 (OHUS)-".":PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.WA WB-.Y 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)-"."UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LEAD CIRCUITW:CLOSE1.Y 200 XO-1/(6.WA:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.RT 110 OPENl." CWITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)":CLOSEl.****I.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.WD PRINT "****************************************":PRINT END With Printer 5 REM PRG 6 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT" 15 OPENl."F (HZ)-".l.Y 180 INPUT "F (HZ)-".5 1 210 BR-ATNCXT/RS) : A C .2B32:KA-KA-180 290 IF ABS(KA)>lBO THEN KR-KA+lBO 250 IF N-1 THEN 295 255 WA-.:CLOSEl."LOAnED EOUT/EIN-".Lf 70 PR1NT:PRINT 8 INPUT "R1 C0HMS)-".WB:N-N+l RT-RT*RL/CRT+RL):GOTO 200 WC-.Y:PRINT#l.Ol*INTCKA*lOO) 270 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".CO 130 OPENl."LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE."COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.9 20 PRINT" CWITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)" 25 OPENl.2832*F*CT*lOV-6) 205 RS-RO+RT : RB. 68 CLOSE1.:PRINT#l.WD 244 .Y:PRINT#l.Ol*INT(KA*lOO) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE CDEGREESI-".Y:PRINT#l.Ol*INTCAK*lOO) 300 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN-".~ 50 PRINT "COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.F:PRINT#l.Y 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)-".Y 190 INPUT "C2 CMFDI-".WC WD-.Y:PRINT#l.":CLOSEl.RL:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l."***************I*********************":pRINT#l.Ol*INT(KA*lOO) 310 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".Y 290 RT-RT*RL/(RT+RL):GOTO 200 295 WC-. 5) T~ 215 CA-ATN(XO/RO):AD-AB*AC:DA-BA+CA:AEEAD/R0 220 EA-DA:AF-AE*COSCEA):AGGAE*SIN(EA) 225 AH-AF-RO: AJ-(AH VZ+AG t21.F:PRINT:N-0 190 OPENl.C RS T2+XT *2 t ."UNLOADED EOUT/EIN-".RT:CLOSEl.WC:CLOSEl.CT 150 OPENl.CO:CLOSEl.WC 303 OPENl.Y 305 WD-."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)-".WA 263 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."RL (OHMS)-"." 0 6 5 OPENl.CT:CLOSEl.RO 0 90 OPENl."Cl (MFDI-".WB:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.Y 30 PRINT ~~*******+**+**********+*****t*i." 55 OPENl.01*INTCAK*100) PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN-".WB:NmN+l 280 OPENl.~:PRINT#1.RO:CLOSE.

08 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)--133.31 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES>--108.3 2 0 O P E N l .Y 330 P R I N T "***~****************~*I. LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE. 337 CLOSE1. Y : P R I N T # l .63 LOADED EOUT/EIN.25 **********************************a***** ."***t************************************":pRINT#l.Y:PRINT#1.I****************~~:~RINT 3 3 5 OPEN1. " P H A S E ANGLE (DEGREES)-".. UNLOADED EOUT/EIN..Y 3 9 0 END UNSYMMETRICAL 2-SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT (WITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD) **a********************************** COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND P H A S E ANGLE.WD:CLOSEl.

.

Appendix B

Robert L. Kruse
IBM@ PC AND PC JR.TM
A conversion of the Commodore 64 Program No. 5 (Appendix A) for the IBMB P C o r P C Jr.lM may be written as shown in points: Fig. B-1. Observe the follo~ling

lines, starting with an L P R I N T code as shown in Fig. B-1.
2. Typically, values will be processed to the seventh decimal place. To control the number of decimal places that will be printed out (rounding-off process), a subroutine using string functions is employed to accommodate the IBM PC. This is shown in line 8 of Fig. B-1. Here the entry A$ = "######" indicates that when a P R I N T USING A$ or LPRINT USING A$ statement follows, a whole number is to be printed. Changing t o "######.#" indicates one decimal place; "######.##" indicates two decimal places, etc. This is illustrated at lines 13, 14, and 15 of Fig. B-1. The L P R I N T USING A$ and P R I N T USING A$ produce the whole numbers 19095 and 86 in the results. Without the rounding off of the results, the numbers would have been 19094.82 and 85.77663. Thus in the conversion of any of the programs for use on the IBM P C , insert a string function to indicate the number of decimal places desired.

The programs provided in Appendix A illustrate the distinctions that are involved in running routines with a printer, and without a printer. Note that when a printer is used, a duplicate line will be required to the input and print command lines, with its proper coding. This duplicate line permits the program to be displayed on both the video monitor and on the printer. Printer coding for the Commodore is more complex than for the IBM, as seen in the examples. Because the Commodore program opens with a file and device number (open1,4), print the file number (print#l,) and then close the file (closel,4), the free memory is diminished and the amount of data that may be processed is limited in a long program. By way o f comparison, t h IBM PC merely requires addition of a duplicate line to the input and print

I
1

I

I

1 LF'RINT

"INF'UT

I M P E D A N C E AND F'HGSE ANGLE OF R L C F ' A R A L L E L RESONANT C I R C U I T "

2 F ' R I N T " I N F ' U T INF'EDANCE AND F'HASE ANGLE OF R L C F A R A L L E L RESONANT C I R C U I T "
? Lt:'RINTU":F'RINT"": INF'UT " L !mH) = " ; L 4 LF'RINT "L (mH)=";L: INF'LJT " C ! M f i J ) = " ; C 5 L P R I N T " C ( M f d ) = " : C : INF'UT " R L ( O h m s ! = " : R L 6 L F R I N T " R L ( O h m s ) = " : R L : I N P U T "RC ( O h m c - j = " ; R C 7 L F ' R I N T "F:C ! O h m s ) = " :KC: I N F ' U T " f i l - 4 -. = " ! , F O LF'RINT " F (Hz)=":I=:LFRINT"":F'RINT"":Arb="######" 9 XL=6.2332XFtLrl:.OOl: XC=1/ ( 6 . 2 8 3 2 $ F $ C f 1ij"'.-6, 1r:) Z L = (F:L""Z+XL".2) 5 : ZC= ( R C ' 2 + X C ' - 2 ) 5: L Z = A T N ( X L / R L ) :CZ=-ATN ( X C / R C ) 1 1 RT=RL.+RC: XT=XL-XC: DE= ( R T . " ^ ? + X T . " 2 ) . " . . 5: ED=ATN ( X T / R T ) 12 H S = Z L 1 Z C : SH=LZ+CZ :H S = B S / D E : SH=SH-ED 15 L F ' R I N T " Z i n ! O h m s ) = " ; U S I N G AB:HS:F'RII\IT " Z i n ( O h m s ) = " : U S I N G r?$;HS 14 L F ' R I N T " F ' h a s e A n q 1 e ( E e i j r e e s ) = " ;U S I N G A%; S H $ 3 6 ( : ) / 6 . 2 8 3 2 15 F'F:INT " F ' h a s e A n g l e ! D e g r e e s ! =";UL;Il;10 AB;SHdZoi:)/b.Z8J2 1 6 END

'

:..

-'-.

I N F ' U T IMF'EDANCE AND F'kiASE ANGLE OF R L C F ' A R A L L E L RESONFlNT C I R C U I T

L (mH!= IbC) C i M f d ! = . 15 F:L ( O h m s ) := S RC ( O h m s ) = 1 f !HZ ) = 1C q ( j
Z i n / O h i n s ) = 19095 F'hac-e A n g l e ( D e g r e e s ) =

86

Fig. B-1

APPLE@ IIe AND I1

+

2. Rounding-off printout (number of
displayed decimal places) is controlled by means of a subroutine employing the INT function when coding Apple IIe and 11 + programs. Note that the Commodore 64 also uses the INT function for this purpose. The proper entries to obtain the desired number of decimal places are:
Q = INT(R) Q = .l*INT(R*lO) Q = .01* INT(R* 100) Q = .001 *INT(R* 1000) Etc.

Apple@I1 conversions for the Commodore 64@programs (Appendix A) may be written as shown in Fig. B-2. Observe the following points: 1. Comparatively, Apple I1 + printer coding is somewhat similar to that of the Commodore 64 in that the input and print command lines are duplicated with an opening command (PR#l) and a closing command (PR#O).

+

[Whole Number] [One Place] [Two Places] [Three Places]

Thus the statement:

60 PRINT "R1 (OHMS) = ";R
should be written

55 Q = .Ol*INT(R*lOO) 60 PRINT "R1 (OHMS) = ";Q
to obtain a result to two decimal places.

10
)

31

90
50 60 70

8C)
91 82 83 H4 83 86 CO ? 1(:1(:) 110 120 125 130

1; 3 1.10
144 145 146 147 148

GOSUB 1 4 5 P R I N T " " :P R I N T " " : INF'UT " L i m H ) = " ; L INF'UT "C ( M f d ) = " ; C INF'UT " R L ( O h m s ) = " ; R L INPUT "RC ( O h m s ) = " ; R C INPUT " f i H z ) = ; F F'RINT " " : P R I N T " " : HOME : GOSUN 1 4 7 PR# 1: P R I N T " " : P R I N T " " : P R I N T " L ( m H ) = " ; L P R I N T "C ( M f d ) = ; C F'RINT " R L i O h m s ) = " ; R L P R I N T "RC ( O h m s ) = " ; R C P R I N T " f ( H z ) = " .3 F P R I N T " " :F'RINT " " : PR# 0 X L = 6.2832 4 F $ L .(>01: XC = 1 / i 6 . 2 8 3 2 X F 1 C 1i;) : ZL = (RL . . 3 + X L -. 2 ) .'. - 5 : z c = ( R E ."" 2 + xc ". 2 ) . 5 : L Z = ATN ! X L / R L ) : CZ = - ATN i X C / RC) RT = R L + KC : XT = XL - XC : DE = i R T '. 2 + XT 7 ) .". - 5 : ED = aTN ( X T / RT) BS = Z L X ZC : SB = L Z + CZ : HS = BS / DE : SH = SB - ED 8 8 = I N T (HS) PR# 1 : P R I N T " Z i n i O h m s ) = " ; B Q 8 P = I N T (SH X 360 / 6 . 2 8 3 2 ) PRINT "Phase A n g l e i D e g r e e s ) = " : l 2 F END F'RINT "INF'UT IMPEDANCE AND FHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C U I T " : PRINT " " RETURN PF:# 1: F'RINT " I N P U T IMPEDANCE AND FHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C F'RINT " " : FR# (1) UIT" : RETlJRN
'
?''

I I N F ' U T IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C U I T

Z i n i 0 h m s ) =191:)94 P h a s e A n g l e ( D e g r e e s ) =85

Fig. B-2

TYPICAL CONVERSION "BUGS"
Error messages resulting from incorrect coding are frequently vague, and the programmer must carefully proofread the routine. Inasmuch as programmers tend to repeat "pet" coding errors, someone else should also proofread the routine. Some common "bugs" are:
1. Numeral 0 typed in instead of capital 0.

9. Factors used incorrectly (e.g., l o 6 for 10-"or 6.28321360 for 36016.2832). Note also that logarithms of negative numbers will not be processed.
When a RUN stops at some point during the processing interval and an error message is displayed (or when a RUN stops with no error message), the programmer can operate the computer in its calculator (direct) mode to display successively the value of variables that have been processed up to the "bug" point. Accordingly, errors often become obvious. For example, the programmer may find a zero value for a variable or an extremely large value for a variable indicating (division by zero). Or, the programmer may note that the computed value for the variable is greater than one, although its correct value must be less than one (or vice versa). Patience and reasoning will help the programmer identify the coding error. Programs sometimes appear to have coding "bugs" when the difficulty is actually an erroneous INPUT. Consider, as an illustration, the programmer who accidentally INPUTS 1500 instead of 15000. Because of this small error, a "bug" will appear to be in the program. It is good practice to re-RUN such a program, to ensure that the trouble is actually in the coding and not in a n erroneous INPUT.

2. Letters in a two-letter variable reversed (e.g., PQ for QP). 3. Semicolon typed in instead of a colon (or vice versa).
4. Complete program line omitted.

5. "Bug" hidden in the program memory caused by "illegal" word-processing operation. (Retype the complete line if this trouble is suspected.)
6. Plus sign erroneously used for a required minus sign, or plus sign inserted in a coded data line that requires a blank space to imply a plus sign.
7. Improper units employed in assignment of INPUT variables. Numerical values can, for example, be specified within pern~issibleranges by using compatible units in coding of programs (e.g., the programmer has a choice of farad, microfarad, or picofarad units).

LINE-BY-LINE CHECKOUT
Although a program may RUN without any error messages, an incorrect answer is sometimes printed out. This difficulty requires a careful line-by-line checkout. Incorrect variables are often responsible-this involves "slips" such as R for RE, or V U for UV. A more subtle error in variable specification is encountered when a heuristic program is written with "recycled" equations.

8. Reserved word used illegally for variables. For example, if the programmer attempts to use OR, AND, COM, or INT as a variable, the program will not run.

In this situation, the INPUT variables may be A, B, C, and D. Then, the values of these INPUT variables may be redefined in following equations, and redefined again in following loops. Accordingly, the INPUT values must be kept separate from the redefined values; this is accomplished by coding AA = A*f(X), instead of A = A*f(X). When an initial line-by-line checkout does not identify the "bug," remember that a PRINT command can be inserted into the program following each equation or logical operation. In turn, the programmer can re-

view the processing action in a printout and find the error in the program. This is a particularly helpful procedure when equations are "recycled" in a survey or heuristic routine. Sometimes, the programmer is unable to identify the "bug(s)" in a long and involved routine. In this situation, it is advisable to ask sorneone else to retype the program. This procedure allows a fresh viewpoint, as well as eliminates the programmer's favorite and frequently repeated typing errors.

.

159 bridged-t. 230-232 difference between letter symbols and. 69 Algebraic operations. 105-1 10 Absolute units. conversion of. 220 resistance of. 227 Attenuator formulas. conversion of. 168-170 Alloys. 191-192 Antimony. 137 Alternating current. 224 Ares. Ohm's law for. 27-28 Ampere-hours. 44 Antilogarithms. 20-21 Alumel. 60 Atmospheres. frequency bands for. 44 Ampere-turns. characteristics of. 162 I-type. 40 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Code. 156 balanced bridged-t. dielectric constant of. 161 Abbreviations conversion of impedance to. operating power of. resistance of. 220 Addition binary numbers and. 91 Astatine. resistance of. 7-8 AC (dynamic) plate resistance formula. 220 Americium. 224 Apparent power. 141 Acres. 44 Atomic second. 219. 71 Amateur operator privileges. 40 Aircraft radiotelegraph endorsement. 69-70 Amber. 227 AC. 22 Apple Ile and I1 +. formula for gain of an. (APCO). 137. conversion of. program conversions for. 141 Amplifiers. list of. 248-25 1 Area rncasurements. 220 ATA. 162 lattice-type. characteristics of. 137 Aluminum characteristics of. 220 Associated Public Safety Communications Officers. 167 Admittance definition of. 137 Asbestos fiber. 135 resistance of. 220 Ammeter shunts. conversion of. 1 1 formulas for.Note: Pages listed in bold type indicate coverage in charts or tables Amplification factor formula. 144-145 Amplitude modulation. dielectric constant of. 157-158 h-type. 141 Amplifier. Inc. 160 o-type. characteristics of. 63 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Code. 220 gage practices of. 187 Angstrom units. 220 Arsenic characteristics of. 157. characteristics of. 44 Argon. characteristics of. 219. 97 list of. voltage across series capacitors. 186. 185. 159 K factor and. 220 Apothecaries' weight. operational (op amps). 99-105 semiconductor. 40 AM broadcast. 159 combining or dividing network. 10-signals of. 1 1 Air. 3 1-32 AND staterncnt. 44 Actinium. 137 Amateur licenses. 183 powers of 10 arid. 70-71. conversion of. 161 pi-type. dielectric constant of. conversion of. 44 . 158 ladder-type.

71 maxitnu~n power for the 160-m. conversion of. 221 Bronze. dielectric constarit of. and impedance. characteristics of. dielectric constant of. dielectric constant o f . converting. 115-1 16. 135 resistance of high-. 16 Capacitive reactance. 221 C:aliforniun~. characteristics of. characteristics of. 182-183 digits. 116 typo_eraphically marked. 142 I3eeswax. 40 Balanced bridgcd-t attcnuatol. 40 Capacitance and inductance in parallel and impedance. 21. 145 Cambric. 7-8 Carats (metric). 20 parallel. 220 Barium titanate. 6 parallel-plate. 44 Bars. 159 I-type. 220 Beryllium. 6-7 tantalum. 13 1 A\!erage values. See Logarithms. diclcctric constant of. and impedance. 68-69 Bromine. 18 and resistance in parallel and impedance. 153 Bands amateur licenses and frequency. 114 color codes for. 53 coded decimal (bcd). 40 Cellulose acetate. 135 USF.43 . diclectric constant of. 44 Carbon. 44 definition of. 60 R t u . 161-162 ~ t t o . 181-183 numbers. 1 1. 40 Celsius conversion of. 175. 44. 7 parallel-resistatlcc nomograph and. conversion o f . 113 parallel. to decimal. common Broadcast cndorserncnt. 70 Audiopower check. 17. 220 Board feet. 70-71. 185. 220 l3inary arid clecirnal equivalents.Attenuator form~tlas-cotlr. 1 12. 112. 16. 24 formulas lor calculating. 113-114. 159 Baridpass filters. 18 and series resistance i r ~ parallel with inductance and series resistance and impedance. 159 l3riggs logarithms. 221 Carbon tetrachloride. 3 52. 7 molded flat papcr and mica. 116 determining charge stored in. 12 susceptanct.45. 44 Cable tclcvision channel frequencies. 18 parallel-plate capacitol. 175. conversion of. conversior~of. 21 7 . 18. 143 Bariurn. gage practices of. characteristics of. taper pad. 115. 137 Bridged-t attcnuatol. 7 scrics. 1 12. characteristics of. 43 versus centigrade. 44 Boolean algebra. dielectric constant of. 158 u-type. characteristics of. 44 Base current formula. 224 Bakelite. 21 Avoirdupois weight. characteristics of. 52 Bushels. dielectric constant of.42. See Citizens band Celluloid. 7 series. 72-73 I3andwidth for~iiula. 184 converting from. 60 Brass gage practices of. 78 Cadmium. 116 unit. 20 dimensional units and. I I Capacitors ceramic and ~nolded insulated. 40 Berkeliurri. Audiofrequency spectrum.153 Band-rejection filters. 112. 52-53. 6-8 impedance arid. 217 scale. 221 C:alories conversion of gram. 221 Calcium.188 Boron. coriversiori of. 40 Barns. 220 BPM. 16 single. and impedance. conversion of. 7 determining energy stored in. 181-184 Bismuth. characteristics of. 18 and resistance in scrics and impedance. characteristics of. 114 molded paper tubular. cfiaracteristics of. 44 Bureau International de I'Heure (BIH). 40 CB. 7-8 voltage across series.

30 Cobalt. common Conductance definition of. 21 Current flow. 123. conversion of. 229-245 Commorl logarithms. 182 Moore ARQ. 227 Conversion of temperatures. 113-114. 150-153 Constants dielectric constants of materials. 45 Charge stored in capacitors. 1 16. 137. 21 base. conversion of. 217. conversion of. 50. 115-116. 42-43.. 221 Current average. 226 Coupled inductance. 9-10 Coupling coefficient. 221 gage practices of. conversion of. 1 12. 1 12. See Celsius scale Ceramic and molded insulated capacitors. 165 time. 150 rms. I l I. 221 Cesium. 1 l I. 137 Copper-wire charactcristics. 142 collector. 1 16. conversion of. 11 formulas for. 221 Chromax. 112. 112 semiconductor. characteristics of. finding. area of. 39. 114 Cerium.142 Cycles per second. 45 Cubic meters. 142 Collector power formula. 219 resistor color. conversion of. area of.220 capacitor color. 44. 173 Constantan. conversion of. 138-139 Cords. 147-148 Collector current formula. 21 peak-to-peak. 142 moving-coil meter for testing. and seconds of a. 137 Constant-k filters. 1 1-12 Ohm's law for~nulas and. 58-59 Conversion factors. 219 See also Signals Coil windings. 45 Cylinder. 221 resistance of. resistarlcc of. 44-49 Conversion of matter into energy. 221 Chains (surveyor's). minutes. 116 resistor. 193 roots. 172 degrees. formulas for. 45 Cubic inches. formulas.Ccnti-. 135 resistance of. 116 teleprinter. resistance of. 141. 43 Centigrade. resistance of. 142 emitter. formula for. 60 . 115-116. 182 gray. 45 Circular ring. 56-57 Circle area of. 210. 174 DAM. characteristics of. 65 10-signals code of. 137 CHU. 194-216 Cubic feet. 64-69 Commodore 64 computer. 45 Curium. 21 ratings. 52 Copper characteristics of. See Logarithms. 194 tables for. 116 Commercial operator licenses. 40 mathematical. 112 semiconductor color. 172 Citizens band. 124 Coaxial line. 11-12 <:one.126 Color codes capacitor. 113-114. determining. formula for. charactcristics of. 137 Chromium characteristics of. 137 Chromel. 23-25 Conversion chart of world time. 142 Color bar pattern. area of. 4 Current gain formulas. 92 Coaxial cable characteristics. 227 Circular mils. characteristics of. I I for DC circuits. 45 Curies. 217 Conversion table and prefixes. definition of. 173 finding the. conversion of. conversion of. 45 Cups. 64 frequencies and tolerances for. calculations using the. 42. charactcristics of. 26 peak. 43 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). 221 Codes ASCII. 45 Cost of operation. 10 Cube(s) area of. 7 Chlorine. 57. 125. 116 excess-3.

1 1 DCF77. 221 Exa-. 45 Degrees of a circle. millimeter. 193 EBC. 45 Dysprosium. 37. dielectric constant of. 60 DAO. 145 Electromotive torce (emf). 22 Energy stored in capacitors. 141 . dielectric constant of. 45 Elements. 227 converting minutes and seconds to decimal parts of' a degree. 221 Einstein's theorem. 45 Feet of water. 166-167 Exponenls. 169. 33. 226 Faradays. dielectric constant of. 221 FM broadcast. 228 Deka-. 60 DC circuits.60 DC-meter formulas. 42. 8. 40 hrl~~ulas AC (dynamic) plate resistance. forlnulas for. 166 Degrees (angle). characteristics of. 167-168 Drill sizes and decimal equivalents. 228 Dccimal equivalents binary groups and. 155-156 bandpass. 39. 182-183 and seconds to decimal converting minr~tcs parts of a dcgree. 172 Emissions. 60 Ebonite. 1 lleci-. speed of. 22 of position. 150-153 high-pass. 42.43 Fermis. 227 Electrical equivalent of heat. 23 kinetic. determining. 24 how to use. conversion of. 60 Fiber. 42. 151-1 52 m-derived. 43 Excess-3 code. 40 Fiber optics. conversion of. 45 Fathoms. characteristics of. 91. 45 Ethyl alcohol. 116-121 Electron volts. conversion of. 183-184 logarithms and. 94 Fahrenheit. 71. 146 Filter formulas. 220. condrlctance and.DAN. 45 Formica. 223 Duritc. 26-28 DC power. 23 Electrorlics schematic symbols. 43 Decibel equations. conversion of. 155-156 Fluorine. area of. conversion of. 133. conversion of. conversion of. 220-222 1 1-signals. 45 Feet. 45 Femto-. and. 192 powers of 10 and. conversion of. 221 Ellipse. 40 Europiurn. 40 Einsteinium. operating power of. 24-25 Division binary numbers and. 153. 33 tables. 152-153 band-rejection. 63 Foot candles. characteristics of. 53 drill sizes and. 217 Falling object. 182 Exponent determination. 32-33 reference levels and. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. characteristics of. 153 constant-k. 42. laws of. 150-153. 221 FFH. 40 Dynes. 45 Fermium. conversion of. convcrsion of. 7 in inductors.43 DGI. types of. 40 Dimerlsional units for mechanical and electrical units. conversion of. conversion of. 142 Energy definition of. 134 fractional inch. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. 73-74 Emitter current formula. 12 heat. 60 Dielectric constanrs of rriaterials. determining. 133. 221 Ergs. 10 Epoxy resin. 45 Foot lamberts. definition of.170 Extracting roots and logarithms. conversion of. 45. 40 Erbium. characteristics of. 134 Dry measure. 45 Foot-pounds. 33-36 Decimal converting from binary to. dielectric constant of. 22 potential.

141-144 transmission-line. 226 Q factor. 141 amplitude modulation. 147 time per time constant. 226 speed of sound. 77. 79 television channel. 221 Frcquency(ies) bands for amateur licenses. 135-136 Gain formulas transistor. 12 resistance in a circuit.162 bandwidth.admittance. 142 voltage niultipliers. 27 for small-signal emitter resistance. 7 energy stored in inductors. 30-3 1 trigonometric. 141-142 geometric. 166 Francium. 143 speed of a falling object.60 Gadolinium. 1 decibels. 70-71. 4-6 resonant frequency. 9 Ohm's law. 8. 26 watt-hours. shcct-metal. audio and radio. 7 coaxial line. 143 vacuum-tube. 28 Fractional inch. 1 1 temperature conversion. 227 cost of operation. 1 1 ammeter shunts. 142 capacitancc in a circuit. 20-21 output resistance. 131 spectrum.148 collector current. 29. characteristics of. 141. 77-79. 142 parallel-conductor line. 226 susceptancc. 12 input capacitance.10 inductivc reactance. 16-20 inductance in a circuit. 155-156 frequency and wavelength. 30-3 1 phase angle. 27-28 amplification factor. 141 amplifier. 143 transformer. 30 formulas for. 221 Gallons. 6-8 capacitive rcactancc. 52-56 tolerances for citizens band. 79. 32 gain. 10 DC-mctcr. characteristics of. 1-2. 45 . 217 thrcc-phase power. 150-153. 25-26 transistor. 31-32 attenuator. 64. 141 voltage drop across scrics capacitors. 28 frequency modulation. 143 base current. 175 upper frequency limit. 83 response check and receiver audiopower. 156. 141 Gallium. 142 energy stored in capacitors. 12 wavclcngtli and frequency.12 conversion of martcr into energy. conversion of. 21 power gain. 226 coupled inductance. 221 Gagcs. 142 collector power. 65 toleranccs of personal radio serviccs stations. 147. 27 1 shunt-type ohmnie~er low resistance.60 FTK77. 49-50. 1 1 . 10 filter. 11-12 Ohm's law for alternating current. 26-28 DC power. 7 voltage gain. 10 reactance. 143 input resistance. 135. 142 properties of free space. characteristics of.142 vaccuum-tubc. decimal. 141 modulation. 28 FTH42. 142 conductance. 170-174 impedance. 32 NOAA weather. 12 charge stored in a capacitor. 27 voltage regulation. 10-1 1 . 78 time signals and standard. 23 transconductance. 3 1-32 mutual conductance. 60 FTN87. 64 Frequency and wavelength conversion chart for. 141 mutual inductance. 30 coil windings. 32-33 emitter current. and millimeter equivalents. 71 modulation. 12 series-type ohmmeter for high resistance. 9-10 coupling coefficient.

dielectric constant of. 230-232 f o r m ~ ~ l for. 23 Hectares. conversion of. and phase angle of RLC parallel resonant circuit. 50. 95. 42. 221 Hahmium. conversion of. characteristics of. 41-42 See ulso Metric system Iodine. 43 Helium. 60 Heat. 46 Gray code.Gallons (liquid U. conversion of. and impedance. 16. 56 International Q signals. I I conversion of admittancc to. 221 .. 10 parallel. 221 Horsepower. 94 International Omega Navigation System status reports. 43 GBK. 141 International and absolute units. 227 International Atomic Time (IAT). impedance. 61 IBF. 46 Grams pcr centimeter. 9.146 Heat energy. 225-226 Hydrogen. 233-239 ratio of a transformer. 11. 185 Hexagon. characteristics of. characteristics of. 171 High-pass filters. 46 Indium. 143 Input resistance formula. 130. 10 dimensional units and. 30-3 1 Inches. 221 Ciilberts. 42. 40.S. characteristics of. 61 IBM PC and PC Jr. 16-20 as input. 46 Glass. 1 I Inductors determining energy stored in. 19 and series resistance in parallel with resistance and impedance. conversion of. 16 parallel-resistance nomograph and. area of regular. conversion of. 25-26 transmission-line formulas and. 46 Gas-filled lamp data. no mutual. 40 Gold characteristics of. 46 Hecto-. 52 International code. 16 Inductive reactance. conversion of. I6 mutual. impedance.10 coupling coefficient and. and resistance in parallel and impedance. 46 Inches of rriercury. conversion of. 221 Inductance and capacitance in series and impedance. 24 formulas for calculating. 130-131 Ciausses. 9 single. 12 susceptance. no mutual. 9. 151-152 HL. 247-248. dielectric constant of. 46 H-type attenuator. 19 in parallel. 159 Hydraulic equations. program conversions for. conversion of. conversion of. 182 Greek alphabet. characteristics of. 46 Ciiga-. characteristics of. 57 Ciutta percha. 46 Grams per cubic centimeter. 61 Holmium. conversion of. 9 series. 19 capacitance. 170-174 Germanium.. equations for. 221 Hexadecimal numbering system. 45 Gammas. 221 IAM. 8 Industrial Radio Service. 46 definition of. conversion of. 85-87 International System of Units (SI).A. 17. 17 in series. 227 Grams. conversion of. 250-25 1 lrnpcdarice admittance and. 239-240 phase angle of resultant for two vectors in parallel. 137 Grads conversion of. 85. characteristics of.). 221 HBC. operating power of. 145. 46 Inches of water. 60 Geometric formulas. 221 resistance of. characteristics of. 10. 40 Hafnium. conversion of. 19 coupled. 63-64 Input capacitance formula. 46 Grams per square centimeter. 40 units and symbols for. 8-10 impedance and. 17 and series resistance in parallel with capacitance and impedance. 95-96 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

40 Lumens. 40 JCi2AS. N. 189-191 Logarithms. conversion of. 188 division and. 52. 191 multiplication and. 221 Lux. 162 Lag circuit. 223 metric. 192. 47 Lamp data gas-filled. 221 IRIG-H time code. 137 Isolantite. conversion of. 191-192 characteristic of. characteristics of. 240-243 Lamberts. dielectric constant of. 46 prefix and. 2.61 LOL3. 61 LOL2. 46 Kilometers. characteristics of. 221 Kurchatonium. 47 Kinetic energy. 46 definitions of. 64-69 Linear measure. 137 Krypton. 221 I. 47 Kovar A. unsymmetrical two-section. I I-signals of. natural. 193 Log. characteristics of. unsymmetrical two-section. 221 gage practices of. definition of. 224 Links.eagucs. 91. 61 Joule conversion of.61 L-type attenuator. conversion of. 47 prefix with. 61 JJY. 47 Liquid measure. 47 Machine screws . symbol of. conversion of. 243-245 I. 130.01. 192 extracting roots. characteristics of. 160 Lucite. 130-131 miniature. conversion of. 219 Kelvin (K). 94 Lawrencium. 47 1. 126-128 Lanthanum. 137 Lead circuit. 2.etter symbols. 192 raising to powers and. basic rules of symbolic. resistance of. 126. types of. 43 Kilogram-calories. 222 Ladder-t ypc attenuator. 97-99 Licenses. 20 Lead characteristics of. with or without resistive load. 43 Kilograms per square meter. 47 Logic. 221 Laws Kirchhoffs. characteristics of. 12. common antilogarithms. 47 Lutetium. 43 versus litre. conversion of.Iridium. 145 Kansas City standard. 217 K factor and attenuator. 1-2. 47 Kilometers per hour. 47 Kilowatt-hours. 4 Knots. summary of. 43 Kelvin scale. conversion of.. 188. for alternating current. impedance and. 135 resistance of. characteristics of. with or without resistive load.C series circuit. 193 how to find the mantissa. 22 Kirchhoffs laws. 169. 1. 53 Iron characteristics of. 4 of exponents. conversion of. 42. commercial operator. conversion of.193 tables for. 43 Lithium. 162 Law enforcement. 186 1. 223 metric. 20-2 1 1. 225 Liter(s) conversiori of.170 Ohm's. 11-12 Ohm's. 186 Logical statements. 221 resistance of. 158 Kilo-. characteristics of. 221 Lattice-type attenuator. 46 Kilograms conversion of. list of. conversion of. conversion of. conversion of.ogarithms. 157. dielectric constant of.

conversion of.letric system classes in. 83 Nobelium. 137 Niobium. convcrsion of. conversion of. 126-128 Minutes (angle). 137 Nickel-silver. 221 resistance of pure. 40 Myria-. 43 Mendeleviu~n. 10. 47-48 Milcs (statute). 44. 137 Nichrome V.Vlachinc screws-cont. 135 types of heads. characteristics of. 16 Mycalcx. 112. resistance of. 48 Neptunium. 227 convcrting minutes and seconds to decimal parts of a degree. formula for. characteristics of. 1 12. 43 prefixes. 48 Miniature lamp data. 61 Multilayer coils. 40 Micarta. resistance of. dccimal. 223-225 Mega-. 137 hloore A R Q code. 43 Megagram. 44-49 convcrsion table and prefixcs.so International Systern of Units hlhos conversion of. 221 Neon. 42. 137 Moncl. 137 Nickel characteristics of. conversion of. 186. characteristics of. 47 See ulso Siemens Mica capacitors. 191 Marine radio operator permit. 221 Neoprene. resistance of. conversion of. 221 hlanganese. 40 Nepers. charactcristics of. 126. 40 Mylar. 167. 43 Miles (nautical). 47 Metric measurements. natural Natural trigonometric functions. 65-66 hlathematical constants. resistance of. 49 National Research Council.\. 1 12. 48 Minutes of a circle. 221 Nitrogen. 135 hlngnesium. 153. resistance of. 113 Molybdenum characteristics of. 221 Newtons. dielectric constant of. 42. diclectric constant of. convcrsion of. dielectric constant of. 114 dielectric constant of. 176-181 Ncgataive remainders. 221 Metals. See Logarithms. characteristics of. 48 Newtons per square meter. resistance of. conversion of. 40 Micaglass. 228 Modulation formulas. 42-43. 137 Manganiri. 219 Moving-coil meter. 165 symbols. corivcrsion ol'. dielectric constant of. 224-225 Metric ton. 47 M-derived filters. 43 Millimeters convcrsion of. 141 Mutual inductance. 40 conversion factors. 26 MSF. and equivalents for.43 National Bureau of Standards. dielectric constant of. 43 NAND gatc. 166 Mils. 43-44 . handling. 165-166 h~laxwells. 221 Manganese-nickcl. 148 Multiplication binary numbers and. characteristics of. characteristics of. conversion of. charactcristics of. 31-32 Molded flat paper capacitors. 188. sizes of. conversion of. 221 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather frequencies. 221 . resistance of. 40 Micro-. 9. characteristics of. 42. 168 Mutual conductance formula. 155-156 Measures and weights. 43 Meters pcr minute. 133. 221 \4ercury. 137 bleter(s) conversion of. 42. 48 fractional inch. 183 logarithms and. 187 Nano-.characteristics of. 114 Molded paper tubular capacitors. 221 resistance of. 47 Milli-. 42. 47 Miles per hour. 192 powers of 10 and. 48 Nichrome. 42 See al. 47 versu5 metrc. 137. 56 Natural logarithms. 137 Mantissa. ho\v to find thc. 184 Neodymium.

42. area of. 7 I'arallel-resistaiice nomograph-con!. 48 Ohmmeters. conversion of. conversion o f . conversion of. 61 OMA. 30-3 1 Parallelogram. types of. 222 resistance of. 40 I'olystprerie. 48 Output resistance formula. characteristics o f . 161 Plane trigonometry. 2 OI. conversion of. 43 Phase angle determining in a series circuit. 13 1 DC. 222 Pico-. Pounds.Nomographs Ohm's lair. 17 1 Parallel-resistance nomograph. 137 Plexiglas. 40 Porcelain. 144 Opcrational anlplifiers (op amps). dielectric constant of. 48 Pounds per foot. 232-233 I'olice 10-signals codc. conversion of. dielectric constant of. 144-145 OR statement. 40 Potassiunl charactcristics of. 21. dielectric constant ol'. of K1. 23 Potential-energy definition of.C parallel resonant circuit. 142 Oxygen. 174 Platinum characteristics of. 222 -PPalladium characteristics of. 7 resistors. 43 Pints. 16 inductors. converting. 5-6 total capacitancc of capacitors in scrics determined by. 48 Pov\:er apparent. 8 Poundals. 17 1 I'ersonal Radio Service (CI3). 1 formulas for. in total inductance of irid~ictors parallel detcrmincd b!:. 1 1 . 186. 9 -plate capacitor. 185. 9 Pcak-to-peak values. dielectric constant of. convcrsion of vcctors and. 222 Polycarbonate. conversion of. 63-64 I'eta-. 48 I'ounds carbon oxidized. conversion of. dielectric constant of. 186. 56 Open-loop gain. 161 Ounces (avdp). 233-239 input impedance and. characteristics of. dielectric constant of. 40 Parallcl capacitors. 42. 187-188 Nylon. 22 gcncration. converting. convcrsion of. dielectric constant of. 22 check of audio. 137 I'hosphorus. 17 1 Octal numbering system. 2 parallel-resistance. 222 0-type attenuator. 4-6 Parallel-conductor line. area of. coriversior~ 48 of.B5. convcrsion of. 40 Paraffin. 27 Ohms. 6 impcdancc and. 48 Pounds of water. 40 Polyetliylcnc. 61 Omega Navigation System status reports. 21 8 NOR gate. dielectric constant of. formulas for. 185 Oersteds. 40 Octagon. 21 impedance and. 48 Ounces (fluid). 40 Polyimide. 137 Paper. dielectric constant of. 21 Pentagon. 48 Pi-type attenuator. convcrsion of. 239-240 Phosphor-bronze. 21 Peak \!slues. of resultant for two vectors in parallel. 1 . conversion of. 21. 20-21 for direct current. characteristics of.12 for alternating current.. 187 Osmium. 48 I'ourids per square inch. characteristics of. 5-6. 222 resistance of. 48 Ohm's law conductance and. 222 resistance of. resistancc of. 93 I'oloniurn. 40 Plutonium. area of regular. 48 I'ourids (force). 1-2 nomograph. characteristics o f . 7 temperature. 137 Potential difference. operating power of. 222 Polar form.

10 Q signals. 64 SINPO radio-signal reporting code. 16 Resistive circuit phase angle in. 85-87 Quadrants. impedancc and. 16 single. 42 metric conversion table for. 67 second class. 217 R13U. 48 Quadratic equation. conversion of. 13-15 definition of. 222 Radon. 17 parallel-resistance nomograph. 42. 12 formulas for. 22 factor. 1 I. 142 limits of personal radio services stations. l 1 1. 112 . 222 Q factor. characteristics of. 170 conversion of vectors and. 222 Prefixes metric. 64. definition of. and capacitance in series. 12 inductors and. 5-6 series. characteristics of. and impedance. 12 inductive. 43 Promethiutn. 61 PPR. 21 power factor and. 226 Protactinium. 17. 24 flow and. forniulas for. 85. 4 formulas for calculating total. 64-69 Radiotelegraph operator certificate first class. 18 inductance. 66-67 third class. 68 operator license. 170 Quarts. dielectric constant of. 62 KC series circuit. 22 f'owers of logarithms and raising. 79 Industrial Radio Service. impedancc. 95 types of licenses for. 62 Praseodymium. 10 of parallel inductive and capacitive. impedancc. 65 frequency spectrum. impedance. area of. 42-43. characteristics of. impedance. 18 and inductatlce in series. 68 third class operator permit. 222 Properties of free space. 23 gain formula. 16. general. 23 RCH. operator permit. 63-64 reactive circuit. 20 Reactance capacitive. 66 Radiotelephorle first class operator license. 27 parallel.Power-cont. 21 power factor and. 68 Radium. 17 and inductance in parallel. 22 Resistor color codes. 193 powers of 10 and. conversion of. 12. 1 I . 22 Reciprocal finding the. 79. 22. characteristics of. 12 charts. 22 Reactive power. 64 Personal Radio Service. 22 resistive circuit and. 182 PPE. 48 Radio citizens band. 194-216 Rectangle area of. 18-19 Reactive circuit phase angle in. formula for. conversion of. 17 ohnlmeters for.193 ten. 95. 64-65 second class operator license. 222 Rankirie scale. 232-233 Rectangular solid. 22 true. 17 dimensional units and. impedance. 168 tables for. 40 Radians. 22 resonant circuit and. international. restricted. 62 RC circuit. 33 Resistance and capacitance in series and impedance. impedance. 64 operating tolerances and frequency. time per time constant and. 173 Reference levels and decibels. characteristics of. 48 Quartz. 166-168 two. 66 Radiotelephone-cant. 192. 4-6 impedance and.

137 Single-layer air-core coils chart. 95. conversion of. 94 <. determining. 168 inches. 49 ~nils. characteristics of. 49 measure. 222 Soil. characteristics of. 40 resistance of. 222 Rutherfordium. 85-87 SINt'O radio-signal reportirig code. 135 resistance of. 52-56 frequencies and tir~ic potentiometer tapers. 21. 40 Sound. determining phase angle in. 62 Rubber. characteristics of. 1 1 Signals I I-signalj. 222 RWh4. 222 resistance of. 222 Ruby mica. 40 Silver characteristics of. I2 Revolution\ per minute. 173 Scl~rarc area o f . dielectric constan1 o f . 10-1 1. 222 Rhodiurn characteristics of.reek alphabet. 137 . 222 Scandium. 40 Steel gage practices o f . 67-68 Sheet-metal gages. 1 16. 91. 135 Seconds of a circle. characteristic\ o f . list o f . 21 Series-parallel circuit. 222 Silicone. 193 roots. 91. conversiori o f . tirne per time constarit and. 222 resistance of. 4-6 Resonant circuit phase angle in. 62 Ring area of circular. 94 international 0 . 48 Roentgens. 226 Sphere. 40 Rutheriiurti. conversiori o f . 135. conversion o f . dielectric constant ot'. 193 R'I'A. extracting. 67 S1. 194-216 Standard signals. 133. S P Internationi~lSysterri of Units ~ Sicmenh. 95 Slate. 49 miles. conversiori o f . 23 RMS values.194 tables for. 170 I'eet. 135 types of heads. 62 RTZ.crsion of. 40 Ship radar cndorsemerlt. 40 Slugs. 8 Series circuit. characteristics of. 49 niillirneters. conversion of. voltage drops and. 21 Rods.Resistors. dielectric constant o f . 40 Rubidium. six-months. 137 RID. 226 jound.ersion o f .147-148 SINPO radio-signal rcl)orting code. 95 10-signals. 149 Single-layer coils. dielectric constant o f . 91-93 %-code. 135-136 Shellac. parallel. I74 R L circuit. 6-7 inlpedance and. 223 meters. 48 Rhenium. 133 Speed. 88. 148. 222 Screws. 95. 49 finding with powers of 10 . 49 natural riurnbers arid finding the. 228 Selenium characteristics o f . 95. 193. dielectric constarit of. area o f . 116 Series capacitors in. 143 Sodium. converting. 88-91 Silicon. formula for speed o f . 49 S~nall-signal cniitter rcsi\tance formula. 95-96 irilernational cotie. finding. 172 area of rectangular cross section. 49-50. 137 Semiconductor abbreviations. forr~iulafor. characteristics of. con\. machine sizes o f . converjion of. 226 Speaker conriections. characteristics ol'. dielectr-ic constant o f . 105-1 10 Semiconductor color codes. definition o f . 62 Samarium. cori\. characteristics o f . tlielectric constant of. converhion o f . conversion of. 163 Steatite. 22 Resonant frequenc). f o r m u l a for falling object. 4 Service endorsement. 48 Roots. 21 power factor arid. 49 kilometers. 222 dielectric constant of. 227 converting to decimal parts of a degree. 85. 16 inductors in.

basic rules o f . charactcristics o f . 222 Susccptance capacitive. 77-79. conversion o f . rcsistancc of. 23 Titnc signals and standard frequencies. 43 UNW3. 224 ' h u e power.169 Trapezium. 97-99 mathcmatical. arca o f . 217. 146 rcsistirnce. conversion o f . 222 'I'itne. 49 I b n s (short). 116 charactcristics of. 222 E f l o n . I I Ibrniulas for. 40 Su blraction binar!. 222 Styrofoam. 2 18 10-signals. 168. 49-50. 146 'Thermodynamic temperature. standard pote~itiomcter. 222 I'eqt-pattern ilitcrpretation. 125-126 Thallium. chat-actcristics of'. 58-59 Timc constants definition of. 24 formula for time per time constant. 49 Ikchnetium.62 . 170 Trigonometric formulas. 137 Torrs. 159 'l'apcrs. 171 Triangle. 174 Troy weight.43 Terbiurn. 222 resistance o f . 40 Tonnes. diclcctric constant of. characteristics o f . conversion o f . 183 poLrers of I0 and. 23 versus pcrccnt of voltage or current. 137 Unit capacitors. 30-3 1 Transposition of terms. 78 operatitig powcr of.366 liiblespoons. conversion o f . convcrsioti of. 137 Titanium dioxide. 147 Thulium. plane. riurrlbers and. 174 lorus. 176-181 Trigoriorrletry. 17 1 Trapezoid. conversion of.lluri~~m. I I Syrilbolic logic. 91-93 Tera-. 77. 158 Tungsten charactcristics of. 9 I. arca of. characteristics of. 143 Transformer formulas. cliaractcristics o f . 141. 167 Sulfur. formulas for. 49 'Tons (long). 95-96 letter. clielectric constant of.nlbois cliffererice bcttvccn abbreviations a n d . 25-26 Stcrcs. 123. 52-56 Tin charactcristics o f . 49 'Tons (metric). con~er5ion 49 of. 135 I:dntalutn capacitors. 222 resistance of. 25-26 Step-up transformer. arca of. 163 Teaspoons. conversion of. 1 15. 63-64 signal standards.Step-clown transfortnc~. 7-8 Ilriits. 222 rcsistancc o f . characteristics of. 137 T~tper pad attcnuator. gage practices of. 175 functions. characteristics o f . conversion chart ot' ivorld. 222 Three-phase power formulas. 1 16-121 Greek alpllabct. formulas for. 23 dimensional units and.144 Traristriission-line fortnulas. 222 Thermal conductivity. 22 'T-type attenuntor. 1 1 itiductivc. 43 Thorium. 25-26 Transistor formulas. charactcristics of. 40 Teleprinter cocles. 219 Rlevisioti channcl frequencies. 21 7 rlomograph. 74 'li. 49 Stokes. Transconductance formula. conversion o f . 174. dielectric constarit of. 49 Tank shcct. 165. 222 Ternpcraturc coriversion. 137 Titanium charactcristics of.175. 95. Stroriti~~rri. 222 resistance of. 57. 49 ? . 186 S!. area of. 97 electronic3 whenlatic. 42. 49 Tophct A .

52-56 WtlFVH. 224 Watts. 52-56 M!WVB. current ratings for. 40 Work. 222 IJS132. characteristics o f . See Coordinated Universal Time U'fK3. 49 Watt-seconds. 40 weight of. 225 tlicights. 56 LVebcrs. 49 LL'ebers per square meter. gage practices o f .UPIl8. 49 Vaseline. cliaracteristics of. 223-225 Winds. 27 peak. dielectric constant of. 12 formula for calculating. 7-8 average.63 U-type attcnuator. conversion of. 222 Yttrium. 57. convcrsior~o f . 161-162 Vacuum-tube forrrlulas. 222 Y V. 26 niultiplicrs. dielectric constant of. 222 Varas. 135 Zirconium. 49 Weight measure metric. 28 Waxes. 88-91 Zinc. measures and. definition of. characteristics of. 49 Wavelength conversion chart for. 40 Vectors. 150 Miood. 22 World time conversion cfiart. definition of. 21 Volume measure. dielectric constant o f . dielectric constant o f . 21 peak-to-peak. characteristics o f . 62 Upper frequency limit fortnula. 29. 222 Yards. 40 Weather broadcasts. conversion o f . 225 Wiring. characteristics o f . 2 1 clefinition o f . 26 rms. 63 .1'0. 52-56 Xenon. 63 Water dielectric constant of. 12 %-code signals. 141 Vanadium.49-50. conversion of. convcrsion o f . 222 ZUO. 40 VN<i. 58-59 M'WV. 49-50. 1 Voltage across series capacitor\. 142 ~r~oving-coil meter for testing. 222 Zinc sheet. 232-233 Vinylite. 30 formulas for. 62 Uranium. 49 Y3S. 225 Watt-hours definition of. 225 of water. 4 gain formula. conversion of. conversion of. 22 flow and. 63 Ytterbium. 88. characteristics of. 21 regulation. 62 IJ'I'C. characteristics of'. 223 metric. 63 Volt. 143 UQC'3. 49-50.

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