C++ Basics

March 10th

A C++ program
//if necessary include headers //#include <foo.h> void main() { //variable declaration //read values input from user //computation //print output to user } Notes: ‡ what follows after // on the same line is considered comment ‡ indentation is for the reader; compiler ignores all spaces and new line ; the delimiter for the compiler is the semicolon ‡ all statements ended by ; ‡ Lower vs. upper case matters!! ± Void is different than void ± Main is different that main

Variable declaration
type variable-name; Meaning: variable <variable-name> will be a variable of type <type> Where type can be: ± int ± double ± char

//integer //real number //character

Example: int a, b, c; double x; int sum; char my-character;

Input statements
cin >> variable-name; Meaning: read the value of variable <variable-name> from the user

Example: cin >> a; cin >> b >> c; cin >> x; cin >> my-character;

Output statements
cout << variable-name; Meaning: print the value of variable <variable-name> to the user cout << ³any message ³; Meaning: print the message within quotes to the user cout << endl; Meaning: print a new line Example: cout << a; cout << b << c; cout << ³This is my character: ³ << my-character << ³ he he he´ << endl;

If statements
True
if (condition) { S1; } else { S2; } S3;
condition

False

S1

S2

S3

Boolean conditions
..are built using ‡ Comparison operators == equal != not equal < less than > greater than <= less than or equal >= greater than or equal ‡ Boolean operators && and || or ! not

Examples
Assume we declared the following variables: int a = 2, b=5, c=10; Here are some examples of boolean conditions we can use: ‡ if (a == b) « ‡ if (a != b) « ‡ if (a <= b+c) « ‡ if(a <= b) && (b <= c) « ‡ if !((a < b) && (b<c)) «

If example
#include <iostream.h> void main() { int a,b,c; cin >> a >> b >> c; if (a <=b) { cout << ³min is ³ << a << endl; } else { cout << ³ min is ³ << b << endl; } cout << ³happy now?´ << endl; }

While statements
while (condition) { S1; } S2;
True
condition

False

S1

S2

While example
//read 100 numbers from the user and output their sum #include <iostream.h> void main() { int i, sum, x; sum=0; i=1; while (i <= 100) { cin >> x; sum = sum + x; i = i+1; } cout << ³sum is ³ << sum << endl; }

Arrays
Used to store a collection of elements (variables) type array-name[size]; Meaning: This declares a variable called <array-name> which contains <size> elements of type <type> The elements of an array can be accessed as: array-name[0],«arrayname[size-1] Example: int a[100]; //a is a list of 100 integers, a[0], a[1], «a[99] double b[50]; char c[10];

Array example
//Read 100 numbers from the user #include <iostream.h> void main() { int i, a[100], n; i=0; n=100; while (i<n) { cout << ³Input element ³ << i << ³: ´; cin >> a[i]; i = i+1; } //do somehing with it .. }

Problems
Write a C++ program to read a sequence of (non-negative) integers from the user ending with a negative integer and write out ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ the average of the numbers the smallest number the largest number the range of the numbers (largest - smallest)

‡ Example:
± The user enters: 3, 1, 55, 89, 23, 45, -1 ± Your program should compute X{3, 1, 55, 89, 23, 45}

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