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Facility Layout involves physical placement of departments and/or arrangement of equipment within a plant or a service facility. A good layout will possibly lead to smooth flow of material, reduction of inventories, and effective utilization of space. The material in this chapter can be divided into four areas: 1. 1. Process types, process selection and automation. 2. 2. Classification of production systems and (corresponding) types of layouts. 3. 3. Line balancing. 4. 4. Designing process layouts. This chapter provides a good lead-in for the following chapter on design of work systems because it introduces some of the problems that can be associated with work systems. It also describes group technology, cellular manufacturing, and flexible manufacturing systems.
Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
1. Process selection refers to the ways organizations choose to produce or provide their goods and services. It involves choice of technology, type of processing, and so on. These choices have important implications for capacity planning, layout of facilities, equipment choices, and the design of work systems. There are five basic process types: a. Job-shop: Job-shop is used when a low volume and a large variety of goods or services are needed. Job-shop involves intermittent processing, high flexibility, skilled workers, relatively large work-in-process inventories and general-purpose machinery. An example is a tool and die shop that is able to produce a wide variety of tools. b. Batch: Batch processing is used when a moderate volume of goods and services is demanded. It is designed to handle a moderate variety in products. The processing is intermittent. The flexibility of the process to produce a variety of goods, the skill of the workers, amount of work-in-process inventories are all less than job shop. A typical example of batch processing is paint manufacturing. c. Repetitive: This type of a process involves higher volumes of more standardized goods or services. The flexibility of the process to produce a variety of goods, the skill of the workers, amount of work-in-process inventories are all less than batch process. Typical examples for this type of process include appliances and automobiles. d. Continuous: This type of a process involves very high volume of highly standardized goods or services. These systems have no flexibility in output or equipment. Workers are generally low skilled and there is no work-in-process inventory. The machines are dedicated to perform specified tasks. Typical examples include petroleum products, steel and sugar manufacturing. e. Project: Projects are designed to be used with non-routine, unusual tasks or activities. These activities are generally not repeated. Equipment flexibility, level of worker skills and workin-process inventory can range from very low to very high. Examples include construction of a dam or a bridge, conversion of the production system from job-shop to group technology, installing and implementing a new inventory and bar coding system.
Advantages: Highly uniform output, boredom and fatigue are not factors, machines don¶t go out on strike, etc. Numerically controlled (N/C) machines are programmed to follow a set of processing instructions based on mathematical relationships. Robots have movable arms that enable them to handle a wide variety of tasks such as welding, assembly, loading and unloading machines, painting, and testing. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are groups of machines that have a supervisory computer, automatic material handling, and automatic processing. Systems usually range from 3 machines to a dozen. They are designed to handle a variety of processing requirements (similar to intermittent systems) with some of the benefits of automation. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is a system for linking manufacturing activities through an integrated computer. These include engineering design, flexible manufacturing systems, and production planning and control. (See question #4 above for description.) Process selection decisions often include aspects that require highly technical knowledge. Many managers do not possess such expertise. However, if those decisions are delegated to engineers or others who do have the expertise, there is the danger that managerial issues will suffer. The solution is for managers to increase their knowledge of technological advances. In the meantime, managers must be prepared to ask questions and impress upon technical experts their goals and objectives. Managers sometimes view flexible systems as a hedge; hence, they opt for such systems without having complete understanding of future needs, reasoning that their lack of knowledge is offset by the flexible nature of the system. However, such systems are more expensive to install and maintain. Moreover, the flexibility provided by such systems may not be needed, or it may be of the wrong type. In many cases, a dedicated, or focused system, would be a better choice. The trade-offs between product layout and process layout include the following: a. Process layout has more equipment flexibility. b. Process layout generally has higher skilled workers. c. Product layout involves higher volume manufacturing. d. Process layout benefits from high flexibility to be able to produce a variety of products, while product layout benefits from large volume manufacturing at low cost. e. The major goal of process layout is to minimize the transportation and material handling costs while the primary objective of the product layout is to minimize idle time and maximize efficiency of the process. f. The utilization of process layout generally results in higher levels of work-in-process inventory than the product layout. g. For a product layout, the flow of work is straight, while for process layout, the flow of work is mixed depending on the product produced. h. There is more dependency between workstations for product layout than for a process layout. i. The preventive maintenance and machine reliability are more important in a product layout than process layout because equipment breakdown may involve shutting down a work station which may in turn result in shutting down downstream work stations. j. Routing and scheduling is much less complicated for processes with product layout than processes with process layout. The most common reasons for redesign of layouts include: a. Inefficient operations.
b. Accidents or safety hazards. c. Changes in the design of products or services. d. Introduction of new products or services. e. Changes in the volume of output or mix of outputs. f. Changes in methods or equipment. g. Changes in environmental or other legal requirements. h. Morale problems Product layouts are generally characterized by specialized labor and equipment designed for continuous processing. The layout is often arranged on the basis of processing sequence. Process layouts are more general in nature, in terms of labor, processing equipment and material handling equipment. Process layouts often feature machine groups or departments. Items processed in process layouts tend to follow differing paths through the system. Fixed position layouts are used to facilitate processing of a single (usually large) job, such as construction of a large building or a hydro-electric power plant. Labor, equipment and materials are typically brought to the job site (i.e., to the ³product´) rather than the other way around. Fixed position layouts are commonly found in farming, road building, home remodeling and mining. The main advantages of product layouts include: a. A potentially high rate of output. b. Low unit costs. c. Low training costs and wide span of supervision due to specialization. d. Low unit cost for material handling. e. High utilization of labor and equipment. f. Routing and scheduling are built into the design. g. Accounting, purchasing and inventory control are fairly routine. The main disadvantages of product layouts include: a. Specialization can mean dull, repetitive jobs with little opportunity for personal satisfaction or creativity. b. Workers may have little interest in maintaining equipment or in the quality of output. c. The system is not particularly adaptable to changes in process design or changes in the volume of output. d. The system is highly susceptible to shutdowns caused by equipment failure or excessive absenteeism. e. Preventive maintenance costs and the capacity for quick repairs are necessary to ensure high utilization. f. Incentive plans tied to individual output are impractical. The main advantages of process layouts are: a. They can handle a variety of processing requirements. b. The system is less vulnerable to equipment failures than product layouts. c. The general purpose equipment used is often less costly than the specialized equipment used in product layouts. It is also usually easier and less costly to maintain and repair. d. Individual incentive systems are possible. The main disadvantages of process layouts are: a. In-process inventory costs can be high (manufacturing). b. Routing and scheduling must be done for each new job.
Moreover. the roller conveyors which transport boxes of groceries outside to pickup areas. 20. Equipment utilization rates are usually low. a process layout often contains duplicative equipment so that if one particular piece of equipment fails. less efficient. Accounting. more efficient handling. severity of difficulties that would arise from a breakdown (high for subway. g. 18.g. Job sequence usually determines the arrangement of equipment in a product layout. preventive maintenance to reduce the failure rate is advisable. roller conveyors to off-load goods from trucks and move them to storage. 14.. and they tend to differ in terms of routing and schedule requirements. Consequently. Consequently. f. On the other hand. In contrast. Variable-path material handling equipment includes grocery carts. Unbalanced lines have bottlenecks at some work stations and idle time at others. There is often a lower span of supervision compared to a product layout. In a process layout. Nonmanufacturing environments do not usually lend themselves to product layouts because they tend to involve more processing variety than many manufacturing environments. for bus during off times). there is less need for preventive maintenance.13. sequencing is a continual task in a process layout. and possible disruptions caused by weather (higher risk for bus than subway²e. Routing and scheduling are continual problems in a process layout because a variety of jobs pass through the system. 17. the work can usually be shifted to another piece of equipment. inventory control and purchasing are generally more involved than with a product layout. The resulting output is lower than it would be if the line were balanced. process layouts utilize more skilled workers who tend to take better care of the equipment than their lower skilled counterparts in a product layout system. They are usually employed when there is a problem involving an exceedingly large number of potential solutions and an optimizing algorithm is not available. Fixed-path material handling equipment in supermarkets includes the belts at the checkouts which move items up to the cashier. a new apartment complex.. Other considerations are initial cost (high for subway and relatively low for bus). conveyors in the meat department to move carcasses from storage to cutting tables. private groups. c. e. Because of differences in job requirements. snowstorms stall highway traffic). If one piece of equipment fails. The main goal of line balancing is to achieve a set of task groupings at work stations in the line that have equal time requirements in order to get a high utilization of labor and equipment. and more costly per unit than with a product layout. job sequences vary. equipment breakdown has serious implications because the separate pieces of equipment are closely tied together. so there is much less influence on equipment arrangement. or a large industrial facility. 15. 19. They do not necessarily yield optimal solutions. Its advantages are often low operating cost. and low cost per unit moved. This can be desirable if there are shifts in which potential riders are coming from and going to. 16. . the possibility of alternative uses (none for subway. and less need for repair of equipment when it does break down. Unit costs tend to be higher than comparable output produced with a product layout. Heuristic approaches are rules designed to guide decision-makers to satisfactory decisions by reducing the number of alternatives that must be considered. a bus system is more flexible in terms of varying routes. For example. ³trucks´ and ³jeeps´ used to transport baked goods from storage to display shelves. Material handling is slower. product layouts typically handle items with little or no variety²all have the same or similar routing and scheduling requirements. the line will quickly come to a halt. and movable racks to transport baked goods from ovens or from deliveries to the bakery counter. a new bus route could easily be established to service a new shopping area. etc. The subway system is essentially a fixed-path arrangement²a product layout. In contrast. low for bus). With a product layout. d.
The expected volume of output can either be high or low. while process layout is designed to provide a variety of products. The parts would have to be held until all were on hand. and reduced setup time. reduced material handling. Layout can lead to high productivity if it contributes to a smooth flow of work with high utilization of labor and equipment. 22. it will be more difficult to balance the line. we can require a minimum amount of slack to be available at each workstation. less work-in-process inventory. The original car was probably one of a large number of similar cars produced on an assembly line. Group technology involves items that have similar design or processing requirements and grouping them into part families for cellular manufacturing. continuous production. and probably with a certain amount of back-tracking. Some might be available locally. low) High level of automaton has the potential advantage of providing faster production or service. The three major trade-offs in process selection are: a. A list of the parts must be assembled. workstation slack time can also be used for slower or less experienced workers who take longer than normal to complete a task. constructing a car from ³scratch´ is essentially a cross between intermittent processing and a project. It also includes a coding system for items. On the other hand. and require more handling or movement between work stations than is necessary (particularly in process layouts). The basis for grouping can be operations needed to process a group of similar items or part families. If the assembly line consists of tasks with variable completion times. the unit cost of the car was relatively low. Flexibility vs. Obviously. which was set up to speed the flow of work. but others would have to be shipped individually from suppliers. Advantages of such systems include relatively short throughput time. high level of automation involves higher cost and the potential risk that it may involve costly implementation problems. workers and material handling equipment were arranged specifically for the job. if we make a commitment to high volume production and the demand is consistently low. 24. 23. Although we treated the task completion times as fixed in balancing assembly lines. inventories of parts were on hand. Product layout is designed to provide efficient operations. the work would progress at a fairly slow rate. b. If it is high. In cellular manufacturing. efficiency in facilities layout. That is. even though they were experienced in this sort of work. In contrast. The lower the level of automation. it is more realistic to assume variable task times whenever humans are involved. Level of automation (high vs. As the variability of task times increase we can increase the minimum slack available at each workstation. This requires careful consideration of future work requirements to determine what will be needed and a certain amount of effort to obtain an optimal (or satisfactory) layout. with none of the economies of continuous processing. A poor layout will hinder productivity with bottlenecks. As a result of this continuous processing. construction of a replacement would be considerably more costly than initial. we may be faced with the potential problem of low efficiency and low utilization of the machines and idle resources. Consequently. machines are grouped into cells. c. However. Workers would not be highly familiar with this particular car. the higher the variability of tasks. 25. if the expected volume is low. we can take advantage of the economies of scale and reduce costs and improve efficiency. lower utilization of labor and equipment than is necessary. In order to deal with variability of task times. then we probably have decided . Taking Stock 1. specialized machinery. In addition. On the other hand.21. thus offering a flexible system. the ability to quickly switch from product to product resulting in higher flexibility.
maintenance. minimizing inventory investment. proximity and location of various departments within the supermarket. process design specialists. but the objectives and goals of the company involve low volume large variety of products. In other words.2. we need high volume of output to justify the high cost associated with automation. skill level of the employees. inventories. finance (especially if we need capital to support the facility layout. 3. As a result of both technological . safety. we could have significant capacity-demand mismatch problems due to this misalignment. minimizing inventory investment. therefore the size of the machinery affects the work area size and ultimately the layout of the facility. level of automation. Generally. maintenance. In most cases it is not feasible to perfectly balance a production line. technical support. For example. The degree of variability required in the manufacturing or the service system: The higher the degree of variability required. In process selection. if we do not rebalance it as frequently as necessary. Factories²type of machines. marketing. quality. process design specialists. b. 1. Technology has tremendous impact on process selection due to changes in computer related technology. 2. Factors that must exist in order to make automation feasible are: a. Of course we also need to make sure that there is a representative from top management to ensure that we stay consistent with the overall goals and objectives of the firm. First. If there is a capacity-demand mismatch. new equipment or new machinery) are involved. emphasizing flexibility. technical support. engineering. Supermarkets²maximizing sales potential. capacity and convenience of the parking lot. we must make sure that manufacturing group(s). then the cost of making the adjustments becomes too costly. type of automation. there are output constraints. The level of automation continues to change in companies affecting the layout decisions. new equipment or new machinery) are involved. level of automation. Since most task times vary. Critical Thinking Exercises 1. certain tasks have to be performed before others (precedence) and two tasks may not be performed at the same station due to their incompatibility (space and nature of operation considerations). finance (especially if we need capital to support the facility layout. engineering. number of cashier lines. In layout design. we will either have too few resources allocated for production or we will have a capacity constraint on resources. type of automation. the newer machinery are smaller. the less the chance of success for automation. On the other hand. c. Memo Writing Exercises (included on the DVD) 5. The level of demand: The demand must be forecasted. we must make sure that manufacturing group(s). If we rebalance the assembly line too frequently. Strategic fit with the overall goals and objectives of the company: If the type of automation does not lend itself to flexible manufacturing. quality. there are technological constraints dealing with precedence and incompatibility issues. to compete as a job-shop. proximity²distance and location of various departments within the department store. output constraint determines whether an otherwise eligible task will fit at a workstation because sum of the task times assigned to a station cannot exceed the cycle time. Department store²maximizing sales potential. level of automation. 5. 4. then the assembly line will experience too much inefficiency resulting in a less efficient line. Secondly.
6. it is not flexible enough to produce a variety of parts and it is very costly to make changes to the process. 3. . it is extremely difficult to achieve a perfectly balanced production line. 7. This results in synergy on the line. 2. Fixed automation is utilized in a continuous flow/mass production environment. The larger the number of tasks. Flexible machinery is not designed for high volume (mass) production. If one of the products is new. and reduce the cost of manufacturing in the long run. However. and output constraints. Flexible automation is utilized in a job shop (intermittent) environment. It enables the firm to manufacture a single or a few products at high volume and low cost. the more difficult it is to achieve perfect balance. Producing two products on the same assembly line allows the company to utilize the same workstations to produce the common parts. the company can shorten the period of time from design to actual production. where a wide variety of products can be produced without significant changeover (setup) time/cost.
. d. e. Potential output: (1) (2) 2. b.4 minutes. Maximum cycle time = 7 task times = 18 minutes. Range of output: c. OT = 450 minutes a.Solutions 1. Minimum cycle time = length of longest task. which is 2.
2 2. D.33 units per hour Operating time = 60 minutes per hour Solutions (continued) a. E ± C F ± H ± Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.5 Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 1.4 1.8 0. G H Task Time 1.5 0.5 0.6 2.0 0.5 Time Remaining 0.6 1.8) Work Station I II III Task A B E D C F IV b.6 0.1 0.0 1. Task A B C D E F G H Number of following tasks 7 6 2 2 2 1 1 0 Positional Weight 6 4.5 1.3 0.Desired output = 33.5 0 0.3 Feasible tasks Remaining ± C.5 1.8) .3 1.
7 0.3 0.3 Feasible tasks Remaining ± C.8 0.0 0.1 0. E ± C F ± H ± IV G H Solutions (continued) c.5 Time Remaining 0. 3. D.5 0. .5 0 0.4 1.Work Station I II III Task A B E D C F Task Time 1.8 0.5 1.5 1.4 0.6 0.
Desired output = 4 Operating time = 56 minutes Task A B C D E F G H I # of Following tasks 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 1 0 Positional Weight 23 20 18 25 18 29 24 14 5 .
First rule: most followers. Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 14) Work Station I Task F D Task Time 5 7 6 3 2 4 4 9 5 Time Remaining 9 2 8 5 3 10 6 5 ± Feasible tasks Remaining A.D. E B. Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 14) Work Station I Task F A G II D B C III E H IV I Task Time 5 3 6 7 2 4 4 9 5 Time Remaining 9 6 ± 7 5 1 10 1 9 Feasible tasks Remaining A. First rule: Largest positional weight.G ± B. Second rule: largest positional weight.G ± A.D.Solutions (continued) a.E ± E ± I II G A B III C E IV H I .G B. E C ± H ± ± b.
0 II III d f.4 0.3 minutes Task Following tasks a 4 b c d e f g h 3 3 2 3 2 1 0 Work Station I Eligible a b.e.3 0.7 0. a. Solutions (continued) 4. Minimum Ct = 1. b a.c.1 0. l.0 0.3 0. 2. (tie) Assign A B C E Time Remaining 1.g D F .c.5 Idle Time 0.
4.2 0.G IV h H 0.1 0.6 3.2 0.1 0. .
3 minutes 3. 4. 5. Assign a.4 +1. The minimum cycle time = maximum task time =1.4 +. and h to station 2: 2.2 +.Solutions (continued) b. d.2 minutes The maximum cycle time = .2 +1. a.6 minutes c. b. Task A B C Number of following tasks 4 3 2 . b. c.3 minutes [no idle time] Assign f. and e to station 1: 2. 1. g.2 + 1.2 +. 2.0 = 4. d.
D E F G 2 1 1 0 .
(1.0 Time Remaining 1. 6.4 1.8 1.8 0.2 1.0 Feasible tasks Remaining B.4 0.0 0.2 1.2 1.8 1. a.4 0.2) .D C.Solutions (continued) Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 2 minutes) Work Station I Task A B D C II III IV E F G Task Time 0.8 0. D C ± ± ± ± e.2 0.
Positional weights in parentheses .
3 0. b.2 0.2 Time Remaining 1.1 0.2 0.1 0.5 minutes) Work Station I Task A B C E II D F G H I III J K L Task Time 0.4 0.2 ± 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3 Feasible tasks Remaining B C E ± F G H I ± K L ± Total idle time = 0.2 + 0 + 0. For positional weights and greatest number of following tasks .4 1.2 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.Solutions (continued) 6.8 0.5 c.9 0. Assembly Line Balancing Table (CT = 1.1 0. Using both the greatest positional weight and the greatest number of following tasks rules result in the following balance.3 = 0.9 0.2 0.
4 seconds (maximum cycle time) Minimum cycle time = maximum task time = 45 seconds (results in 560 units of production) c. F ± H. Task A B C D E F G H I J *Positional weight CT = 50 seconds Number of followers 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 0 *PW 106 61 50 106 56 30 31 29 19 10 Work Station I III III Task A D B E C Task Time 45 50 11 26 9 12 11 10 9 Time Remaining 5 ± 39 13 4 38 27 17 8 Feasible tasks Remaining ± ± C.84 minutes = 50. E C.Solutions (continued) b. d. F H I ± IV G F H I . .
V J 10 40 ± .
i g.5 . b.2 Idle/Time .5 1.5 .8 1. Station 1 2 3 4 5 Tasks a.1 .Solutions (continued) e.9 1.1 0 .9 2.j k.d e.h.0 1.b c.f. 8.m Time 1.
5 4.2 .2 3.9 1.c.5 1.5 2.4 4.3 .5 2.2 3.6 4.0 1. Tasks a b c d e f g h i j k m Positional Weight 8.
g ± .1 + 0 + .4 1. d 1.1 + .1 1.5 b II c 1.4 .0 . c.2 g h . Balance delay: part b and c 1.1 ± d.0 .5 e.2 .3 .8 = 1.8 ± .5 minutes d.5 ± m 1.5 + .5 .5 0 IV j g .8 d III f e i .8 .1 m .3 .5/10 = 15% . e Total idle time = .9 1.Solutions (continued) Work Station I Task a .7 1. i i.5 Task Time Time Remaining Feasible tasks Remaining b.8 h k .
2 5 6 11.1 4 3 9. 1 3 6 5 8 2 4 7 .
department 1 is in location A. so they should be close. 1-4 80 12. . 2-3 40 14. we can see that the work flows for 1 and 4. perhaps locations C and B. while department 2 is in location C. 9.150 ± ± ± ± 2 (10 x 80) = 800 ± ± ± 3 (20x 70) = 1400 (40 x 60) = 2400 ± ± 4 (80 x 40) = 3200 (90 x 40) = 3600 (55 x 50) = 2750 ± 14.Solutions (continued) 12. 3 9 5 1 7 2 8 4 6 8. From this we can see that departments 2 and 4 have the greatest interdepartmental work flow. Department Number of trips 10. and department 3 is in location D. Therefore department 4 has to be located at a central location (location B). Distance * Number of trips matrix Department 1 1 2 3 4 Total cost = $14. Next. First rank or arrange the number of trips from high to low. and 3 and 4 are high. 3 5 1 2 4 7 8 Or 6 3 2 7 6 5 1 4 8 Or 3 2 7 8 5 1 4 6 5 3 1 2 7 4 8 Or 6 3 5 1 2 7 4 8 Or 6 3 5 1 2 4 7 6 8 3 5 1 2 7 4 6 Or 8 5 3 1 2 7 4 6 8 13. 2-4 90 11. 3-4 55 13.
of trips (two way) 1±2 10 1±3 1±4 1±5 1±6 1±7 1±8 2±3 2±4 2±5 2±6 2±7 2±8 3±4 3±5 3±6 3±7 3±8 5 90 370 135 125 0 360 120 40 115 45 120 350 110 40 20 200 4 8 (tie) 3 10 Slight variations would also be reasonable. No. as long as departments 2. 2 8 (tie) 11 1 6 7 A #1 C #7 F #6 B #5 D #4 G #2 E #3 H #8 Order of Assignment A reasonable (intuitive) set of assignments is: No. 4 is close to 5.650 per day. of trips (two way) 4±5 190 4±6 4±7 4±8 5±6 5±7 5±8 6±7 6±8 7±8 70 50 190 10 40 10 50 20 20 Order of Assignment 5 (tie) 12 5 (tie) .Solutions (continued) 15. and 5 is close to 1. 4 and 8 are close to 3. 9 This set of assignments has a total cost of $143.
18. 2±B.Solutions (continued) 16.. 5) and assign it to the next position. 6±E. 5±E. 23.) 15. (The last explanation seems to appeal most to students. 2±F. 40 to Department 2). 4±D.g. Material handlers (?) pick up new load at each new department and move it to the next department.g. 4±D. 1±C. 5±C. Continue in this manner until all departments have been assigned. 3±F. (Ignore Reception since all locations are the same distance from it. Three possible explanations are: 22. Two-way trips can not be used here because of the one-way route restriction. 2. One possible heuristic is the following: 17. 10±H.. 21. For that department (e.g. 20. 6±G. 2) identify the department which receives the greatest number of trips (e. An equivalent solution is the reverse order: 2±F. 8±F. 1±D. of trips (two way) 0 40 110 80 50 0 50 40 120 10 250 10 40 90 20 A reasonable (intuitive) assignment is: 3±A. 6±B. 19. Consequently. 5±B. Beginning with Department 1. 7±I. 1±2 1±3 1±4 1±5 1±6 2±3 2±4 2±5 2±6 3±4 3±5 3±6 4±5 4±6 5±6 No. Assign that department to the next location counter-clockwise. 16. Unloaded trips may be permitted to move clockwise. Return trips cost less because they are unloaded. The resulting set of assignments for this problem is: A±1. 3.) . 3±J. 17. identify the department which receives the greatest number of trips from that department (e. students are forced to develop a heuristic that will yield reasonable assignments.. 9±E. 4±C. 24. which would seem to make all locations comparable. Students may raise the question about return trips to the original departments after delivery. 1.
Produce the cans by forming a cylinder (two sheets of chip board are glued together) . f.4 41 29 19 10 0. Dry the salt to remove the residual moisture.F C. Pump the resulting brine to the surface. Operations Tour: Morton Salt 1. l.Solutions (continued) Work Station I II III Task D A E B F Task Time 50 45 26 11 11 9 12 10 9 10 Time Remaining 0. b. Fill the cans with salt. k. Cut the tubes into can-size pieces. Inject water into salt caverns below the surface and let the salt deposits dissolve in the water. g.4 Feasible tasks Remaining ± ± B .4 5. . Boil the brine. Steps in salt production for Morton are: a. c. let the liquid evaporate leaving salt crystals and residual moisture. Move the salt to dedicated production areas. Assemble and glue the separate pieces constituting the can. Load the filled cans onto pallets and store them in inventory. F ± G.4 24 13 2. It is a nice change of pace from the typical manufacturing layout article. e. i. j. Store the salt in silos. Roll the cylinder into a continuous tube. d. h. H H I J IV C G H I J Reading: Designing Supermarkets This reading provides the student with an example of how a supermarket is laid out and why the arrangement is done in a particular or specific way.
purchasing and manufacturing areas. large number of workstations and very little idle time.2.175. Check to make sure that metal pour spouts are correctly attached.000 cans per year) x (26 ounces of salt per can) = 98.800. high volume operation which would place it as a repetitive production or continuous flow in the product-process matrix.000 ounces per year) / (16 ounces per pound) = 6. the Viper plant employs only 260 employees. The Viper/Prowler assembly plant is much smaller than typical automobile assembly plants.087. 6. 5. Develop a plan to overhaul the existing equipment and to purchase new equipment as a joint effort among finance. Remove the small pieces of metal by magnets at different stages of the process.800. The company may not have updated its equipment because of the high cost of investment in new machinery. e. d.800. c.000 ounces per year. b. b. The Viper plant employs skilled ³craftsman´ workers. Typical auto assembly plants use workers to do repetitive work with little skill required.5 tons of salt per year. Synchronize production. a. (6. Quality is checked during different stages of the production process. distribution and capacity planning to make sure that there is sufficient capacity in the silos to handle the incoming salt from brine production. Typical assembly lines usually involve the use of robots. Check the weight of the filled cans. The production capacity of the Viper plant is much less than a typical automobile assembly line.000 pounds per year. The Viper plant uses early 20th century manual assembly techniques on two manual. . 3. (98. Assure appropriate crystal size by forcing the salt through a scraping screen. c.000 pounds per year) / (2000 pounds per ton) = 3. While most large automobile plants require 2000 or more workers.000 square feet of space as opposed to other typical auto assembly plants that cover from 2 million square feet to 5 million square feet of space. parallel. relatively short (12 work stations and 720 feet long) assembly lines with generous idle time built in. The plant covers 392. 4. (3. Salt production would be a low variety. Suggested improvements include the following: a. attach the label sticker. There are no robots or automation in the Viper plant while most auto assembly plants have high levels of automation.175. Application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to reduce the cost of quality. Check salt for purity using chemical analysis. Reading: Tour De Force 1. The Viper plant¶s daily production capacity is 13 Vipers and 20 Prowlers compared to large automobile assembly plants that can manufacture 1000 vehicles per day.
3. The distance matrix among the four rooms is as follows (all distance values are given in feet): . 4. if you use ³our´ product.2. Rice hopes to operate a new restaurant and expand his growing business. it will be ready to be served very quickly. Dining area 2. kitchen costs. What counts is what the meal looks like and what it tastes like given the type of restaurant. Enrichment Module: Process Design and Facility Layout Problem Job-Shop layout problem Donald Rice sold the building that housed the restaurant/lounge he owned and operated for the last 10 years and has recently purchased a larger building in a new location. Chrysler Corporation is hoping that not only will it draw attention to the two hand-crafted automobile models produced within the facility but also possibly improve the general goodwill associated with the company. In addition to reduction of cost. as long as there is no explicit statement of fresh meal preparation. The building has four equal size rooms. outsourcing increases capacity by freeing up resources that would otherwise be engaged. The personal attention to the customers is part of the marketing package associated with both products. the restaurant can offer a lower price. ³Hours vs. Storage/Refrigeration/Loading area Donald envisioned using the four rooms to occupy four areas of his operation. Donald¶s restaurant consists of four major departments (areas of his operation): 1. Lounge/Bar 3. it will take ³hours´ to prepare the meal. The reasons for not having robots or other high level automation include the following: Chrysler Corporation wants to portray a high quality image of two handcrafted automobile models that is generally more expensive and appealing to high-income individuals. if the customers find out that the meal they just ate was a frozen pre-made package. The company also wants to draw attention to this facility and the two car models (Viper and Prowler) manufactured at this facility because it is an unusual and attractive automobile manufacturing facility. restaurants will be able to prepare the outsourced meal much quicker and consistently than if they were preparing it from scratch. Kitchen 4. Buyer 1. In effect. However. they may be disappointed. In other words. Reading: My Compliments to the Chef ± er. 2. The disadvantages of restaurant outsourcing include possible reduction in quality and implicit ³from scratch´ food preparation expectations of the customers. and in most cases total cost of the dish served. 5. The main advantages of outsourcing for restaurants is reduction of food preparation cost. Even though there may be an implied expectation of ³from scratch´ meal preparation in certain types of restaurants. This advertisement slogan simply suggests that if you decide to cook it yourself. Mr. Ours´ refers to pre-made food companies advertising of their products. the restaurant outsourcing is not unethical. Since the total cost of the dish is less.
700 ± Kitchen **2.650 feet b. . Donald is thinking about using the following departmental layout. Distance x Load Matrix To Dining Dining From Lounge Kitchen Storage ± Lounge *2.700 + 2.000 ± * (45 x 60) = 2. The objective is to arrange the departments such that the departments with high interdepartment movements (# of trips) are close to one another. he estimated the following number of trips per hour between departments: Load Matrix Dining Lounge Kitchen Storage Dining Lounge Kitchen Storage a.000 = 9.000 2.000 + 350 + 2. Determine a layout and the associated trip x distance matrix that will result in a lower total distance (Hint: Locate the departments that have a high traffic close to each other).700 **(25 x 80) = 2. Room 1 Dining Room 2 Kitchen Room 3 Lounge Room 4 Storage 60 80 40 10 20 100 Determine the (distance x trip) matrix for the above layout.400 + 200 + 2. What is the total distance? b.Room 1 2 3 4 1 ± Distance Matrix 2 25 ± 3 45 60 ± 4 35 20 10 ± Based on his experience from his previous restaurant. Solution of Problem 1 a.000 ***(35 x 10) = 350 Total distance = 2.400 ± Storage ***350 200 2.
650 feet.000 ± . However. we will place kitchen and storage in rooms 3 and 4.500 ± Kitchen **1.Since the number of trips between kitchen and storage is the highest and room 3 and room 4 (100) have the closest proximity (shortest distance of 10 feet). In addition. dining is placed in room 2 and the lounge is placed in room 1.600 + 600 + 1.600 ***(60 x 10) = 600 Revised total distance = 1.000 feet Reduction in total distance = 9. the shortest distance from rooms 1 and 2 to rooms 3 and 4 is 20 feet (room 2 to room 4). kitchen is placed in room 4.600 1.400 + 900 + 1. Therefore. storage is placed in room 3. We can observe that the next highest number of trips is between dining and kitchen (80).000 = 7.650 ± 7. at this point we have not decided which of the two departments will be placed in room 1 and room 2.500 + 1.000 = 2.700 **(20 x 80) = 1.400 ± Storage ***600 900 1. The summary of the room assignments are given below: Room 1²Lounge Room 2²Dining Room 3²Storage Room 4²Kitchen Updated (Distance) x (Load) Matrix To Dining Dining From Lounge Kitchen Storage * (45 x 60) = 2. ± Lounge *1.
Repetitive processing has even less variety. repetitive. 7. 8. the lowest need for equipment flexibility. The disadvantages are dull repetitive jobs. A fixed-position layout is appropriate for a large end item such as a house or airplane. which is an economical way to move large masses of people. for example. and higher volume. A process layout allocates floor space to work centers so as to sustain a logical flow of semi-finished goods. layout and work methods. is manufactured on an assembly line. Continuous processing has the lowest variety. Job shops and batch processing are classified as intermittent systems. but there are potentially high costs for unused equipment. where all material is assembled to a major structure or product at a specified site. Batch processing involves less variety. low material handling costs. A product layout such as that associated with automobile factories is a good idea when it is justified by the volume. The advantages of product layout are that it involves continuous flow of the work in process. Process selection involves making choices concerning the way an organization will produce its products or provide services to its customers. less need for equipment flexibility. [You should find it helpful to list the different types of computer-aided manufacturing. Repetitive and continuous systems are classified as continuous processing because there is little or no switching from one product to another. and higher volumes of each type of product. and systematized routing. maximum specialization. A product layout implies that a single product or else a single type of product. 6. 3. so that incentive pay systems can be effective in enhancing productivity. c. inflexibility and susceptibility to frequent shutdowns. and the highest volume. It also makes better use of the specialized skills of employees. Projects are used for non-routine work that is intended to meet a given set of objectives in a limited time frame. with the production tasks assigned to workstations along the line. Managers can select from five different types of processes: job shop. excess inventory. minimum work-in-process inventory. Process selection may lead to automation or computer-aided manufacturing. which are difficult to move. and equipment flexibility needs can range from low to high. automobiles.] 4. less need for equipment flexibility. Job shops are used to produce a low volume of each of a large variety of products or services. 2. respectively corresponding to the three different types of production operations situations. Job variety is high. . b. Process layout is appropriate when each type of product or semi-finished goods has low volume. or some other type of conveyance. Equipment flexibility must be high to handle the high variety of jobs. An example of a fixed position service system is a subway. a. efficient utilization of labor and equipment. It is more flexible than product layout in the sense that a variety of products can be made without incurring extensive changeover costs. A process layout involves the movement of batches of goods between departments via forklift truck. It has major implications for capacity planning. and minimize transportation and inventory costs. meaning that output frequently switches from one product or service to another. purchasing. Another key issue in process selection is flexibility. batch.1. 5. moving belt. continuous and projects. slow or irregular movement. See the discussion under the Operations Strategy section. and a need for extensive production control paperwork. A fixed-position layout is appropriate for large construction projects or for assembly of very large products such as airplanes. along with a brief description and advantages and limitations of each type. accounting and inventory control. A key issue in process selection is the management of technology. There are three fundamental types of plant layout. volume is usually low.
. 10.9. one of several heuristics for assigning tasks to stations assigns tasks according to the greatest sum of remaining task times to a free station. Other heuristics are: most following tasks. The work is subdivided into groups of tasks. 11. Try to keep all stations busy all of the time by filling up the cycle time with tasks." The minimum cycle time is the time required for the longest task. breaks and planned shutdowns of the line. it is the amount of time at the workstation with the largest sum of task times. The cycle time is the span of time a unit of product is at a workstation. we determine both the cycle time and the number of workstations. There are several different meanings of the term "cycle. and to achieve the best possible utilization of both the labor force and the plant. after allowing for rest periods. Work centers are rated in pairs on a six-point closeness scale from A (absolutely necessary) to X (undesirable). make sure that all jobs are done in a logical sequence. and greatest sum of task times for tasks that precede. rounded to the next highest integer. A workstation might be a single employee. but not necessarily optimum decisions on process layouts. The greatest positional weight rule. Measures of effectiveness guide decision makers to satisfactory. An assembly line is balanced to smooth the flow of semi-finished goods. most preceding tasks. In balancing the line. then the E's (very important) are paired. and the amount of effective clock time available in a day. 12. c. or possibly a small cluster of employees. Do not assign a station more tasks than it has time to perform. based on the number of units of product to be produced in a working day. if the services of more than one person are required for the tasks. until all centers are accounted for. The actual cycle time is somewhere between these two extremes. 13. The Muther grid is an alternative approach to process layout planning that allows for subjective opinions that consider multiple criteria on the closeness of work centers to one another. Assigning tasks to workstations is done with heuristics (rules of thumb): a. etc. 14. The maximum cycle time is the sum of the task times for a single unit of product. and assigning work center locations so as to minimize the total intraplant transportation costs. and each group is performed at some specific location along the line called a workstation. Consider precedence. The simplest approach involves ranking of departments or work centers according to workflow (Distance x Number of loads carried). The minimum number of workstations in the product layout is the quotient of the sum of the task times for a single unit of product divided by the cycle time. b. and then the X's are separated. the total of the times of the tasks needed to make one unit of the product.. First the A's are paired.