Steel Connections -II

Welding

1

Design of Steel Structures Durgesh C. Rai Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur

Basics • Field welded truss

2

Basics…

• Welds seem simpler, but…
– Large welding required at each connection – Need for following a predetermined weld sequence

3

Basics…

• Types of welded joints
Butt

Lap

Edge

Tee
4

Corner

Basics…

• Types of welds

5

Basics…

• Types of Groove Welds

6

Basics…

• Types of Fillet welds

7

Basics…

• Types of welding technology
– Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

Electrical circuit Electrical circuit
8

Basics…

• Types of welding technology…
– Submerged arc welding (SAW)

9

Basics…

• Types of welding technology…
– Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding

10

Basics…

• Types of welding technology…
– Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) – Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding

11

Basics…

• Welding machines …
– Manual to Fully Automatic Equipment

12

Basics…

• Choosing an Electrode

13

Basics…

• Positions of welding electrode

14

Basics…

• Welding Symbols

15

Basics…

• Welding Symbols

6

150

6

150

8 12

150 150

6

6

150

16

Process OF Welding • Edge preparations for groove welds

17

Quality of WeldING • Possible weld defects

18

Quality OF Welding…

• Preferred weld profile
– For better flow of forces

Poor Poor

19

Good Good

Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…
Fillet Weld Fillet Weld Groove Weld Groove Weld

20

Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…

1.5-2mm

21

Quality OF Welding…

• Weld profile…

22

Quality OF Welding…

• Weld problems…

23

Quality OF Welding…

• Checking size of fillet welds
– Weld inspection gauge

Tolerance
24

Problems of welding • Heat affected zone
– Material properties are changed

Base metal

Fusion zone

25

Heat affected zone

Problems of welding…

• Distortion and dimensional changes
– Unsymmetric welds

Angular distortion

26

Process OF Welding…

• Distortion due to welding

Curvature developed after welding Curvature developed after welding

– Sequence of intermittent welds to avoid weld-induced curvature

or

or

27

Problems of welding…

• Distortion and dimensional changes…
– Unsymmetric welds

28

Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints

29

Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints

30

Problems of welding…

• Internal stresses
– Weld restraints
• One solution

31

Problems of welding…

• Closing welds in indeterminate structures
– Weld and base metals contract on cooling
• Accompanied by yielding, cracking or elongation of members

32

Problems of welding…

• Avoid problems of closing welds…
– Use proper weld sequence – Adopt prescribed number of passes for a required total weld size – Allow the prescribed cooling time after each weld

33

Problems of welding…

• Lamellar tearing due to shrinkage of welds

34

Problems of welding…

• How to reduce lamellar tearing

35

Problems of welding…

• Residual stresses in welded sections
– Comparable to that in hot-rolled sections

36

Problems of welding…

• Beam bottom flange welding - a challenge
– Weld access hole, cope and backup bar required – Un-fused interface at bottom of back-up bar
• Potential crack initiation of CJP weld

Weld Access Hole

Cope CJP Weld Backup Bar Un-Fused Interface Detail A
37

Beam Column Detail A

Problems of welding…

• Performance of Welds
– Tri-axial state of stress at column face
• Avoid high stresses in welds
Yield stress σy/2 is not reached in shear; brittle fracture
τ
σ2

τ σy/2 τmax

σu/2 σy/2
σ1 σ2 = σ3 = 0

σ 1 = σy

σ σ1 = σu

σ3

σ2

σy

σ1

σu

σ

σ3

38

Uni-axial Stresses Uni-axial Stresses

Tri-axial Stresses Tri-axial Stresses

Problems of welding…

• Welding is difficult in tapered sections
– Only obtuse-angled small-thickness weld possible at tapered tip
• Use parallel flange sections

Cover plate I-section
Only small thickness weld possible

Cover plate I-section

Proper welds possible

39

Structural welds • Design of welds
Butt Weld Butt Weld

Fillet Fillet Weld Weld
40

Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes
– Fillet Welds
• Max. size:
smax = t-1.5 mm for square edges of t > 6 mm smax = t for square edges of t < 6 mm smax = 0.75t for the rounded edges of rolled sections
Cl. 10.5.8

41

Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes …
– Fillet Welds
• Max. size:
End fillet weld normal to force direction Throat thickness not less than 0.5t
[ Cl. 10.5.8.5 ]

42

Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes…
– Fillet Welds
• Min. size:
smin = 3 mm for tmax ≤ 10 mm smin = 5 mm for 10 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 20 mm smin = 6 mm for 20 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 32 mm smin = 8 mm for the first run and 10 mm for 32 mm ≤ tmax ≤ 40 mm [ Cl. 10.5.2.3 ] Table 21

43

Structural Design of welds …

• Weld sizes …
– Butt Welds
• Min. groove depths for different situations applicable

– End returns: min of 2 times weld size – Min length Lmin = max (4 s, 40 mm) – Lap Joints: min. lap length Llap = 4t min or 40 mm

44

Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds
s

s

s s

s

lw

45

Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds …
– Due to individual forces

N
s

f a = N /(lwtt ) q = Q /(lwtt )

Axial force Shear force
[ Cl. 10.5.9 ]

s s

s =sK

Q

s

lw

46

Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Fillet Welds …
– Due to combination of stresses
[ Cl. 10.5.10 ]

Combined normal and shear stresses

fe =

fu f + 3q ≤ 3γ mw
2 a 2

[ Cl. 10.5.10.1.1 ]

Fillet Weld Fillet Weld
47

Structural Design of welds…

• Stresses in Butt Welds …
– Due to combination of stresses
Butt Weld Butt Weld Combined bearing, shear and bending
[ Cl. 10.5.10 ]

fe =

2 f b2 + f br + f b f br + 3q 2

[ Cl. 10.5.10.1.1 ]

48

Structural design of welds…

• Design of fillet weld connection – Design strength Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw
Effective throat area Design stress

[ Cl. 10.5.7.1.1 ]

f wd = f wn γ mw

γ mf =
f wn
49

1.25 1.50

Shop welds Field welds

fu = ; f u = m in( f uw , f up ) 3

Structural design of welds…

• Design of fillet weld connection … – Design strength
Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw
[ Cl. 10.5.7.3 ]

Reduction factor for long joints

β lw = 1.2 −

0.2 l j 150tt

≤ 1.0

50

Structural design of welds…

• Design of butt weld connection – Design strength
Rwdb = (lwtt ) f wdb β lw
Effective throat area With throat thickness equal to tickness of plate [ Cl. 10.5.7.1.1 ]

Design stress

f wdb = f wnb γ mw

γ mf =

1.25 1.50

Shop welds Field welds

f wn = f u = m in( f uw , f up )
51

Structural design of welds…

• Design Example of fillet weld connection
Design weld on face AB and GF with no eccentricity, plate thickness is 16mm
Strength per unit length for 6 mm weld Ex50xx and E250(Fe410) plates, shop welds

Rwdf = (lwtt ) f wdf β lw
Rwdf = 1 × (0.7 × 6mm) × 410 MPa = 0.8 kN / mm 3 × 1.25

160 kN

Eqm. requires

FAB + FGF = 160 kN
LAB + LGF = 160 kN /0.8kN / mm = 200mm

A
0.8kN/mm LAB
75 mm 160 200 mm 125mm

Moment condition requires

FAB (75mm) = FGF (125mm) LAB = (5 /3) LGF
Solving A and B
52

kN

B

LAB = 125mm , LGF = 75mm

0.8kN/mm LGF

Eccentric connection
• Definition
– Resultant of applied forces does not pass through the c.g. of weld group – Two types • Cause only shear in fasteners • Cause shear + tension in fasteners

P

P

M=Pe

53

Shear-only Weld Group

Shear + Tension Weld Group

Eccentric connection …

• Shear-only weld group
P P y tt z M=Pe

Resultant at point of interest

Direct Shear

Rotation Effect

f R t t = ( t t f m )2 + ( t t f c ) 2

P fc = lw t t

fm =

( Pe ) ri ( Pe ) ri ( Pe ) ri = 2 = J ∫ r dA I z + I y
A

54

Based on shaft torsion analogy

Eccentric connection …

• Shear +Tension bolt group
e P c Pe P

=
Resultant at a point of interest

NA

+
Direct Shear

Bending behaviour (elastic)

Locate NA, i.e., c

f R t t = ( t t f m )2 + ( t t f c )2

∫t x
t

wt

dx = ∫ tt x wc dx

55

Tensile stress at a point ( Pe )y fm = I na

P fc = lw t t

56

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful