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(Version 2.0)

American Mathematical Society

1999-12-13 (revised 2002-02-25)

ii CONTENTS

Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Options for the amsmath package 2

3 Displayed equations 3

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3.2 Single equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3.3 Split equations without alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3.4 Split equations with alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3.5 Equation groups without alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.6 Equation groups with mutual alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.7 Alignment building blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3.8 Adjusting tag placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.9 Vertical spacing and page breaks in multiline displays . . . . . . 8

3.10 Interrupting a display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.11 Equation numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

4 Miscellaneous mathematical features 10

4.1 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4.2 Math spacing commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4.3 Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4.4 Nonbreaking dashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.5 Accents in math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.6 Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.7 Boxed formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.8 Over and under arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.9 Extensible arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.10 Aﬃxing symbols to other symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.11 Fractions and related constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4.12 Continued fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4.13 Smash options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4.14 Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5 Operator names 17

5.1 Deﬁning new operator names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.2 \mod and its relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

6 The \text command 18

CONTENTS iii

7 Integrals and sums 19

7.1 Multiline subscripts and superscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

7.2 The \sideset command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

7.3 Placement of subscripts and limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

7.4 Multiple integral signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

8 Commutative diagrams 20

9 Using math fonts 21

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

9.2 Recommended use of math font commands . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

9.3 Bold math symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

9.4 Italic Greek letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

10 Error messages and output problems 23

10.1 General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

10.2 Error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

10.3 Warning messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10.4 Wrong output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

11 Additional information 30

11.1 Converting existing documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

11.2 Technical notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

11.3 Getting help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

11.4 Of possible interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Bibliography 31

Index 33

iv CONTENTS

1

—1—

Introduction

The amsmath package is a L

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X package that provides miscellaneous enhance-

ments for improving the information structure and printed output of documents

that contain mathematical formulas. Readers unfamiliar with L

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X should refer

to [7]. If you have an up-to-date version of L

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X, the amsmath package is nor-

mally provided along with it. Upgrading when a newer version of the amsmath

package is released can be done via http://www.ams.org/tex/amsmath.html

or ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/.

This documentation describes the features of the amsmath package and dis-

cusses how they are intended to be used. It also covers some ancillary packages:

amsbsy amstext

amscd amsxtra

amsopn

These all have something to do with the contents of math formulas. For infor-

mation on extra math symbols and math fonts, see [1] and http://www.ams.

org/tex/amsfonts.html. For documentation of the amsthm package or AMS

document classes (amsart, amsbook, etc.) see [3] or [2] and http://www.ams.

org/tex/author-info.html.

If you are a long-time L

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X user and have lots of mathematics in what you

write, then you may recognize solutions for some familiar problems in this list

of amsmath features:

• A convenient way to deﬁne new ‘operator name’ commands analogous to

\sin and \lim, including proper side spacing and automatic selection of

the correct font style and size (even when used in sub- or superscripts).

• Multiple substitutes for the eqnarray environment to make various kinds

of equation arrangements easier to write.

• Equation numbers automatically adjust up or down to avoid overprinting

on the equation contents (unlike eqnarray).

• Spacing around equals signs matches the normal spacing in the equation

environment (unlike eqnarray).

• A way to produce multiline subscripts as are often used with summation

or product symbols.

• An easy way to substitute a variant equation number for a given equation

instead of the automatically supplied number.

• An easy way to produce subordinate equation numbers of the form (1.3a)

(1.3b) (1.3c) for selected groups of equations.

The amsmath package is distributed together with some small auxiliary pack-

ages:

amsmath Primary package, provides various features for displayed equations and

other mathematical constructs.

2 2. OPTIONS FOR THE AMSMATH PACKAGE

amstext Provides a \text command for typesetting a fragment of text inside

a display.

amsopn Provides \DeclareMathOperator for deﬁning new ‘operator names’ like

\sin and \lim.

amsbsy For backward compatibility this package continues to exist but use of

the newer bm package that comes with L

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X is recommended instead.

amscd Provides a CD environment for simple commutative diagrams (no support

for diagonal arrows).

amsxtra Provides certain odds and ends such as \fracwithdelims and \ac-

centedsymbol, for compatibility with documents created using version

1.1.

The amsmath package incorporates amstext, amsopn, and amsbsy. The fea-

tures of amscd and amsxtra, however, are available only by invoking those

packages separately.

—2—

Options for the amsmath package

The amsmath package has the following options:

centertags (default) For a split equation, place equation numbers vertically

centered on the total height of the equation.

tbtags ‘Top-or-bottom tags’: For a split equation, place equation numbers level

with the last (resp. ﬁrst) line, if numbers are on the right (resp. left).

sumlimits (default) Place the subscripts and superscripts of summation sym-

bols above and below, in displayed equations. This option also aﬀects

other symbols of the same type—

¸

,

¸

,

¸

,

¸

, and so forth—but exclud-

ing integrals (see below).

nosumlimits Always place the subscripts and superscripts of summation-type

symbols to the side, even in displayed equations.

intlimits Like sumlimits, but for integral symbols.

nointlimits (default) Opposite of intlimits.

namelimits (default) Like sumlimits, but for certain ‘operator names’ such as

det, inf, lim, max, min, that traditionally have subscripts placed under-

neath when they occur in a displayed equation.

nonamelimits Opposite of namelimits.

To use one of these package options, put the option name in the optional ar-

gument of the \usepackage command—e.g., \usepackage[intlimits]{amsmath}.

The amsmath package also recognizes the following options which are nor-

mally selected (implicitly or explicitly) through the \documentclass command,

and thus need not be repeated in the option list of the \usepackage{amsmath}

statement.

3.2. SINGLE EQUATIONS 3

leqno Place equation numbers on the left.

reqno Place equation numbers on the right.

fleqn Position equations at a ﬁxed indent from the left margin rather than

centered in the text column.

—3—

Displayed equations

3.1 Introduction

The amsmath package provides a number of additional displayed equation struc-

tures beyond the ones provided in basic L

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X. The augmented set includes:

equation equation* align align*

gather gather* flalign flalign*

multline multline* alignat alignat*

split

(Although the standard eqnarray environment remains available, it is better to

use align or equation+split instead.)

Except for split, each environment has both starred and unstarred forms,

where the unstarred forms have automatic numbering using L

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X’s equation

counter. You can suppress the number on any particular line by putting \notag

before the \\; you can also override it with a tag of your own using \tag{'label `},

where 'label ` means arbitrary text such as $*$ or ii used to “number” the

equation. There is also a \tag* command that causes the text you supply to

be typeset literally, without adding parentheses around it. \tag and \tag*

can also be used within the unnumbered versions of all the amsmath alignment

structures. Some examples of the use of \tag may be found in the sample ﬁles

testmath.tex and subeqn.tex provided with the amsmath package.

The split environment is a special subordinate form that is used only inside

one of the others. It cannot be used inside multline, however.

In the structures that do alignment (split, align and variants), relation

symbols have an & before them but not after—unlike eqnarray. Putting the

& after the relation symbol will interfere with the normal spacing; it has to go

before.

3.2 Single equations

The equation environment is for a single equation with an automatically gen-

erated number. The equation* environment is the same except for omitting

the number.

1

1

Basic L

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X doesn’t provide an equation* environment, but rather a functionally equiv-

alent environment named displaymath.

4 3. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS

Table 3.1. Comparison of displayed equation environments (vertical lines in-

dicating nominal margins)

\begin{equation*}

a=b

\end{equation*}

a = b

\begin{equation}

a=b

\end{equation}

(1) a = b

\begin{equation}\label{xx}

\begin{split}

a& =b+c-d\\

& \quad +e-f\\

& =g+h\\

& =i

\end{split}

\end{equation}

a = b +c −d

+e −f

= g +h

= i

(2)

\begin{multline}

a+b+c+d+e+f\\

+i+j+k+l+m+n

\end{multline}

(3) a +b +c +d +e +f

+i +j +k +l +m+n

\begin{gather}

a_1=b_1+c_1\\

a_2=b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2

\end{gather}

a

1

= b

1

+c

1

(4)

a

2

= b

2

+c

2

−d

2

+e

2

(5)

\begin{align}

a_1& =b_1+c_1\\

a_2& =b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2

\end{align}

a

1

= b

1

+c

1

(6)

a

2

= b

2

+c

2

−d

2

+e

2

(7)

\begin{align}

a_{11}& =b_{11}&

a_{12}& =b_{12}\\

a_{21}& =b_{21}&

a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}

\end{align}

a

11

= b

11

a

12

= b

12

(8)

a

21

= b

21

a

22

= b

22

+c

22

(9)

\begin{flalign*}

a_{11}& =b_{11}&

a_{12}& =b_{12}\\

a_{21}& =b_{21}&

a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}

\end{flalign*}

a

11

= b

11

a

12

= b

12

a

21

= b

21

a

22

= b

22

+c

22

3.4. SPLIT EQUATIONS WITH ALIGNMENT 5

3.3 Split equations without alignment

The multline environment is a variation of the equation environment used for

equations that don’t ﬁt on a single line. The ﬁrst line of a multline will be at

the left margin and the last line at the right margin, except for an indention on

both sides in the amount of \multlinegap. Any additional lines in between will

be centered independently within the display width (unless the fleqn option is

in eﬀect).

Like equation, multline has only a single equation number (thus, none

of the individual lines should be marked with \notag). The equation number

is placed on the last line (reqno option) or ﬁrst line (leqno option); vertical

centering as for split is not supported by multline.

It’s possible to force one of the middle lines to the left or right with com-

mands \shoveleft, \shoveright. These commands take the entire line as an

argument, up to but not including the ﬁnal \\; for example

(3.10) A

B

C

D

\begin{multline}

\framebox[.65\columnwidth]{A}\\

\framebox[.5\columnwidth]{B}\\

\shoveright{\framebox[.55\columnwidth]{C}}\\

\framebox[.65\columnwidth]{D}

\end{multline}

The value of \multlinegap can be changed with the usual L

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\setlength or \addtolength.

3.4 Split equations with alignment

Like multline, the split environment is for single equations that are too long

to ﬁt on one line and hence must be split into multiple lines. Unlike multline,

however, the split environment provides for alignment among the split lines,

using & to mark alignment points. Unlike the other amsmath equation structures,

the split environment provides no numbering, because it is intended to be used

only inside some other displayed equation structure, usually an equation, align,

or gather environment, which provides the numbering. For example:

H

c

=

1

2n

n

¸

l=0

(−1)

l

(n −l)

p−2

¸

l1+···+lp=l

p

¸

i=1

n

i

l

i

[(n −l) −(n

i

−l

i

)]

ni−li

(n −l)

2

−

p

¸

j=1

(n

i

−l

i

)

2

.

(3.11)

6 3. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS

\begin{equation}\label{e:barwq}\begin{split}

H_c&=\frac{1}{2n} \sum^n_{l=0}(-1)^{l}(n-{l})^{p-2}

\sum_{l _1+\dots+ l _p=l}\prod^p_{i=1} \binom{n_i}{l _i}\\

&\quad\cdot[(n-l )-(n_i-l _i)]^{n_i-l _i}\cdot

\Bigl[(n-l )^2-\sum^p_{j=1}(n_i-l _i)^2\Bigr].

\end{split}\end{equation}

The split structure should constitute the entire body of the enclosing struc-

ture, apart from commands like \label that produce no visible material.

3.5 Equation groups without alignment

The gather environment is used for a group of consecutive equations when there

is no alignment desired among them; each one is centered separately within

the text width (see Table 3.1). Equations inside gather are separated by a

\bslash command. Any equation in a gather may consist of a \begin{split}

. . . \end{split} structure—for example:

\begin{gather}

first equation\\

\begin{split}

second & equation\\

& on two lines

\end{split}

\\

third equation

\end{gather}

3.6 Equation groups with mutual alignment

The align environment is used for two or more equations when vertical align-

ment is desired; usually binary relations such as equal signs are aligned (see

Table 3.1).

To have several equation columns side-by-side, use extra ampersands to sep-

arate the columns:

x = y X = Y a = b +c (3.12)

x

= y

X

= Y

a

= b (3.13)

x +x

= y +y

X +X

= Y +Y

a

b = c

b (3.14)

\begin{align}

x&=y & X&=Y & a&=b+c\\

x’&=y’ & X’&=Y’ & a’&=b\\

x+x’&=y+y’ & X+X’&=Y+Y’ & a’b&=c’b

\end{align}

Line-by-line annotations on an equation can be done by judicious application of

3.7. ALIGNMENT BUILDING BLOCKS 7

\text inside an align environment:

x = y

1

−y

2

+y

3

−y

5

+y

8

−. . . by (3.21) (3.15)

= y

◦ y

∗

by (4.1) (3.16)

= y(0)y

by Axiom 1. (3.17)

\begin{align}

x& = y_1-y_2+y_3-y_5+y_8-\dots

&& \text{by \eqref{eq:C}}\\

& = y’\circ y^* && \text{by \eqref{eq:D}}\\

& = y(0) y’ && \text {by Axiom 1.}

\end{align}

A variant environment alignat allows the horizontal space between equations

to be explicitly speciﬁed. This environment takes one argument, the number of

“equation columns”: count the maximum number of &s in any row, add 1 and

divide by 2.

x = y

1

−y

2

+y

3

−y

5

+y

8

−. . . by (3.21) (3.18)

= y

◦ y

∗

by (4.1) (3.19)

= y(0)y

by Axiom 1. (3.20)

\begin{alignat}{2}

x& = y_1-y_2+y_3-y_5+y_8-\dots

&\quad& \text{by \eqref{eq:C}}\\

& = y’\circ y^* && \text{by \eqref{eq:D}}\\

& = y(0) y’ && \text {by Axiom 1.}

\end{alignat}

3.7 Alignment building blocks

Like equation, the multi-equation environments gather, align, and alignat

are designed to produce a structure whose width is the full line width. This

means, for example, that one cannot readily add parentheses around the entire

structure. But variants gathered, aligned, and alignedat are provided whose

total width is the actual width of the contents; thus they can be used as a

component in a containing expression. E.g.,

B

= −∂ E,

E

= ∂ B −4πj,

¸

Maxwell’s equations

\begin{equation*}

\left.\begin{aligned}

B’&=-\partial\times E,\\

E’&=\partial\times B - 4\pi j,

\end{aligned}

\right\}

\qquad \text{Maxwell’s equations}

\end{equation*}

8 3. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS

Like the array environment, these -ed variants also take an optional [t] or

[b] argument to specify vertical positioning.

“Cases” constructions like the following are common in mathematics:

(3.21) P

r−j

=

0 if r −j is odd,

r! (−1)

(r−j)/2

if r −j is even.

and in the amsmath package there is a cases environment to make them easy

to write:

P_{r-j}=\begin{cases}

0& \text{if $r-j$ is odd},\\

r!\,(-1)^{(r-j)/2}& \text{if $r-j$ is even}.

\end{cases}

Notice the use of \text (cf. '6) and the nested math formulas.

3.8 Adjusting tag placement

Placing equation numbers can be a rather complex problem in multiline displays.

The environments of the amsmath package try hard to avoid overprinting an

equation number on the equation contents, if necessary moving the number

down or up to a separate line. Diﬃculties in accurately calculating the proﬁle of

an equation can occasionally result in number movement that doesn’t look right.

There is a \raisetag command provided to adjust the vertical position of the

current equation number, if it has been shifted away from its normal position.

To move a particular number up by six points, write \raisetag{6pt}. This

kind of adjustment is ﬁne tuning like line breaks and page breaks, and should

therefore be left undone until your document is nearly ﬁnalized, or you may end

up redoing the ﬁne tuning several times to keep up with changing document

contents.

3.9 Vertical spacing and page breaks in multiline displays

You can use the \\['dimension`] command to get extra vertical space be-

tween lines in all the amsmath displayed equation environments, as is usual

in L

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X. When the amsmath package is in use page breaks between equa-

tion lines are normally disallowed; the philosophy is that page breaks in such

material should receive individual attention from the author. To get an in-

dividual page break inside a particular displayed equation, a \displaybreak

command is provided. \displaybreak is best placed immediately before the

\\ where it is to take eﬀect. Like L

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X’s \pagebreak, \displaybreak takes

an optional argument between 0 and 4 denoting the desirability of the page-

break. \displaybreak[0] means “it is permissible to break here” without

encouraging a break; \displaybreak with no optional argument is the same as

\displaybreak[4] and forces a break.

If you prefer a strategy of letting page breaks fall where they may, even in the

middle of a multi-line equation, then you might put \allowdisplaybreaks[1]

in the preamble of your document. An optional argument 1–4 can be used for

3.11. EQUATION NUMBERING 9

ﬁner control: [1] means allow page breaks, but avoid them as much as possi-

ble; values of 2,3,4 mean increasing permissiveness. When display breaks are

enabled with \allowdisplaybreaks, the \\* command can be used to prohibit

a pagebreak after a given line, as usual.

Note: Certain equation environments wrap their contents in an

unbreakable box, with the consequence that neither \displaybreak

nor \allowdisplaybreaks will have any eﬀect on them. These include

split, aligned, gathered, and alignedat.

3.10 Interrupting a display

The command \intertext is used for a short interjection of one or two lines

of text in the middle of a multiple-line display structure (see also the \text

command in '6). Its salient feature is preservation of the alignment, which

would not happen if you simply ended the display and then started it up again

afterwards. \intertext may only appear right after a \\ or \\* command.

Notice the position of the word “and” in this example.

A

1

= N

0

(λ; Ω

) −φ(λ; Ω

), (3.22)

A

2

= φ(λ; Ω

) −φ(λ; Ω), (3.23)

and

A

3

= ^(λ; ω). (3.24)

\begin{align}

A_1&=N_0(\lambda;\Omega’)-\phi(\lambda;\Omega’),\\

A_2&=\phi(\lambda;\Omega’)-\phi(\lambda;\Omega),\\

\intertext{and}

A_3&=\mathcal{N}(\lambda;\omega).

\end{align}

3.11 Equation numbering

3.11.1 Numbering hierarchy

In L

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X if you wanted to have equations numbered within sections—that is,

have equation numbers (1.1), (1.2), . . . , (2.1), (2.2), . . . , in sections 1, 2, and so

forth—you could redeﬁne \theequation as suggested in the L

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X manual [7,

'6.3, 'C.8.4]:

\renewcommand{\theequation}{\thesection.\arabic{equation}}

This works pretty well, except that the equation counter won’t be reset to

zero at the beginning of a new section or chapter, unless you do it yourself using

\setcounter. To make this a little more convenient, the amsmath package pro-

vides a command \numberwithin. To have equation numbering tied to section

numbering, with automatic reset of the equation counter, write

\numberwithin{equation}{section}

As its name implies, the \numberwithin command can be applied to any counter,

not just the equation counter.

10 4. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES

3.11.2 Cross references to equation numbers

To make cross-references to equations easier, an \eqref command is provided.

This automatically supplies the parentheses around the equation number. I.e.,

if \ref{abc} produces 3.2 then \eqref{abc} produces (3.2).

3.11.3 Subordinate numbering sequences

The amsmath package provides also a subequations environment to make it

easy to number equations in a particular group with a subordinate numbering

scheme. For example

\begin{subequations}

...

\end{subequations}

causes all numbered equations within that part of the document to be numbered

(4.9a) (4.9b) (4.9c) . . . , if the preceding numbered equation was (4.8). A \label

command immediately after \begin{subequations} will produce a \ref of the

parent number 4.9, not 4.9a. The counters used by the subequations environ-

ment are parentequation and equation and \addtocounter, \setcounter,

\value, etc., can be applied as usual to those counter names. To get anything

other than lowercase letters for the subordinate numbers, use standard L

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X

methods for changing numbering style [7, '6.3, 'C.8.4]. For example, redeﬁning

\theequation as follows will produce roman numerals.

\begin{subequations}

\renewcommand{\theequation}{\theparentequation \roman{equation}}

...

—4—

Miscellaneous mathematical features

4.1 Matrices

The amsmath package provides some environments for matrices beyond the basic

array environment of L

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X. The pmatrix, bmatrix, Bmatrix, vmatrix and

Vmatrix have (respectively) ( ), [ ], ¦ ¦, [ [, and | | delimiters built in. For

naming consistency there is a matrix environment sans delimiters. This is not

entirely redundant with the array environment; the matrix environments all

use more economical horizontal spacing than the rather prodigal spacing of the

array environment. Also, unlike the array environment, you don’t have to

give column speciﬁcations for any of the matrix environments; by default you

can have up to 10 centered columns.

2

(If you need left or right alignment in a

column or other special formats you must resort to array.)

2

More precisely: The maximum number of columns in a matrix is determined by the

counter MaxMatrixCols (normal value = 10), which you can change if necessary using L

A

T

E

X’s

\setcounter or \addtocounter commands.

4.3. DOTS 11

To produce a small matrix suitable for use in text, there is a smallmatrix

environment (e.g.,

a b

c d

**) that comes closer to ﬁtting within a single text line
**

than a normal matrix. Delimiters must be provided; there are no p,b,B,v,V

versions of smallmatrix. The above example was produced by

\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}

a&b\\ c&d

\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)

\hdotsfor{'number`} produces a row of dots in a matrix spanning the given

number of columns. For example,

a b c d

e . . . . . . .

\begin{matrix} a&b&c&d\\

e&\hdotsfor{3} \end{matrix}

The spacing of the dots can be varied through use of a square-bracket option,

for example, \hdotsfor[1.5]{3}. The number in square brackets will be used

as a multiplier (i.e., the normal value is 1.0).

(4.1)

¸

¸

¸

D

1

t −a

12

t

2

. . . −a

1n

t

n

−a

21

t

1

D

2

t . . . −a

2n

t

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

−a

n1

t

1

−a

n2

t

2

. . . D

n

t

¸

,

\begin{pmatrix} D_1t&-a_{12}t_2&\dots&-a_{1n}t_n\\

-a_{21}t_1&D_2t&\dots&-a_{2n}t_n\\

\hdotsfor[2]{4}\\

-a_{n1}t_1&-a_{n2}t_2&\dots&D_nt\end{pmatrix}

4.2 Math spacing commands

The amsmath package slightly extends the set of math spacing commands, as

shown below. Both the spelled-out and abbreviated forms of these commands

are robust, and they can also be used outside of math.

Abbrev. Spelled out Example Abbrev. Spelled out Example

no space ⇒⇐ no space ⇒⇐

\, \thinspace ⇒⇐ \! \negthinspace ⇒⇐

\: \medspace ⇒⇐ \negmedspace ⇒⇐

\; \thickspace ⇒⇐ \negthickspace ⇒⇐

\quad ⇒ ⇐

\qquad ⇒ ⇐

For the greatest possible control over math spacing, use \mspace and ‘math

units’. One math unit, or mu, is equal to 1/18 em. Thus to get a negative \quad

you could write \mspace{-18.0mu}.

4.3 Dots

For preferred placement of ellipsis dots (raised or on-line) in various contexts

there is no general consensus. It may therefore be considered a matter of taste.

By using the semantically oriented commands

12 4. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES

• \dotsc for “dots with commas”

• \dotsb for “dots with binary operators/relations”

• \dotsm for “multiplication dots”

• \dotsi for “dots with integrals”

• \dotso for “other dots” (none of the above)

instead of \ldots and \cdots, you make it possible for your document to be

adapted to diﬀerent conventions on the ﬂy, in case (for example) you have to

submit it to a publisher who insists on following house tradition in this respect.

The default treatment for the various kinds follows American Mathematical

Society conventions:

Then we have the series $A_1, A_2,

\dotsc$, the regional sum $A_1

+A_2 +\dotsb $, the orthogonal

product $A_1 A_2 \dotsm $, and

the infinite integral

\[\int_{A_1}\int_{A_2}\dotsi\].

Then we have the series A

1

, A

2

, . . . ,

the regional sum A

1

+A

2

+ , the

orthogonal product A

1

A

2

, and

the inﬁnite integral

A1

A2

.

4.4 Nonbreaking dashes

A command \nobreakdash is provided to suppress the possibility of a linebreak

after the following hyphen or dash. For example, if you write ‘pages 1–9’ as

pages 1\nobreakdash--9 then a linebreak will never occur between the dash

and the 9. You can also use \nobreakdash to prevent undesirable hyphen-

ations in combinations like $p$-adic. For frequent use, it’s advisable to make

abbreviations, e.g.,

\newcommand{\p}{$p$\nobreakdash}% for "\p-adic"

\newcommand{\Ndash}{\nobreakdash--}% for "pages 1\Ndash 9"

% For "\n dimensional" ("n-dimensional"):

\newcommand{\n}[1]{$n$\nobreakdash-\hspace{0pt}}

The last example shows how to prohibit a linebreak after the hyphen but allow

normal hyphenation in the following word. (It suﬃces to add a zero-width space

after the hyphen.)

4.5 Accents in math

In ordinary L

A

T

E

X the placement of the second accent in doubled math accents

is often poor. With the amsmath package you will get improved placement of

the second accent:

ˆ

ˆ

A (\hat{\hat{A}}).

The commands \dddot and \ddddot are available to produce triple and

quadruple dot accents in addition to the \dot and \ddot accents already avail-

able in L

A

T

E

X.

To get a superscripted hat or tilde character, load the amsxtra package and

use \sphat or \sptilde. Usage is A\sphat (note the absence of the ^ character).

To place an arbitrary symbol in math accent position, or to get under accents,

see the accents package by Javier Bezos.

4.10. AFFIXING SYMBOLS TO OTHER SYMBOLS 13

4.6 Roots

In ordinary L

A

T

E

X the placement of root indices is sometimes not so good:

β

√

k

(\sqrt[\beta]{k}). In the amsmath package \leftroot and \uproot allow

you to adjust the position of the root:

\sqrt[\leftroot{-2}\uproot{2}\beta]{k}

will move the beta up and to the right:

β

√

k. The negative argument used with

\leftroot moves the β to the right. The units are a small amount that is a

useful size for such adjustments.

4.7 Boxed formulas

The command \boxed puts a box around its argument, like \fbox except that

the contents are in math mode:

(4.2) η ≤ C(δ(η) + Λ

M

(0, δ))

\boxed{\eta \leq C(\delta(\eta) +\Lambda_M(0,\delta))}

4.8 Over and under arrows

Basic L

A

T

E

X provides \overrightarrow and \overleftarrow commands. Some

additional over and under arrow commands are provided by the amsmath package

to extend the set:

\overleftarrow \underleftarrow

\overrightarrow \underrightarrow

\overleftrightarrow \underleftrightarrow

4.9 Extensible arrows

\xleftarrow and \xrightarrow produce arrows that extend automatically to

accommodate unusually wide subscripts or superscripts. These commands take

one optional argument (the subscript) and one mandatory argument (the su-

perscript, possibly empty):

(4.3) A

n+µ−1

←−−−−− B

n±i−1

−−−−→

T

C

\xleftarrow{n+\mu-1}\quad \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i-1}

4.10 Aﬃxing symbols to other symbols

L

A

T

E

X provides \stackrel for placing a superscript above a binary relation. In

the amsmath package there are somewhat more general commands, \overset

and \underset, that can be used to place one symbol above or below another

symbol, whether it’s a relation or something else. The input \overset{*}{X}

will place a superscript-size ∗ above the X:

∗

X; \underset is the analog for

adding a symbol underneath.

See also the description of \sideset in '7.2.

14 4. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES

4.11 Fractions and related constructions

4.11.1 The \frac, \dfrac, and \tfrac commands

The \frac command, which is in the basic command set of L

A

T

E

X, takes two

arguments—numerator and denominator—and typesets them in normal fraction

form. The amsmath package provides also \dfrac and \tfrac as convenient

abbreviations for {\displaystyle\frac ... } and {\textstyle\frac ... }.

(4.4)

1

k

log

2

c(f)

1

k

log

2

c(f)

1

k

log

2

c(f)

1

k

log

2

c(f)

\begin{equation}

\frac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)\;\tfrac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)\;

\sqrt{\frac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)}\;\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)}

\end{equation}

4.11.2 The \binom, \dbinom, and \tbinom commands

For binomial expressions such as

n

k

**amsmath has \binom, \dbinom and \tbinom:
**

(4.5) 2

k

−

k

1

2

k−1

+

k

2

2

k−2

2^k-\binom{k}{1}2^{k-1}+\binom{k}{2}2^{k-2}

4.11.3 The \genfrac command

The capabilities of \frac, \binom, and their variants are subsumed by a general-

ized fraction command \genfrac with six arguments. The last two correspond

to \frac’s numerator and denominator; the ﬁrst two are optional delimiters

(as seen in \binom); the third is a line thickness override (\binom uses this to

set the fraction line thickness to 0—i.e., invisible); and the fourth argument

is a mathstyle override: integer values 0–3 select respectively \displaystyle,

\textstyle, \scriptstyle, and \scriptscriptstyle. If the third argument

is left empty, the line thickness defaults to ‘normal’.

\genfrac{left-delim}{right-delim}{thickness}{mathstyle}

{numerator}{denominator}

To illustrate, here is how \frac, \tfrac, and \binom might be deﬁned.

\newcommand{\frac}[2]{\genfrac{}{}{}{}{#1}{#2}}

\newcommand{\tfrac}[2]{\genfrac{}{}{}{1}{#1}{#2}}

\newcommand{\binom}[2]{\genfrac{(}{)}{0pt}{}{#1}{#2}}

If you ﬁnd yourself repeatedly using \genfrac throughout a document for a

particular notation, you will do yourself a favor (and your publisher) if you

deﬁne a meaningfully-named abbreviation for that notation, along the lines of

\frac and \binom.

The primitive generalized fraction commands \over, \overwithdelims, \atop,

\atopwithdelims, \above, \abovewithdelims produce warning messages if

used with the amsmath package, for reasons discussed in technote.tex.

4.14. DELIMITERS 15

4.12 Continued fractions

The continued fraction

(4.6)

1

√

2 +

1

√

2 +

1

√

2 +

can be obtained by typing

\cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+

\cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+

\cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+\dotsb

}}}

This produces better-looking results than straightforward use of \frac. Left

or right placement of any of the numerators is accomplished by using \cfrac[l]

or \cfrac[r] instead of \cfrac.

4.13 Smash options

The command \smash is used to typeset a subformula with an eﬀective height

and depth of zero, which is sometimes useful in adjusting the subformula’s

position with respect to adjacent symbols. With the amsmath package \smash

has optional arguments t and b, because occasionally it is advantageous to be

able to “smash” only the top or only the bottom of something while retaining

the natural depth or height. For example, when adjacent radical symbols are

unevenly sized or positioned because of diﬀerences in the height and depth of

their contents, \smash can be employed to make them more consistent. Compare

√

x+

√

y +

√

z and

√

x+

√

y +

√

z, where the latter was produced by $\sqrt{x}

+ \sqrt{\smash[b]{y}} + \sqrt{z}$.

4.14 Delimiters

4.14.1 Delimiter sizes

The automatic delimiter sizing done by \left and \right has two limitations:

First, it is applied mechanically to produce delimiters large enough to encompass

the largest contained item, and second, the range of sizes is not even approxi-

mately continuous but has fairly large quantum jumps. This means that a math

fragment that is inﬁnitesimally too large for a given delimiter size will get the

next larger size, a jump of 3pt or so in normal-sized text. There are two or

three situations where the delimiter size is commonly adjusted, using a set of

commands that have ‘big’ in their names.

Delimiter text \left \bigl \Bigl \biggl \Biggl

size size \right \bigr \Bigr \biggr \Biggr

Result (b)(

c

d

) (b)

c

d

b

c

d

b

c

d

b

c

d

b

c

d

**16 4. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES
**

The ﬁrst kind of situation is a cumulative operator with limits above and below.

With \left and \right the delimiters usually turn out larger than necessary,

and using the Big or bigg sizes instead gives better results:

¸

i

a

i

¸

j

x

ij

p

¸

¸

1/p

versus

¸

¸

i

a

i

¸

j

x

ij

p

1/p

\biggl[\sum_i a_i\Bigl\lvert\sum_j x_{ij}\Bigr\rvert^p\biggr]^{1/p}

The second kind of situation is clustered pairs of delimiters where \left and

\right make them all the same size (because that is adequate to cover the en-

compassed material) but what you really want is to make some of the delimiters

slightly larger to make the nesting easier to see.

((a

1

b

1

) −(a

2

b

2

)) ((a

2

b

1

) + (a

1

b

2

)) versus

(a

1

b

1

) −(a

2

b

2

)

(a

2

b

1

) + (a

1

b

2

)

**\left((a_1 b_1) - (a_2 b_2)\right)
**

\left((a_2 b_1) + (a_1 b_2)\right)

\quad\text{versus}\quad

\bigl((a_1 b_1) - (a_2 b_2)\bigr)

\bigl((a_2 b_1) + (a_1 b_2)\bigr)

The third kind of situation is a slightly oversize object in running text, such as

b

d

**where the delimiters produced by \left and \right cause too much line
**

spreading. In that case \bigl and \bigr can be used to produce delimiters that

are slightly larger than the base size but still able to ﬁt within the normal line

spacing:

b

d

.

In ordinary L

A

T

E

X \big, \bigg, \Big, and \Bigg delimiters aren’t scaled

properly over the full range of L

A

T

E

X font sizes. With the amsmath package they

are.

4.14.2 Vertical bar notations

The amsmath package provides commands \lvert, \rvert, \lVert, \rVert

(compare \langle, \rangle) to address the problem of overloading for the

vert bar character |. This character is currently used in L

A

T

E

X documents to

represent a wide variety of mathematical objects: the ‘divides’ relation in a

number-theory expression like p[q, or the absolute-value operation [z[, or the

‘such that’ condition in set notation, or the ‘evaluated at’ notation f

ζ

(t)

t=0

.

The multiplicity of uses in itself is not so bad; what is bad, however, is that fact

that not all of the uses take the same typographical treatment, and that the

complex discriminatory powers of a knowledgeable reader cannot be replicated

in computer processing of mathematical documents. It is recommended there-

fore that there should be a one-to-one correspondence in any given document

between the vert bar character | and a selected mathematical notation, and

similarly for the double-bar command \|. This immediately rules out the use

of | and \| for delimiters, because left and right delimiters are distinct usages

5.1. DEFINING NEW OPERATOR NAMES 17

that do not relate in the same way to adjacent symbols; recommended prac-

tice is therefore to deﬁne suitable commands in the document preamble for any

paired-delimiter use of vert bar symbols:

\providecommand{\abs}[1]{\lvert#1\rvert}

\providecommand{\norm}[1]{\lVert#1\rVert}

whereupon the document would contain \abs{z} to produce [z[ and \norm{v}

to produce |v|.

—5—

Operator names

5.1 Deﬁning new operator names

Math functions such as log, sin, and lim are traditionally typeset in roman type

to make them visually more distinct from one-letter math variables, which are

set in math italic. The more common ones have predeﬁned names, \log, \sin,

\lim, and so forth, but new ones come up all the time in mathematical papers,

so the amsmath package provides a general mechanism for deﬁning new ‘operator

names’. To deﬁne a math function \xxx to work like \sin, you write

\DeclareMathOperator{\xxx}{xxx}

whereupon ensuing uses of \xxx will produce xxx in the proper font and au-

tomatically add proper spacing on either side when necessary, so that you get

Axxx B instead of AxxxB. In the second argument of \DeclareMathOperator

(the name text), a pseudo-text mode prevails: the hyphen character - will print

as a text hyphen rather than a minus sign and an asterisk * will print as a raised

text asterisk instead of a centered math star. (Compare a-b*c and a − b ∗ c.)

But otherwise the name text is printed in math mode, so that you can use, e.g.,

subscripts and superscripts there.

If the new operator should have subscripts and superscripts placed in ‘limits’

position above and below as with lim, sup, or max, use the * form of the

\DeclareMathOperator command:

\DeclareMathOperator*{\Lim}{Lim}

See also the discussion of subscript placement in Section 7.3.

The following operator names are predeﬁned:

18 6. THE \TEXT COMMAND

\arccos arccos \deg deg \lg lg \projlim proj lim

\arcsin arcsin \det det \lim lim \sec sec

\arctan arctan \dim dim \liminf liminf \sin sin

\arg arg \exp exp \limsup limsup \sinh sinh

\cos cos \gcd gcd \ln ln \sup sup

\cosh cosh \hom hom \log log \tan tan

\cot cot \inf inf \max max \tanh tanh

\coth coth \injlim inj lim \min min

\csc csc \ker ker \Pr Pr

\varlimsup lim \varinjlim lim

−→

\varliminf lim \varprojlim lim

←−

There is also a command \operatorname such that using

\operatorname{abc}

in a math formula is equivalent to a use of \abc deﬁned by \DeclareMathOperator.

This may be occasionally useful for constructing more complex notation or other

purposes. (Use the variant \operatorname* to get limits.)

5.2 \mod and its relatives

Commands \mod, \bmod, \pmod, \pod are provided to deal with the special

spacing conventions of “mod” notation. \bmod and \pmod are available in L

A

T

E

X,

but with the amsmath package the spacing of \pmod will adjust to a smaller value

if it’s used in a non-display-mode formula. \mod and \pod are variants of \pmod

preferred by some authors; \mod omits the parentheses, whereas \pod omits the

“mod” and retains the parentheses.

(5.1) gcd(n, m mod n); x ≡ y (mod b); x ≡ y mod c; x ≡ y (d)

\gcd(n,m\bmod n);\quad x\equiv y\pmod b;

\quad x\equiv y\mod c;\quad x\equiv y\pod d

—6—

The \text command

The main use of the command \text is for words or phrases in a display. It

is very similar to the L

A

T

E

X command \mbox in its eﬀects, but has a couple

of advantages. If you want a word or phrase of text in a subscript, you can

type ..._{\text{word or phrase}}, which is slightly easier than the \mbox

equivalent: ..._{\mbox{\scriptsize word or phrase}}. The other advantage

is the more descriptive name.

(6.1) f

[xi−1,xi]

is monotonic, i = 1, . . . , c + 1

7.2. THE \SIDESET COMMAND 19

f_{[x_{i-1},x_i]} \text{ is monotonic,}

\quad i = 1,\dots,c+1

—7—

Integrals and sums

7.1 Multiline subscripts and superscripts

The \substack command can be used to produce a multiline subscript or su-

perscript: for example

\sum_{\substack{

0\le i\le m\\

0<j<n}}

P(i,j)

¸

0≤i≤m

0<j<n

P(i, j)

A slightly more generalized form is the subarray environment which allows you

to specify that each line should be left-aligned instead of centered, as here:

\sum_{\begin{subarray}{l}

i\in\Lambda\\ 0<j<n

\end{subarray}}

P(i,j)

¸

i∈Λ

0<j<n

P(i, j)

7.2 The \sideset command

There’s also a command called \sideset, for a rather special purpose: putting

symbols at the subscript and superscript corners of a large operator symbol such

as

¸

or

¸

. Note: this command is not designed to be applied to anything other

than sum-class symbols. The prime example is the case when you want to put

a prime on a sum symbol. If there are no limits above or below the sum, you

could just use \nolimits: here’s \sum\nolimits’ E_n in display mode:

(7.1)

¸

E

n

If, however, you want not only the prime but also something below or above the

sum symbol, it’s not so easy—indeed, without \sideset, it would be downright

diﬃcult. With \sideset, you can write

\sideset{}{’}

\sum_{n<k,\;\text{$n$ odd}} nE_n

¸

n<k, n odd

nE

n

The extra pair of empty braces is explained by the fact that \sideset has

the capability of putting an extra symbol or symbols at each corner of a large

operator; to put an asterisk at each corner of a product symbol, you would type

\sideset{_*^*}{_*^*}\prod

∗

∗

¸

∗

∗

20 8. COMMUTATIVE DIAGRAMS

7.3 Placement of subscripts and limits

The default positioning for subscripts depends on the base symbol involved. The

default for sum-class symbols is ‘displaylimits’ positioning: When a sum-class

symbol appears in a displayed formula, subscript and superscript are placed in

‘limits’ position above and below, but in an inline formula, they are placed to

the side, to avoid unsightly and wasteful spreading of the surrounding text lines.

The default for integral-class symbols is to have sub- and superscripts always to

the side, even in displayed formulas. (See the discussion of the intlimits and

related options in Section 2.)

Operator names such as sin or lim may have either ‘displaylimits’ or ‘limits’

positioning depending on how they were deﬁned. The standard operator names

are deﬁned according to normal mathematical usage.

The commands \limits and \nolimits can be used to override the normal

behavior of a base symbol:

¸

X

,

A

, lim

n→∞

To deﬁne a command whose subscripts follow the same ‘displaylimits’ behavior

as \sum, put \displaylimits at the tail end of the deﬁnition. When multiple

instances of \limits, \nolimits, or \displaylimits occur consecutively, the

last one takes precedence.

7.4 Multiple integral signs

\iint, \iiint, and \iiiint give multiple integral signs with the spacing be-

tween them nicely adjusted, in both text and display style. \idotsint is an

extension of the same idea that gives two integral signs with dots between them.

A

f(x, y) dxdy

A

f(x, y, z) dxdy dz (7.2)

A

f(w, x, y, z) dwdxdy dz

A

f(x

1

, . . . , x

k

) (7.3)

—8—

Commutative diagrams

Some commutative diagram commands like the ones in /

´

o-T

E

X are available

as a separate package, amscd. For complex commutative diagrams authors will

need to turn to more comprehensive packages like kuvio or XY-pic, but for

simple diagrams without diagonal arrows the amscd commands may be more

9.2. RECOMMENDED USE OF MATH FONT COMMANDS 21

convenient. Here is one example.

S

WΛ

⊗T

j

−−−−→ T

End P

(S ⊗T)/I (Z ⊗T)/J

\begin{CD}

S^{{\mathcal{W}}_\Lambda}\otimes T @>j>> T\\

@VVV @VV{\End P}V\\

(S\otimes T)/I @= (Z\otimes T)/J

\end{CD}

In the CD environment the commands @>>>, @<<<, @VVV, and @AAA give respec-

tively right, left, down, and up arrows. For the horizontal arrows, material

between the ﬁrst and second > or < symbols will be typeset as a superscript,

and material between the second and third will be typeset as a subscript. Sim-

ilarly, material between the ﬁrst and second or second and third As or Vs of

vertical arrows will be typeset as left or right “sidescripts”. The commands @=

and @| give horizontal and vertical double lines. A “null arrow” command @.

can be used instead of a visible arrow to ﬁll out an array where needed.

—9—

Using math fonts

9.1 Introduction

For more comprehensive information on font use in L

A

T

E

X, see the L

A

T

E

X font

guide (fntguide.tex) or The L

A

T

E

X Companion [4]. The basic set of math font

commands in L

A

T

E

X includes \mathbf, \mathrm, \mathcal, \mathsf, \mathtt,

\mathit. Additional math alphabet commands such as \mathbb for black-

board bold, \mathfrak for Fraktur, and \mathscr for Euler script are available

through the packages amsfonts and euscript (distributed separately).

9.2 Recommended use of math font commands

If you ﬁnd yourself employing math font commands frequently in your document,

you might wish that they had shorter names, such as \mb instead of \mathbf.

Of course, there is nothing to keep you from providing such abbreviations for

yourself by suitable \newcommand statements. But for L

A

T

E

X to provide shorter

names would actually be a disservice to authors, as that would obscure a much

better alternative: deﬁning custom command names derived from the names of

the underlying mathematical objects, rather than from the names of the fonts

used to distinguish the objects. For example, if you are using bold to indicate

vectors, then you will be better served in the long run if you deﬁne a ‘vector’

command instead of a ‘math-bold’ command:

22 9. USING MATH FONTS

\newcommand{\vect}[1]{\mathbf{#1}}

you can write \vect{a} + \vect{b} to produce a + b. If you decide several

months down the road that you want to use the bold font for some other purpose,

and mark vectors by a small over-arrow instead, then you can put the change

into eﬀect merely by changing the deﬁnition of \vect; otherwise you would have

to replace all occurrences of \mathbf throughout your document, perhaps even

needing to inspect each one to see whether it is indeed an instance of a vector.

It can also be useful to assign distinct command names for diﬀerent letters

of a particular font:

\DeclareSymbolFont{AMSb}{U}{msb}{m}{n}% or use amsfonts package

\DeclareMathSymbol{\C}{\mathalpha}{AMSb}{"43}

\DeclareMathSymbol{\R}{\mathalpha}{AMSb}{"52}

These statements would deﬁne the commands \C and \R to produce blackboard-

bold letters from the ‘AMSb’ math symbols font. If you refer often to the

complex numbers or real numbers in your document, you might ﬁnd this method

more convenient than (let’s say) deﬁning a \field command and writing

\field{C}, \field{R}. But for maximum ﬂexibility and control, deﬁne such a

\field command and then deﬁne \C and \R in terms of that command:

\usepackage{amsfonts}% to get the \mathbb alphabet

\newcommand{\field}[1]{\mathbb{#1}}

\newcommand{\C}{\field{C}}

\newcommand{\R}{\field{R}}

9.3 Bold math symbols

The \mathbf command is commonly used to obtain bold Latin letters in math,

but for most other kinds of math symbols it has no eﬀect, or its eﬀects depend

unreliably on the set of math fonts that are in use. For example, writing

\Delta \mathbf{\Delta}\mathbf{+}\delta \mathbf{\delta}

produces ∆∆+δδ; the \mathbf has no eﬀect on the plus sign or the small delta.

The amsmath package therefore provides two additional commands, \boldsymbol

and \pmb, that can be applied to other kinds of math symbols. \boldsymbol can

be used for a math symbol that remains unaﬀected by \mathbf if (and only if)

your current math font set includes a bold version of that symbol. \pmb can be

used as a last resort for any math symbols that do not have a true bold version

provided by your set of math fonts; “pmb” stands for “poor man’s bold” and

the command works by typesetting multiple copies of the symbol with slight

oﬀsets. The quality of the output is inferior, especially for symbols that contain

any hairline strokes. When the standard default set of L

A

T

E

X math fonts are in

use (Computer Modern), the only symbols that are likely to require \pmb are

large operator symbols like \sum, extended delimiter symbols, or the extra math

symbols provided by the amssymb package [1].

The following formula shows some of the results that are possible:

A_\infty + \pi A_0

\sim \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{\infty}} \boldsymbol{+}

10.2. ERROR MESSAGES 23

\boldsymbol{\pi} \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{0}}

\sim\pmb{A}_{\pmb{\infty}} \pmb{+}\pmb{\pi} \pmb{A}_{\pmb{0}}

A

∞

+πA

0

∼ A

∞

+πA

0

∼ AAA

∞∞∞

+++πππAAA

000

If you want to use only the \boldsymbol command without loading the whole

amsmath package, the bm package is recommended (this is a standard L

A

T

E

X

package, not an AMS package; you probably have it already if you have a 1997

or newer version of L

A

T

E

X).

9.4 Italic Greek letters

For italic versions of the capital Greek letters, the following commands are

provided:

\varGamma Γ \varSigma Σ

\varDelta ∆ \varUpsilon Υ

\varTheta Θ \varPhi Φ

\varLambda Λ \varPsi Ψ

\varXi Ξ \varOmega Ω

\varPi Π

—10—

Error messages and output problems

10.1 General remarks

This is a supplement to Chapter 8 of the L

A

T

E

X manual [7] (ﬁrst edition: Chap-

ter 6). For the reader’s convenience, the set of error messages discussed here

overlaps somewhat with the set in that chapter, but please be aware that we

don’t provide exhaustive coverage here. The error messages are arranged in

alphabetical order, disregarding unimportant text such as ! LaTeX Error: at

the beginning, and nonalphabetical characters such as \. Where examples are

given, we show also the help messages that appear on screen when you respond

to an error message prompt by entering h.

There is also a section discussing some output errors, i.e., instances where

the printed document has something wrong but there was no L

A

T

E

X error during

typesetting.

10.2 Error messages

\begin{split} won’t work here.

Example:

! Package amsmath Error: \begin{split} won’t work here.

...

l.8 \begin{split}

24 10. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS

? h

\Did you forget a preceding \begin{equation}?

If not, perhaps the ‘aligned’ environment is what you want.

?

Explanation: The split environment does not construct a stand-alone displayed

equation; it needs to be used within some other environment such as equation

or gather.

Extra & on this line

Example:

! Package amsmath Error: Extra & on this line.

See the amsmath package documentation for explanation.

Type H <return> for immediate help.

...

l.9 \end{alignat}

? h

\An extra & here is so disastrous that you should probably exit

and fix things up.

?

Explanation: In an alignat structure the number of alignment points per line

is dictated by the numeric argument given after \begin{alignat}. If you use

more alignment points in a line it is assumed that you accidentally left out a

newline command \\ and the above error is issued.

Improper argument for math accent

Example:

! Package amsmath Error: Improper argument for math accent:

(amsmath) Extra braces must be added to

(amsmath) prevent wrong output.

See the amsmath package documentation for explanation.

Type H <return> for immediate help.

...

l.415 \tilde k_{\lambda_j} = P_{\tilde \mathcal

{M}}

?

Explanation: Non-simple arguments for any L

A

T

E

X command should be enclosed

in braces. In this example extra braces are needed as follows:

... P_{\tilde{\mathcal{M}}}

Font OMX/cmex/m/n/7=cmex7 not loadable ...

Example:

10.2. ERROR MESSAGES 25

! Font OMX/cmex/m/n/7=cmex7 not loadable: Metric (TFM) file not found.

<to be read again>

relax

l.8 $a

b+b^2$

? h

I wasn’t able to read the size data for this font,

so I will ignore the font specification.

[Wizards can fix TFM files using TFtoPL/PLtoTF.]

You might try inserting a different font spec;

e.g., type ‘I\font<same font id>=<substitute font name>’.

?

Explanation: Certain extra sizes of some Computer Modern fonts that were

formerly available mainly through the AMSFonts distribution are considered

part of standard L

A

T

E

X (as of June 1994): cmex7–9, cmmib5–9, and cmbsy5–9.

If these extra sizes are missing on your system, you should try ﬁrst to get

them from the source where you obtained L

A

T

E

X. If that fails, you could try

getting the fonts from CTAN (e.g., in the form of Metafont source ﬁles, direc-

tory /tex-archive/fonts/latex/mf, or in PostScript Type 1 format, directory

/tex-archive/fonts/cm/ps-type1/bakoma).

If the font name begins with cmex, there is a special option cmex10 for

the amsmath package that provides a temporary workaround. I.e., change the

\usepackage to

\usepackage[cmex10]{amsmath}

This will force the use of the 10-point size of the cmex font in all cases. Depend-

ing on the contents of your document this may be adequate.

Math formula deleted: Insufficient extension fonts

Example:

! Math formula deleted: Insufficient extension fonts.

l.8 $ab+b^2$

?

Explanation: This usually follows a previous error Font ... not loadable; see

the discussion of that error (above) for solutions.

Missing number, treated as zero

Example:

! Missing number, treated as zero.

<to be read again>

a

l.100 \end{alignat}

? h

A number should have been here; I inserted ‘0’.

26 10. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS

(If you can’t figure out why I needed to see a number,

look up ‘weird error’ in the index to The TeXbook.)

?

Explanation: There are many possibilities that can lead to this error. However,

one possibility that is relevant for the amsmath package is that you forgot to

give the number argument of an alignat environment, as in:

\begin{alignat}

a& =b& c& =d\\

a’& =b’& c’& =d’

\end{alignat}

where the ﬁrst line should read instead

\begin{alignat}{2}

Another possibility is that you have a left bracket character [ following a

linebreak command \\ in a multiline construction such as array, tabular, or

eqnarray. This will be interpreted by L

A

T

E

X as the beginning of an ‘additional

vertical space’ request [7, 'C.1.6], even if it occurs on the following line and is

intended to be part of the contents. For example

\begin{array}

a+b\\

[f,g]\\

m+n

\end{array}

To prevent the error message in such a case, you can add braces as discussed in

the L

A

T

E

X manual [7, 'C.1.1]:

\begin{array}

a+b\\

{[f,g]}\\

m+n

\end{array}

Missing \right. inserted

Example:

! Missing \right. inserted.

<inserted text>

\right .

l.10 \end{multline}

? h

I’ve inserted something that you may have forgotten.

(See the <inserted text> above.)

With luck, this will get me unwedged. But if you

really didn’t forget anything, try typing ‘2’ now; then

my insertion and my current dilemma will both disappear.

10.2. ERROR MESSAGES 27

Explanation: This error typically arises when you try to insert a linebreak inside

a \left-\right pair of delimiters in a multline or split environment:

\begin{multline}

AAA\left(BBB\\

CCC\right)

\end{multline}

There are two possible solutions: (1) instead of using \left and \right, use

‘big’ delimiters of ﬁxed size (\bigl \bigr \biggl \biggr . . . ; see '4.14.1); or

(2) use null delimiters to break up the \left-\right pair into parts for each

line:

AAA\left(BBB\right.\\

\left.CCC\right)

The latter solution may result in mismatched delimiter sizes; ensuring that they

match requires using \vphantom in the line that has the smaller delimiter (or

possibly \smash in the line that has the larger delimiter). In the argument of

\vphantom put a copy of the tallest element that occurs in the other line, e.g.,

xxx \left(\int_t yyy\right.\\

\left.\vphantom{\int_t} zzz ... \right)

Paragraph ended before \xxx was complete

Example:

Runaway argument?

! Paragraph ended before \multline was complete.

<to be read again>

\par

l.100

? h

I suspect you’ve forgotten a ‘}’, causing me to apply this

control sequence to too much text. How can we recover?

My plan is to forget the whole thing and hope for the best.

?

Explanation: This might be produced by a misspelling in the \end{multline}

command, e.g.,

\begin{multline}

...

\end{multiline}

or by using abbreviations for certain environments, such as \bal and \eal for

\begin{align} and \end{align}:

\bal

...

\eal

28 10. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS

For technical reasons that kind of abbreviation does not work with the more

complex displayed equation environments of the amsmath package (gather,

align, split, etc.; cf. technote.tex).

Runaway argument?

See the discussion for the error message Paragraph ended before \xxx

was complete.

Unknown option ‘xxx’ for package ‘yyy’

Example:

! LaTeX Error: Unknown option ‘intlim’ for package ‘amsmath’.

...

? h

The option ‘intlim’ was not declared in package ‘amsmath’, perhaps you

misspelled its name. Try typing <return> to proceed.

?

Explanation: This means that you misspelled the option name, or the package

simply does not have an option that you expected it to have. Consult the

documentation for the given package.

Old form ‘\pmatrix’ should be \begin{pmatrix}.

Example:

! Package amsmath Error: Old form ‘\pmatrix’ should be

\begin{pmatrix}.

See the amsmath package documentation for explanation.

Type H <return> for immediate help.

...

\pmatrix ->\left (\matrix@check \pmatrix

\env@matrix

l.16 \pmatrix

{a&b\cr c&d\cr}

? h

‘\pmatrix{...}’ is old Plain-TeX syntax whose use is

ill-advised in LaTeX.

?

Explanation: When the amsmath package is used, the old forms of \pmatrix,

\matrix, and \cases cannot be used any longer because of naming conﬂicts.

Their syntax did not conform with standard L

A

T

E

X syntax in any case.

Erroneous nesting of equation structures

Example:

! Package amsmath Error: Erroneous nesting of equation structures;

(amsmath) trying to recover with ‘aligned’.

See the amsmath package documentation for explanation.

10.4. WRONG OUTPUT 29

Type H <return> for immediate help.

...

l.260 \end{alignat*}

\end{equation*}

Explanation: The structures align, alignat, etc., are designed for top-level use

and for the most part cannot be nested inside some other displayed equation

structure. The chief exception is that align and most of its variants can be

used inside the gather environment.

10.3 Warning messages

Foreign command \over [or \atop or \above]

Example:

Package amsmath Warning: Foreign command \over; \frac or \genfrac

(amsmath) should be used instead.

Explanation: The primitive generalized fraction commands of T

E

X—\over, \atop,

\above—are deprecated when the amsmath package is used because their syn-

tax is foreign to L

A

T

E

X and amsmath provides native L

A

T

E

X equivalents. See

technote.tex for further information.

Cannot use ‘split’ here

Example:

Package amsmath Warning: Cannot use ‘split’ here;

(amsmath) trying to recover with ‘aligned’

Explanation: The split environment is designed to serve as the entire body of

an equation, or an entire line of an align or gather environment. There cannot

be any printed material before or after it within the same enclosing structure:

\begin{equation}

\left\{ % <-- Not allowed

\begin{split}

...

\end{split}

\right. % <-- Not allowed

\end{equation}

10.4 Wrong output

10.4.1 Section numbers 0.1, 5.1, 8.1 instead of 1, 2, 3

This most likely means that you have the arguments for \numberwithin in

reverse order:

\numberwithin{section}{equation}

That means ‘print the section number as equation number.section number and

reset to 1 every time an equation occurs’ when what you probably wanted was

the inverse

\numberwithin{equation}{section}

30 11. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

10.4.2 The \numberwithin command had no eﬀect on equation num-

bers

Are you looking at the ﬁrst section in your document? Check the section num-

bers elsewhere to see if the problem is the one described in '10.4.1.

—11—

Additional information

11.1 Converting existing documents

11.1.1 Converting from plain L

A

T

E

X

A L

A

T

E

X document will typically continue to work the same in most respects if

\usepackage{amsmath} is added in the document preamble. By default, how-

ever, the amsmath package suppresses page breaks inside multiple-line displayed

equation structures such as eqnarray, align, and gather. To continue allowing

page breaks inside eqnarray after switching to amsmath, you will need to add

the following line in your document preamble:

\allowdisplaybreaks[1]

To ensure normal spacing around relation symbols, you might also want to

change eqnarray to align, multline, or equation/split as appropriate.

Most of the other diﬀerences in amsmath usage can be considered optional

reﬁnements, e.g., using

\DeclareMathOperator{\Hom}{Hom}

instead of \newcommand{\Hom}{\mbox{Hom}}.

11.1.2 Converting from /

´

o-L

A

T

E

X 1.1

See diffs-m.txt.

11.2 Technical notes

The ﬁle technote.tex contains some remarks on miscellaneous technical ques-

tions that are less likely to be of general interest.

11.3 Getting help

Questions or comments regarding amsmath and related packages should be sent

to:

American Mathematical Society

Technical Support

Electronic Products and Services

P. O. Box 6248

Providence, RI 02940

Phone: 800-321-4AMS (321-4267) or 401-455-4080

Internet: tech-support@ams.org

BIBLIOGRAPHY 31

If you are reporting a problem you should include the following information to

make proper investigation possible:

1. The source ﬁle where the problem occurred, preferably reduced to mini-

mum size by removing any material that can be removed without aﬀecting

the observed problem.

2. A L

A

T

E

X log ﬁle showing the error message (if applicable) and the version

numbers of the document class and option ﬁles being used.

11.4 Of possible interest

Information about obtaining AMSFonts or other T

E

X-related software from the

AMS Internet archive e-math.ams.org can be obtained by sending a request

through electronic mail to: webmaster@ams.org.

Information about obtaining the amsmath distribution on diskette from the

AMS is available from:

American Mathematical Society

Customer Services

P. O. Box 6248

Providence, RI 02940

Phone: 800-321-4AMS (321-4267) or 401-455-4000

Internet: cust-serv@ams.org

The T

E

X Users Group is a nonproﬁt organization that publishes a journal

(TUGboat), holds meetings, and serves as a clearing-house of general informa-

tion about T

E

X and T

E

X-related software.

T

E

X Users Group

PO Box 2311

Portland, OR 97208-2311

USA

Phone: +1-503-223-9994

Email: office@tug.org

Membership in the T

E

X Users Group is a good way to support continued de-

velopment of free T

E

X-related software. There are also many local T

E

X user

groups in other countries; information about contacting a local user group can

be gotten from the T

E

X Users Group.

There is a Usenet newsgroup called comp.text.tex that is a fairly good

source of information about L

A

T

E

X and T

E

X in general. If you don’t know

about reading newsgroups, check with your local system administrator to see if

newsgroup service is available at your site.

Bibliography

[1] AMSFonts version 2.2—user’s guide, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI,

1994; distributed with the AMSFonts package.

32 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[2] Instructions for preparation of papers and monographs—/

´

o-L

A

T

E

X, Amer.

Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1996, 1999.

[3] Using the amsthm Package, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1999.

[4] Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin, The L

A

T

E

X

companion, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994. [Note: The 1994 edition

is not a reliable guide for the amsmath package unless you refer to the errata

for Chapter 8—ﬁle compan.err, distributed with L

A

T

E

X.]

[5] G. Gr¨atzer, Math into L

A

T

E

X: An Introduction to L

A

T

E

X and AMS-L

A

T

E

X

http://www.ams.org/cgi-bin/bookstore/bookpromo?fn=91&arg1=

bookvideo&itmc=MLTEX, Birkh¨auser, Boston, 1995.

[6] Donald E. Knuth, The T

E

Xbook, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1984.

[7] Leslie Lamport, L

A

T

E

X: A document preparation system, 2nd revised ed.,

Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994.

[8] Frank Mittelbach and Rainer Sch¨opf, The new font family selection—user

interface to standard L

A

T

E

X, TUGboat 11, no. 2 (June 1990), pp. 297–305.

[9] Michael Spivak, The joy of T

E

X, 2nd revised ed., Amer. Math. Soc., Provi-

dence, RI, 1990.

Index

\!, 11

\,, 11

\:, 11

\;, 11

\\, 3, 5, 8, 9, 24, 26

\\*, 9

\|, 16

\above, 14, 29

\abovewithdelims, 14

\accentedsymbol, 2

accents package, 12

\addtocounter, 10

\addtolength, 5

align environment, 3, 5–7, 28–30

alignat environment, 7, 24, 26, 29

aligned environment, 7, 9

alignedat environment, 7, 9

\allowdisplaybreaks, 8, 9

amsart class, 1

amsbook class, 1

amsbsy package, 1, 2

amscd package, 1, 2, 20

amsfonts package, 21

AMSFonts collection, 25

amsmath package, i, 1–3, 5, 8–18, 22,

23, 25, 26, 28–32

amsopn package, 1, 2

amssymb package, 22

amstext package, 1, 2

amsthm package, 1, 32

amsxtra package, 1, 2, 12

\arccos, 18

\arcsin, 18

\arctan, 18

\arg, 18

array environment, 8, 10, 26

arrows

extensible, 13

in commutative diagrams, 20

\atop, 14, 29

\atopwithdelims, 14

BaKoMa fonts, 25

\big, \Big, \bigg, . . . delimiters,

16

\biggl, 27

\biggr, 27

\bigl, 27

\bigr, 27

\binom, 14

binomials, 14

bm package, 2, 23

Bmatrix environment, 10

bmatrix environment, 10

\bmod, 18

\boldsymbol, 22, 23

\boxed, 13

\bslash, 6

\C, 22

\cases, 28

cases environment, 8

CD environment, 2, 21

\cdots, 12

centertags option, 2

\cfrac, 15

cmbsy5, 25

cmex, 25

cmex10, 25

cmex7, 25

cmmib5, 25

comp.text.tex, 31

compan.err, 32

continued fractions, 15

\cos, 18

\cosh, 18

\cot, 18

\coth, 18

\csc, 18

\dbinom, 14

\ddddot, 12

\dddot, 12

\ddot, 12

\DeclareMathOperator, 2, 17, 18

33

34 INDEX

\deg, 18

\det, 18

\dfrac, 14

diffs-m.txt, 30

\dim, 18

\displaybreak, 8, 9

displayed equations, 3

displayed equations

centering, 3

\displaylimits, 20

displaymath environment, 3

\displaystyle, 14

\documentclass, 2

\dot, 12

dots, see ellipsis dots

\dotsb, 12

\dotsc, 12

\dotsi, 12

\dotsm, 12

\dotso, 12

e-math.ams.org, 31

ellipsis dots

in matrices, 11

eqnarray environment, 1, 3, 26, 30

\eqref, 10

equation environment, 1, 3, 5, 7,

24, 30

equation numbers

cross-references, 10

hierarchy, 9

left or right placement, 3

overriding, 3

subordinate numbering, 10

vertical placement, 2

equation* environment, 3

equations, see displayed equations

euscript package, 21

\exp, 18

\fbox, 13

fleqn option, 3, 5

fntguide.tex, 21

\frac, 14, 15

fractions, 14

\fracwithdelims, 2

function names, see operator names

gather environment, 5–7, 24, 28–30

gathered environment, 7, 9

\gcd, 18

\genfrac, 14

\hat, 12

\hdotsfor, 11

\hom, 18

horizontal space

around operator names, 17

in math mode, 11

\idotsint, 20

\iiiint, 20

\iiint, 20

\iint, 20

\inf, 18

\injlim, 18

integrals

multiple, 20

placement of limits, 2

\intertext, 9

intlimits option, 2, 20

\ker, 18

kuvio package, 20

\label, 6, 10

\langle, 16

\ldots, 12

\left, 15, 16, 27

\leftroot, 13

leqno option, 3, 5

\lg, 18

\lim, 1, 2, 17, 18

\liminf, 18

limits, see subscripts and superscripts

\limits, 20

\limsup, 18

\ln, 18

\log, 17, 18

\lVert, 16

\lvert, 16

math fonts, 21

INDEX 35

math symbols, see math fonts

\mathbb, 21, 22

\mathbf, 21, 22

\mathcal, 21

\mathfrak, 21

\mathit, 21

\mathrm, 21

\mathscr, 21

\mathsf, 21

\mathtt, 21

matrices, 10

ellipsis dots, 11

\matrix, 28

matrix environment, 10

\max, 18

\mbox, 18

\medspace, 11

Metafont source ﬁles, 25

\min, 18

\mod, 18

\mspace, 11

multline environment, 3, 5, 27, 30

\multlinegap, 5

namelimits option, 2

\negmedspace, 11

\negthickspace, 11

\negthinspace, 11

\newcommand, 21

\nobreakdash, 12

nointlimits option, 2

\nolimits, 19, 20

nonamelimits option, 2

nosumlimits option, 2

\notag, 3, 5

\numberwithin, 9, 29, 30

operator names, 17

\operatorname, 18

\operatorname*, 18

\over, 14, 29

\overleftarrow, 13

\overleftrightarrow, 13

\overrightarrow, 13

\overset, 13

\overwithdelims, 14

page breaks, 8

\pagebreak, 8

\pmatrix, 28

pmatrix environment, 10

\pmb, 22

\pmod, 18

\pod, 18

PostScript fonts, 25

\Pr, 18

\projlim, 18

\qquad, 11

\quad, 11

\R, 22

\raisetag, 8

\rangle, 16

\ref, 10

reqno option, 3, 5

\right, 15, 16, 27

\rVert, 16

\rvert, 16

\scriptscriptstyle, 14

\scriptstyle, 14

\sec, 18

\setcounter, 9, 10

\setlength, 5

\shoveleft, 5

\shoveright, 5

\sideset, 13, 19

\sin, 1, 2, 17, 18

\sinh, 18

smallmatrix environment, 11

\smash, 15, 27

\sphat, 12

split environment, 3, 5, 6, 9, 24,

27–30

\sptilde, 12

\stackrel, 13

subarray environment, 19

subeqn.tex, 3

subequations environment, 10

subscripts and superscripts, 13

multi-line, 19

on sums, 19

36 INDEX

placement, 2

\substack, 19

\sum, 20, 22

sumlimits option, 2

\sup, 18

superscripts, see subscripts and su-

perscripts

tabular environment, 26

\tag, 3

\tag*, 3

\tan, 18

\tanh, 18

\tbinom, 14

tbtags option, 2

technote.tex, 14, 28–30

testmath.tex, 3

T

E

X Users Group, 31

\text, 2, 7–9, 18

text fragments inside math, 9, 18

\textstyle, 14

\tfrac, 14

\theequation, 9, 10

\thickspace, 11

\thinspace, 11

TUGboat, 31

\underleftarrow, 13

\underleftrightarrow, 13

\underrightarrow, 13

\underset, 13

\uproot, 13

\usepackage, 2, 25

\value, 10

\varDelta, 23

\varGamma, 23

\varinjlim, 18

\varLambda, 23

\varliminf, 18

\varlimsup, 18

\varOmega, 23

\varPhi, 23

\varPi, 23

\varprojlim, 18

\varPsi, 23

\varSigma, 23

\varTheta, 23

\varUpsilon, 23

\varXi, 23

Vmatrix environment, 10

vmatrix environment, 10

\vphantom, 27

\xleftarrow, 13

\xrightarrow, 13

ii

CONTENTS

Contents

1 Introduction 2 Options for the amsmath package 3 Displayed equations 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Single equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Split equations without alignment . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Split equations with alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Equation groups without alignment . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Equation groups with mutual alignment . . . . . . . . 3.7 Alignment building blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Adjusting tag placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Vertical spacing and page breaks in multiline displays 3.10 Interrupting a display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 Equation numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Miscellaneous mathematical features 4.1 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Math spacing commands . . . . . . . 4.3 Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Nonbreaking dashes . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Accents in math . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Boxed formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Over and under arrows . . . . . . . . 4.9 Extensible arrows . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10 Aﬃxing symbols to other symbols . 4.11 Fractions and related constructions . 4.12 Continued fractions . . . . . . . . . . 4.13 Smash options . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14 Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 3 3 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 15

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5 Operator names 17 5.1 Deﬁning new operator names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2 \mod and its relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6 The \text command 18

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7 Integrals and sums 7.1 Multiline subscripts and superscripts 7.2 The \sideset command . . . . . . . 7.3 Placement of subscripts and limits . 7.4 Multiple integral signs . . . . . . . . 8 Commutative diagrams 9 Using math fonts 9.1 Introduction . . . . . 9.2 Recommended use of 9.3 Bold math symbols . 9.4 Italic Greek letters .

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10 Error messages and output problems 10.1 General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Warning messages . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Wrong output . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Additional information 11.1 Converting existing documents 11.2 Technical notes . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Getting help . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Of possible interest . . . . . . . Bibliography Index

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• A way to produce multiline subscripts as are often used with summation or product symbols.ams.org/tex/amsmath.3b) (1. org/tex/amsfonts. • Equation numbers automatically adjust up or down to avoid overprinting on the equation contents (unlike eqnarray).ams. including proper side spacing and automatic selection of the correct font style and size (even when used in sub. Readers unfamiliar with L TEX should refer A X. • An easy way to produce subordinate equation numbers of the form (1. • Spacing around equals signs matches the normal spacing in the equation environment (unlike eqnarray). It also covers some ancillary packages: amsbsy amscd amsopn amstext amsxtra These all have something to do with the contents of math formulas.html. • An easy way to substitute a variant equation number for a given equation instead of the automatically supplied number.org/pub/tex/. • Multiple substitutes for the eqnarray environment to make various kinds of equation arrangements easier to write.ams. The amsmath package is distributed together with some small auxiliary packages: amsmath Primary package. etc. For documentation of the amsthm package or AMS document classes (amsart.3c) for selected groups of equations.html or ftp://ftp. .or superscripts). see [1] and http://www. then you may recognize solutions for some familiar problems in this list of amsmath features: • A convenient way to deﬁne new ‘operator name’ commands analogous to \sin and \lim.3a) (1. provides various features for displayed equations and other mathematical constructs.) see [3] or [2] and http://www.1 —1— Introduction A The amsmath package is a L TEX package that provides miscellaneous enhancements for improving the information structure and printed output of documents A that contain mathematical formulas. This documentation describes the features of the amsmath package and discusses how they are intended to be used. Upgrading when a newer version of the amsmath package is released can be done via http://www. the amsmath package is norto [7]. amsbook. For information on extra math symbols and math fonts. A If you are a long-time L TEX user and have lots of mathematics in what you write.ams.html. If you have an up-to-date version of L TE mally provided along with it. org/tex/author-info.

lim. amscd Provides a CD environment for simple commutative diagrams (no support for diagonal arrows). OPTIONS FOR THE AMSMATH PACKAGE amstext Provides a \text command for typesetting a fragment of text inside a display.g. amsopn. inf. . and amsbsy. in displayed equations. . place equation numbers vertically centered on the total height of the equation. nonamelimits Opposite of namelimits. nointlimits (default) Opposite of intlimits. namelimits (default) Like sumlimits. max. and so forth—but excluding integrals (see below). left). . The amsmath package incorporates amstext. intlimits Like sumlimits.2 2. but for certain ‘operator names’ such as det.1. amsbsy For backward compatibility this package continues to exist but use of A the newer bm package that comes with L TEX is recommended instead. The amsmath package also recognizes the following options which are normally selected (implicitly or explicitly) through the \documentclass command. put the option name in the optional argument of the \usepackage command—e. —2— Options for the amsmath package The amsmath package has the following options: centertags (default) For a split equation. but for integral symbols. if numbers are on the right (resp. for compatibility with documents created using version 1. place equation numbers level with the last (resp. . min. are available only by invoking those packages separately. \usepackage[intlimits]{amsmath}. amsopn Provides \DeclareMathOperator for deﬁning new ‘operator names’ like \sin and \lim. The features of amscd and amsxtra. nosumlimits Always place the subscripts and superscripts of summation-type symbols to the side. tbtags ‘Top-or-bottom tags’: For a split equation. ﬁrst) line. that traditionally have subscripts placed underneath when they occur in a displayed equation. amsxtra Provides certain odds and ends such as \fracwithdelims and \accentedsymbol. even in displayed equations.. however. This option also aﬀects other symbols of the same type— . and thus need not be repeated in the option list of the \usepackage{amsmath} statement. sumlimits (default) Place the subscripts and superscripts of summation symbols above and below. To use one of these package options.

There is also a \tag* command that causes the text you supply to be typeset literally. align and variants). \tag and \tag* can also be used within the unnumbered versions of all the amsmath alignment structures. 3. The split environment is a special subordinate form that is used only inside one of the others. it is better to use align or equation+split instead. The augmented set includes: equation gather multline split equation* gather* multline* align flalign alignat align* flalign* alignat* (Although the standard eqnarray environment remains available. however.3. each environment has both starred and unstarred forms. You can suppress the number on any particular line by putting \notag before the \\.1 1 Basic L T X doesn’t provide an equation* environment. In the structures that do alignment (split. . —3— Displayed equations 3. fleqn Position equations at a ﬁxed indent from the left margin rather than centered in the text column. It cannot be used inside multline. you can also override it with a tag of your own using \tag{ label }. A where the unstarred forms have automatic numbering using L TEX’s equation counter. it has to go before.tex provided with the amsmath package.1 Introduction The amsmath package provides a number of additional displayed equation strucA tures beyond the ones provided in basic L TEX. relation symbols have an & before them but not after—unlike eqnarray. where label means arbitrary text such as $*$ or ii used to “number” the equation. but rather a functionally equivA E alent environment named displaymath. reqno Place equation numbers on the right. The equation* environment is the same except for omitting the number.) Except for split.2. Putting the & after the relation symbol will interfere with the normal spacing. Some examples of the use of \tag may be found in the sample ﬁles testmath. without adding parentheses around it.tex and subeqn. SINGLE EQUATIONS 3 leqno Place equation numbers on the left.2 Single equations The equation environment is for a single equation with an automatically generated number.

1. Comparison of displayed equation environments (vertical lines indicating nominal margins) \begin{equation*} a=b \end{equation*} \begin{equation} a=b \end{equation} \begin{equation}\label{xx} \begin{split} a& =b+c-d\\ & \quad +e-f\\ & =g+h\\ & =i \end{split} \end{equation} \begin{multline} a+b+c+d+e+f\\ +i+j+k+l+m+n \end{multline} \begin{gather} a_1=b_1+c_1\\ a_2=b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2 \end{gather} \begin{align} a_1& =b_1+c_1\\ a_2& =b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2 \end{align} \begin{align} a_{11}& =b_{11}& a_{12}& =b_{12}\\ a_{21}& =b_{21}& a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22} \end{align} \begin{flalign*} a_{11}& =b_{11}& a_{12}& =b_{12}\\ a_{21}& =b_{21}& a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22} \end{flalign*} (1) a=b a=b (2) a=b+c−d +e−f =g+h =i (3) a + b + c + d + e + f +i+j+k+l+m+n (4) (5) a1 = b1 + c1 a2 = b2 + c2 − d2 + e2 (6) (7) a1 = b1 + c1 a2 = b2 + c2 − d2 + e2 (8) (9) a11 = b11 a21 = b21 a12 = b12 a22 = b22 + c22 a11 = b11 a21 = b21 a12 = b12 a22 = b22 + c22 .4 3. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS Table 3.

for example (3. Unlike the other amsmath equation structures.4. align. \shoveright.4 Split equations with alignment Like multline. multline has only a single equation number (thus. These commands take the entire line as an argument. usually an equation.3 Split equations without alignment The multline environment is a variation of the equation environment used for equations that don’t ﬁt on a single line.55\columnwidth]{C}}\\ \framebox[.10) A B C D \begin{multline} \framebox[. Like equation. the split environment provides no numbering. Any additional lines in between will be centered independently within the display width (unless the fleqn option is in eﬀect). except for an indention on both sides in the amount of \multlinegap. because it is intended to be used only inside some other displayed equation structure.3. SPLIT EQUATIONS WITH ALIGNMENT 5 3. 3. It’s possible to force one of the middle lines to the left or right with commands \shoveleft. none of the individual lines should be marked with \notag). the split environment provides for alignment among the split lines. The equation number is placed on the last line (reqno option) or ﬁrst line (leqno option).65\columnwidth]{A}\\ \framebox[. which provides the numbering.65\columnwidth]{D} \end{multline} A The value of \multlinegap can be changed with the usual L TEX commands \setlength or \addtolength. or gather environment. For example: Hc = (3.11) 1 2n n p (−1)l (n − l)p−2 l=0 l1 +···+lp =l i=1 ni li p · [(n − l) − (ni − li )]ni −li · (n − l)2 − j=1 (ni − li )2 . using & to mark alignment points. Unlike multline. The ﬁrst line of a multline will be at the left margin and the last line at the right margin. vertical centering as for split is not supported by multline. . up to but not including the ﬁnal \\.5\columnwidth]{B}\\ \shoveright{\framebox[. however. the split environment is for single equations that are too long to ﬁt on one line and hence must be split into multiple lines.

use extra ampersands to separate the columns: (3. .13) (3.6 3. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS \begin{equation}\label{e:barwq}\begin{split} H_c&=\frac{1}{2n} \sum^n_{l=0}(-1)^{l}(n-{l})^{p-2} \sum_{l _1+\dots+ l _p=l}\prod^p_{i=1} \binom{n_i}{l _i}\\ &\quad\cdot[(n-l )-(n_i-l _i)]^{n_i-l _i}\cdot \Bigl[(n-l )^2-\sum^p_{j=1}(n_i-l _i)^2\Bigr].12) (3.1). 3. Equations inside gather are separated by a \bslash command.14) x=y x =y x+x =y+y X=Y X =Y X +X =Y +Y a=b+c a =b ab=cb \begin{align} x&=y & X&=Y & a&=b+c\\ x’&=y’ & X’&=Y’ & a’&=b\\ x+x’&=y+y’ & X+X’&=Y+Y’ & a’b&=c’b \end{align} Line-by-line annotations on an equation can be done by judicious application of .5 Equation groups without alignment The gather environment is used for a group of consecutive equations when there is no alignment desired among them. To have several equation columns side-by-side. . \end{split} structure—for example: \begin{gather} first equation\\ \begin{split} second & equation\\ & on two lines \end{split} \\ third equation \end{gather} 3. usually binary relations such as equal signs are aligned (see Table 3.6 Equation groups with mutual alignment The align environment is used for two or more equations when vertical alignment is desired. \end{split}\end{equation} The split structure should constitute the entire body of the enclosing structure. Any equation in a gather may consist of a \begin{split} . apart from commands like \label that produce no visible material. each one is centered separately within the text width (see Table 3.1).

21) = y ◦ y∗ by (4.4\pi j. This means. .\begin{aligned} B’&=-\partial\times E. and alignedat are provided whose total width is the actual width of the contents. add 1 and divide by 2. that one cannot readily add parentheses around the entire structure. E = ∂ × B − 4πj.\\ E’&=\partial\times B .} \end{alignat} 3.1) = y(0)y by Axiom 1.17) x = y 1 − y2 + y 3 − y 5 + y8 − .21) by (4. . This environment takes one argument. for example. . . ALIGNMENT BUILDING BLOCKS 7 \text inside an align environment: (3. \begin{equation*} \left. the multi-equation environments gather. and alignat are designed to produce a structure whose width is the full line width.19) (3.16) (3.g. thus they can be used as a component in a containing expression. = y ◦ y∗ = y(0)y by (3.18) (3. the number of “equation columns”: count the maximum number of &s in any row.1) by Axiom 1.. \begin{alignat}{2} x& = y_1-y_2+y_3-y_5+y_8-\dots &\quad& \text{by \eqref{eq:C}}\\ & = y’\circ y^* && \text{by \eqref{eq:D}}\\ & = y(0) y’ && \text {by Axiom 1.3.7 Alignment building blocks Like equation. by (3.15) (3. align. (3.7.} \end{align} A variant environment alignat allows the horizontal space between equations to be explicitly speciﬁed. But variants gathered. E. \begin{align} x& = y_1-y_2+y_3-y_5+y_8-\dots && \text{by \eqref{eq:C}}\\ & = y’\circ y^* && \text{by \eqref{eq:D}}\\ & = y(0) y’ && \text {by Axiom 1. B = −∂ × E. \end{aligned} \right\} \qquad \text{Maxwell’s equations} \end{equation*} Maxwell’s equations . aligned.20) x = y1 − y2 + y3 − y5 + y8 − .

To move a particular number up by six points.8 Adjusting tag placement Placing equation numbers can be a rather complex problem in multiline displays. even in the middle of a multi-line equation. a \displaybreak command is provided. Like L TEX’s \pagebreak. \displaybreak with no optional argument is the same as \displaybreak[4] and forces a break. \displaybreak takes an optional argument between 0 and 4 denoting the desirability of the pagebreak.21) Pr−j = 0 r! (−1)(r−j)/2 if r − j is odd. write \raisetag{6pt}.8 3. \end{cases} Notice the use of \text (cf. To get an individual page break inside a particular displayed equation.9 Vertical spacing and page breaks in multiline displays You can use the \\[ dimension ] command to get extra vertical space between lines in all the amsmath displayed equation environments. and in the amsmath package there is a cases environment to make them easy to write: P_{r-j}=\begin{cases} 0& \text{if $r-j$ is odd}. as is usual A in L TEX. if necessary moving the number down or up to a separate line. There is a \raisetag command provided to adjust the vertical position of the current equation number. the philosophy is that page breaks in such material should receive individual attention from the author. \displaybreak is best placed immediately before the A \\ where it is to take eﬀect. When the amsmath package is in use page breaks between equation lines are normally disallowed.(-1)^{(r-j)/2}& \text{if $r-j$ is even}. Diﬃculties in accurately calculating the proﬁle of an equation can occasionally result in number movement that doesn’t look right. If you prefer a strategy of letting page breaks fall where they may. This kind of adjustment is ﬁne tuning like line breaks and page breaks. or you may end up redoing the ﬁne tuning several times to keep up with changing document contents. “Cases” constructions like the following are common in mathematics: (3.\\ r!\. 3. if it has been shifted away from its normal position. these -ed variants also take an optional [t] or [b] argument to specify vertical positioning. and should therefore be left undone until your document is nearly ﬁnalized. The environments of the amsmath package try hard to avoid overprinting an equation number on the equation contents. if r − j is even. \displaybreak[0] means “it is permissible to break here” without encouraging a break. DISPLAYED EQUATIONS Like the array environment. §6) and the nested math formulas. 3. then you might put \allowdisplaybreaks[1] in the preamble of your document. An optional argument 1–4 can be used for .

gathered. .11. To have equation numbering tied to section numbering. the amsmath package provides a command \numberwithin. . as usual. and so A forth—you could redeﬁne \theequation as suggested in the L TEX manual [7.11.3.1). §6. .23) and (3. 3. To make this a little more convenient. These include split. not just the equation counter. (3.3. A2 = φ(λ.\Omega’). Notice the position of the word “and” in this example. which would not happen if you simply ended the display and then started it up again afterwards. . have equation numbers (1.10 Interrupting a display The command \intertext is used for a short interjection of one or two lines of text in the middle of a multiple-line display structure (see also the \text command in §6).4]: \renewcommand{\theequation}{\thesection. write \numberwithin{equation}{section} As its name implies.4 mean increasing permissiveness. Ω ) − φ(λ. \intertext may only appear right after a \\ or \\* command. . values of 2.2).3. and alignedat. 2. (2. .\arabic{equation}} This works pretty well.22) (3. ω).\Omega). (1. the \numberwithin command can be applied to any counter.1 Numbering hierarchy A In L TEX if you wanted to have equations numbered within sections—that is. in sections 1. EQUATION NUMBERING 9 ﬁner control: [1] means allow page breaks.24) A3 = N (λ. aligned. Its salient feature is preservation of the alignment.8. Ω ) − φ(λ.1). .11 Equation numbering 3. §C. (2. \end{align} 3. Ω). with automatic reset of the equation counter. . but avoid them as much as possible.\\ A_2&=\phi(\lambda. . When display breaks are enabled with \allowdisplaybreaks. unless you do it yourself using \setcounter. \begin{align} A_1&=N_0(\lambda. with the consequence that neither \displaybreak nor \allowdisplaybreaks will have any eﬀect on them. A1 = N0 (λ. Note: Certain equation environments wrap their contents in an unbreakable box. the \\* command can be used to prohibit a pagebreak after a given line.2). Ω ).\Omega’)-\phi(\lambda. except that the equation counter won’t be reset to zero at the beginning of a new section or chapter.\Omega’)-\phi(\lambda.\\ \intertext{and} A_3&=\mathcal{N}(\lambda.\omega).

. A \label command immediately after \begin{subequations} will produce a \ref of the parent number 4.e..2). can be applied as usual to those counter names. not 4. §6.2 (If you need left or right alignment in a column or other special formats you must resort to array. | |. \setcounter. redeﬁning \theequation as follows will produce roman numerals. . the matrix environments all use more economical horizontal spacing than the rather prodigal spacing of the array environment.9a. an \eqref command is provided. .8). . For naming consistency there is a matrix environment sans delimiters. if the preceding numbered equation was (4. For example.2 4. This is not entirely redundant with the array environment.11. The pmatrix.. vmatrix and Vmatrix have (respectively) ( ).. For example \begin{subequations} ..9b) (4.9c) .3. use standard L TEX methods for changing numbering style [7. 3.) 2 More precisely: The maximum number of columns in a matrix is determined by the A counter MaxMatrixCols (normal value = 10).2 then \eqref{abc} produces (3. unlike the array environment. The counters used by the subequations environment are parentequation and equation and \addtocounter.8. \value.3 Subordinate numbering sequences The amsmath package provides also a subequations environment to make it easy to number equations in a particular group with a subordinate numbering scheme. [ ]. and delimiters built in. if \ref{abc} produces 3. you don’t have to give column speciﬁcations for any of the matrix environments. I. Bmatrix.10 3. —4— Miscellaneous mathematical features 4.4].. . which you can change if necessary using L TEX’s \setcounter or \addtocounter commands. §C.9. This automatically supplies the parentheses around the equation number.1 Matrices The amsmath package provides some environments for matrices beyond the basic A array environment of L TEX. bmatrix. Also. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES Cross references to equation numbers To make cross-references to equations easier.9a) (4. \end{subequations} causes all numbered equations within that part of the document to be numbered (4. To get anything A other than lowercase letters for the subordinate numbers. by default you can have up to 10 centered columns. { }.11. \begin{subequations} \renewcommand{\theequation}{\theparentequation \roman{equation}} . etc.

and they can also be used outside of math.4... .3 Dots For preferred placement of ellipsis dots (raised or on-line) in various contexts there is no general consensus.B.3.b.5]{3}. . Both the spelled-out and abbreviated forms of these commands are robust. . . a d ) that comes closer to ﬁtting within a single text line c than a normal matrix. for example. The number in square brackets will be used as a multiplier (i. \. . . .g. It may therefore be considered a matter of taste. . there are no p. \: \. as shown below. . use \mspace and ‘math units’. the normal value is 1. −an1 t1 −an2 t2 . there is a smallmatrix b environment (e.1) ...e. By using the semantically oriented commands . . The above example was produced by \bigl( \begin{smallmatrix} a&b\\ c&d \end{smallmatrix} \bigr) \hdotsfor{ number } produces a row of dots in a matrix spanning the given number of columns.V versions of smallmatrix. One math unit. For example. .0mu}. . is equal to 1/18 em. −a1n tn −a21 t1 D2 t . . .. \! Spelled out no space \negthinspace \negmedspace \negthickspace Example ⇒⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ For the greatest possible control over math spacing. .. . . . . Dn t \begin{pmatrix} D_1t&-a_{12}t_2&\dots&-a_{1n}t_n\\ -a_{21}t_1&D_2t&\dots&-a_{2n}t_n\\ \hdotsfor[2]{4}\\ -a_{n1}t_1&-a_{n2}t_2&\dots&D_nt\end{pmatrix} 4. e&\hdotsfor{3} \end{matrix} The spacing of the dots can be varied through use of a square-bracket option. a b c d \begin{matrix} a&b&c&d\\ e .. .2 Math spacing commands The amsmath package slightly extends the set of math spacing commands. . . . . Spelled out no space \thinspace \medspace \thickspace \quad \qquad Example ⇒⇐ ⇒⇐ ⇒⇐ ⇒⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ Abbrev. . or mu. DOTS 11 To produce a small matrix suitable for use in text. Delimiters must be provided. D1 t −a12 t2 . 4. Abbrev.0). .. . −a2n tn (4. . \hdotsfor[1. Thus to get a negative \quad you could write \mspace{-18.v.

\newcommand{\p}{$p$\nobreakdash}% for "\p-adic" \newcommand{\Ndash}{\nobreakdash--}% for "pages 1\Ndash 9" % For "\n dimensional" ("n-dimensional"): \newcommand{\n}[1]{$n$\nobreakdash-\hspace{0pt}} The last example shows how to prohibit a linebreak after the hyphen but allow normal hyphenation in the following word. you make it possible for your document to be adapted to diﬀerent conventions on the ﬂy. and product $A_1 A_2 \dotsm $. in case (for example) you have to submit it to a publisher who insists on following house tradition in this respect.g. To place an arbitrary symbol in math accent position. For frequent use.. A1 A2 4. For example. . see the accents package by Javier Bezos. if you write ‘pages 1–9’ as pages 1\nobreakdash--9 then a linebreak will never occur between the dash and the 9. . the orthogonal orthogonal product A1 A2 · · · . . e. .) 4. (It suﬃces to add a zero-width space after the hyphen. A_2. With the amsmath package you will get improved placement of ˆ ˆ the second accent: A (\hat{\hat{A}}). \dotsc$. .12 • • • • • \dotsc \dotsb \dotsm \dotsi \dotso for for for for for 4. To get a superscripted hat or tilde character. You can also use \nobreakdash to prevent undesirable hyphenations in combinations like $p$-adic. The commands \dddot and \ddddot are available to produce triple and quadruple dot accents in addition to the \dot and \ddot accents already availA able in L TEX.4 Nonbreaking dashes A command \nobreakdash is provided to suppress the possibility of a linebreak after the following hyphen or dash. or to get under accents. it’s advisable to make abbreviations. A2 . the +A_2 +\dotsb $. Then we have the series A1 . load the amsxtra package and use \sphat or \sptilde.5 Accents in math A In ordinary L TEX the placement of the second accent in doubled math accents is often poor. Usage is A\sphat (note the absence of the ^ character). ···. and the inﬁnite integral the infinite integral \[\int_{A_1}\int_{A_2}\dotsi\]. the regional sum $A_1 the regional sum A1 + A2 + · · · . MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES “dots with commas” “dots with binary operators/relations” “multiplication dots” “dots with integrals” “other dots” (none of the above) instead of \ldots and \cdots. The default treatment for the various kinds follows American Mathematical Society conventions: Then we have the series $A_1.

\delta))} 4. \overset and \underset. In the amsmath package there are somewhat more general commands. The units are a small amount that is a useful size for such adjustments.9 Extensible arrows \underleftarrow \underrightarrow \underleftrightarrow \xleftarrow and \xrightarrow produce arrows that extend automatically to accommodate unusually wide subscripts or superscripts. AFFIXING SYMBOLS TO OTHER SYMBOLS 13 √ A In ordinary L TEX the placement of root indices is sometimes not so good: β k (\sqrt[\beta]{k}). δ)) \boxed{\eta \leq C(\delta(\eta) +\Lambda_M(0.7 Boxed formulas 4.10 Aﬃxing symbols to other symbols A L TEX provides \stackrel for placing a superscript above a binary relation.4. 4. Some additional over and under arrow commands are provided by the amsmath package to extend the set: \overleftarrow \overrightarrow \overleftrightarrow 4. that can be used to place one symbol above or below another symbol. whether it’s a relation or something else. In the amsmath package \leftroot and \uproot allow you to adjust the position of the root: \sqrt[\leftroot{-2}\uproot{2}\beta]{k} √ β will move the beta up and to the right: k. See also the description of \sideset in §7. ∗ .8 Over and under arrows A Basic L TEX provides \overrightarrow and \overleftarrow commands.3) A ←− − B − − → C − −− −− T n+µ−1 n±i−1 \xleftarrow{n+\mu-1}\quad \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i-1} 4.6 Roots The command \boxed puts a box around its argument.2) η ≤ C(δ(η) + ΛM (0. These commands take one optional argument (the subscript) and one mandatory argument (the superscript. \underset is the analog for adding a symbol underneath. possibly empty): (4.2. The input \overset{*}{X} will place a superscript-size ∗ above the X: X. The negative argument used with \leftroot moves the β to the right. like \fbox except that the contents are in math mode: (4.10.

and the fourth argument is a mathstyle override: integer values 0–3 select respectively \displaystyle. \abovewithdelims produce warning messages if used with the amsmath package.2 The \binom. \dfrac. \dbinom and \tbinom: k (4. and \tfrac commands A The \frac command.11 4.\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)} \end{equation} 4.4) 1 log2 c(f ) k 1 k log2 c(f ) 1 log2 c(f ) k 1 log2 c(f ) k \begin{equation} \frac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)\.. The last two correspond to \frac’s numerator and denominator. and \tbinom commands For binomial expressions such as n amsmath has \binom. \above.. \scriptstyle. } and {\textstyle\frac .11. \tfrac. the line thickness defaults to ‘normal’.3 The \genfrac command The capabilities of \frac.. you will do yourself a favor (and your publisher) if you deﬁne a meaningfully-named abbreviation for that notation. along the lines of \frac and \binom.tex.e. \atop. MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES Fractions and related constructions 4.. \genfrac{left-delim}{right-delim}{thickness}{mathstyle} {numerator}{denominator} To illustrate. which is in the basic command set of L TEX. the ﬁrst two are optional delimiters (as seen in \binom). and their variants are subsumed by a generalized fraction command \genfrac with six arguments. the third is a line thickness override (\binom uses this to set the fraction line thickness to 0—i. invisible). \dbinom.14 4. \textstyle. \binom. }. and \scriptscriptstyle. takes two arguments—numerator and denominator—and typesets them in normal fraction form.5) 2k − k k−1 k k−2 2 + 2 1 2 2^k-\binom{k}{1}2^{k-1}+\binom{k}{2}2^{k-2} 4. The amsmath package provides also \dfrac and \tfrac as convenient abbreviations for {\displaystyle\frac . .11.. for reasons discussed in technote. \overwithdelims. \newcommand{\frac}[2]{\genfrac{}{}{}{}{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\tfrac}[2]{\genfrac{}{}{}{1}{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\binom}[2]{\genfrac{(}{)}{0pt}{}{#1}{#2}} If you ﬁnd yourself repeatedly using \genfrac throughout a document for a particular notation. If the third argument is left empty. and \binom might be deﬁned. \sqrt{\frac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)}\. The primitive generalized fraction commands \over. \atopwithdelims.1 The \frac.11.\tfrac{1}{k}\log_2 c(f)\. (4. here is how \frac.

14 Delimiters 4.13 Smash options The command \smash is used to typeset a subformula with an eﬀective height and depth of zero. Delimiter size Result text size c (b)( ) d \left \right (b) c d \bigl \bigr b c d \Bigl \Bigr b c d \biggl \biggr b c d \Biggl \Biggr b c d .14.4. which is sometimes useful in adjusting the subformula’s position with respect to adjacent symbols. DELIMITERS 15 4.12 Continued fractions The continued fraction (4.14. where the latter was produced by $\sqrt{x} + \sqrt{\smash[b]{y}} + \sqrt{z}$. using a set of commands that have ‘big’ in their names. and second. This means that a math fragment that is inﬁnitesimally too large for a given delimiter size will get the next larger size.1 Delimiter sizes The automatic delimiter sizing done by \left and \right has two limitations: First.6) 1 √ 2+ 1 √ 2+ √ 1 2 + ··· can be obtained by typing \cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+ \cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+ \cfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}+\dotsb }}} This produces better-looking results than straightforward use of \frac. Left or right placement of any of the numerators is accomplished by using \cfrac[l] or \cfrac[r] instead of \cfrac. With the amsmath package \smash has optional arguments t and b. the range of sizes is not even approximately continuous but has fairly large quantum jumps. There are two or three situations where the delimiter size is commonly adjusted. when adjacent radical symbols are unevenly sized or positioned because of diﬀerences in the height and depth of their contents. 4. Compare √ √ √ √ √ √ x + y + z and x + y + z. because occasionally it is advantageous to be able to “smash” only the top or only the bottom of something while retaining the natural depth or height. a jump of 3pt or so in normal-sized text. it is applied mechanically to produce delimiters large enough to encompass the largest contained item. 4. For example. \smash can be employed to make them more consistent.

(a_2 b_2)\bigr) \bigl((a_2 b_1) + (a_1 b_2)\bigr) The third kind of situation is a slightly oversize object in running text. what is bad. A In ordinary L TEX \big. This immediately rules out the use of | and \| for delimiters. because left and right delimiters are distinct usages . MISCELLANEOUS MATHEMATICAL FEATURES The ﬁrst kind of situation is a cumulative operator with limits above and below. ((a1 b1 ) − (a2 b2 )) ((a2 b1 ) + (a1 b2 )) versus (a1 b1 ) − (a2 b2 ) (a2 b1 ) + (a1 b2 ) \left((a_1 b_1) . \lVert. \bigg. or the ‘evaluated at’ notation fζ (t) t=0 . It is recommended therefore that there should be a one-to-one correspondence in any given document between the vert bar character | and a selected mathematical notation.14. \Big. or the absolute-value operation |z|. \rvert. \rangle) to address the problem of overloading for the A vert bar character |.16 4. and using the Big or bigg sizes instead gives better results: i p 1/p p 1/p ai j xij versus i ai j xij \biggl[\sum_i a_i\Bigl\lvert\sum_j x_{ij}\Bigr\rvert^p\biggr]^{1/p} The second kind of situation is clustered pairs of delimiters where \left and \right make them all the same size (because that is adequate to cover the encompassed material) but what you really want is to make some of the delimiters slightly larger to make the nesting easier to see. such as b where the delimiters produced by \left and \right cause too much line d spreading.(a_2 b_2)\right) \left((a_2 b_1) + (a_1 b_2)\right) \quad\text{versus}\quad \bigl((a_1 b_1) . however. 4. is that fact that not all of the uses take the same typographical treatment. and that the complex discriminatory powers of a knowledgeable reader cannot be replicated in computer processing of mathematical documents. The multiplicity of uses in itself is not so bad. or the ‘such that’ condition in set notation.2 Vertical bar notations The amsmath package provides commands \lvert. This character is currently used in L TEX documents to represent a wide variety of mathematical objects: the ‘divides’ relation in a number-theory expression like p|q. and \Bigg delimiters aren’t scaled A properly over the full range of L TEX font sizes. \rVert (compare \langle. With \left and \right the delimiters usually turn out larger than necessary. In that case \bigl and \bigr can be used to produce delimiters that are slightly larger than the base size but still able to ﬁt within the normal line b spacing: d . and similarly for the double-bar command \|. With the amsmath package they are.

1 Deﬁning new operator names Math functions such as log.. and so forth.will print as a text hyphen rather than a minus sign and an asterisk * will print as a raised text asterisk instead of a centered math star. sin.5. \sin. If the new operator should have subscripts and superscripts placed in ‘limits’ position above and below as with lim. which are set in math italic.g.1. so that you can use. \lim. so that you get A xxx B instead of AxxxB. you write \DeclareMathOperator{\xxx}{xxx} whereupon ensuing uses of \xxx will produce xxx in the proper font and automatically add proper spacing on either side when necessary. \log. —5— Operator names 5. (Compare a-b*c and a − b ∗ c. subscripts and superscripts there. use the * form of the \DeclareMathOperator command: \DeclareMathOperator*{\Lim}{Lim} See also the discussion of subscript placement in Section 7. In the second argument of \DeclareMathOperator (the name text). e. or max. but new ones come up all the time in mathematical papers. so the amsmath package provides a general mechanism for deﬁning new ‘operator names’. sup. a pseudo-text mode prevails: the hyphen character . To deﬁne a math function \xxx to work like \sin. DEFINING NEW OPERATOR NAMES 17 that do not relate in the same way to adjacent symbols. The more common ones have predeﬁned names. recommended practice is therefore to deﬁne suitable commands in the document preamble for any paired-delimiter use of vert bar symbols: \providecommand{\abs}[1]{\lvert#1\rvert} \providecommand{\norm}[1]{\lVert#1\rVert} whereupon the document would contain \abs{z} to produce |z| and \norm{v} to produce v . and lim are traditionally typeset in roman type to make them visually more distinct from one-letter math variables.3.) But otherwise the name text is printed in math mode. The following operator names are predeﬁned: .

.. i = 1. \pod are provided to deal with the special A spacing conventions of “mod” notation. . whereas \pod omits the “mod” and retains the parentheses. \mod omits the parentheses. \bmod. THE \TEXT COMMAND \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc arccos arcsin arctan arg cos cosh cot coth csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \injlim \ker \varlimsup \varliminf deg det dim exp gcd hom inf inj lim ker lim lim \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr lg lim lim inf lim sup ln log max min Pr lim − → lim ← − \projlim \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh proj lim sec sin sinh sup tan tanh \varinjlim \varprojlim There is also a command \operatorname such that using \operatorname{abc} in a math formula is equivalent to a use of \abc deﬁned by \DeclareMathOperator.xi ] is monotonic. m mod n). This may be occasionally useful for constructing more complex notation or other purposes. but with the amsmath package the spacing of \pmod will adjust to a smaller value if it’s used in a non-display-mode formula. . (5. (6. . you can type . \quad x\equiv y\mod c. x≡y (d) \gcd(n.) 5..2 \mod and its relatives Commands \mod. which is slightly easier than the \mbox equivalent: . \pmod. \bmod and \pmod are available in L TEX. . x≡y (mod b). \mod and \pod are variants of \pmod preferred by some authors. (Use the variant \operatorname* to get limits.1) gcd(n.18 6. c + 1 .\quad x\equiv y\pmod b._{\text{word or phrase}}. The other advantage is the more descriptive name.. If you want a word or phrase of text in a subscript. but has a couple of advantages.m\bmod n). x≡y mod c._{\mbox{\scriptsize word or phrase}}.1) f[xi−1 . It A is very similar to the L TEX command \mbox in its eﬀects.\quad x\equiv y\pod d —6— The \text command The main use of the command \text is for words or phrases in a display.

7.j) P (i. j) i∈Λ 0<j<n There’s also a command called \sideset. without \sideset. j) 0≤i≤m 0<j<n A slightly more generalized form is the subarray environment which allows you to specify that each line should be left-aligned instead of centered.1 Multiline subscripts and superscripts The \substack command can be used to produce a multiline subscript or superscript: for example \sum_{\substack{ 0\le i\le m\\ 0<j<n}} P(i.c+1 —7— Integrals and sums 7.\text{$n$ odd}} nE_n nEn n<k. you would type ∗ ∗ ∗ \sideset{_*^*}{_*^*}\prod ∗ .j) 7. for a rather special purpose: putting symbols at the subscript and superscript corners of a large operator symbol such as or . n odd The extra pair of empty braces is explained by the fact that \sideset has the capability of putting an extra symbol or symbols at each corner of a large operator. The prime example is the case when you want to put a prime on a sum symbol. you could just use \nolimits: here’s \sum\nolimits’ E_n in display mode: (7.2. you want not only the prime but also something below or above the sum symbol.x_i]} \text{ is monotonic. to put an asterisk at each corner of a product symbol.\. it’s not so easy—indeed.2 The \sideset command P (i. however. THE \SIDESET COMMAND 19 f_{[x_{i-1}. If there are no limits above or below the sum.} \quad i = 1.1) En If. Note: this command is not designed to be applied to anything other than sum-class symbols. you can write \sideset{}{’} \sum_{n<k.\dots. With \sideset. it would be downright diﬃcult. as here: \sum_{\begin{subarray}{l} i\in\Lambda\\ 0<j<n \end{subarray}} P(i.

but for simple diagrams without diagonal arrows the amscd commands may be more . The commands \limits and \nolimits can be used to override the normal behavior of a base symbol: . The default for sum-class symbols is ‘displaylimits’ positioning: When a sum-class symbol appears in a displayed formula.3 Placement of subscripts and limits 8. The default for integral-class symbols is to have sub. and \iiiint give multiple integral signs with the spacing between them nicely adjusted.3) A f (w. z) dx dy dz ··· A (7. even in displayed formulas. the last one takes precedence. they are placed to the side. \iiint. 7. COMMUTATIVE DIAGRAMS The default positioning for subscripts depends on the base symbol involved.20 7. put \displaylimits at the tail end of the deﬁnition.2) A f (x. limn→∞ To deﬁne a command whose subscripts follow the same ‘displaylimits’ behavior as \sum. or \displaylimits occur consecutively. subscript and superscript are placed in ‘limits’ position above and below. For complex commutative diagrams authors will need to turn to more comprehensive packages like kuvio or XY-pic.4 Multiple integral signs \iint. to avoid unsightly and wasteful spreading of the surrounding text lines.) Operator names such as sin or lim may have either ‘displaylimits’ or ‘limits’ positioning depending on how they were deﬁned. . . x. . (7. . but in an inline formula. When multiple instances of \limits. y. xk ) —8— Commutative diagrams Some commutative diagram commands like the ones in AMS-TEX are available as a separate package. \nolimits. z) dw dx dy dz f (x1 . (See the discussion of the intlimits and related options in Section 2. The standard operator names are deﬁned according to normal mathematical usage. y. A X .and superscripts always to the side. y) dx dy A f (x. in both text and display style. \idotsint is an extension of the same idea that gives two integral signs with dots between them. amscd.

and material between the second and third will be typeset as a subscript.2. there is nothing to keep you from providing such abbreviations for A yourself by suitable \newcommand statements. rather than from the names of the fonts used to distinguish the objects. The basic set of math font A commands in L TEX includes \mathbf. \mathtt.2 Recommended use of math font commands If you ﬁnd yourself employing math font commands frequently in your document. A “null arrow” command @.1 Introduction A A For more comprehensive information on font use in L TEX. and up arrows. —9— Using math fonts 9. For the horizontal arrows. and \mathscr for Euler script are available through the packages amsfonts and euscript (distributed separately). if you are using bold to indicate vectors. \mathit. RECOMMENDED USE OF MATH FONT COMMANDS 21 convenient. \mathrm. The commands @= and @| give horizontal and vertical double lines. material between the ﬁrst and second or second and third As or Vs of vertical arrows will be typeset as left or right “sidescripts”. \mathcal. as that would obscure a much better alternative: deﬁning custom command names derived from the names of the underlying mathematical objects. 9. \mathfrak for Fraktur. @<<<. But for L TEX to provide shorter names would actually be a disservice to authors. material between the ﬁrst and second > or < symbols will be typeset as a superscript. then you will be better served in the long run if you deﬁne a ‘vector’ command instead of a ‘math-bold’ command: . can be used instead of a visible arrow to ﬁll out an array where needed. @VVV. such as \mb instead of \mathbf. For example. S WΛ ⊗ T − − → −− (S ⊗ T )/I \begin{CD} S^{{\mathcal{W}}_\Lambda}\otimes T @VVV (S\otimes T)/I @= \end{CD} j T End P (Z ⊗ T )/J @>j>> T\\ @VV{\End P}V\\ (Z\otimes T)/J In the CD environment the commands @>>>. Similarly.9. see the L TEX font A guide (fntguide. and @AAA give respectively right. you might wish that they had shorter names. down. \mathsf.tex) or The L TEX Companion [4]. Additional math alphabet commands such as \mathbb for blackboard bold. left. Of course. Here is one example.

\pmb can be used as a last resort for any math symbols that do not have a true bold version provided by your set of math fonts. If you decide several months down the road that you want to use the bold font for some other purpose. The quality of the output is inferior. USING MATH FONTS you can write \vect{a} + \vect{b} to produce a + b. extended delimiter symbols. you might ﬁnd this method more convenient than (let’s say) deﬁning a \field command and writing \field{C}. especially for symbols that contain A any hairline strokes. If you refer often to the complex numbers or real numbers in your document. perhaps even needing to inspect each one to see whether it is indeed an instance of a vector. The amsmath package therefore provides two additional commands. \field{R}. the only symbols that are likely to require \pmb are large operator symbols like \sum. deﬁne such a \field command and then deﬁne \C and \R in terms of that command: \usepackage{amsfonts}% to get the \mathbb alphabet \newcommand{\field}[1]{\mathbb{#1}} \newcommand{\C}{\field{C}} \newcommand{\R}{\field{R}} 9. the \mathbf has no eﬀect on the plus sign or the small delta.22 \newcommand{\vect}[1]{\mathbf{#1}} 9. and mark vectors by a small over-arrow instead. but for most other kinds of math symbols it has no eﬀect. that can be applied to other kinds of math symbols. \boldsymbol can be used for a math symbol that remains unaﬀected by \mathbf if (and only if) your current math font set includes a bold version of that symbol. When the standard default set of L TEX math fonts are in use (Computer Modern). But for maximum ﬂexibility and control. or the extra math symbols provided by the amssymb package [1]. It can also be useful to assign distinct command names for diﬀerent letters of a particular font: \DeclareSymbolFont{AMSb}{U}{msb}{m}{n}% or use amsfonts package \DeclareMathSymbol{\C}{\mathalpha}{AMSb}{"43} \DeclareMathSymbol{\R}{\mathalpha}{AMSb}{"52} These statements would deﬁne the commands \C and \R to produce blackboardbold letters from the ‘AMSb’ math symbols font. \boldsymbol and \pmb. otherwise you would have to replace all occurrences of \mathbf throughout your document. For example. The following formula shows some of the results that are possible: A_\infty + \pi A_0 \sim \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{\infty}} \boldsymbol{+} .3 Bold math symbols The \mathbf command is commonly used to obtain bold Latin letters in math. or its eﬀects depend unreliably on the set of math fonts that are in use. writing \Delta \mathbf{\Delta}\mathbf{+}\delta \mathbf{\delta} produces ∆∆+δδ. “pmb” stands for “poor man’s bold” and the command works by typesetting multiple copies of the symbol with slight oﬀsets. then you can put the change into eﬀect merely by changing the deﬁnition of \vect.

and nonalphabetical characters such as \.4 Italic Greek letters For italic versions of the capital Greek letters. 9. you probably have it already if you have a 1997 A or newer version of L TEX). the bm package is recommended (this is a standard L TEX package. but please be aware that we don’t provide exhaustive coverage here. i... The error messages are arranged in alphabetical order. instances where A the printed document has something wrong but there was no L TEX error during typesetting.8 \begin{split} . not an AMS package. the set of error messages discussed here overlaps somewhat with the set in that chapter.1 General remarks A This is a supplement to Chapter 8 of the L TEX manual [7] (ﬁrst edition: Chapter 6). For the reader’s convenience. . Example: ! Package amsmath Error: \begin{split} won’t work here. Where examples are given. ERROR MESSAGES 23 \boldsymbol{\pi} \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{0}} \sim\pmb{A}_{\pmb{\infty}} \pmb{+}\pmb{\pi} \pmb{A}_{\pmb{0}} A∞ + πA0 ∼ A∞ + πA0 ∼ A∞ + π A0 If you want to use only the \boldsymbol command without loading the whole A amsmath package. we show also the help messages that appear on screen when you respond to an error message prompt by entering h. 10..e. the following commands are provided: \varGamma \varDelta \varTheta \varLambda \varXi \varPi Γ ∆ Θ Λ Ξ Π \varSigma \varUpsilon \varPhi \varPsi \varOmega Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω —10— Error messages and output problems 10.10. disregarding unimportant text such as ! LaTeX Error: at the beginning. There is also a section discussing some output errors.2. l.2 Error messages \begin{split} won’t work here.

.9 \end{alignat} ? h \An extra & here is so disastrous that you should probably exit and fix things up. ? Explanation: In an alignat structure the number of alignment points per line is dictated by the numeric argument given after \begin{alignat}. Type H <return> for immediate help. ? Explanation: The split environment does not construct a stand-alone displayed equation. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS ? h \Did you forget a preceding \begin{equation}? If not..415 \tilde k_{\lambda_j} = P_{\tilde \mathcal {M}} ? A Explanation: Non-simple arguments for any L TEX command should be enclosed in braces. P_{\tilde{\mathcal{M}}} Font OMX/cmex/m/n/7=cmex7 not loadable . Example: . l. Extra & on this line Example: ! Package amsmath Error: Extra & on this line... perhaps the ‘aligned’ environment is what you want..24 10.. If you use more alignment points in a line it is assumed that you accidentally left out a newline command \\ and the above error is issued. l. In this example extra braces are needed as follows: . See the amsmath package documentation for explanation.. it needs to be used within some other environment such as equation or gather. .. See the amsmath package documentation for explanation. Improper argument for math accent Example: ! Package amsmath Error: Improper argument for math accent: (amsmath) Extra braces must be added to (amsmath) prevent wrong output. Type H <return> for immediate help. .

<to be read again> relax l. e.2. I. or in PostScript Type 1 format. I inserted ‘0’. not loadable.100 \end{alignat} ? h A number should have been here. in the form of Metafont source ﬁles. directory /tex-archive/fonts/latex/mf. type ‘I\font<same font id>=<substitute font name>’. you should try ﬁrst to get A them from the source where you obtained L TEX. [Wizards can fix TFM files using TFtoPL/PLtoTF. treated as zero.. you could try getting the fonts from CTAN (e. .. Depending on the contents of your document this may be adequate.g. ERROR MESSAGES 25 ! Font OMX/cmex/m/n/7=cmex7 not loadable: Metric (TFM) file not found.. directory /tex-archive/fonts/cm/ps-type1/bakoma).. Missing number. ? Explanation: Certain extra sizes of some Computer Modern fonts that were formerly available mainly through the AMSFonts distribution are considered A part of standard L TEX (as of June 1994): cmex7–9. and cmbsy5–9. If that fails..8 $ab+b^2$ ? Explanation: This usually follows a previous error Font . change the \usepackage to \usepackage[cmex10]{amsmath} This will force the use of the 10-point size of the cmex font in all cases. so I will ignore the font specification. If the font name begins with cmex. see the discussion of that error (above) for solutions. treated as zero Example: ! Missing number.] You might try inserting a different font spec.8 $a b+b^2$ ? h I wasn’t able to read the size data for this font. Math formula deleted: Insufficient extension fonts Example: ! Math formula deleted: Insufficient extension fonts.g. l. If these extra sizes are missing on your system. <to be read again> a l.e.10. there is a special option cmex10 for the amsmath package that provides a temporary workaround. cmmib5–9.

For example \begin{array} a+b\\ [f. . even if it occurs on the following line and is intended to be part of the contents. inserted Example: ! Missing \right. you can add braces as discussed in A the L TEX manual [7. <inserted text> \right .10 \end{multline} ? h I’ve inserted something that you may have forgotten. However. one possibility that is relevant for the amsmath package is that you forgot to give the number argument of an alignat environment. (See the <inserted text> above.) ? Explanation: There are many possibilities that can lead to this error. l.26 10. This will be interpreted by L TEX as the beginning of an ‘additional vertical space’ request [7. or A eqnarray.) With luck. look up ‘weird error’ in the index to The TeXbook.6]. §C.g]\\ m+n \end{array} To prevent the error message in such a case. this will get me unwedged. tabular. then my insertion and my current dilemma will both disappear. But if you really didn’t forget anything. try typing ‘2’ now. §C.g]}\\ m+n \end{array} Missing \right.1. as in: \begin{alignat} a& =b& c& =d\\ a’& =b’& c’& =d’ \end{alignat} where the ﬁrst line should read instead \begin{alignat}{2} Another possibility is that you have a left bracket character [ following a linebreak command \\ in a multiline construction such as array. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS (If you can’t figure out why I needed to see a number.1]: \begin{array} a+b\\ {[f. inserted.1.

xxx \left(\int_t yyy\right.g. How can we recover? My plan is to forget the whole thing and hope for the best.. such as \bal and \eal for \begin{align} and \end{align}: \bal .2... In the argument of \vphantom put a copy of the tallest element that occurs in the other line..1). \begin{multline} .. \end{multiline} or by using abbreviations for certain environments.g. see §4. .CCC\right) The latter solution may result in mismatched delimiter sizes.\vphantom{\int_t} zzz . use ‘big’ delimiters of ﬁxed size (\bigl \bigr \biggl \biggr . or (2) use null delimiters to break up the \left-\right pair into parts for each line: AAA\left(BBB\right. ensuring that they match requires using \vphantom in the line that has the smaller delimiter (or possibly \smash in the line that has the larger delimiter). <to be read again> \par l. e. .\\ \left.\\ \left. . ? Explanation: This might be produced by a misspelling in the \end{multline} command. e. causing me to apply this control sequence to too much text.14. \eal ..10...100 ? h I suspect you’ve forgotten a ‘}’. \right) Paragraph ended before \xxx was complete Example: Runaway argument? ! Paragraph ended before \multline was complete. ERROR MESSAGES 27 Explanation: This error typically arises when you try to insert a linebreak inside a \left-\right pair of delimiters in a multline or split environment: \begin{multline} AAA\left(BBB\\ CCC\right) \end{multline} There are two possible solutions: (1) instead of using \left and \right.

. Example: ! Package amsmath Error: Old form ‘\pmatrix’ should be \begin{pmatrix}.tex).28 10. etc.. A Their syntax did not conform with standard L TEX syntax in any case. . align. cf. Try typing <return> to proceed..16 \pmatrix {a&b\cr c&d\cr} ? h ‘\pmatrix{. ? Explanation: This means that you misspelled the option name. or the package simply does not have an option that you expected it to have.. . perhaps you misspelled its name.}’ is old Plain-TeX syntax whose use is ill-advised in LaTeX. See the amsmath package documentation for explanation. (amsmath) trying to recover with ‘aligned’.. Old form ‘\pmatrix’ should be \begin{pmatrix}. See the amsmath package documentation for explanation. the old forms of \pmatrix. split. and \cases cannot be used any longer because of naming conﬂicts. Unknown option ‘xxx’ for package ‘yyy’ Example: ! LaTeX Error: Unknown option ‘intlim’ for package ‘amsmath’. ? h The option ‘intlim’ was not declared in package ‘amsmath’. Runaway argument? See the discussion for the error message Paragraph ended before \xxx was complete.. ERROR MESSAGES AND OUTPUT PROBLEMS For technical reasons that kind of abbreviation does not work with the more complex displayed equation environments of the amsmath package (gather. technote. Consult the documentation for the given package. \matrix. Type H <return> for immediate help. . ? Explanation: When the amsmath package is used.. \pmatrix ->\left (\matrix@check \pmatrix \env@matrix l. Erroneous nesting of equation structures Example: ! Package amsmath Error: Erroneous nesting of equation structures.

See technote.. Cannot use ‘split’ here Example: Package amsmath Warning: Cannot use ‘split’ here.1 instead of 1.260 \end{alignat*} \end{equation*} Explanation: The structures align. There cannot be any printed material before or after it within the same enclosing structure: \begin{equation} \left\{ % <-. 2.4.1 Section numbers 0.4. 10.Not allowed \end{equation} 10. l. etc.3 Warning messages Foreign command \over [or \atop or \above] Example: Package amsmath Warning: Foreign command \over.4 Wrong output 10. 5... \frac or \genfrac (amsmath) should be used instead.1. are designed for top-level use and for the most part cannot be nested inside some other displayed equation structure. alignat. % <-. Explanation: The primitive generalized fraction commands of TEX—\over. WRONG OUTPUT 29 Type .section number and reset to 1 every time an equation occurs’ when what you probably wanted was the inverse \numberwithin{equation}{section} . \atop. (amsmath) trying to recover with ‘aligned’ Explanation: The split environment is designed to serve as the entire body of an equation.Not allowed \begin{split} .. or an entire line of an align or gather environment. \above—are deprecated when the amsmath package is used because their synA A tax is foreign to L TEX and amsmath provides native L TEX equivalents. 3 This most likely means that you have the arguments for \numberwithin in reverse order: \numberwithin{section}{equation} That means ‘print the section number as equation number. \end{split} \right.. The chief exception is that align and most of its variants can be used inside the gather environment.tex for further information.1. 8.10. H <return> for immediate help.

1. align. e. or equation/split as appropriate. Box 6248 Providence. and gather. 11. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The \numberwithin command had no eﬀect on equation numbers Are you looking at the ﬁrst section in your document? Check the section numbers elsewhere to see if the problem is the one described in §10.txt.3 Getting help Questions or comments regarding amsmath and related packages should be sent to: American Mathematical Society Technical Support Electronic Products and Services P. however.2 Converting from AMS-L TEX 1. you might also want to change eqnarray to align. O. A 11.4.1. Most of the other diﬀerences in amsmath usage can be considered optional reﬁnements.tex contains some remarks on miscellaneous technical questions that are less likely to be of general interest. using \DeclareMathOperator{\Hom}{Hom} instead of \newcommand{\Hom}{\mbox{Hom}}.1 Converting from plain L TEX A X document will typically continue to work the same in most respects if A L TE \usepackage{amsmath} is added in the document preamble. RI 02940 Phone: 800-321-4AMS (321-4267) Internet: tech-support@ams.4.1 Converting existing documents A 11.2 Technical notes The ﬁle technote. By default.org or 401-455-4080 .1 See diffs-m.. the amsmath package suppresses page breaks inside multiple-line displayed equation structures such as eqnarray. 11. —11— Additional information 11.2 11.g.30 10.1. you will need to add the following line in your document preamble: \allowdisplaybreaks[1] To ensure normal spacing around relation symbols. To continue allowing page breaks inside eqnarray after switching to amsmath. multline.

org.. TEX Users Group PO Box 2311 Portland. Bibliography [1] AMSFonts version 2. Amer. check with your local system administrator to see if newsgroup service is available at your site. A L TEX log ﬁle showing the error message (if applicable) and the version numbers of the document class and option ﬁles being used.tex that is a fairly good A source of information about L TEX and TEX in general.org or 401-455-4000 The TEX Users Group is a nonproﬁt organization that publishes a journal (TUGboat). information about contacting a local user group can be gotten from the TEX Users Group. O.org can be obtained by sending a request through electronic mail to: webmaster@ams. Providence.4 Of possible interest Information about obtaining AMSFonts or other TEX-related software from the AMS Internet archive e-math. There is a Usenet newsgroup called comp. If you don’t know about reading newsgroups. . There are also many local TEX user groups in other countries.2—user’s guide. distributed with the AMSFonts package. A 2. 1994. OR 97208-2311 USA Phone: +1-503-223-9994 Email: office@tug. Box 6248 Providence. Information about obtaining the amsmath distribution on diskette from the AMS is available from: American Mathematical Society Customer Services P. and serves as a clearing-house of general information about TEX and TEX-related software.text.BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 If you are reporting a problem you should include the following information to make proper investigation possible: 1. The source ﬁle where the problem occurred.org Membership in the TEX Users Group is a good way to support continued development of free TEX-related software. Math. 11. RI 02940 Phone: 800-321-4AMS (321-4267) Internet: cust-serv@ams. RI. holds meetings. preferably reduced to minimum size by removing any material that can be removed without aﬀecting the observed problem. Soc.ams.

and Alexander Samarin. Birkh¨user. Soc. 2nd revised ed.. RI. distributed with L TEX. A [4] Michel Goossens.. RI.ams. 2 (June 1990). 1999. Reading. 1984. L TEX: A document preparation system. 1990. MA. a [6] Donald E. . Addison-Wesley. Providence. [3] Using the amsthm Package. MA. The L TEX companion. 1994. Amer. Reading. 297–305. Frank Mittelbach. Addison-Wesley.org/cgi-bin/bookstore/bookpromo?fn=91&arg1= bookvideo&itmc=MLTEX. The TEXbook. pp. Amer.32 BIBLIOGRAPHY A [2] Instructions for preparation of papers and monographs—AMS-L TEX. Math into L TEX: An Introduction to L TEX and AMS-L TEX a http://www. Knuth. [8] Frank Mittelbach and Rainer Sch¨pf. [Note: The 1994 edition is not a reliable guide for the amsmath package unless you refer to the errata A for Chapter 8—ﬁle compan.err. 1995. 1996. The joy of TEX. Soc. no. Math. Gr¨tzer. A [7] Leslie Lamport. Providence.. Reading.. The new font family selection—user o A interface to standard L TEX. 2nd revised ed. Amer.] A A A [5] G. MA. Soc. RI. 1994. Providence. TUGboat 11.. 1999. [9] Michael Spivak. Addison-Wesley. Math. Boston. Math.

14. 7. 14 bm package. 24. 8. 12 centertags option. i. 26 arrows extensible. 18 \cosh. 25 amsmath package. 25. 12 \arccos. 25 cmex. 18 \arctan.Index \!. 29 aligned environment. 25 cmex7. 1. 26. 11 \\. 3. 21 \cdots. delimiters. 12 \ddot. 31 compan. . 28 cases environment. 32 amsxtra package. 23 \boxed. 25 \big. 24.. 12 \addtocounter. 2. 6 \C. 1. 2. 18 \boldsymbol. 8 CD environment. 1. 17. 12 \dddot. 20 \atop. 2 accents package. 5–7. 12 \DeclareMathOperator. 15 \cos. 29 \abovewithdelims. 7. 9 \|. 9. 5. 10 \bmod. 14 binomials. 3. 10.tex. 18 array environment. 5 align environment. 16 \above. \bigg. 1 amsbsy package.. 14 \accentedsymbol. 2 amscd package. 14 33 BaKoMa fonts. 10 bmatrix environment. 7. 1–3. 23. 5. 22 amstext package. 18 \cot. 8. 11 \. 13 in commutative diagrams. 21 AMSFonts collection. . 2 \cfrac. 2 amssymb package. 22. 22. 8–18. 18 \coth. 15 cmbsy5. 11 \. 1 amsbook class. 2. 28–30 alignat environment. 26. 27 \binom. 18 \csc. 9 \allowdisplaybreaks.err. 9 alignedat environment. 14 \ddddot. 28–32 amsopn package. 25 cmmib5. 22 \cases. 2. 18 . 8. 1. 26 \\*. 1. 13 \bslash. 1. 27 \bigr. . 14. 25 comp. 18 \dbinom. 18 \arcsin. \Big. 27 \bigl. 32 continued fractions. 11 \:. 23 Bmatrix environment. 16 \biggl. 18 \arg. 10 \addtolength. 20 amsfonts package. 9 amsart class.text. 25 cmex10. 2 amsthm package. 27 \biggr. 2. 29 \atopwithdelims.

30 \eqref. 3 \displaystyle. 18 \fbox. 18 \lVert. 18 \dfrac. 9 displayed equations. 10 equation environment. 5 \lg. 20 displaymath environment. 3 equations. 18 kuvio package. see ellipsis dots \dotsb. 30 equation numbers cross-references. 21 . 10 \langle.txt. 17. 12 \dotsi. 11 \hom. 14.ams. 18 \log. 21 \frac. 7. 3 subordinate numbering. 12 dots. 12 \dotso. 2. 17. 8. 1. 12 e-math. 18 \genfrac.org. 10 vertical placement. 20 placement of limits. 18 integrals multiple. 18 \injlim. 3 displayed equations centering. 14 \hat. see displayed equations euscript package. 18 \ln. 27 \leftroot. 3. 12 \dotsm. 21 \exp. 2 equation* environment. 16 math fonts. 11 eqnarray environment. 18 \displaybreak. 20 \iiiint. 3. 9 intlimits option. 5–7. 5 fntguide. 1. 14 diffs-m. 13 fleqn option. 13 leqno option.34 \deg. 20 \iint. 24. 24. 9 \gcd. 2. 16 \ldots. 18 \lim. 26. 12 \left. 16 \lvert. 1. 3. 18 horizontal space around operator names. 11 \idotsint. 6. 18 \det. 20 \limsup. 12 \hdotsfor. 3 overriding. 17 in math mode. 20 \inf. 18 \liminf. 10 hierarchy. 15. 3 \displaylimits. see subscripts and superscripts \limits. 15 fractions. see operator names gather environment. 18 limits. 31 ellipsis dots in matrices. 28–30 gathered environment. 14 \fracwithdelims. 12 \dotsc. 20 \label. 5.tex. 20 \ker. 20 \iiint. 2 \intertext. 2 INDEX function names. 14 \documentclass. 2 \dot. 30 \dim. 7. 3. 9 left or right placement. 16.

5 \shoveleft. 11 \smash. 19 \sin. 25 \Pr. 18 \projlim. 29 \overleftarrow. 13 \overleftrightarrow. 11 \negthickspace. 18 \mspace. 13 multi-line. 16 \ref. 18 \mod. 16 \scriptscriptstyle. 14 . 28 matrix environment. 18 PostScript fonts. 10 reqno option. 5 \right. 21 \mathfrak. 19 subeqn. 18 \medspace. 11 Metafont source ﬁles. 3. 10 \pmb. 13. 18 smallmatrix environment. 21 matrices. 10 \setlength. 1. 19. 21 \nobreakdash. 9. 5. 2 nosumlimits option. 22 \mathcal.INDEX 35 page breaks. 13 \overset. 12 split environment. 28 pmatrix environment. see math fonts \mathbb. 19 math symbols. 14 \scriptstyle. 2. 20 nonamelimits option. 14. 27–30 \sptilde. 5 \sideset. 10 \max. 14 \sec. 21 \mathtt. 27 \sphat. 18 \qquad. 13 \overrightarrow. 10 subscripts and superscripts. 25 \min. 21 \mathit. 11 multline environment. 18 \pod. 18 \over. 8 \rangle. 22 \mathbf. 24. 19 on sums. 11 \newcommand. 17 \operatorname. 29. 27. 5 namelimits option. 30 \multlinegap. 13 subarray environment. 11 \quad. 22 \raisetag. 30 operator names. 13 \overwithdelims. 21 \mathsf. 5 \shoveright. 8 \pagebreak. 5. 3. 12 \stackrel. 11 \negthinspace. 11 \R. 21.tex. 18 \setcounter. 15. 22 \pmod. 2 \notag. 27 \rVert. 6. 18 \sinh. 21. 3. 2 \negmedspace. 8 \pmatrix. 21 \mathscr. 2 \nolimits. 3. 21 \mathrm. 17. 9. 16. 18 \mbox. 18 \operatorname*. 16 \rvert. 15. 11 \matrix. 10 ellipsis dots. 9. 3 subequations environment. 5 \numberwithin. 12 nointlimits option.

18 superscripts. 18 \tbinom. 19 \sum. 11 \thinspace. 13 \underset. 2 \substack. 18 text fragments inside math. 2 \sup. 3 \tag*. 23 \varinjlim. 2. 9. 13 \underrightarrow.tex. 31 \underleftarrow. 2. 13 \usepackage. 20. 9. 3 \tan. 7–9. 27 \xleftarrow. 31 \text. 13 INDEX . 18 \varlimsup. 3 TEX Users Group. 23 \varliminf. 26 \tag.tex. 18 \varOmega. 23 \varXi. 10 \varDelta. 25 \value. 23 \varUpsilon. 23 \varSigma. 23 \varPhi. 14. 18 \varLambda. 2 technote. 18 \varPsi. 11 TUGboat. 18 \textstyle.36 placement. 13 \xrightarrow. 13 \underleftrightarrow. 23 \varprojlim. 14 \tfrac. 18 \tanh. 23 \varTheta. 10 \vphantom. 23 \varGamma. 10 \thickspace. 23 Vmatrix environment. 23 \varPi. see subscripts and superscripts tabular environment. 13 \uproot. 14 \theequation. 22 sumlimits option. 14 tbtags option. 28–30 testmath. 10 vmatrix environment.

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