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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Zlvdkif 29 / 2010
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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August 19/ 2010

Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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(www.khitpyaingnews.org rSu;l ,laz: jyygonf?) 04/ }o*kw/f 2010
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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(22) ESpfjynfh &Spfq,fh&pS f 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

1§90 xkwjf yefa=unmum “ jynforl sm;u a&G;aumufwifajrêmufvu
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu a&G;cs,w
f mqkad yr,fv@kd wu,fwrf;us&if umuG,af &; OD;pD;csKyfu
ol@val wG oltukev
f ;kH odcsirf o
S Ed ikd rf ,f/ olw@kd tcsi;f csi;f olw@kd twGi;f rSm nSEd i_d ;f wkid yf if+y;D awmhrS
a&G;cs,fr,fvdk@ ,lqygw,f? tJawmh umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf qdk+yD;awmh usaemfwdk@u
emrnfwyfayr,fv
h @kd wu,fwrf;usawmh wyfrawmfqw
kd hJ Institution }uD;u ae+yD;awmh
apv$ww
f yhJ *k Kd~ vfawGv@kd usaemfawmh ,lqygw,f”
r*Fvm'Hk rJqENe,f trSwf (2) uk,
d pf m;vS,w
f OD;jzpf+y;D t+ird ;f pm;Adv
k }f u;D wOD;vnf;
jzpfwhJ OD;wifxeG ;f armif ajymjyoGm;wm jzpfygw,f?
aemufwcg orRweJ@ 'kw,
d orRw a&G;cs,cf iG t
hf ydik ;f udk =unf=h u&atmifyg?
yxr tqift
h aeeJ@ 'kw,
d orRw (3) a,mufukd a&G;cs,&f rSmjzpf+yD; 'kw,
d tqifh
taeeJ@ 'kw,
d orRw (3) a,mufxu
J aerS orRwudk jynfaxmifpk v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,f
tm;vH;k &JŒrJe@J xyfa&G;&rSm jzpfygw,f?
'Dtydik ;f rSmawmh wyfrawmfom; ud,
k pf m;vS,af wG[m jynfaxmifpv
k w
$ af wmfxrJ mS
ta&twGuf (4) yHk (1) yHo
k m&Sad yr,fh tcGit
hf a&;udak wmh (4) yHk (1) yHx
k uf yd,
k x
l m;ygw,f?
(3) yHk (1) yHk 'grrS [kwf 33²3 µ txd &,lxm;w,fv@kd qd&k ygr,f? bma=umifv
h nf;qdak wmh
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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jynfo@l u,
kd pf m;vS,af wGu 'kw,
d orRw (3) a,mufteuf 'kw,
d orRw (2) a,mufuo
kd m
a&G;cs,cf iG &hf +yD; usef 'kw,
d orRw wa,mufuakd wmh wyfrawmfom; uk,
d pf m;vS,af wGu
a&G;cs,cf iG &hf rSm jzpfv@kd ygy?J
tJ'D wyfrawmfom; ud,
k pf m;vS,af wGtm;vH;k [m umuG,af &; OD;pD;csKyfwOD;wnf;
qH;k jzwfa&G;cs,f xm;wJo
h al wGjzpfwt
hJ wGuf 'kw,
d orRw wOD;udk umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu
a&G;cs,cf iG &hf whJ oabmrsK;d jzpfaeygw,f? 'Dawmh umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfukd tckvkd tcGit
hf a&;
awGay;xm;wm[m w&m;rSswr_ tajccHukd azmufzsu&f m rusaybl;vm;? OD;wifxeG ;f armifukd
ar;=unfah wmh......
“wyfrawmfukd usaemfw@kd u trsK;d om;Edik if aH &; tiftm;pktaeeJ@jrifw,f? vuf&dS
yuwd tajctaeuvnf; vdt
k yfw,fv@kd ,q
l vd@k usaemfw@kd vufcx
H m;wmyg? [dk 25 µ wd@k /
(3) yHk (1) yHw
k @kd / 50 µ wd@k 'gawGu jy\em r[kwyf gb;l ? wu,ftvkyv
f yk v
f @kd jzpfrvm;/
tvkyjf zpfr,fh wdik ;f jynftwGuf aumif;rvm; 'gyJ pOf;pm;wmav”
OD;wifxeG ;f armif ajymjyoGm;wmjzpfygw,f?
Edik if aH wmforRwudk a&G;cs,&f mrSmawmh apmapmu ajymcJo
h vdk a&G;cs,x
f m;=uwJh
'kw,
d orRw (3) a,mufxu
J ae xyfraH &G;cs,&f rSmjzpfygw,f? Edik if aH wmforRw&JΠt&nf
tcsi;f owfrw
S cf sux
f rJ mS ppfa&;tjrif&&dS r,fqw
kd hJ tcsuyf gygw,f? ppfa&;tjrif &S&d r,fqw
kd m
bmudkqdkvdkygovJ? ppfr_xrf;zl;ol 'grSr[kwf vuf&Sd ppfr_xrf;aeoljzpf&r,fqdkwJh
t"dym` ,fygvm;? ppfa&;tjrif&&dS r,f qdw
k hJ owfrw
S cf suu
f kd wyfrawmfom;a[mif;wOD;jzpfwhJ
t+idr;f pm; 'kw,
d Adv
k rf LS ;}uD; at;jrifu
h b,fvkd em;vnfygovJ?
“pOf;pm;=unfhAsm/ ppfOD;pD;csKyf 'grSr[kwf wyfrawmft&m&Sd 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf;
ppfa&;udyk nmwwfu|r;f em;vnfwo
hJ o
l mvSsif orRw jzpf&r,fqakd wmh &Si;f aewmyJAsm?
t&yfom;wa,mufu ppfa&;rSm b,fvv
kd yk +f yD;awmh tajctaeawGukd olu ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef ikd f
awG;Edik yf grh vJ? ppfAv
kd u
f vG&J if orRw b,forl S rjzpfatmif a&;xm;wJh zG@J pnf;yHk As”
'kw,
d Adv
k rf LS ;}uD; at;jrifyh g?
umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf&JŒtvGefta&;}uD;wJh aemufxyftcef;u¾w&yfudkvnf;
'DtajccHOya'xJrmS xyfawG@&ygao;w,f? umuG,af &;Xme/ jynfxaJ &;Xme/ e,fpyfa&;&m
XmeawG&ŒJ 0ef}uD;eJ@ 'k 0ef}uD;awGukd wyfrawmfom;awGxu
J yJ cef@&r,f? cef@wt
hJ cgrmS vnf;
umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf trnfpm&if;ay;wJh oluo
kd m cef@xm;&r,fv@kd yk'rf 232 (c) (2) rSm
qdx
k m;ygw,f?
&mxl;wm0efuae &yfpaJ &;eJ@ywfoufwt
hJ ydik ;f rSmvnf; wjcm;0ef}uD;awGuakd wmh
orRwvuf 0uGuf tyfxm;ygw,f? orRw u jzKwfvjkd zKwf/ xkwv
f x
kd w
k f Edik yf gw,f? 'gayr,fh
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

apmapmu ppfom;0ef}uD;awGuakd wmh orRwu bmrSvyk cf iG rhf &Syd gb;l ?
ppfom;0ef}uD;awGukd jzKwfz@kd v&kd if yk'rf 235 (*) (2) t& umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfukd
nSEd id_ ;f today;&ygr,f? 'Dawmh 'Dtcsuef @J wuG a&SŒydik ;f rSm umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf&,lxm;wJh
tcGit
hf a&;awGtay: jynfytajcpdu
k f jrefrmEdik if aH &SŒaersm;aumifpD BLC &JŒtwGi;f a&;rSL;
OD;atmifx;l ua&m b,fvkd jrifygovJ? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfuakd y;xm;wJh tcGit
hf a&;awG[m
tvGet
f u|jH zpfaeygovm;?
“csKyfajymvd@k &&dS ifawmh Oya'jyKa&;rSma&m/ tkycf sKyfa&;rSma&m umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu
&mcdik Ef e_ ;f trsm;pk wdik ;f jynfrmS 0ifa&mufpu
G zf uf cs,v
f ,
S cf iG &hf o
dS mG ;w,fv@kd ajymvd@k &w,f?
'Dxufy+kd yD;awmh wdik ;f jynf twGuf tE_wv
f uQ%maqmifwt
hJ csuaf wGuawmh vufeufuikd f
tzG@J tpnf;tm;vH;k [m wyfrawmf&ŒJ }u;D =uyfuyG u
f rJ _ atmufrmS &S&d r,fqw
kd hJ jyÏmef;csut
f &
umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu wwdik ;f jynfv;kH rSm&Sw
d hJ vufeufuikd t
f zG@J tpnf; tm;vH;k &JΠxdyq
f ;kH
jzpfomG ;w,f?
'Drkdua&pDEdkifiHawGrSmqdk&if jynfol@&JwyfzGJ@awG/ vHk+cHKr_xdef;odrf;a&;wyf&if;awG/
axmufvrS ;f a&; wyfz@JG awGu t&yfom;tpd;k &&JΠwdu
k ¶f u
kd }f u;D =uyf uGyu
f rJ a_ tmufrmS &S&d ygw,f?
'g ppfwyfe@J rqdik b
f ;l ? ppfwyfu wyfrawmf&rdS ,f/ ppfajrjyifaxmufvrS ;f a&; &Srd ,f/ 'guykd J
}uD;=uyfuyG u
f o
J mG ;&wm jzpfw,f? tckawmh tJ'ge@J ajymif;jyefjzpfomG ;+yD? wjynfv;kH rSm&Sw
d hJ
vlxktpdk;&u wdkuf¶dkuf}uD;=uyfoGm;&r,fh vufeufudkif wyfzGJ@awGtm;vHk;[mvnf;yJ
umuG,af &; OD;pD;csKyfvufxu
J kd a&mufomG ;w,f?
'Dvkd tcsut
f vufawGt& =unfw
h t
hJ cgrmS zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya't& vlwa,muf
ES p f a ,muf vuf x J r S m om tm%m&S i f p epf u d k usif h o H k ; oG m ;r,f h taetxm;rsKd ; ud k
a&mufomG ;atmif umuG,af &; OD;pD;csKyfukd tifrwef }uD;rm;wJt
h m%mawG ay;xm;w,fv@kd
ajymvd@k &w,f”
OD;atmifx;l jzpfygw,f?
'DtajccHOya'yg jyÏmef;csuft& wyfrawmf&JŒ ta&;udpPawGrSm a&G;aumufcH
udk,fpm;vS,fawGu bmrS aqmif&GufcGifhr&Sdwmudkvnf; awG@&ygw,f? wyfrawmf[m
wyfe@J ywfoufwu
hJ pd P tm;vH;k udk vGwv
f w
G v
f yfvyf aqmif&u
G cf iG &hf w
dS ,fv@kd qdx
k m;ygw,f?
umuG,fa&;eJ@ vHkjcHKa&;udpPawGudk jzpfap/ wyfrawmfqdkif&mudpPawGudk jzpfap
aqG;aEG;zd@k vt
kd yf&if jynfoal wG a&G;aumufxm;wJh uk,
d pf m;vS,f 75µ u bmrSaqmif&u
G cf iG fh
r&Sb
d J umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf wOD;wnf;ua&G;wJh wyfrawmfom;ud,
k pf m;vS,f 25µ uom
aumfrwDz@JG aqmif&u
G &f r,f vd@k yk'rf 115 (c)eJ@ 147 (c)wd@k u twdtvif; azmfjya&;om;
xm;ygw,f?
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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tu,fI t&yfom;udk,fpm;vS,fygzdk@ vdk&ifawmifrS wyfrawmfom;csnf;ygwJh
aumfrwDuom olw@kd }udKufEpS o
f ufwhJ t&yfom;ud,
k pf m;vS,u
f kd a&G;cs,cf ef@xm;&r,fv@kd
qdyk gw,f? 'gt
h jyif wyfe@J qikd w
f hJ w&m;pD&ifra_ wGe@J ywfouf+y;D ppfaq;zd@k uv
kd nf; ppfbufqikd &f m
oD;jcm;cH¶k ;kH awGe@J zG@J pnf;xm;+yD; jynfaxmifpk A[dw
k &m;¶H;k csKyfu bmrSpu
G zf ufciG hf r&Syd gb;l ?
umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf&JŒtqHk;tjzwf[m t+yD;tjywfjzpf&r,fvdk@ qdkxm;ygw,f?
'DtajctaeawGa=umifh ppfwyf[m w&m;v$waf wmfcsKyf&ŒJ xde;f csKyfru
_ ae vGwo
f mG ;w,fv@kd
OD;atmifx;l u qdyk gw,f? ppfwyf[m Oya'&JŒtxde;f tuGy/f jynfaxmifpv
k w
$ af wmf&ŒJ txde;f
tuGyaf wGuae oD;jcm;uif;vGww
f hJ tzG@J jzpfaew,fv@kd qdyk gw,f?
“'D etz zG@J pnf;yHOk ya't& w&m;¶H;k xH;k pepfukd usio
hf ;kH wJt
h cgrmS ppfbufqikd &f m
w&m;¶H;k qd+k yD;awmh ay:vmw,f? tJ'w
D &m;¶H;k u t&yfbufqikd &f mw&m;¶H;k wjynfv;kH rSm
tjrifhqHk;jzpfwJh w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfeJ@ ,SOf+ydKifjzpfoGm;w,f? tJ'D ,SOf+ydKifw&m;¶Hk;rSm
umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfrmS t,lcH pD&ifyikd cf iG t
hf m%m&Sw
d ,fqw
kd hJ tcsuu
f tqd;k qH;k jzpfomG ;
w,fvdk@ ajymvdk@&w,f? tJawmh ppfwyfu oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh tzGJ@}uD;jzpfwJhtjyifudk
w&m;pD&ifyikd cf iG hf rSmawmifrS vlxt
k yk cf sKyfa&;rSm tjrifq
h ;kH jzpfwhJ w&m;v$waf wmfcsKyfe@J rqdik f
awmhb;l jzpfomG ;w,f”
a&SŒaeOD;cifarmifaZmfuawmh 'DtajccHOya'rSm wyfrawmfom; 25µ ta&twGuf
t&,lxm;wmxuf tm%mudk wyfrawmfu 90µ avmufcsKyfudkifxm;wJhtcsufu
ydt
k a&;ygw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f?
“trsm;ajymajymae=uwJh wyfrawmfom; 25µ qdw
k u
hJ pd ?P tajccHOya'rl=urf;udk
jyef=unfv
h u
kd w
f t
hJ cgusawmh 25µ qdw
k mu vlO;D a&yJAs? tJ'D 25µ vlO;D a&jzpfayr,fv
h @kd
tm%m&JŒ 90µ u wyfrawmfqaD &mufaew,fv@kd tJ'v
D kd cHpm;rdw,fAs”
b,ftcsuaf wGukd axmufxm;+yD; ol 'Dvakd jymwmygv?J
“EdkifiHawmfrSm vHkjcHKa&;aumifpDqdk+yD;awmh xm;w,fAs/ tJ'DvHkjcHKa&;aumifpDu
ol@&ŒJ tm%mu awmfawmfukd us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@e@J }uD;}uD;rm;rm;&Sw
d ,f? vHjk cHKa&;aumifpu
D
EdkifiHawmf orRwudkonfyifvSsif jyef+yD;awmh csKyfudkifwJh udpPrsKd;awG&Sdw,f? yk'fr (204)
rSmqdkvdk@&Sd&if EdkifiHawmf orRwonf jypf'%fvGwf+idrf;cGifh ay;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? wenf;qdk&if
Amnisty ay;vk@d &w,f aygA
h sm? 'gayr,fh (c) rSmquf+yD;awmh trsK;d om;umuG,af &;ESihf
vHjk cHKa&;aumifpD axmufccH suEf iS t
hf nD vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf ay;ydik cf iG &hf o
dS nfv@dk 'Dvrkd sK;d ajym
w,f? yk'rf (206) rSmvnf; Edik if aH wmforRw[m trsK;d om; umuG,af &;ESihf vHjk cKH a&;aumifpED iS hf
nSEd id_ ;f vsuf Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f jynfwckcEk iS hf oHwreftquftoG,f jzwfawmufEikd o
f nfv@kd olu
vmw,fAs? tJawmh ol@&ŒJ tcef;u¾u awmfawmfukd }uD;rm;aewmud;k ? tJawmh vlO;D a&u
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

25µ qdak yr,fh vkyyf ikd cf iG t
hf m%m 90µ u wyfrawmf&ŒJ vkyyf ikd cf iG x
hf rJ mS a&mufaew,fv@kd
,lqwmaygAh sm”
OD;cifarmifaZmfajymovdyk J 'DtajccHOya'u tcGit
hf m%m ay;tyfxm;wJh txJrmS
trsK;d om; umuG,af &;eJ@ vH+k cHKa&;aumifp&D ŒJ tcef;u¾[m tvGet
f a&;ygwmudk awG@&
ygw,f? b,favmufawmif ta&;ygovJq&kd if orRw u ta&;ay:tajctae a=unmr,f
qd&k ifvnf; trsK;d om;umuG,af &;eJ@ vH+k cHKa&;aumifpeD @J nSEd id_ ;f +yD;rSom aqmif&u
G Ef ikd yf gw,f?
tvGefta&;}uD;wJh umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfudk cef@xm;&mrSmvnf; orRwrSm trSefwu,f
tm%mr&Sdbl;vdk@ qdk&rSmyg? umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftopfudk trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;eJ@
vHk+cHKa&;aumifpDu tqdkjyKrSmjzpfovdk tJ'DtzGJ@&JŒaxmufcHr_vnf; vdktyfw,fqdkawmh
Edik if aH wmforRw u vufrw
S x
f ;kd &¶Ho
k m tcGit
hf m%m &Syd gw,f?
tJ't
D csuaf wGukd yk'rf (410)/ yk'rf (417) eJ@ yk'rf (342) awGrmS jyÏmef;xm;wmyg?
'gxufy+kd yD; ta&;ygwmuawmh trsK;d om;umuG,af &;eJ@ vHjk cHKa&;aumifp[
D m ta&;ay:
tajctaea=unm+y;D wyfrawmfukd tm%modr;f cGiahf y;Ekid +f y;D wyfrawmftm%m odr;f xm;pOf
umvrSmvnf; yk'rf 427 t& tm%moH;k &yf usio
hf ;kH cGi&hf ydS gw,f? tJ'v
D kd tcGit
hf m%mxl;awG
&,lxm;wJh umuG,af &;eJ@v+kH cHKa&; aumifpq
D w
kd m b,fvkd tzG@J tpnf;rsK;d ygv?J
a&SŒaeOD;atmifx;l &JŒ oH;k oyfcsuu
f .......
“t"dutm;jzifh th=H op&maumif;wmuawmh urBmrSm b,fz@JG pnf;yHrk mS rS rawG@&wJh
jyÏmef;csurf sK;d eJ@ wdik ;f jynfrmS tm%m}u;D ( 3) &yf&w
dS t
hJ eufu tkycf sKyfa&;tm%mtcef;u¾
rSm trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;eJ@ vHkjcHKa&;aumifpDudk crf;crf;em;em;azmfjyxm;wmjzpfw,f?
tJ'x
D rJ mS tzG@J 0if (11) a,muf&w
dS t
hJ eufu (6) a,mufu vuf&w
dS yfrawmfrmS wm0ef
xrf;aqmifae=uwJh ppfAdkvfcsKyfawGjzpfw,f? tJawmh usefwJh (5) a,mufuvnf;yJ
wyfuxGuo
f mG ;wJh yk*Kd~ vfawG jzpfomG ;Edik w
f ,f? trsK;d om;umuG,af &;eJ@ vHjk cKH a&; aumifp[
D m
b,ftcsed rf mS qdq
k kd tpnf;ta0;vkyv
f yk f umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfacgi;f aqmifwhJ ppfacgi;f aqmif
6 a,mufuomvSsif trsm;pkjzpf+y;D awmh t+rw
J rf; tEdik &f +y;D awmh wwdik ;f jynfv;kH udk trsK;d om;
umuG,af &;eJ@ vH+k cKH a&;aumifpu
D wqifh }u;D =uyfuyG u
f o
J mG ;r,fh oabm&Sw
d mudk awG@&ygw,f?
zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'&Sw
d hJ umvtawmftwGi;f rSmjzpfap/ zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' tvkyrf vkyf
Ekid af wmhwhJ umvtawmftwGi;f rSmjzpfap b,ftajctae atmufrmS rqdk tm%m}uD; (3)
&yfudk t"du csKyfudkif+yD;awmh v$rf;rdk;tkyfcsKyfoGm;r,fh tm%modrf;ppfaumifpDozG,f
awmufavSsmuf &yfwnfomG ;vdrrhf ,fv@kd usaemfw@kd wifjyvdyk gw,f”
OD;atmifxl;u tajccHOya'rSmazmfjyxm;wJh umuG,fa&;eJ@vHk+cHKa&;aumifpD&JŒ
tvm;tvmudk a0zef qef;ppfomG ;wm jzpfygw,f?
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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aomw&Sirf sm;&Si/f +yD;cJw
h t
hJ ywfwek ;f u usrwd@k avhvmoH;k oyfc=hJ uwJh tydik ;f (2) eJ@
tck tydkif; (3) a&SŒydkif; u avhvmcsufawGudk=unfh&if orRw/ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfeJ@
trsK;d om;umuG,af &;eJ@ vH+k cKH a&;aumifpD wd@k [m 'DtajccHOya'&JΠv$t
J yfcsut
f & tkycf sKyfa&;
tm%mt&Sq
d ;kH vly*k Kd~ vfe@J tzG@J tpnf;awGjzpfw,f qdw
k m awG@&ygw,f?
tajccHOya'u 'Dvt
kd m%may;tyfxm;wJt
h wGuf tu,fI 'DtajccHOya'om
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfoufolwdkif;taeeJ@ tJ'D iuef;ae&m
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&Jabmfz;kd oHacsmif;
-o*kwf / 30/ 2010
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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pepfjzpfa=umif; awG@&SdcJhonf” [k vnf;aumif;/ “xdk@a=umifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;.
jynfaxmifppk pfppf wnfaxmifvckd surf sm;/ vrf;!$ecf surf sm;onf Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESit
hf wl
0dnmOfcsKyfomG ;onfrmS 0rf;enf;a=uuGpJ &myif jzpfawmhonf” [kvnf;aumif;/ “wnf&q
dS J
zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'onf jynfe,frsm;. udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhudk jiif;y,fonf?
wef ; wl a &;rl u d k v nf ; ray;pG r f ; Ed k i f ? jynf a xmif p k t m%m[l o a&G Πud k jynf a xmif p k
A[dt
k pd;k &trnfEiS hf Armjynfru vuf0g;}u;D tkyf odr;f usK;H ,l+y;D jynfe,frsm;udk rdrv
d ufatmuf
cHjynfe,frsm; (Vassal State) tjzpf oGwfoGif;cJhonf” [k vnf;aumif; pmwrf;wGif
ok;H oyfazmfjyxm;onf?
,if; wdik ;f &if;om;wd@k . rauseyfcsu/f cHpm;csurf sm;onf ,ckwikd f t¶d;k pGaJ eonfukd
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

ppftpd;k &u rodusK;d uGsH vkyaf eonf? em*pfz@JG pnf;ykw
H iG f wdik ;f &if;om;wd@k &ydik cf iG rhf sm;udk vk;H 0
vspv
f sLjyKxm;onf? xd@k a=umifh 2008 zG@J pnf;yku
H kd opPmcHjcif;onf trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwf
aoG;pnf;a&;tm; OayuQmjyK&musayonf?
rsuaf rSmuftajctaetxd jrefrmhEikd if aH &;yÉdu.
Q t"dutcsurf mS wdik ;f &if;om;
wd@k tm; vGwv
f yfa&;/ wef;wla&;ESihf ud,
k yf ikd jf yÏmef;cGiahf y;a&;udpjP zpfonf? xdt
k csut
f ay:
Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;u rSsrsS ww pOf;pm;ok;H oyfum zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'udk jynfaxmifpk
(Federal) rlt& jyifqifa&;udpPudk aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf? ppfwyfurl wrdef@wtm%m
wjynfaxmifpepfqo
D @kd om ZGww
f ;kd oGm;+rJomG ;aeonf?
1960 ckEpS t
f ajctaeudk jyef=unfv
h sS if OD;Ek. jynfaxmifpk (yxp) tpd;k &vufxuf
zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya'udk jyifqifa&;qGJ&ef jynfol@v$wfawmfu qkH;jzwfcJha=umif;
awG@&onf? jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfu tajccHOya'jyifqifa&; tqdu
k kd twnfjyKjyÏmef;+yD;aemuf
1960 Edk0ifbm (7) &ufwGif awmif}uD;+rdKŒY &Srf;jynfe,ftpdk;&u tpnf;ta0;w&yf
usi;f yonf? xdt
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k pf m;vS,f
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vufrw
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udk,fpm;vS,fa[mif;rsm;ESifh pdwfyg0ifpm;olrsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf? xdktpnf;ta0;rS
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if .
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Hk ajccHOya' jyifqifa&;qGaJ &; (&Sr;f jynfe,fqikd &f m)
}udK;udik af umfrwDukd tzG@J 0if (32) OD;jzifh zG@J co
hJ nf? xdak umfrwDu 1961 Zefe0g&v
D (24)
&ufae@wiG f tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;qdik &f m rlw&yfcsrw
S cf o
hJ nf?
xdrk w
l iG f vuf&dS zG@J pnf;ykH tajccHOya'Y jynfe,fEiS hf vlrsK;d pkwikd ;f twGuf vkaH vmuf
onfh wef;wlnrD sS rt
_ cGit
hf a&; jyÏmef;xm;jcif; r&So
d jzi hf wef;wlnrD sS r_ vkaH vmufpmG &&Sad &;
twGuf tajccHOya'tm; jynfaxmifpkppfppfrljzifh jyKjyifa&;qGJ&ef azmfjyxm;onf?
xdrk cl s+yD;aemuf OD;xGe;f jrifh (awmif}uD;)/ rdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ; p0faq;[kr/f pnfoOl ;D wif/ OD;ausmpf ed /f
OD;=umykEiS hf OD;vS&edS w
f @kd yg0ifonf qyfaumfrwDukd zG@J co
hJ nf? qyfaumfrwDu tajccHOya'qdik &f m
taxmuftxm;rsm; &SmazGpkaqmif;avhvmum tpD&ifcHpmudk (&Srf;jynfe,fqdkif&m)
}udK;udkifaumfrwDodk@ wifoGif;onf? ,if;tpD&ifcHpmudk aumfrwDu jyifqifjznfhpGufI
“&Srf;jynfe,frS wifoGif;aom jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiH. zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'
jyifqifa&;qGaJ &;pmwrf;” udk jyKpo
k nf? 1961 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v
D (25) &ufae@ awmif}u;D +rKd ŒwGif
usi;f yaom jynfv;Hk uGswn
f v
D mcHu &Sr;f rl[k vlord sm;aom xdpk mwrf;udk twnfjyKcJo
h nf?
txufygpmwrf;wGif tm%mESihf tcGit
hf a&;cGaJ 0ykrH mS rSswr_r&Sb
d J A[djk ynfaxmifpk
tpd k ; &u tm%mt&yf & yf csKyf u d k i f x m;ojzif h wd k i f ; &if ; om;vl r sKd ; rsm;taejzif h
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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rauseyf=ua=umif;/ Armrsm;u vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;onf[k r,kHouFmjzpfa=umif;
wifjyxm;onf? ygvrD efz@JG pnf;ykEH iS hf pyfvsO;f Ivnf; vlrsK;d pkvw
$ af wmf (txufvw
$ af wmf) ESihf
jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf (atmufvw
$ af wmf) wd@k tcGit
hf m%mrwla=umif;/ vlrsK;d pkvw
$ af wmfo@kd
jynfe,frsm;u udk,fpm;vS,ftnDtrSs apv$wfcGifhr&a=umif;/ jynfaxmifpktpdk;&onf
vlrsK;d pkvw
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xdk@a=umifh v$wfawmf (2) &yf wef;wltm%m&Sda&;/ vlrsKd;pkv$wfawmfodk@ jynfe,frsm;u
ud,
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txufygpmwrf;udk aqG;aEG;&efEiS hf awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vk;H nD!w
G af &;OD;pD;tzG@J
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udk awmif}uD;+rdKŒwGif usi;f cJo
h nf? xdn
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a&;r_; p0fxeG ;f at;/ wGzJ uftwGi;f a&;r_; OD;vSaz (ytd@k 0)f wd@k tygt0if (22) OD;yg tvkyf
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vmrnfh udpt
P 00wd@k wiG f wnDw!Gww
f nf; pkaygi;f I jy\em&yfrsm;udk wpnf;wvk;H wnf;
aqmif&u
G &f ef” pojzifjh zpfonf?
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&Srf;jynfe,frS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh awG@qkHcJh+yD;aemuf owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ jyKvkyfcJhonf?
owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGw
J iG f 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Eku “&Sr;f rle@J ywfouf+yD; usaemft
h aeeJ@ avhvm+yD;wJh
twGuf 'Dae@ owif;pmuGezf &ifah c:um ajymjyjcif;jzpfygw,f? usaemf avhvm=unfw
h t
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k pd;k &u ,cktywf ygvrD efwiG f jzpfEikd &f if tajccH
Oya'xJrSm vkyfief;vkyf&mrSm tcuftcJawG@aewJh yk'frawGudk jyifzdk@ pdwful;cJh+yD;
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dS mawGukd jyifcsi&f if wifjy&ef cGiahf y;csut
f & vkyu
f ikd =f ujcif;omjzpfygw,f?
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

tpd;k &cGijhf yKcsut
f & 'gawG vdck siw
f ,fqw
kd m qk;H jzwfcsucf s+yD; awmif;wm[m 'Dru
kd a&pD
tcGit
hf a&;udk olw@kd tok;H jyKjcif;om jzpfygw,f? olw@kd [m 'Dru
kd a&pDtcGit
hf a&; ok;H wmudk
tpd;k &tzG@J u pdwq
f ;kd p&mr&Sb
d ;l ? &Sr;f rla&;qGjJ cif;udk pdwrf qd;k bl;? 'gayr,fh wdik ;f jynfrmS
odk@avmodk@avm txifrSm;jzpfw,f? usaemfhtaeeJ@vnf; txifrSm;csuf wcsufESpfcsuf
&SdcJhw,f? 'DtxifrSm;csufawGudk p0fcGefcsKdeJ@ ESpf}udrfawG@qkH+yD; &Sif;vif;ajymjywJhtcgrSm
txifrmS ;csuaf wG aysmufuek w
f ,f? tck olw@kd vyk af ewJh vrf;pOf[m ay;&ifay; ray;&if
csr,fqw
kd hJ vrf;pOfr[kw/f usaemfw@kd uvnf; rif;wd@k cs&if 'd@k uvnf; csr,fqw
kd hJ vrf;pOfr[kw”f ?
“jynfaxmifp}k uD; wnfwcHh ikd +f rJapcsi&f if igwaum aumIr&bJ wdik w
f ikd yf ifyife@J
vkyu
f ikd o
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hf ywfrvkyef @J ?
rdom;pktaeeJ@ ajz&Si;f oGm;=u&ef/ vlenf;pkawGa&m jrefrmawGuykd g 'Dae&mu owday;vdu
k f
ygw,f? &Sr;f rlac:wJh zuf'&,fru
l kd rsuv
f ;Hk rjyL;=uyge@J ? rdom;pktaeeJ@ &Si;f oGm;ygr,f” [k OD;Eku
&Si;f vif;ajymqdck o
hJ nf?
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awmif;qdak omfvnf; cGx
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0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &Sr;f rl owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGJ jyKvkycf o
hJ nfah e@rmS yif (zuf'&,frEl iS yhf wf
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f iG f zuf'&,frEl iS yhf wfoufI Edik if aH wmforRw/ 0ef}u;D csKy/f tpd;k &tzG@J 0if 0ef}u;D rsm;/
yxp/ zqyv/ yrnwacgi;f aqmifrsm;/ q&m}uD; ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f ESihf Adv
k rf ;_ csKyfa[mif;
ausmf a Zm tr_ ; jyKaom +id r f ; csrf ; a&;tzG J @ acgif ; aqmif r sm;/ owif ; pmq&mrsmES i f h
pma&;q&mrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;wifjycJha=umif;/ vlrsKd;aygif;pkHcspf=unfa&; vlrsKd;pkwdkif;
wef ; wl n D r S s a&;ES i f h jynf a xmif p k w nf w H h c d k i f + rJ a &;qd k o nf h &nf & G , f c suf r sm;jzif h
zuf'&,fral &;qGx
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nD&if;tpfuo
kd zG,f t}uHay;aqG;aEG;=uonfukd tm;&auseyfa=umif;/ jynfe,faygi;f pkH nD
vmcHEiS hf xdn
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G af &;tzG@J . &nf&,
G cf suEf iS hf
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yaysmufum jynfrESihf &Sr;f jynfe,ft=um; em;vnfry_ rkd &kd &Srd nf[k ,k=H unfa=umif; ponfjzifh
azmfjyxm;onf?
1947 tajccHOya'wGif csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm; jzpfcJh&jcif;ESifhpyfvsOf;I OD;xGef;jrifh
(awmif}uD;) u 1962 azazmf0g&D (24) &ufae@u &efukef/ jynfvrf;/ toHv$ifh¶kHcef;r
jynfaxmifprk al qG;aEG;yGw
J iG f ,ckuo
hJ @kd ajymcJzh ;l onf?
(wdik ;f jynfjyKv$waf wmfwiG f tajccHOya'a&;qG=J upOf aumfrwDtpnf;ta0;wckY
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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tajccHOya't}uHay;t&m&Sd OD;csefxGef;u tajccHOya'jyÏmef;csufrsm; wykHwacgif;}uD;
a&;qGJwifjyvmonf[kqdkonf? xdktcg AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u “OD;csefxGef;/ cifAsm;
vefbm;ausmuf'&m;* awG a&;aevdk@ b,fjzpfrvJ? Broad Principle us,fjyef@wJh
oabmw&m;avmufyg&if awmfa&mayg?h vGwv
f yfa&;&+yD;wJah emuf vdw
k mawGukd By Act
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S v
f sm;vsm;eJ@ vkyaf e&if ESpv
f / ok;H veJ@
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“Oya'qdw
k m Gospal Truth bk&m;a[mawG r[kwyf gb;l ? vlvyk x
f m;wJh Oya'udk vlu
jyifv@kd r&qdw
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Tordik ;f tjzpftysuf yk=H urf;udk tusO;f rSs wifjy&onfh &nf&,
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rwfv (2) &uf Adv
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f sru
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tEœ&m,fa=umifh rv$Jra&Smifom EdkifiHawmftm%mudk 0ifa&mufxdef;odrf;cJh&a=umif;
awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uUÏ Adv
k af e0if;u jynfov
l x
l t
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f nfvn
S jhf zm;um tm%modr;f cJh
onf? 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;t& Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;t& jiif;=ucke=f u aqG;aEG;=u&
hf 0Sr;f wGif jzpf¶;kd jzpfpOfupd rP #omjzpfonf? Tod@k aqG;aEG;jiif;ckerf a_ =umifh
onfrmS urBmESit
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wu,fph w
d 0f rf;uGrJ r_ sm; jzpfay:cJch sed rf mS awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D vrf;pOfygwaD xmif
onft
h csed jf zpfonf? vrf;pOfygwrD axmifrD Adv
k af e0if;u yxp/ zqyvESihf yrnw acgi;f aqmif
rsm;tm; rwfv (4) &ufwiG f w}udr/f arv (7) &ufwiG f w}udrEf iS fh arv (17) &ufwiG f w}udrf
(3) }udrf oD;jcm;pDawG@co
hJ nf? yxrt}udrw
f iG f rv$o
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'kw,
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f iG f awmfveS af &;aumifp.
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a=unmcsuEf iS hf jrefrmhq&kd ,
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h nf?
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kd f
aomtcg zqyv/ yxp/ yrnw acgif;aqmifrsm;onf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuUÏESifh
awG@qu
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D ay: oabmxm;xkwjf yefa=unmcsurf sm;/
qk;H jzwfcsurf sm;ESihf pyfvsO;f I &Si;f vif;yG/J aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm; vkycf =hJ uonf? vufatmufcyH gwrD sm;/
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

tvkyo
f rm; v,form;or*~rsm;txd vrf;pOfygw0D ifa&;/ r0ifa&; t}u;D tus,f oabmxm;
uGcJ =hJ uonf? Tod@k jzifh ygwaD ygi;f pkrH S Edik if aH &;orm;trsm;tjym; vrf;pOfygw0D ifa&; qk;H jzwfI
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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(moemaka.com rSu;l ,laz: jyygonf?)
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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85

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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tusO;f om;awG enf;enf;rS rauseyfb;l ?
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

'Dreuf 0g'gawGwa,mufEiS w
hf a,muf p=uaemuf =uw,f? rsm;aom tm;jzifh
axmifrSL; ukdvlacsmudk =unfhvkd@r&=ubl;? aemufuG,frSm qJa&;wkdif;wm =uw,f?
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bmta=umif;a=umifh yef;jcH xJrmS rif;wk@d uw
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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“ igq
h u
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

[kad 'girhf mS xkid af ewJh OD;av;=u;D twGuu
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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Edik if aH &; tawG;tjriftcef;quf

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

&Guzf siu
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aygi;f pyfa&;/ wom;wnf; jzpfa&;twGu/f bdou
d yf }JG u;D wckvnf;jzpfonf? armfonf t"duudk
qkyu
f ikd w
f wfonf? eydv
k ,
D efEiS rhf wl? tao;tzGu
J kd vspv
f sL&_ wwfonf? c&D;&Sncf sw
D ufyYJG /
q&m0efrsm;ESit
hf wl/ (,ckvufaxmuf Edik if jH cm;a&; 0ef}uD; csyD ifazh/ a'guw
f m e,fvqefz;l
polrsm;) av#muf&if;/ pdwZW a&m*gu vl . cE<mud,
k u
f /kd rnfo@kd rnfykH tusKd ;ouf
a&mufa=umif;/ pdw"f mwfjyif;jyr_EiS hf ar#mf vifch suo
f nf/ vlukd touf&iS af eap&ef/ rnfo@kd
pGr;f tm;ay;wwfa=umif;udk aqG;aEG; onf?
wcgw&HY yifyef;qif;&Jru
_ /kd cE<mud,
k w
f ckwnf;jzifh ckcI
H r&? pdw"f gwjf zifyh g ckc&H onf?
qif;&Jyifyef;r_ukd cE<mud,
k }f uD;u/ cHEikd af tmif/ pdw"f gw.
f tultnDukd yg ,l&onf?
,H=k unfcsujf zifo
h m ckcEH ikd o
f nf? rnfr# armyef;aeapumrl/ armf. uAsmq&m rsuaf phonf/
t+idrrf ae? ajr}uD;ud=k u!fo
h nf? aumif;uifu=kd u!fo
h nf? armfonf/ obm0udck spo
f nf?
w+yKd ifeufwnf;rSmyif obm0udv
k nf; wdu
k &f onf?
c&D;&Sncf sw
D ufyYJG armf. acgi;f aqmifru
_ kd ol@&eforl sm;uyif/ cs;D usL;=u& onf?
c&D;&Sncf sw
D ufyo
JG nf/ ol@wOD;wnf;. pGr;f aqmifcsu[
f k armf r,lq? w&kwf jynforl sm;.
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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95

}u;D jrwfrE_ iS hf pGr;f tm;wd@k . jy,k*[
f k ,lqonf? aygujf ym;wvufjzihf ajrwl;aeaom qif;&J
v,form;/ &dik zf ,faoewf}u;D ud/k rEdik w
hf Edik f xrf;vmo!f/h aus;vufvil ,f/ om;a&cg;ywfukd
jyKwfpm;o!f/h tvkyo
f rm; wjzpfv/J wyfeaD wmf om;/ ol@ukd awmifxyd af &mufatmif
wGef;ydk@cJho!fh EdkifiHa&;r_;/ usifuef;awmifwef; rS &SefpD;txd/ ol@aemufu xufcsyf
vku
d v
f mcJ=h uo!f/h w&kwf tvkyo
f rm;/ v,fo rm; polw@kdonf/ c&D;&Sncf sw
D ufyJG ordik ;f }u;D udk
a&;olrsm; ppfppf jzpf=uonf? ol wd@k onf/ armft
h a=umif;udk od=uonf? olw@kd tzd@k armht
f jyif
tjcm;acgi;f aqmif r&S?d olw@kd onf tmZmenfyyD D wdu
k cf =hJ uonf? nnf;nL jcif;r&S?d
toufuakd y;v_ cJ=h uonf? urBmopf}u;D udk zefw;D o!f/h olawmfpifw@kd . ppfwyf}u;D jzpfonf?
&Sepf ;D jynfe,f ajrmufyikd ;f a'oonf/ opf0g;uif;rJah om/ awmif=um;a'o jzpfonf?
avjyif;t+rJwef;wdu
k o
f jzih/f v_id ;f xaeaom/ vdt
k ufajr0g awmifwef; awG aygonf?
rd;k acgio
f nf? wcgw&HwiG f aevH;k aysmufomG ;onftxd/ oJrek ;f wdik ;f rsm; jyif;pGm wdu
k w
f wfonf?
xdak 'ou vlO;D a& ESpo
f ed ;f ausmo
f nf/ qif;&J=uonf?ynmrJ=h uonf? a&m*gxal jym=uonf?
r=umc% tiwfab;}uHK =u&onf?
1926-27 ckESpfY/ uGrfacsmif&Sd armf. v,form;oifwef; ausmif;qif;
ausmif;om;tcsdK@onf/ xdka'owGif uGefjrLepfygwD trmcH/ tjrKawuav;wckudk
zG@J pnf;cJ=h uonf? 1927 ckEpS w
f iG f ykeu
f efx=uGc&hJ m/ cseaf u&Sw
d u
f 4if;wd@k tygt0if
v,form;ESihf ausmif;om; axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmudk owfypfco
hJ nf? aemif (2) ESpf t =umwGi/f
ppfbk&ifcsif;jzpfo!fh/ jynfwGif;ppfrsm;ESifh oa&m}uD;cdkif;r_a=umifh/ ykefuef x=uGr_wck
ay:aygujf yefonf? 0Sryf kd ppfwuUov
kd af usmif;qif;/ &Se;f pD;jynfe,fom;/ vsKcsw
d efonf/
ol@Zmwdo@kd jyefvmum/ xdyk ek u
f efru
_ kd acgi;f aqmifco
hJ nf? v,fo rm; ajymufusm;wyfrsm;udk
pwifz@JG co
hJ nf? ol@e,fwiG f ajr,mjyK jyifajymif;vJa&;/ vkyif ef;pcJo
h nf? ajr&Si}f uD;rsm;.
ajrydrk sm;ESihf cdik ;f EGm;tydrk sm;udk a0ypfco
hJ nf? 1934 ckEpS w
f iG f vGwv
f yfaom/ &Sepf ;D -uefpk
e,fpyfa'oudk wnfaxmifum/ aygit
f ef;udk +rdK@awmftjzpf xm;cJo
h nf? cseaf u&Sw
d u
f
t}udr}f udrf vmwdu
k o
f !fw
h ikd /f tajccH pcef;udk wd;k cs@J Eikd cf o
hJ nf? ol@wiG f wyfom; (5000)
cef@ &So
d nf?
1935 ckEpS w
f iG f use;f ud@k axmif. uGyu
f rJ a_ tmufY/ aeIrjzpfawmho!fh wyfom;
(3000) a&mufvmonf? tjcm;wyfeDawmfom;rsm;vnf;/ &efol@wdk@ ydwf qdk@r_udk
azgux
f u
G u
f m/ &Sepf ;D jynfe,fo@kd vmaygi;f =uonf? xdpk Of A[kad umfrwDrS ud,
k pf m;vS,w
f OD;
a&mufvmum/ vsKcsw
d efukd pGcJ suw
f ifonf? armf vdv
k m;ol/ vusmf tacsmiform; pojzifh
pGyfpGJonf? vsKcsdwefudk zrf;+yD;/ jynfol@cHk&Hk;wGif wif r!fhqJqJ armf a&mufvmum/
ygwn
D !
D w
G af &;ud/k jyefvnfwnfaqmufc&hJ jcif; jzpf onf?
1936- 37 ckESpf/ armf a&mufvm+yD;o!fhtcgrsm;Y/ &SefpD;jynfe,f. tajc

96
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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

taeonf/ vH;k 0ajymif;vJomG ;onf? 1935 ckEpS t
f xd/ ygww
D iG ;f wdu
k yf YJG armf. t ajctaeu
odyfraumif;ao;? usef;udk@axmifu ta&;omaeonf? odk@&mwGif odyf r=um?
use;f ud@k axmif. Zmwd&yk o
f nf/ bGm;bGm; ay:vmonf? use;f ud@k axmif onf/ &Sepf ;D
tajccHpcef;od@k / 1936 ck 'DZifbmvwGif a&mufvmonf/ ol@vrf;pOf rSm;udk 0dik ;f I/
a0zef=uonf? use;f ud@k axmifuvnf;/ *syefcck H qef@usiaf &;twGu/f nD!w
G af &;wyfaygi;f pk
wnf a qmuf & ef / armf . wif j ycsuf u d k taotvJ qef @ usif onf ? armf u d k
vusmf tacsmiform;[k pGypf o
JG nf? use;f ud@k axmifonf/ *syefcck aH &; ppfwuUov
kd w
f iG f
oifwef;ay;&if;/ armf qef@usiaf &;udk wGiw
f iG }f uD; a[monf?
1938 ckEpS w
f iG rf /l use;f ud@k axmifonf ckex
f u
G u
f m/ cseaf u&Sw
d b
f ufo@kd ul;ajy;onf?
ol@ukd cseaf u&Sw
d .
f xdyo
f ;D vufr&G@H wdik v
f u
D / *k%jf yKqD;}udKonf? xdk tcsed u
f pI/
use;f ud@k axmifonf/ uGejf rLepfygwD qef@usiaf &;udk aZmufcs vkyaf wmh onf?
use;f ud@k axmif. b0onf/ vuf0pJ eG ;f rS vusmf pGe;f od@k / ul;ajymif;oGm;ol wd@k u/kd
avhvm&mY pHerlemw&yf jzpfonf? “tay:,H vuf0-J txJ vusmf ” orm; wd@k . jy,k*f
jzpfonf? armfonf use;f ud@k axmif. vrf;pOfukd wdu
k af omfvnf;/ vlukd rwdu
k ?f 1950
ckEpS w
f iG f om;r,m;rsm;udyk if ol@qo
D @kd yd@k ay;cJah o;onf?
ol@vrf;pOf tompD;&pOfu/ use;f ud@k axmifonf/ ygww
D iG ;f u ynmwwfrsm; udk
tjywf&iS ;f ypfonf? “ynmwwfreS o
f r#[m oH;k &ufcH awmfveS af &; orm;awG om jzpfw,f?---opPmazmufawG jzpfw,f?” [k use;f ud@k axmifu ausnmcJo
h nf? oabmw&m;a&;
&eforl sm;ESihf ywfoufI/ armf. oabmxm;onf rSwo
f m;zG,f aumif;onf? trSm;udk
usK;vGefcJhaomfvnf;/ rdrdtrSm;udkjyefI jrifo!fh/ &Jabmfrsm; ESifh ywfoufI/ armfu
“u|eaf wmfw@kd [m 'D&aJ bmfawGukd apmif=h u!f&h rkH #ru/ ulnD vJ uln&D r,f? rSm;wJ&h aJ bmfu/kd
ud,
k t
f rSm; ud,
k jf rifEikd af tmif/ apmif=h uyfun
l w
D m [m vkv
d v
J t
dk yfw,f? 'g[m &JabmfawGe@J
ywfoufv@kd tjyKoabmaqmifw/hJ wck wnf;aom enf;vrf;jzpfw,f” [k ajymcJo
h nf?
usef;udk@axmifonf/ csefau&Sdwfbufodk@ ckeful;ajy;jcif;jzifh udk,fhordkif;udk
a&;oGm;cJo
h nf? xd@k a=umifh armftzd@k ygww
D iG ;f wGif avmavmq,f &efow
l OD; avsmo
h mG ;onf
rSeaf omfvnf;/ wdu
k yf rJG +y;D ao;? armf. b0/ uGejf rLepfygw.
D b0/ awmfveS af &;. b0onf/
&Snf=umaom/ oabmw&m;a&; wdkufyGJrsm;jzifh jy!fhESuf vsuf&Sdonf? ygwDwGif;u
t,ltqa&; wdu
k yf o
JG nf/ ygw&D adS eor# vlwef;pm;awG &Sad eor#/ &Sad eOD;rnf[k armf
,lqonf?
“rwlwJh tawG;tac:csif; qef@usifbufjzpfr_eJ@ wdkufckdufr_[m/ ygwDxJrSm
t+rJ&adS ewmyJ? 'g[m vl@tzG@J tpnf;rSm&Sw
d /hJ vlwef;pm; yÉdyuQrsm;eJ@ t&mudpP t opf
ta[mif;wd@k &@J / yÉdyuQrsm;u/ ygww
D iG ;f udk xif[yfvmwmjzpfw,f? ygwx
D rJ mS yÉdyuQrsm;
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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r&Sd&if/ yÉdyuQrsm;udk ajz&Sif;wJh awG;ac:r_wdkufyGJrsm; r&Sd&if/ ygwD&J@ t ouf[m/
csKyf+idr;f oGm;vdrrhf ,f” [k armfu ajymcJb
h ;l onf? (“yÉdyuQusr;f ” vuf a&G;pifusr;f / twGJ
1)
1935 ck atmufwb
kd mv (20) &ufae@/ &Sepf ;D -uefpk a'ood@k a&muf+yD; o!fh
aemufwiG /f armfonf usr;f rsm;udk jyKpkonf? uGezf &ihrf sm; usi;f yonf? pDru
H ed ;f rsm; qGo
J nf?
vlxu
k kd pnf;&H;k onf? ygwED iS hf wyfrawmfukd wnfaqmufonf? ol@ twGuf tem*gwf
awmfveS af &;onf/ t&Sn}f u;D &Sad o;onf? ta0;}u;D oGm;&OD;rnf?
&Sepf ;D jynfe,fukd a&mufo!ft
h cgwiG /f wyfeaD wmfonf tenf;i,f touf &SLayguf
&vmonf? wyfeaD wmf wyfom;rsm;onf/ awmifurBm;&Hrsm;wGi/f Orifrsm; wl;=uonf?
aEG&moDwiG f at;I/ aqmif;wGi;f wGif aEG;onf? 4if;wd@k onf/ *latmif; ausmufacwf
vlom;b0od@k jyefomG ;ae=u&onf? wyfeaD wmfom;rsm;rSm/ awmif ydik ;f om;rsm; jzpf=uonf?
xd@k a=umifh ajrmufyikd ;f u tpm;taomufukd rpm;wwf =u? vl;/ qwfukd wcgr# rpm;bl;=u?
ajr0gawmifwef;awGay:u/ aqmif;&moDrsKd ; udk wcgr# r}uHKbl;=u? *db
k D oJuE mW &bufu/
wdu
k v
f mwwfaom/ oJrek ;f wdik ;f }uD;rsm; udk wcgr# rawG@b;l ao;=u?
armfonf ,iftef;umvu pdw"f gwrf sKd ;/ ,iftef;umvu taetxdik f rsKd ;[k
aemifwiG f ajymprSwjf yKaom/ pepfwckukd xdt
k csed u
f wnfaxmifcjhJ cif; jzpf onf? xdt
k csed o
f nf
olwdk@twGuf at;at;oufom tae&qHk;tcsdefjzpfonf? a&S@ wdkufyGJrsm;twGuf
jyifqif&onf? ,cifu w&kwjf ynf wjynfv;kH wGif a'oeDaygi;f (14) ck &Scd &hJ m/ ,ck Twckom
useaf wmhonf? ygww
D yfom;uvnf; (40000) om useaf wmhonf?
,cktcsed Yf armfonf tawG;tac:t&/ &ifu
h suaf e+y?D t,ltqt& ygwx
D w
J iG f
tompD;&ae+yD? tawG@t}uHKt& =uG,0f ae+yD? ol@aemufwiG f wyfeD awmftrsm;pk.
axmufcrH u
_ kd &xm;+yD? od@k &mwGif 0rfrif;. *d%
k ;f onf/ ygwx
D w
J iG f tiftm; tawmftwef
&Sad eao;onf? tcsed u
f akd pmifah eo!f/h armfu/ w&kwjf ynf . Edik if aH &;jzpfay: wd;k wufru
_ kd
tqifo
h pfw&yfo@kd wGe;f wif&awmhrnf[k jrifonf? w&kwjf ynfukd *syefe,fcs@J pepfatmufrS
vGwaf jrmuf&rkH #omru/ TppfyrJG w
S qif/h acwfajymif;awmfveS af &;udk qufI/ qifEu
J$ m/
tm%mudk odr;f &awmhrnf[k armf ,lqonf?
Ttem*gwf tjrifjzif/h armfonf acgi;f udk wdraf wG=um;xJarmfu
h m/ ajc axmufukd
ajr}uD;ay:wGif cdik cf ikd f &yfonf? jrihjf rif}h uHum vlxx
k w
J iG /f tajccdik f atmif }udK;pm;onf?
w&kwaf wmfveS af &; atmifycJG &H eftwGu/f olyxrqH;k ajz&Si;f &rnfh jy\emrSm cseaf u&Sw
d Ef iS hf
jzpfymG ;o!fh yÉdyuQ jzpfonf? *syefukd wdu
k v
f m atmif cseaf u&Sw
d u
f kd rnfo@kd weG ;f wifrnfenf;?
uGejf rLepfrsm;ESihf nD!w
G af &; wyf aygi;f pk zG@J vmatmif/ cseaf u&Sw
d u
f kd rnfo@kd odr;f oGi;f rnfenf;?
cseaf u&Sw
d o
f nf/ 1935 ck/ atmufwb
kd mvu/ armhu
f kd !SyI
f wdu
k cf o
hJ nf? armfu

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Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

vGwx
f u
G o
f mG ;onf? TwGif cseaf u&Sw
d o
f nf/ armhu
f kd aemufw}udrf !Syf ydwzf rf;&ef/
oJ}uD;rJ}uD; pdwu
f ;l xkwo
f nf? *syefukd ckco
H !f/h w&kwrf sKd ;cspf rSeo
f r#ukd axmifcsonf?
owfypfonf? od@k &mwGif cseaf u&Sw
d .
f t}uD;qH;k tm;enf;csurf mS trsKd ;tpm;rwlaom
ppfwyfrsm;/ ppfb&k ifrsm;udk tm;ud;k ae&jcif; jzpfonf? a'oeD udk 0dik ;f wdu
k &f mY/ cseaf u&Sw
d f
toH;k jyKo!f/h wyfrsm;rSm/ &Sepf ;D ppfb&k if ,efq&D eS .
f wyf/ refcsK;&D;,m; “,ef-rm&S,”f [k
ac:aom/ cse&f LS v#.
H wyfEiS hf &Sepf ;D e,f aomif; use;f r_ ESrd ef if;a&; Adv
k cf sKyf ,ef[;l cse.
f
wyfrsm; jzpfonf?
wcgw&HY ordkif;vrf;a=umif;onf/ v#dK@0Sufqef;us,fonf? auG@aumuf
&_waf xG;onf? cseaf u&Sw
d o
f nf/ uGejf rLepf qef@usiaf &; twGuf “,ef;-rm&S,”f cse&f LS v#u
H kd
oH;k vmjcif;onf/ armft
h wGuf tcGiahf umif; jzpfonf? od@k r[kwv
f #if vnf; armfu xdt
k csuu
f kd
tcGiahf umif;,l Edik cf jhJ cif; jzpfonf?
csef&SLv#H. zcif csefpdk;vifonf refcsK;&D;,m; ppfbk&ifjzpfonf? ol@taz
csepf ;kd vifonf 1920 ckEpS w
f iG f *syefw@kd vufcsujf zifh rD;&xm; rdik ;f AH;k xdum aooGm; onf?
xdpk Ofu “,ef;-rm&S,”f cse&f LS v#o
H nf/ *syefukd rwdu
k &f ? cseaf u&Sw
d .
f !$ef =um;csut
f &/
“teDrsm;ud”k wdu
k af e&onf? od@k &mwGif cse&f LS v#o
H nf “teDrsm;” udk rwdu
k cf si?f
ol@wyfrsm;onf *syefukd wdu
k cf siaf e=uonf? armfu
h kd wdu
k o
f !f/h wdu
k yf w
JG ckwiG f cse&f LS v#.
H
wyfom;rsm;/ wyfr;_ rsm;udk wyfeaD wmfu zrf;rdomG ;onf? armfonf cse&f LS v#.
H wyfr;_ /
wyfom;rsm;tm; *syef qef@usiaf &; ay:vpDukd &Si;f jy onf? olw@kd ukd aumif;pGm jyKpkonf?
aemuf vufaqmifrsm;ay;I/ jyefvw
$ o
f nf? apmapmu wyfeaD wmfukd wdu
k cf siaf e=uo!f/h
cse&f LS v#.
H refcsK;&D;,m; wyfom;rsm; pdwaf jymif;oGm;=uonf? 1936 ck aEGO;D ayguYf cse&f LS v#.
H
wyfom; (3000) onf/ wyfeaD wmfbufo@kd ul;ajymif;vm=uonf?
uGejf rLepfrsm;. &d;k om;r_/ ajzmifrh wfr/_ }uKd ;pm;r_/ ud,
k u
f sKd ;pGe@f rE_ iS hf *syef qef@usiaf &;
pdw"f mwfrsm;udk oH@k yef;tjzpfrS vGwv
f maom wyfr;_ / wyfom;rsm;xH rS cse&f LS v#H =um;&onf?
csef&SLv#H. jynfcspf pdwf"mwfonf/ jyefay:vmonf? ol@ twGif;a&;r_; wOD;jzpfol/
0rfyifeef;onfvnf;/ uGejf rLepfwOD; jzpfaeonf? (0rfyif eef;rSm aemifwiG f ydv
k efjynfqikd &f m
w&kwo
f t
H rwf}u;D jzpfvmonf?)
TwGif csef&SLv#Honf/ aomif;usef;r_ ESdrfeif;a&; AdkvfcsKyf ,ef[lcsif;ESifh
aqG;aEG;=uonf? olw@kd EpS Of ;D oabmwlncD su&f um/ uGejf rLepfrsm;ESihf aphpyf=uonf? 1936
ckESpfwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh csef&SLv#Hwdk@ qDtefwGif pwif aqG;aEG;=uonf? r =umrSD
refcsK;&D;,m;wyf ,leaD zmif;rsm;udk 0wfI oGm;vmaeaom/ uGejf rLepfau'g rsm;udk qDtefwiG f
jrif&onf? aphpyfaqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f uGejf rLepfu,
kd pf m;vnf tzG@J acgi;f aqmifrmS csLtifvikd ;f
jzpfonf?
Luminary MagazineVolume 4,No.8

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1935 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv aygvpfAsK&kd tpnf;ta0;wGi/f armfu rde@f ceG ;f wck ajymonf?
( “*syefe,fcs@J orm;ud/k qef@usif wdu
k cf u
kd af &;/ enf;y&d,m,frsm;” qdk o!f/h rde@f ceG ;f jzpfonf?)
xdk rde@f ceG ;f Y nD!w
G af &; wyfaygi;f pk zG@J a&;ESihf ywfoufo!fh ygw.
D aygvpDu/kd ygwx
D w
J iG f
wcsKd @u vufrcH=uao;? 4if;wd@k u cseaf u&Sw
d Ef iS hf r ywfoufcsi=f u? "e&Sif vlwef;pm;ESihf
rnfo!fh r[mrdwrf sKd ;udrk # rzG@J Eikd [
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