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Water Jet Propulsion

# Water Jet Propulsion

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08/08/2015

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The averaged axial inflow velocity of the pump is denoted by vpump. This
velocity can be written as:

(2.11)

where Q is the volume flow through the pump and Dinlet the diameter at the
suction side of the pump. This velocity is an important parameter to describe
the flow phenomena in the inlet, where the speed is changed from the ship
speed to the pump velocity. The pump velocity is related to the ship speed
through the Inlet Velocity Ratio (IVR):

(2.12)

At normal operating condition, IVR will be around 1.3 to 1.8. The reciprocal of
equation (2.12) is used in literature as well ([2], [8]) and used by the ITTC; this
results in values of this quantity, at operating conditions below 1 and a value
of infinite for zero ship speed. Use of the definition in equation (2.12) is
preferred since the operating range is bounded between 0 and about 2.5.

IVR is used to denote the flow conditions in the waterjet inlet duct. At
relatively low ship speed, e.g. during manoeuvring in harbour, IVR will be
smaller than 1. This means that the flow is accelerated upon entering the inlet
duct. In this condition the stagnation point of the dividing streamline is located
at the hull side of the inlet lip (or cutwater). This might lead to cavitation and/
or separation in the inlet at the upper side of the lip. Figure 2.2 shows a
sketch of the flow phenomena at low IVR condition.

If the vessel sails at design speed, the inlet flow phenomena are quite
different. As mentioned, the design IVR will be around 1.3 to 1.8. IVR values

v

pump

Q

π

4---D

inlet

2

------------------

=

IVR

v

ship

v

pump

----------------

=

Increased risk for

Figure 2.2

Flow phenomena at low IVR

cavitation and/or separation

2.1 Characteristic velocities in a waterjet system

Numerical analysis of a waterjet propulsion system

21

of more than 2.0 are known for high speed motor yachts (>60 knots). This
implies a significant deceleration of the flow in the inlet. In this condition the
stagnation point is located at the inlet side of the cutwater. The critical
location for cavitation is located at the hull side of the lip for this condition.
The deceleration of the flow in the inlet duct leads to an adverse pressure
gradient in the inlet. If this pressure gradient becomes too large, flow
separation is likely to occur at the top side of the inlet. The possible flow
phenomena at high IVR are sketched in figure 2.3.

Whether or not cavitation or separation really occurs in a practical situation,
strongly depends on the actual geometry of the inlet duct. With a good inlet
design cavitation and separation free operation is possible up to about 44
knots [9], which is a commonly used design speed for fast ferries.

It should be kept in mind, that an inlet has to be designed to cope with the low
IVR and the design IVR condition, because each vessel has to start from zero
ship speed.

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