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Report prepared by: Seth Herr, Paradox Alley March – June 2010
Digital Drum Reconstruction/ Information Access A majority of what was discussed during the handover meeting with Jean-‐Marc Lefebure was details of the design and manufacture process of the Drum as it currently exists (second revision prototype). Jean-‐Marc detailed the current revision and we discussed the areas of the design that could be improved for the next revisions Basic DD design and build process needs to be addressed • • • • • • • Overall needs to be addressed: • • • • • We discussed some possible approaches to interest the private sector in developing and maintaining the Drum such as it’s potential to be used as a pay-‐per-‐use internet access point, potential use as a cellular phone charging station and subsidizing production and operating expenses through advertising on the device (physical branding on the case). Locate suppliers of routinely used parts in Kampala Identify local businesses capable of supporting drum build, painters, metal shops, electronic technicians, etc. Develop sustainable model for support and maintenance of the Drum Develop a user-‐friendly interface for Drum Refine security of operating system on the Drum Waterproofing Reduce keyboard expense Harden solar power data collection system Create out-‐of-‐band management system (GPRS, power management) Display brightness concerns Lower overall power envelope Explore alternative battery chemistries and compare TCO / lifespan / impact of operating environment / availability
The purpose of this document is to detail potential use cases for solar power in rural Uganda as well as providing some purchasing recommendations for solar systems to suit each use case based on currently available technology. As technology becomes more involved in every aspect of our lives, the need for generation of sustainable, clean electricity to power the devices we rely upon increases. While advances are being made, Uganda lacks a reliable electrical utility infrastructure beyond the cities of Entebbe and Kampala, driving a need for small-‐ scale generation systems. While fossil fuel-‐based generators have a place in some environments, they prove to be too expensive and difficult to maintain for smaller-‐ scale installations. There are quite a few situations where power generation is required but the cost of installing, maintaining and fuelling a traditional generator outweighs the benefit. Solar power is a solution perfectly suited for these installations. This document will focus on three primary use-‐cases: Youth Center computer facilities, Primary teacher colleges and Maternity clinics in rural health centers. All three facilities require more power than is generally available to them via conventional means but rarely have the funding to install and upkeep fossil-‐fueled generating systems. These facilities have been identified as having the greatest potential impact for Unicef Uganda's Keep Children Alive and Keep Children Learning initiatives. I. The available and emerging technologies: Currently available solar collector technologies can be summarized as being of two available categories: Crystalline and Thin-‐film. Both have their advantages and are suitable for certain installations. Crystalline modules are generally more efficient (20%-‐28% as opposed to 7%-‐15%) and have a lower power generating threshold than thin-‐film collectors. This means that crystalline modules will output useable power even on overcast days whereas thin-‐film modules generally require direct sunlight to output close to their rated capacity. An advantage of thin-‐film modules over crystalline modules is that they are flexible and can be adapted to many installations not suited for traditional modules or in areas where glass-‐based modules are simply not rugged enough. Development is underway on various forms of printed solar cells. These technologies are generally manufactured using roll-‐to-‐roll processing which allows for large scale rapid production at extremely low cost. Printed thin-‐films can be integrated into building technologies allowing for relatively theft proof installations without the additional costs associated with traditional solar installations.
The decision of what type of technology is appropriate must be made on a case by case basis with the primary influencing factor being what technology is widely available at the time of installation. Historically, crystalline modules have been the most commonly imported technology in Uganda and will likely be the solution of choice for the next 2 to 5 years. It should be noted that as production of thin-‐film and roll-‐to-‐roll printed solar cells increases, the cost-‐per-‐Watt of this technology should dramatically decrease. Thin-‐film and printed modules are more tolerant of impact and resistant to damage during shipping than crystalline modules, which should make them more widely available in the coming years. It is likely that thin-‐ film technology will become a viable replacement in the mid to long term but as it is not currently widely available, we will focus on crystalline panels for the duration of this document. II. The use cases: Youth Centers: Many rural communities have no libraries and very little access to information. The presence of computers with readily available reference materials and educational programs has proven to have a significantly positive influence on children and young adult. Not only does having information available to them encourage learning, the ability of young people to familiarize themselves with computers will give them a significant advantage later on in life. Another key element is the provision of lighting to facilitate learning and safety after dark. There are very few places accessible to youth in rural communities that have artificial lighting so school work cannot be done after sunset which competes with (and is usually forsaken for) other tasks such as water collection and husbandry. Installation recommendations 1 Digital Drum unit -‐ to act as both server and client access point (Power requirement: 60W @ 12VDC for 1440Watt hr/day at full load full runtime) 20 12W fluorescent type LED bulb (Power requirement: 240W @ 12VDC for total of 1440 Watt hr/ day at 6 hours of use per day for all lights) This gives a preliminary requirement of ~3KW hours per day for laptops and lighting. 6 pcs 130W solar panels 4 pcs 12VDC 225 Ah Gel deep cycle batteries 1 50 Amp charge controller Wire, switches and circuit breakers as needed per installation and safety code requirements Mounting brackets and hardware as needed for solar panels
Expected solar power system costs (Preliminary cost estimate based on most recent information): $8,000 See Appendix A for notes Primary Teacher Colleges: Primary Teacher Colleges (PTCs) are the starting point for Uganda's future educators. The education students receive in their PTC will set the stage for the education of thousands of Ugandan children. It is vital that the students following the course for graduation from the Primary Teacher Colleges have the best foundation of knowledge so they can better serve as educators to the thousands of children that will pass through their classrooms later in life. A massive jump in the quality of education students in PTCs receive can be realized by simply providing access to educational materials and basic lighting for students. Most PTCs have at least limited access to electricity during the early evening but could benefit from reliable and self-‐sufficient power systems, this will allow PTC students to extend their learning day well into the evening and provide unprecedented access to information in even the most remote PTCs in Uganda. Installation recommendations 2 Digital Drum units (1 unit per approximately 150 students) -‐ (Power requirement: 120W @ 12VDC for 2,880Watt hr/day at full load full runtime) 12 low-‐cost laptop -‐ to be used in computer lab (Power requirement: 10W @ 12VDC / ea. for total of 1200Watt hr/day at 10hours of use per day for all laptops) 40 12W fluorescent type LED bulb (Power requirement: 480W @ 12VDC for total of 2880 Watt hr/ day at 6 hours of use per day for all lights) Preliminary power requirement is ~7KW hours per day. The Digital Drums for this installation should be fitted with mains power supplies as well as standard solar systems to allow for reduced solar requirements. 12 pcs 130W solar panels 8 pcs 12VDC 225 Ah Gel deep cycle batteries 1 50 Amp charge controller Wire, switches and circuit breakers as needed per installation and safety code requirements Mounting brackets and hardware as needed for solar panels Expected solar power system costs (Preliminary cost estimate based on most recent information): ~$16,000.00 See Appendix B for notes
Maternity clinic in a rural health center In Uganda, UNICEF supported health centers consist of “type 2” and “type 3” designations. Type 2 health centers are smaller, just above village level clinics. They provide basic primary care, immunization, natal care and limited normal deliveries when a midwife is available. Type 3 health centers provide the same care with the addition of minor surgery and caesarian birth. Both facilities suffer from lack of consistent power supply creating limited hours of available care and difficulty during emergency procedures. Installation recommendation 6 12W fluorescent type LED bulb (Power requirement: 72W @ 12VDC for total of ~ 460 Watt hr/ day at 6 hours of use per day for all lights) 4 24W LED surgical lights (Power requirement: 96W @ 12VDC for total of ~ 400 Watt hr/day at 4 hours of use per day) 2 -‐ 60 Amp-‐hour SLA or Gel deep cycle battery 1 – Phocos CX10 10 A charge controller 2 – 100 Watt Solar panel 2 – LED headlamps with internal rechargeable battery or AAA rechargeable batteries 4 – sets batteries for LED headlamps and 12VDC charging station Wire and switches as needed per lighting and installation requirements Mounting brackets and hardware as needed for solar panels Expected system costs (Preliminary cost estimate based on most recent information): ~$2,000.00 see Appendix C for notes III. Looking forward: These use cases outlines should serve to act as a basic template for sizing and estimating systems. They are, however, based on a number of generalizations and assumptions and will likely need tailoring to specific applications. Every scenario is influenced by numerous variables that are far beyond the scope of this document but this should serve as a starting point for estimating power solutions in rural Uganda and will be updated with real-‐life Use cases, solutions, pricing, systems sizing and outcomes as they become available.
Notes: In every case, solar sizing is based on a 20% overage to allow for battery charge states to remain over 50% thus prolonging battery lifespan. All price estimates for Digital Drum are based on prototype costs and are likely to decrease. Solar system cost estimates are based on competitive bid pricing form Kampala circa April 2010 and are likely to fluctuate.
The maxim that knowledge is power has never been truer than it is today. In the developed world we have a virtually unlimited amount of information available which enables us to make much better and more informed decisions in much less time. In the past, critical decisions would be held up or misdirected by a lack of full information. This lack of timely communication can result in anything from poor education to the death of those unfortunate enough to be on the wrong side of the gap. UNICEF is exploring how greater connectivity can facilitate not only the dissemination of educational materials in rural Uganda but also the collection of relevant data to allow a more streamlined logistics process. Up-‐to-‐the minute information on vital indicators will allow UNICEF Uganda to divert medication, supplies, and other resources to areas where they can have the most impact to those in need. The first step in this process will be the introduction of self-‐contained solar-‐ powered "hub" systems. These will be located in areas such as Youth centers, Health centers and PTCs. They will primarily serve the purpose of dissemination of educational materials but will also serve web-‐based applications for logistics and supply management that are currently being developed by Uganda’s T4D team as well as the Innovation section in New York. The eventual aim is to have a two-‐way communications network that covers the most under served areas in Uganda and provides a conduit for educational, safety and health information to the communities where they are installed. There are three basic steps to the rollout of this type of infrastructure: 1. Remote stand-‐alone sites with limited internet connectivity 2. Linking remote site to each other via high-‐speed wireless or other available technology to create webs of sites 3. Linking the webs to each other and the internet as a whole once funding and connectivity options allow for greater bandwidth The first step requires that content and applications are stored locally on devices installed in remote communities. There are two major aspects to the initial phase of this process, device development and deployment (hardware) and content and interface development (software). Development of the hardware is well under way in Uganda with projects such as the Digital Doorway, the Community Computing system (Digital Drum), the Rachel Initiative, Inveneo and others. The Community Computing system is now entering it’s third round of development and will be drawing on the lessons we have learned to overcome some of the last remaining obstacles relating to hardware deployments in rural areas. One of the most crucial aspects of this phase of development is the cohesive collection of relevant content and development of an intuitive and easy to use interface to that content. This will require the active participation of all sections and
Ministries that intend to contribute to the project. Content will need to be standardized into a format that is not only truly portable and accessible across all available computing platforms today but also free from the encumbrances of restrictive licensing. It is vital to the success of this phase of the project that all content can be distributed through any available channel to drive interest and co-‐ operation from as many parties as possible. During the initial phases of the rugged computing rollout, it is to be expected that some if not all sites will have limited to no Internet access, the main channel for distribution and collection of data will therefore have to rely on human-‐based data transportation. Technicians who are trained to maintain the machines at the initial installation sites will be responsible for the distribution and collection of data via external drives which will than be collated and approved at the central update server prior to being distributed to the remainder of the network on subsequent visits. Once stand-‐alone sites have been established in central areas, it will be possible to link nearby areas via high-‐speed wireless internet solutions as have been demonstrated by organizations such as BOSCO in the Acholi region (See Annex D). This will allow many sites to share content and create communications channels between currently separated facilities. Internally developed curriculum and content collected from connected sites will be sharable though all connected facilities instantaneously. Communities can be developed around common interests and information about surrounding areas will be quickly available to linked installations. This extending of the networks will allow schools, PTCs and Community Centers with their own computer labs to freely access the content and communities established around the Digital Doorway and Community Computing sites. The final phase of this project will be the interconnecting of the phase two “webs” and connecting the greater networks to the Internet as a whole. This phase will require a close re-‐evaluation of the technology available and the overall cost to maintain. It is hoped that interconnected sites would be able to share the cost burden of Internet access thus lowering the overall cost to connect diverse sites. Currently available technology for internet connectivity in rural Uganda: 3g / GPRS / cellular connectivity – this technology is available in almost all parts of Uganda. Cellular connectivity is relatively inexpensive but does not have the bandwidth to support more than 1 or 2 users in a live environment. Speeds vary from 14kbps to 1300kbps depending on provider, infrastructure, transmission technology and environmental factors. It is possible to allow for time-‐delayed synchronizing of data over a cellular connection and it is being considered as a management and maintenance channel for the initial ruggedized computing systems. Cellular connectivity tends to be billed on a “total traffic per month basis” where inbound and outbound bandwidth is aggregated and a set limit is imposed on
devices. As of August 2010, 3G cellular connectivity in Uganda at the rate of 3GB transferred per month is 85,000 /= (UGX)(1)(2), EDGE/GPRS 64kbps unlimited transfer plans are available from UTL for 220,000 /= (UGX)(3) and Zain for 200,000/= (UGX)(4). VSAT – this technology is available at virtually any rural location. It is more expensive than cellular connectivity but can provide much greater bandwidth. Due to it’s high latency, VSAT connectivity is not recommended for environments where VoIP or similar live audio / video conferencing applications will be required. Low cost VSAT solutions tend to have a much higher download bandwidth than upload bandwidth, this would allow for relatively fast deployment of data and content but a relatively slow path for collection of data. Most low cost VSAT systems operate on a bandwidth-‐sharing basis where actual available bandwidth will fluctuate based on total number of users on a provider’s network (usually referred to as a “shared contention ratio”). VSAT startup costs are usually fairly high in comparison to other connectivity solutions with average equipment costs exceeding $2000.00 (USD). As of August 2010, VSAT from Intersat Africa is available at $550 (USD) / mo. For 128kbps uplink and 384kbps downlink(5) and $350 (USD) for a 64kbps uplink 256kbps downlink(6) both at 1:16 shared contention ratio. DSL – this technology is starting to become more available in rural locations but is usually limited to relatively short distances from population centers (5-‐10Km from telephone “Central Offices”). DSL can provide symmetric or asymmetric bandwidth and is generally sold as an unlimited bandwidth product. DSL is a fairly stable product but can be affected by mains outages and is vulnerable to outages due to failures in the carrier telephone cabling it travels on. DSL startup costs are fairly low but monthly costs can increase dramatically beyond 256kbps. Most low-‐cost DSL services use a sharing contention scheme similar to VSAT, no numbers are currently available detailing contention. Current pricing for shared bandwidth through UTL as of August 2010(7) is: 64kbps -‐ $100 (USD)/mo. ; 128kbps -‐ $180 (USD) / mo. ; 256kbps – $310 (USD)/month. Pricing for dedicated bandwidth from UTL as of June 2010 in the Gulu area is: 512kbps symmetric ~ $350-‐$425/mo.; 768kbps ~ $575-‐ $675/mo. Both require ~$3200 (USD) startup costs in equipment and installation. WiMax – WiMax is a relatively new wireless technology that operates on line-‐of-‐site at high speed and non-‐line-‐of-‐site at lower speeds. Pricing of WiMax is generally similar to DSL but front-‐end equipment costs can be considerably higher. WiMax is a fairly stable technology but is susceptible to radio and environmental interference. It is expected that WiMax will likely supplant DSL as a more rural connectivity option due to lower deployment costs for the provider. Pricing for Wimax solutions is not currently available but will be appended upon receipt.
Notes regarding connectivity solutions: Any of these connectivity solutions may be extended via 802.11 wireless over 100s of Kilometers to join more installations. The major benefit of this option is overall higher bandwidth and lower expense for connected facilities. When sharing a single point of connectivity between multiple sites, it should be expected that at times there will be contention for bandwidth. QOS, conservative firewall rules at gateways, liberal gateway proxy caching and vigilant network administration are all methods that can be used to counter this effect. Pricing: 1. 2. 3. 4. http://orange.ug/mobile-plans/internet-everywhere.php http://mtn.co.ug/MTN-Internet/MTN-Mobile-Internet.aspx http://utl.co.ug/utl.php?i=124 http://www.ug.zain.com/opco/af/core/home/channel.do;jsessionid=3 9EB09F5FE7D0B242DC16D0A0E38F1DE.node14?channelId=- 10682&selectedChannels=-10556,-10682#&lang=en 5. http://www.intersatafrica.com/index-‐products3.html 6. http://www.intersatafrica.com/index-‐products2.html 7. http://utl.co.ug/utl.php?i=9
The lighting specified for this use case should be sufficient to provide illumination to read for a single 100 square meter space. It is expected that the Digital Drum should operate continuously in this environment and be reachable at all times via network access but only physically accessible during the normal operating hours of the Youth Center. Recommendations are based on the following conditions: The youth center has no existing mains power The public space will be lit for a maximum of 6 hours per day and is 100 square meters
40 lights should be enough to provide sufficient illumination to read for 200 square meters of space, if this space is divided into multiple areas, the overall illumination will decrease. I am operating on the assumption that it is safe to divide the 200 square meters into two spaces before more supplemental lighting will need to be provided but this should be tested in actual use cases before it is committed to. The solar system specified in this use case is not intended to provide power for the PTC in the absence of available mains power, it is merely intended to supplement unreliable mains supplies for lighting and the overall accessibility of mains power is a necessity for this system to function correctly. Recommendations are based on the following conditions: PTC has limited access to mains power for at least 3 hours per day PTC has a lockable room that can be dedicated to act as a computer lab and someone will be monitoring the lab when access is allowed PTC has a student population of approximately 300 who all live on-‐site in dorms PTC has requirements for lighting in public spaces such as libraries, classrooms and dorms
Recommendations are based on the following conditions: Health Center has no mains power Health Center has a secure area where batteries and charge controller and headlamp battery chargers can be installed Health Center has a secure location for headlamps to be stored when not in use
Annex D: BOSCO bandwidth distribution model
BOSCO is an NGO that has been operating a rural wireless network in the Acholi region of Uganda for the past four years based around the concept of sharing a single connection to the internet with a number of disparate sites linked by low-‐ power wireless networks. Over the course of the past year, the number of users being served by BOSCO’s network has more than doubled from 485 to the current of approximately 960 (with total number of users doubling in the last year. Over the same period of time, BOSCO’s Internet egress has only increased from 256kbps to 512kbps. While the overall results of BOSCO’s network have been overwhelmingly positive, the capacity of the network has been overshadowed by its users’ demands. BOSCO estimates that to supply their current user load they will need to increase egress bandwidth to 1Mbps. The pricing model of Uganda’s DSL providers favors the low-‐end and shared line user. In an effort to maximize return from their fixed operating costs, UTL resells their available bandwidth many times over and offers it to consumers as a ‘shared line’ DSL connection with a maximum bandwidth of 512kbps. These connections are considerably less expensive than a DSL connection that has a fixed, dedicated bandwidth and a majority of the time the end user is unaware or unaffected by the nature of sharing overall bandwidth. Once the number of users on a connection increases beyond a certain point, the shared connection can no longer support the demands and the connection must be upgraded to a “dedicated bandwidth” line, which can be provisioned for up to 1.5Mbps. Throughout it’s history, BOSCO has distributed the cost of internet connectivity to it’s 25 installed sites. The pricing difference between dedicated lines and shared lines creates a gap in the ability of the users on a BOSCO style network to pay for the connection. Currently BOSCO pays approximately $300 USD/mo. for internet access, increasing available bandwidth to 1Mbps will increase monthly cost to ~$800 USD. This presents a financial dilemma for the hosting organization. Traditionally, increasing the monthly contributions of the users would solve this bourdon. Some of the organizations that BOSCO provides bandwidth to cannot afford the added expense and would likely drop out of the program altogether if presented with this increase, thus increasing the financial load on BOSCO and it’s networks users. Subsidy of internet access until the network is extended to the point that the overall cost to users is the same as it’s current rate of approximately $0.32USD / user would require about 2500 users to distribute the financial load and would quickly create the same disparity. An alternative solution would be to install additional egress points and provide distributed access for the network depending on overall bandwidth availability at egress points. This combined with aggressive caching and distributed cache storage on the network would allow for slow growth of the network without undue economic constraints on it’s users.
Internet Cellular connectivity
VSAT 802.11 Wireless link
Traditional distribution model has one egress point and distributes to all sites along a relatively linear path
Internet Cellular connectivity Internet
VSAT 802.11 Wireless link
Gateway Site with load balancing and caching proxy
Gateway Site with load balancing and caching proxy
Distributed connectivity allows for load balancing across connections as well as maintaining a cache of requests to accelerate browsing at all egress points
Content is delivered via external drive from Update Server to remote sites during routine maintenance
Youth Center School
Content propagates to additional machines over 802.11 links
802.11 Wireless link
802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC
802.11 Wireless link Health Center Community Center
Technician-based data distribution for installations with no internet connectivity
Content is collected via external drive from remote sites and delivered to Content Server during routine maintenance
Youth Center School
Content propagates from additional machines over 802.11 links
802.11 Wireless link
802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC Health Center 802.11 Wireless link
Users generate content at remote sites
Technician-based data collection for installations with no internet connectivity
External contributor Update Server
Cellular Modem VSAT Main (Gateway) Drum installation Stores locally available content and serves to connected facilities 802.11 Wireless link
802.11 Wireless link 802.11 Wireless link PTC
802.11 Wireless link Health Center Community Center
When Internet connectivity is provided,data collection and distribution are handled automatically
20 week drum production timeline
SEPTEMBER week 1 define weeknesses in current design and engineer solutions for next iteration week 2 week 3 week 4 OCTOBER week 5 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY week 6 week 7 week 8 week 9 week 10 week 12 week 13 week 14 week 15 define weeknesses in current design and engineer solutions for deploy and field testlimited deployment (4-5 units) next iteration week 16 week 17 FEBRUARY week 18 week 19 week 20
Drum hardware development
build and document limited number of prototypes (4-5 units)
Build and document large scale deployment (25-50 units)
Note: This timeline is dependant on all materials and equipment being available at the start of production cycle (week2 and week 16). Any delays in procurement or delivery of components will cause a similar delay in production.
General conﬁguration of second revision Digital Drum prototype
Electrical and network system block diagram
12V DC Power Voltage and Amperage sensors
USB or Serial Communication
Backhaul wireless 5Ghz 802.11a 100 Mbps Ethernet Gateway Computer with cellular modem
100 Mbps Ethernet
!00 Mbps Ethernet switch
Local wireless 2.4Ghz 802.11b/g
2 USB connectors for handset charging
Power control and sensor schematic for Digital Drum
+12V 1K VR Hall Effect Sensor
8.2K v+ vLM324 Arduino analog in Arduino GND
100K Pot Sensor Schematic for battery voltage monitoring and load current monitoring
Voltage spike protection Load Driver circuit
Arduino Digital I/O Arduino ground Grayhill 70-ODC5 Relay schematic for controlling loads
Basic Solar powered "Digital Drum" installation with local and long-distance wireless links, fully self-contained power
Rugged community computer (as we are focusing on the components, I will not
estimate the cost of the shell of this unit) 2 pcs OIT LITE vandal-resistant keyboards with P.O.M. keys & integrated touchpad (1) 2 pcs WinMate R15I93S-OFA2 Panel PC - (2) 1 pc GSM/GPRS/HSDPA cellular modem (usb with external antenna) Such as ZadaCOM 3G+ 7.2 (3) 1 pcs B&B Electronics EIR205 5 port ethernet switch (4) or Garrettcom S14H-12VDC Ethernet switch (5) 1 pc Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller (6) 1 pc Arduino Ethernet shield (7) 2 pcs Bulgin PX0839/IDC IP68 Ethernet connectors (8) 2 pcs Bulgin PX0845/A IP68 USB connectors (9) 4 pcs Bulgin PX0713 Caps for IP68 connectors (10)
1 1 1 1 pc pc pc pc Ubiquiti Bullet 2HP (11) 7 dbi omni directional antenna w/ Female N connector Ubiquiti Bullet M5 (13) 29dbi parabolic antenna w/ female N connector (14)
Phocos CX20 Charge controller (15) 3 pcs ~125 W solar modules (or equivalent 350W+) (16) 4 pcs 31.6Ah 12V Gel (maintenance-free) deep cycle batteries (Deka 8GU1-DEKA or equivalent 125Ah+) (17)
4 pcs 30V 3A schottky diodes - ST Microelectronics 1N5821 or similar (18) 20 meters 24 gauge solid copper cat5e or cat6 (19) 20 meters 10 gauge (3.25mm - 3.5mm) two conductor copper power leads for solar system (20) 32 Amp 2 pole 12-24VDC DIN rail-mount circuit breaker - CHINT NB1-B32-2P or equivalent (21) 5 pcs MAX232 (22) 1 pc Arduino Screw Shield (23) 1 meter DIN rail (35mm standard height) (24) 4 Pcs 3-60VDC 3.5A solid state relay - Grayhill 70-ODC5 or equivilent (25)
http://www.oitkeypad.com/pdf/QVPPlastickeyfront.pdf http://www.winmate.com.tw/PanelPc/ PPcSpec.asp?Prod=03_0581&Typeid=B0108010901&Typeid=B0108010901 (3) http://shop.zadako.com/hsdpa_3g_modemy/usb/zadacom_3g_plus_7.2.html
http://www.bb-elec.com/ product_multi_family.asp?MultiFamilyId=68&TrailType=Sub&Trail=4 (5) http://www.garrettcom.com/s14.htm (6) http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardDuemilanove (7) http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9026 (8) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer_Ethernet.html (9) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer_USB.html (10) http://www.bulgin.co.uk/Products/Buccaneer/Buccaneer.html (11) http://ubnt.com/bullet (12) http://lairdtech.thomasnet.com/item/ice-provider-wisp-base-station-and-clientantennas/omnidirectional-antennas/od24-9?&seo=110 (13) http://ubnt.com/bulletm (14) http://www.mtiwe.com/uploads/product/485.pdf (15) http://www.phocos.com/datasheet_sm_cx.html (16) http://www.bp.com/ sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9019638&contentId=7036951 (17) http://www.eastpenn-deka.com/default.aspx?pageid=443 (18) http://mouser.com/ProductDetail/STMicroelectronics/1N5821/ ?qs=sGAEpiMZZMutXGli8Ay4kOnWbBYZueaHA8JfCq5pWm4%3d (19) locally sourced (20) locally sourced (21) http://www.bb-elec.com/bb-elec/literature/NB1-63_CircuitBreakers.pdf (22) need to speak to J-M about exact part numbers for this (23) http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=9282 (24) http://www.bb-elec.com/bb-elec/literature/ers35.pdf (25) http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=GH7019-ND
Costs: 1. $200/ea - $400 2. $1,150/ea - $2,300 (includes $800/ea base price and $350/ea shipping to Uganda) 3. $215 4. $89 5. $100 6. $45 7. $50 8. $20/ea - $40 9. $10/ea - $20 10. $6/ea - $24 11. $80 12. $60 13. $80 14. $80 15. $100 16. $650/ea - $1950 17. $100/ea - $400 18. $0.50/ea - $2 19. $ 20. $ 21. $15 22. $ 23. $15 24. $10 25. $10/ea - $40
Other Potential Keyboard vendors: Key Tek K-TEK-B420TP http://www.key-tek.cn/en/productsview.asp?id=174 iKey PMU-5K-TP2 http://www.ikey.com/ProductsList/ index.aspx?productID=45&menu=1&prodListID=2&
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